You are on page 1of 38

Indian Welding Journal

Chief Editor
Dr. T. K. Pal
Professor
Metallurgical and Material Engg. Department
Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032
Phone & Fax : 033-24146317 (O)
E-Mail :iwj.iiw@gmail.com

Joint Editors
Mr. Rahul Sengupta
Chairman
Meeting and Publication Commiittee
Indian Institute of Welding

Dr. Shaju Albert


Head, Materials Technology Division
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research,
Kalapakkam, Tamilnadu

Editorial Board
1.

Mr. P. K. Das, Immidiate past Chief Editor, IWJ and Vice president of IIW.

2.

Dr. A. K. Bhaduri, Associate Director, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalapakkam,
Tamilnadu - 603 102.

3.

Dr. G. Madhusudan Reddy, Scientist 'G', Group Head, Metal Joining Group, Solidification
Technology Division, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad,
Hyderabad 500 058.

4.

Dr. Amitava De, Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, In-Charge, Structural Integrity
Testing & Analysis Center (SITAC); Central Workshop, IIT Bombay, Powai - 400 076.

5.

Dr. V. Balasubramanian, Professor and Director, Centre for Materials Joining& Research,
Department of Manufacturing Engg., Annamalai University, Chennai.

6.

Dr. Santanu Das, Professor and Head, Mechanical Engg. Department, Kalyani Government
Engineering College, Kalyani, West Bengal.

7.

Dr. G. Padmanabham, Associate Director, International Advanced Research Centre for Powder
Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad.

8.

Dr. Mahadev Shome, Head, Material Characterization and Joining research group, R&D,
Tata Steel, Jamshedpur-831 001.

Representing American Welding Society


Andrew Cullison & Jeffery Weber

Special Invitees
1.

Dr. Stan David, Corporate Fellow and Group leader (Rtd.)


Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Consultant, USA.

2.

Professor W. Fricke, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.

3.

Professor Dietrich Rehfeldt, Leibniz University, Hanover, PZH, IW, Joining of Materials.

11

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No.2 April 2012

DON BOSCO MARITIME ACADEMY(D.B.M.A.)


Premier Automobiles Road, Vidyavihar / Kurla West, Mumbai 400 070
Tel: (022) 2504 1585 / 2018. Fax: 2504 0682
Email: donboscomarine@vsnl.net
Website: www.dbma.in
Contact persons Mr. G. A. Soman, Mr. A. Mhatray & Ms. S. Sil

Hands On Workshop Skills Training Courses


For All Industries / Projects
Hand & Power Tools, Fitting, Fabrication
(Pipe, Structural, Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers), Plumbing (including Jacuzzi),
Basic Carpentry, Machine Shop, Marine Process Machinery
(Valves, Pumps, Compressors, Centrifuges, High Power Diesel Generator & Propulsion Engines,
Pollution Control Machinery, Fire Fighting & Life Saving Equipment etc.)
Scaffolding (at Your Project Sites or at DBMA),
Millwright Mechanics, PLC, Pneumatics & Hydraulics, AC & Refrigeration, Rigging, ElectroTechnology (Electrical Instruments / Meters, Cable Laying -Termination &
Glanding, Basic Instrumentation, Control Panels, Power Distribution Boards,
Overhaul of Motors and Industrial / Residential Wiring)

Major Welding Processes Training in All Positions


We have one of the Largest Welding Training Workshop at Mumbai, but

WE DO TRAIN MANPOWER AT YOUR SITES (INDIA & ABROAD)


BY DEPUTING OUR TRAINERS
Basic & Higher level (2G/3G/ 4G/ 6G/ 6GR) Courses
in SMAW, GTAW (& Pulse TIG), MIG/MAG, FCAW (Self & Gas Shielded), SAW
Gas Welding, Brazing, Gas & Plasma Cutting
For C. Steel, S. Steel, Aluminum & Inconel /Monel
Welder Certification by DNV/ IRS/ ABS/ TUV or any other Third Party

We now also have started a Training &


Production Support Unit at Chinchwad, Pune
C/O DON BOSCO VYAWASAIK PRASHIKSHAN KENDRA (D.B.V.P.K.)
Near St. Andrew's School, Chinchwad East, Chinchwad, Pune 411019
Contact Person - Mr. Ramesh Koti Mobile No: 07387777972
D.B.M.A. & D.B.V.P.K. ARE A.T.I.s (THE AUTHORISED TRAINING INSTITUTES) OF I.I.W.
FOR INDUSTRIES WE DESIGN / MODIFY COURSES TO SUIT THE REQUIREMENTS
(A.C. / Non A.C. Dormitory Accommodation Available in our Academy)

