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Mechanical Springs

Prof.
Prof. Dr.
Dr. Nenad
Nenad Gubeljak
Gubeljak,, Vaclav
Vaclav Vejborn
Vejborn,, Assist
Assist.. Prof.
Prof. Joef
Joef Predan
Predan

Content
Definition and Working Principle
Types of Springs
Manufacturing
Spring Materials
Stresses in Helical Springs
Deflection of Helical Springs
Specialities of Compression and Tension Springs
Buckling
Critical Frequencies
Fatigue Loading
Case Study

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

Definition and Working Principle


Springs are flexible machine elements used for
controlled application of force (or torque) or for storing
and release of mechanical energy.

Flexibility (elastic deformation) is enabled due to


cleverly designed geometry or by using of flexible
material.
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

Types of Springs
Helical springs

Rectangular wire
Tension

Torsion

force F

Compression

Round wire

deflection y

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

Types of Springs
Leaf springs

Spiral springs

Spring washers

Bellewille spring

Special springs
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

Manufacturing of Springs

Preparation

Winding (Thermal treatment) Grinding

Calibration
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

Coating

Testing
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Spring Materials
Springs are relatively highly stressed machine parts, which requires
materials of high tensile strength and high yield strength.
Most used materials are carbon steels, alloy steels, corrosion-resisting
steels, phosphor bronze, spring brass and others.
Tensile strength of spring material depends on wire diameter, material
and processing.

S ut =

A
d

0,35S ut S sy 0,52S ut

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

Stresses in Helical Springs


Generally, coils of loaded spring are under combined
stress (compression/tension, bending, torsion and shear).
In most cases springs have relatively small helix angle and
small Spring index (C=D/d), therefore compression stress
and bending stress can be omitted.
D

Maximum
stress
can be computed
by superposition
of torsion stress
and direct shear
stress.

T
d

F
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

Stresses in Helical Springs


max =
FD
T=
2
J=

d 4
32

Tr F 8 FD 4 F
+ =
+ 2
3
J
A d
d

torque

+
Torsion stress

polar moment

=
Shear stress
(direct)

Maximum stress

D
R

d 2 cross-section area
A=

d wire diameter
D helix spring diameter
F applied force
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

d (2r)

F
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Stresses in Helical Springs


D
C=
d

spring index

max =

8 FD

4F

d 2

maximum stress

( C = 3 12 )

max

8FD
0,5
=
1
+

3
C
d

max = K S

8 FD

d 3

0,5

1 +
= KS
C

shear-stress
augmentation factor

Maximum shear stress


(for a case of straight wire)
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Stresses in Helical Springs


Curvature effect - curvature of the wire (helix shape)
increases the stress on the inside of the spring and
decreases it on outside.
Curvature
effect
together
with
shear-stress
augmentation factor can be defined by Wahl factor or
Bergstrsser factor. Because results of these factors
differ by less than 1%, Bergstrsser factor is preferred.
4C + 2
KB =
4C 3

max = K B

4C 1 0,651

+
KW =

C
4C 4

8FD

d 3
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Deflection of Helical Springs


Deflectionforce relation
Castilianos theorem.

is

easily

T 2l
F 2l
+
U = UT + U S =
2GJ 2 AG
T=

32

FD
2

A=

U=
l = DN

4F 2 D3 N
4

d G

from

2 F 2 DN
d 2G

U 8 FD N 4 FDN
y=
=
+ 2
4
F
d G
d G
3

F
d 4 G Spring rate
k= =
y 8D 3 N
Spring
characteristic
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

8 FD 3 N
d 4G
force F

J=

obtained

deflection y
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Compression Springs
Quality of load transfer from the support to the spring
depends on the type of spring ends.
Na = Nt Ne
Na number of
active coils

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Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Compression Springs
Basic states of compression springs.

free

initial

working

solid

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Tension Springs
Stresses in the hook ends of tension springs are
usually higher than stresses in the coils of the spring.
Stress-augmentation factors are used to determine
these stresses.
F

d
r1

4C1 2 C1 1
KA =
4C1 (C1 1)
C1 =

2r1
d

r2

KB =

4C 2 1
4C 2 4

C2 =

2r2
d

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Buckling
If deflection of slender compression spring exceeds
some critical value than the spring will buckle.

Buckling
depends on:
support
slenderness
deflection

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Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Critical Frequencies
Spring surge occurs when the end of compression
spring is disturbed. If spring is used in applications
requiring rapid reciprocating motion, then natural
frequencies of the spring have to be investigated if they
are not close to the frequency of disturbing, by this we
avoid the danger of resonance.
Natural frequencies for the spring between two parallel plates:

f =m

1 ka
2 W

m = 1,2,3
k spring rate
a acceleration (of gravity,
general acc. of machine)
W weight of spring

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Fatigue Loading
In not a few cases, springs are
subject to fatigue loading.
Fatigue cracks are usually
initiated
on
the
highly
stressed inner surface of the
wire or in the stress raisers.
Fatigue strength of spring wire may
be
increased
by
peening

bombarding the wire with pellets.


This sets up surface localized
residual stresses which counteract
and thus decrease the stress on the
surface when the spring is loaded.
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Fatigue Loading
Zimmerli has found out that for carbon and alloy steel
springs with the wire diameter smaller than 10mm there
are no differences in the flat part of SN curve.
Peened
398
534

Unpeened
241
379

Sse (fatigue strength in reversed

shear) can be calculated for


selected criterion or can be found
in the material tables.
S se =

S sa
S sm
1
S su

Gerber cr.

S se

S sa
=
S sm
1
S su

Stress amplitude

Strength
component
Ssa [MPa]
Ssm [MPa]

Goodman cr.
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

La
Ssy (yie nge
ld r c
lim r.
G
i
Sse GO oodm t)
an
cr.
Sse GE
Ssa

Ssm

45 m a

Ge
rbe
r

cr.

Ssy Ssu

Steady stress

m
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Case Study - Task


Two springs

one of round wire


one of rectangular wire

1. Experiment measure dimensions,


measure spring characteristics on a spring tester.
2. FEA create 3D models of springs, investigate spring
behaviour (deflection) under load.
3. Analytical calculation use equations from theory
and calculate spring characteristics analytically.
4. Comment and compare results explain differences
between results of individual approaches.
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Experiment
d , D , l0 , p , Na , Ne , N t

Spring Characteristic
3

force [kN]

2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

deflection [mm]

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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FEA
Creating 3D model with dimensions measured in
experimental part. Modification and simplification of
solid model in order to meet conditions of experiment.
Setting of boundary conditions and loads. Setting of
material properties, element type and size. Analysis.
Analysis input :
enforced displacement
(deflection)
constrained
rotations
displacements

reaction
force
sensor

reaction force [kN]

enforced
displacement

Analysis output :
reaction force

2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

deflection [mm]

fixed
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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FEA Stress Distribution

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Analytical Calculation
Round wire:

y=

Rectangular wire:

y=

8 FD 3 N

F=

d G

D 3 NF

yd 4 G
8D 3 N

yb 2 h 2G
F=
D 3 N

b 2 h 2G

depends on b/h ratio,


(from tables)

3
2,5

force [kN]

1,5
1

0,5
0

10

20

30

deflection [mm]

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Calculation procedure

Position mm Load kN
26,031711
25,512033
25,011063
24,638974
24,131768
23,622483
23,115278
22,608072
22,100866
21,595739
21,086455
20,579249
20,074122
19,568995
19,061789
18,554584
18,045299
17,538093
17,274097
16,764813
16,259685
15,748322
15,243195
14,733911
14,226705
13,719499