We also carry out Maritime (Engine & Deck) Training for Indian & Foreign Shipping Companies

GLOBAL STANDARD TRAINING AT INDIAN COSTS


AT MUMBAI & CHINCHWAD (PUNE)
12

EDITORIAL

EDITORIAL

Over the years, the growth of fabrication industry has generated a demand for quality weld deposition at ever faster
rate with flexibility in operation. Welding processes are being developed to crater the need of the fabrication industry.
However, for better flexibility in operation, the concepts of hybrid process are now being implemented commercially.
But to get maximum benefit of such potential hybrid processes, it is necessary to establish first the technical
characteristic of the process. These have been discussed lucidly by Dr. G. Padmanabham et al in his paper LASERMIG Hybrid Welding of Thick Plates of Mild Steel in Single Pass which many of us would find very informative and
relevant.
Corrosion fatigue, along with stress corrosion cracking is responsible for many, if not most, service failures in a wide
variety of welded structures, in particular, for naval structures. Cathodic protection in addition to epoxy coatings is
widely used to prevent corrosion of structural steels in the marine environment. However, the importance of optimum
cathodic protection potentials for high strength steels in marine environment has been discussed by H. Das et al in the
paper Corrosion Fatigue behavior of Submerged Arc Welded high strength steel used in Naval Structures where
interesting R & D under quasi-sophisticated laboratory conditions has yielded useful data.
In the third Technical Report the author Swapan Kumar Bagchi et al elaborates on In-situ repair of multiple cracks
presents in the RTJ groove of high pressure hydrogen bearing DHDS reactor by welding which would be of interest to
both welding and material engineers.
IWJ will now be guided and composed under the able stewardship of our Editorial Board, which comprises luminaries
from all walks of life. We are sure that their valuable advices and inputs will add a new dimension to IWJ. Our aim is to
make IWJ a journal which will find something of interest even a layman to the fabricated industry.
So far we have received information of five of our branches namely Bhilai, Chennai, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi having
reported their respective Branch Activities which is very encouraging. We thank them and wish all success in future.
We hope that the other branches of the institute would also send their Branch Activities as well.
The overwhelming response from the engineering students in recent workshop on Advancement in Welding
Technology held at Kolkata and we believe similar response will be available from other places as well, has
encouraged us to make the dream team of welding by providing better welding education and training. We must try to
close the gap between what manufacturers need and the number of well-trained young, talented welding personnel
to go to work for them.
We look forward to the NWS 2013 in Bangalore and we wish IIW Bangalore Branch all the best for the grand and
informative NWS 2013.

Dr. T. K. Pal
Chief-Editor
Email: iwj.iiw@gmail.com

13

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No.2 April 2012

HONY. SECRETARY GENERAL'S DESK


Dear Members,
At the outset, I am pleased to inform you that the year ended 31st March, 2012 has been a really eventful year for the Institute.
Starting from organizing the 64th Annual Assembly the mega event of IIW in July -2011 at Chennai followed by National Welding
Seminar 2011 held in December at Bhilai and finally concluded through Branch Seminars and Workshop organized by Delhi,
Mumbai and Kolkata Branches during February-2012.
The Delhi Branch organized their Annual Seminar on the theme "Emerging Trends in Welding Industries" at India International
Centre, New Delhi on 11th February, 2012 which was attended by 125 delegates and was a grand success.
The Mumbai Branch along with Pune chapter organized their Annual Seminar on "Advances in Welding Materials, Automation &
Quality" on 18th February, 2012 at the College of Engineering, Pune.
To bring general awareness amongst the students of Engineering Colleges in West Bengal, Kolkata Branch in association with
Welding Technology Centre, Jadavpur University, organized one day Workshop on "Advancement in Welding Technology" on 25th
February, 2012 at Gandhi Bhawan Jadavpur University, Kolkata. 350 students representing various engineering colleges in West
Bengal participated in this workshop. The workshop created immense interest amongst the participants for AMIIW. This is a noble
idea and I would request all the Branches to organize such awareness program so that more students may appear for AMIIW
Examination to obtain AMIIW Degree equivalent to Bachelor degree in Welding.
Members will be pleased to learn that we have been accorded provisional approval as an Authorized National Body for Company
Certification (ANBCC) in India. We have launched a new programme for company certification in compliance with ISO : 3834 as per
the International Institute of Welding's Manufacturers Certification Scheme. To enrich our knowledge and to start the Certification
activities till we receive the final approval from IAB (it will take 8 to 10 months) we entered a Co-operation agreement with Italian
Institute of Welding (IIS Cert) of Italy. The agreement covers cooperation in ISO 3834 auditing/certification activities, IIW India
assessor/technical experts' training, cooperation on ISO 15085 etc.
As per this agreement, IIS Cert deputed one of their experts Dr. Paolo Picollo for training of IIW India assessors and technical
experts. The 4-day training programme was organized at Kolkata from 19th to 22nd February 2012.
We obtained an order from a Delhi base Company for Certification on ISO: 3834. Subsequently, 2 IIS Cert auditors (including
Mr. Stefano Morra currently the Chairman Gr. B of IAB and also the Technical Manager of IIS Cert) were deputed for auditing. The IIS
audit team was also accompanied by 3 of our trainee assessors (apart from Director-MCS and The Scheme Manager) for 'on job'
training as per the qualification requirements for our assessors. Three persons amongst who were trained at Kolkata were deputed
for this 'on job' training.
The auditing process went off smoothly and no major 'non-conformities' were found by the auditors. However, there were a few
observations in the audit report. The formal certificate will be issued only after satisfactory resolution of these observations. The
certificate to be issued by IIS Cert will be routed through IIW India.
A 'Technical Meet' was organised on ISO : 3834 at Kolkata jointly by CII and IIW India (at CII's Suresh Neotia Centre for excellence,
Salt Lake) on 20th February where prospective clients were invited. The main speaker was Mr. Paolo Picollo of IIS Cert (the trainer
from IIS Cert) supported by IIW India officials. There were lively discussions after the presentations.
A half-day seminar on ISO : 3834 was organized at Delhi at Hotel Jaypee Siddhartha jointly by CII Delhi and IIW India on 25th
February. A number of serious clients attended the seminar. Dr. Stefano Morra and Dr. Paolo Picollo made the presentations apart
from IIW officials. Arising out of this seminar 2/3 customers shown their keen interest to go for ISO 3834/EN 15085.
Recently we were requested by the PMO's Office, National Skill Development Council in Delhi to make a presentation on the
Institute's activities particularly in the area of Human Resources and Skill Development in Welding. Following the presentations, the
Executive Director of the Skill Development Council of the Govt. of India has requested the Institute to give a proposal for training of
twenty thousand welders per year through our NWTCS programme through the Authorized Training Institute of IIW-India , to meet
the requirement of Fabrication and Construction industries in the country.
Best regards

Parimal Biswas
M.No +91 9831052652
E-Mail Id : parimal.biswas@iiwindia.com

14

IIW NEWS

IIW NEWS
Shri V. K. Ogale, Sr. Mgr. (RMP-1) and Vote of thanks was

BRANCH ACTIVITIES

proposed by Shri Ajay Bedi, Hony. Sec. (IIW-BB) & DGM


(R&SM).

BHILAI BRANCH ACTIVITY REPORT

Shri S. K. Bansal, AGM (Project) & Hony. Treasurer (IIW-

Workshop on Stainless Steel Welding held at

BB); Shri R. K. Bisare, AGM (Plate Mill) and Shri M. R. K.

HRDC, BSP

Shariff, AGM (SGP) contributed effectively to make the

A one day workshop on Stainless Steel Welding was

programme successful.

jointly organized by Bhilai Steel Plant and the Indian


Institute of Welding (IIW), Bhilai Branch at HRDC
assembly hall on Saturday (03.03.2012).

CHENNAI BRANCH ACTIVITY REPORT

The workshop was inaugurated by Shri C. S. Sharma, GM

1st January to 29 th February, 2012

(Safety & Fire Services) BSP and presided over by

I.