9,8218734
9,8088447
9,7710616
9,7489131
9,7332788
9,7007072
9,6928899
9,6303525
9,5951753
9,5417579
9,5091865
9,4674949
9,3893232
9,3189685
9,2850942
9,2342824
9,1821679
9,1039962
9,0883619
9,0245218
8,9854358
8,9242014
8,8786012
8,8395153
8,7795837
8,7339834

y (mm) - exp.
0
0,519678
1,020648
1,392737
1,899943
2,409228
2,916433
3,423639
3,930845
4,435972
4,945256
5,452462
5,957589
6,462716
6,969922
7,477127
7,986412
8,493618
8,757614
9,266898
9,772026
10,283389
10,788516
11,2978
11,805006
12,312212

F (kN) - exp.
0
0,0130287
0,0508118
0,0729603
0,0885946
0,1211662
0,1289835
0,1915209
0,2266981
0,2801155
0,3126869
0,3543785
0,4325502
0,5029049
0,5367792
0,587591
0,6397055
0,7178772
0,7335115
0,7973516
0,8364376
0,897672
0,9432722
0,9823581
1,0422897
1,08789

F (kN) - analyt.
0
0,05146147
0,101070367
0,137916736
0,188143157
0,238575453
0,288801776
0,339028198
0,389254619
0,439275166
0,489707363
0,539933785
0,589954332
0,63997488
0,690201301
0,740427624
0,79085992
0,841086342
0,867228726
0,917660923
0,96768157
1,018319641
1,068340188
1,118772385
1,168998807
1,219225229

F (kN) - FEA

max (MPa)
- analyt.

HMH (MPa)
- analyt.

HMH (MPa)
- FEA

0,236

67,08723576

116,1985009

124,863

0,483

137,7053376

238,5126413

256,298

0,732

208,2076839

360,6262871

387,517

0,956

272,1113204

471,3106322

506,455

1,204

342,8452057

593,8253154

638,106

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Comparing results
Round wire spring Force / Deflection relation
3

F - force (kN)

2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5

Nonlinearity of the beginning part of experimental


0
characteristic
is caused by nonparallel and defective
5
20
25
30
end 0coils. This
part10may be15 omitted
because
is out
of
y - deflection (mm)
working range. This problem is generally solved by
preload of the spring.Analytical FEA Experiment
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Comparing results
Round wire spring Force / Deflection relation
3

F - force (kN)

2,5

F = 0,099y

F = 0,0978y
F = 0,1011y - 0,1686

1,5
1
0,5

0
Slope
0

10

15

20

25

30

Experimental char. is not


linear(mm)
(slightly progressive)
y - deflection
Analytical
Experiment
Inaccurate measuring
(Na , lFEA
o, deformed ends )
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Comparing results
Rectangle wire spring Force / Deflection relation
1,6
1,4

F - force (kN)

1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0

10

12

14

16

y - deflection (mm)

FEA

Experiment

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

Analytical
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Comparing results
Rectangle wire spring Force / Deflection relation
1,6
1,4

F = 0,1025y

F - force (kN)

1,2
1

F = 0,0944y

0,8
0,6

F = 0,1027y - 0,0852

0,4
0,2
0
0

10

12

14

16

y - deflection (mm)

FEA

Experiment

Analytical

Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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Comparing results
Round wire spring Stress / Force relation
1600

- stress (MPa)

1200

HMH

1400

600

HMH = 529,47 F

1000
800

HMH = 492,96 F

400
200
0
0

0,5

1,5

2,5

F - force (kN)
FEA

Analytical
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Comparing results
Rectangle wire spring Stress / Force relation
1600

HMH - stress [MPa]

1400

HMH = 1090,9 F

1200
1000
800
600

HMH = 787,55 F

400
200
0
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,2

1,4

F - force [kN]

Analytical
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

FEA
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Comparing results
Analytical approach is not so developed for
rectangular wire like for round wire. Parameters from
tables etc.
Results from FEA are higher because the other types
of stresses are involved compression and bending.
These are omitted in analytical approach.
Analytical approach is not so
rectangular wire like for round wire.

developed

for

Contact:
nenad.gubeljak@uni-mb.si
Mecha
Mechanical
nical Springs
Springs

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