Technical Lectures

Shri Debasish Thakur, GM (Utilities) BSP & Vice President

IIW-India, Chennai Branch organised one evening

(IIW-India).

technical lecture on 04.01.2012 at MDL Seminar

At the outset Shri Thakur welcomed the dignitaries &

Hall, IGCAR Kalpakkam on the topic. Welding of

delegates and apprised them with the aim & objective of

Stainless Steels by Prof. Dr. S. Sundaresan,

the workshop.

Formerly L&T Welding Chair, MS University Baroda


& Professor, IIT Madras. Around 60 participants

While delivering his opening speech, the chief guest Shri

attended the lecture and many young engineers &

C. S. Sharma lauded the efforts put in by the organizers

scientists were benefited by the lecture.

to organise the workshop. Speaking on the subject he

II . Evening Technical Programme

emphasised that Stainless Steels are becoming the


material of choice in applications where corrosion

An evening technical programme on Shielding

resistance is a necessity. Its cutting and welding

gases for light and heavy Welding applications

processes are equally important in terms of quality, cost,

involving high alloy steels: Optimization of Cost and

durability and safety. He urged all the participants to

Productivity was held at the Hotel Radha Regent,

make full use of the knowledge & experience being

Arumbakkam, Chennai. The event was held on the


25th of January, 2012, (Wednesday), from 18.00

shared during the workshop by the distinguished faculty.

hours to 20.30 hrs. Around 75 delegates parti-

The faculty, a renowned expert on the subject from

cipated from industries & academic institutes.

Delhi College of Engineering, Dr. C. K. Datta covered

Eminent speaker Sri. Chritsoph Matz, EWE, from

various aspects of Stainless Steel Welding including

Linde AG delivered the technical lecture.

types of stainless steel, various welding methods used in

Sri. J. Joseph Amalraj, Sr. Deputy General Manager

SS welding, Ni & Cr equivalent, sheffelar diagram,

& Head QM, Hydrocarbon & Power, Engineering &

plasma arc cutting and safety during welding etc.

Construction Division, Larsen & Toubro Limited,

The workshop was attended by 40 maintenance

was the chief guest and inaugurated the

engineers hailed from the cross section of Bhilai Steel

programme. The programme was sponsored by

Plant. The feedback given by the participants is found to

BOC India Limited, Kolkatta. Dr. Shaju K Albert;

be very useful & informative.

Chairman, IIW-India, Chennai branch chaired the

The proceedings of the programme was conducted by

Programme. Sri. T. V. Prabhu Hony. Secretary; IIW

15

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No.2 April 2012

discussion. Delegates from various industries and

Chennai Branch co-ordinated the entire event.

educational institutions presented there and benefitted

III. Technical Lecture and live demonstration.

by sharing their experiences and challenges of welding.

IIW-India, Chennai Branch organised an evening


technical lecture with live demo on 07.02.2012 at
KOLKATA BRANCH ACTIVITY REPORT

SRI Seminar Hall, SRI Guest House, Anupuram, on


the topic Computer Aided System for evaluating

IIW-India, Kolkata Branch organised a workshop on

arc welding power sources and consumables by

"Advancement in Welding Technology (AWT)" on 25th

Dr. Ing. habil. & Dr. Dietrich Rehfeldt : professors /

February at Gandhi Bhavan, Jadavpur University,

Joining of Materials / Welding Technology /

Kolkata. The workshop was organised in association with

Institute: LUH / PZH / IW / UWTH / An der

Welding Technology Centre (WTC), Metallurgical &

Universitaet 2 / D-30823 Garbsen / Germany. The

Materials Engineering Department, Jadavpur University.

lecture covered the latest hardware & software

The event was aimed to create more awareness among

concepts and industrial applications in SMAW and

student community of Engineering and Technical

GMAW for qualification of welding filler materials,

Institutes on the importance and potential of Welding

welding power sources and welding procedures.

Technology.
The workshop received an overwhelming response from

DELHI BRANCH ACTIVITY REPORT

the student community and 307 students and teaching


faculty members from 15 Engineering Colleges and

Branch Seminar

Technical Institutes surrounding Kolkata attended the

Organized branch seminar on Emerging Trends in

programme. In addition, presence of 44 participants

Welding Industry at India International Centre, 40 Max

from various industries and IIW-India made the work-

Muller Marg, New Delhi on 11th February 2012. The

shop highly interactive.

seminar was inaugurated by our Hony. Chief Guest

In inaugural session Dr. Rajib De, Head, Metallurgical &

Mr. Sharad Anand (Exec. Directo r- Engg. NTPC, New

Materials Engineering, Jadavpur University in his

Delhi). Key note address was given by Mr. Raman Kumar

welcome address spoke about the importance of such

(MD, ADOR Welding Ltd) and chaired by Dr. C. K. Datta.

workshop which opened an opportunity for the students

There were three technical sessions chaired by Mr. J. R.

to interact freely with the representatives of industry.

Prasher, Dr. Sachin Maheshwari and Dr. Reeta Wattal.

Dr. T. K. Pal, Professor & Co-ordinator, Welding

Lectures were delivered on various topics by eminent

Technology Centre (WTC) and CoChairman, AWT

speakers from various welding related organizations like

highlighted the idea behind the workshop and

NTPC, L&T, RITES Ltd.,GEE Ltd., FSH Welding India Pvt.

objectives of the workshop and thanked the audience for

Ltd., ISGEC Heavy Engg Ltd., Yamunanagar, Wearresist

their encouraging response. Mr. Parimal Biswas, Hon.

Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Baroda, ADOR FONTECH Ltd.,

Secretary General, IIW India and Mr. P. K. Das, Vice

RDSO, Lucknow, BHEL, Hardwar.

President, IIW India deliberated on the key activities of


IIW India for promotion of science and technology of

Around 125 delegates were benefited directly or

welding. Mr. Rahul Sengupta, Hony. Treasurer, IIW

indirectly by these lectures.

India, Kolkata Branch highlighted the major activities of

At last the Panel Discussion was chaired by Mr. M. P.

Kolkata Branch. The vote of thanks was given by Mr. B. K.

Dhanuka (ED Mktg, GEE Ltd.) with a great and healthy

Das, Hony. Secretary, Kolkata Branch.

16

IIW NEWS

MUMBAI BRANCH ACTIVITY REPORT

In the technical session altogether six (6) papers were


presented by Dr. T. K. Pal, Mr. Rahul Sengupta, Mr. B. K.

Annual Welding Seminar 2012

Mishra & Mr. S. K. Gupta.

The Annual Welding Seminar of the Mumbai branch was

The panel discussion Opportunities in Welding was

held on 18th February, 2012 at the College of

started with a well structured presentation from Mr. P. K.

Engineering, Pune (COEP)

Das which highlighted the requirement of qualified


technical persons in the field of fabrication & welding

The theme of the seminar was "Advances in Welding

in India and the supportive role being played by IIW

Materials, Automation & Quality". Approximately 250

India to encourage young generation to take up welding

delegates participated in the seminar.

and allied technologies as their carrier. Cdr. A. K.

Mr. A. A. Deshpande, Chairman of the Mumbai branch

Mahapatra, DGM, Garden Reach Shipbuilders &

welcomed the guests, delegates and invitees. He

Engineers Ltd., Mr. S. K. Gupta, Mr. P. K. Das, Dr. T. K. Pal,

presented the activities of the Indian Institute of

Dr. Santanu Das, Mr. Rahul Sengupta and other

Welding with particular reference on the training and

representatives of Industry and educational institutes

education programmes, which the institute has taken up

participated on behalf of panel to discuss various issues

recently.

on carrier opportunities in welding and replied to queries

The seminar was inaugurated by Mr. C. M.

generated from the audience. The workshop ended with

Venkateshwaran, CEO, Aker Solutions, Pune.

a visit to WTC where practical demonstrations on Friction


Stir Welding of Aluminium and advance Gas Metal Arc

In his address, he said that investments in new

Welding of Steel were performed.

technologies, manufacturing and skills development will


happen in that part of the world where large population

The sessions were ably chaired by Dr. Santanu Das,

driven markets have developed. In this context, India

Head Mechanical Engineering, Kalyani Govt. Engineer-

and China will continue to be more relevant in the world

ing College, West Bengal and Co-convenor, AWT.

of the future.

During the 1st Quarter of this year, the Branch also

He also said that the Government of India's plan to set up

undertook Training Programmes at different industries in

a consolidated FDI Policy and to create National

association with National Welding Research and Training

Manufacturing and Investment Zones (NMIZ) are steps

Institute, mainly at industries manufacturing Railway

in the desired direction to boost the manufacturing

wagons. Training programmes were conducted at

climate in the country. Welding and manufacturing go

M/s. H. E. I. Ltd., at their Santragachhi Works and at

hand in hand; welding has been an age-old industry that

their Tiljala Works. Training programme was also

has evolved over the period of time, but there is much

conducted at M/s. Haldia Logistics Pvt. Ltd., Haldia, who

more to be accomplished yet. He touched upon the need

are manufacturers of heavy and medium welded

to make welding an attractive profession for engineers

equipments. Of late, a major breakthrough was

and also the need to ensure a better collaboration

achieved when Eastern Railway, Kanchrapara Works

between industry and academic institutions. He

were impressed on our activities and placed order to

commented on the perception of welding as a crude and

train their Welders & Supervisors of Loco and Carriage

not-so-clean an engineering process; and the need to

Divisions.

change this perception.

Besides continuing such training programmes, the

He further advocated for Green Welding, using eco-

Branch is planning to conduct more workshops and more

friendly consumables and energy-efficient processes,

one day lecture series in near future.

with increased automation, and intelligent welding with


17

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No.2 April 2012

increased use of IT in welding. He then released the

The technical sessions began with the prestigious G. L.

Technical Souvenir.

Goswami Memorial Lecture by Mr. D. V. Kulkarni, General


Manager, Nuclear Div., L&T Ltd., in his lecture,

Dr. Anil Sahastrabuddhe, Director, College of

Mr. Kulkarni evaluated the "Current State of the Art in

Engineering, Pune addressed the gathering as the Guest

Welding Technology" in terms of the processes used and

of Honor. He also endorsed the need for better

particularly touched on the need to modify and improve

collaboration between industry and academia. He also

these processes to suit new and demanding

endorsed the need for better collaboration between

applications.

industry and academia. He expressed his satisfaction on


the students' interest and enthusiasm participating in

Twelve papers were presented in three technical

this seminar, as delegates as well as volunteers. He said

sessions. The sessions were ably chaired by Mr. N.

that COEP shall always be available to IIW-India for

Kalyan, Mr. R. Srinivasan and Mr. V. K. Shendrikar.

organizing their training programmes. He further

The paper on "Procedure for welding of EN19 higher-

suggested that the final-year materials science and

thickness, High-Restraint Shaft with SA 516 Gr. 70 plate"

engineering students may be provided training in the

by Mr. Manjesh Thakre of Praj Industries Ltd., Pune was

welding industry, and requested IIW-India to assist and

adjudged as the best paper by the four judges on the

guide them on these programmes.

basis of technical content and presentation and was

Mr. Kaustubh Amte, grandson of Late Mr. Baba Amte,

given with the Best Paper Award with a cash prize of

well-known social reformer and founder of Maharogi

Rs. 1,000/-

Sewa Samiti at Warora, Maharashtra; informed the

Four poster papers prepared by the students of COEP

delegates of the activities carried out in their workshop

were also displayed during the seminar. The poster

at Anandwan Ashram for training the inhabitants. He

paper on "Good Quality of Welds", prepared by

informed the delegates that their workshop fabricates

Ms. Prynanka and Ms. Yashodhara was declared the Best

tri-cycles and windmills using MIG and TIG welding

poster paper. They were rewarded with a Cash prize of

processes. As a social gesture, the Indian Institute of

Rs. 1,000/- each.

Welding Pune centre, under the co-ordination of the


Mumbai branch, arranged to donate one MiG and one

Fifteen exhibitors displayed their products in the

TIG welding machine to them through the kind

Exhibition during the seminar. The exhibition was

patronage of M/s. ADOR Welding Ltd. and Ganesh

inaugurated by the Chief Guest Mr. Venkateshwaran.

Automation Pvt. Ltd., both from Pune. The patrons were


honored by the Institute during the inaugural function.

18

FORTHCOMING EVENTS

FORTHCOMING EVENTS
covering general & light engineering.

National Welding Seminar 2013 at Trade Centre,


KTPO (Karnataka Trade Promotion Organisation) Plot

NWS 2013 will cover the latest developments, works and

No. 121, EPIP, Whitefield Industrial Area, Bangalore -

results in Welding Technology and Allied Areas related

560 066, the Tech City of India and concurrent WELD

to:

INDIA 2013 Exhibition during 7th to 9th Feb, 2013

a)

is being announced at a time when the discipline of

Design for welding, manufacturing / fabrication

Welding Technology is transforming into an enabling

techniques corresponding to welded structures and

technology from a commodity technology.

productivity.
b)

National Welding Seminar is the biggest All India

Welding Processes, Equipments, Automation,


Robotics and CNC Machines.

Annual Event of the Institute and NWS 2013 aims to


c)

provide an active and dynamic forum for professionals

Materials, Consumables, Welding Procedures,

from industry, consultants & trainers and academia &

Welding Metallurgy & Weldability all types of

research personnel to share and enhance the knowledge

materials.
d)

base in the science, engineering, technology and

Metal Cutting & Preparation, Forming and Weld


Finishing.

management of welding and allied disciplines.


e)

The 7th edition of International Welding

Computer Applications, CAD/CAM, Simulation &

Technology Exhibition to show case welding, cutting

Modeling including aspects of Information

and allied products & services popularly known as Weld

Technology.
f)

India Expo is being concurrently organized along with

Hard Facing, Repair & Reclamation, Maintenance,


Surfacing, Cladding and Coating Technologies.

NWS 2013 under the brand title WELD INDIA 2013.


g)

NWS 2013 will cover two major themes, they being :

Safety, Occupational Health, Environment,


Education, Training &Mobility concerns and

1) Lean Welding and Fabrication through Design,

insights into future.

Appropriate Manufacturing Methods and Metallurh)

gical Analysis.

Mechanical and Corrosion Properties, Residual


Stress, Distortion Control and Characterisation of

2) Emerging, Leading and State of the Art Technologies

Weldments.

in Materials Joining.
- Present Status in India and Future Trends.

i)

Cost & Economics, QA, NDT, NDE, Life


Enhancement of Structures and Failure Analysis.

WELD INDIA 2013 is a B2B and B2C facilitating

j)

platform for exhibitors and visitors associated with

Special Welding/Fabrication and High Energy


density Processes.

sectors like automotive, aerospace, ship construction &


k)

other waterway transport segment, railways & infra-

Market Development and Strategy.

structure, heavy engineering and structural fabrication,

Over the coming months WELD INDIA 2013 will be

white goods manufacturing, mining & metallurgical,

promoted to attract key players in the welding, cutting

chemical / petrochemical / pharmaceutical / oil & gas /

and fabrication industry from around the world. This is

fertilizer / bio-tech, agriculture / food processing /

going to be your best and exciting opportunity to

materials handling, power equipments and pressure

establish contacts, interact with local and overseas

vessel manufacturing, research / development /

buyers.

education / training / certification & consultancy and

Presentations and technical papers that involve original

above all the most man power intensive MSME sector


19

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No.2 April 2012

For Further Information contact:

work, results and experiences are invited from practicing


professionals, scientists, academicians and students in

Chairman : Mr. N. Ramesh Rao

any of the topics related to the above mentioned.

Contact No. : +91 98450 68762


E-mail : n.ramesh.r@gmail.com

During the duration of the seminar period, pre program


events, post program sessions, poster sessions, special
and advanced workshops are envisioned Feasibility of

Hon. Secretary : Mr. S. V. Dilipan

conducting match making event associated with

Contact No. : +91 97394 39870

exhibition also exist.

E-mail : vrt.india@gmail.com

IIW awards the authors presenting the best paper in

Hon. Treasurer : Mr. S. Sebastian

different categories like research, fabrication,

Contact No. : +91 94482 24671

reclamation, automation, non ferrous welding, etc. In


addition IIW honors eminent professionals presenting
memorial lectures on contemporary topics.

WELD INDIA 2013 Exhibition Event Organiser :

There are numerous opportunities for sponsorship. All

CEC Exhibition and Events Pvt Ltd

sponsors are recognized prominently before, during and

Chingam, K P Vallon Road,

after the conference as leading supporters.

Kadavanthra, Kochi - 682 020

Organised By :

Ph: + 91 484 2320 290;


Fax : + 91 484 4064 135

Indian Institute of Welding , Bangalore Branch,

E-mail: mail@cecexpo.com

B-49, Devasandra Industrial Estate,

URL: www.cecexpo.com

Whitefield Road, Mahadevapura Post,


Bangalore 560 048, Karnataka
Tel. No. : (080) 28510978 / 28517030
E-mail : iiwbangalorechapter@gmail.com

LIST OF ADVERTISERS IN INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL


Vol. 45, No. 2, April 2012
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

Ador Welding Ltd.


Automation India Welding Technology
Bohler Welding Group
Cotmac Industrial Tdg. Pvt. Ltd.
D & H Secheron
Devidayal Chemical Inds. Pvt. Ltd.
Don Bosco Maritime Academy
ESAB India Limited
Electronics Devices
FSH Welding
GEE Limited
Hoganas India Ltd.

20

Koike Sanso Kogyo Co. Ltd.


Mailam India Ltd.
MEMCO.
OTC Daihen India Pvt. Ltd.
Satkul Enterprises Ltd.
Sharp Tools
Spatter Cure Enterprises
Special Metals
Sur Iron & Steel Co.
Weldwell Speciality Pvt. Ltd.
Weldman Synergic Pvt. Ltd.

LIST OF NEW MEMBERS

List of New Members Elected during the 3rd & 4th General Purposes
Committee Meeting of The Indian Institute of Welding
A. Industrial Corporate Member
BHL/ICM/R-525
Bolster Engineering Solutions
BAR/ICM/R-526
Gujarat Infrapipes Pvt. Ltd.
MUM/ICM/R-527
Mehta Sanghvi& Co.
BAR/ICM/R-528
Baobardier Transportation India Ltd.
(Bogie Divn.)
B. Life Member
MUM/M/R-10846/L
MUM/M/R-10847/L
MUM/M/R-10848/L
KOL/M/R-10856/L
MUM/M/R-10857/L
BAR/M/R-10869/L
DEL/M/R-10871/L
MUM/M/R-10895/L
KOL/M/R-10900/L
BAR/M/R-10902/L
BANG/M/R-10904/L
CHN/M/R-10910/L

VishwasKeskar
Balasaheb Mate
Prasad Kakade
Manish Sahu
Ashish S. Baviskar
ShaikhNisarAhemadManjur Ahmed
JatinderSaini
VidhyadharLohar
Prabhat Kumar Bandopadhyay
Biswajit Mukherjee
SriharshaAthiala K. M.
A. Arumugam

Bhilai
Baroda
Mumbai
Baroda

Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai
Kolkata
Mumbai
Baroda
Delhi
Mumbai
Kolkata
Baroda
Bangalore
Chennai

C. Transfer from Life AM to Life M


BAR/M/R-9665/L
Kamal HarikrishnaDhandha

Baroda

D. Member
KOL/M/R-10852
DEL/M/R-10870
CHN/M/R-10876
CHN/M/R-10877
CHN/M/R-10878
CHN/M/R-10879
CHN/M/R-10880
KOL/M/R-10898
BAR/M/R-10901

Kolkata
Delhi
Chennai
Chennai
Chennai
Chennai
Chennai
Kolkata
Baroda

Goutam Chandra Karar


Dilbag Singh
K. Hari Krishna
RangasamySasidharan
G. SrinivasaRao
T. SrinivasaRao
G. Rajakumar
Amal Kumar Ray
VivekChavda

E. Life Associate Member


MUM/AM/R-10844/L
AjinkyaGodse
CHN/AM/R-10867/L
Sagai Francis Britto A.
F. Associate Member
KOL/AM/R-10849
Pramod Kumar Sanyal
KOL/AM/R-10850
PinakiBhattacharjee
KOL/BBSR/AM/R-10854BikashRanjanSahoo
DEL/AM/R-10865
COCH/AM/R-10882
COCH/AM/R-10883
BAR/AM/R-10887
CHN/AM/R-10888
BAR/AM/R-10889
DEL/AM/R-10890
BAR/AM/R-10894

Deepak Sharma
S. Sreehari
Kagesh Nikhil
Pradip Kumar K. R. Gajjar
E. Nandha Kumar
NileshBhangale
Ajay Arora
Chetan Kumar Shah

Mumbai
Chennai

Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata
(Bhubaneswar)
Delhi
Cochin
Cochin
Baroda
Chennai
Baroda
Delhi
Baroda

21

G. Life Associate Professional Member


MUM/APM/R-10845/L
AnandPralhadPuranik
MUM/APM/R-10851/L
V. Ramesh Koti
KOL/APM/R-10855/L
SwastidharPramanik
MUM/APM/R-10873/L
NalakathVeeramani
CHN/APM/R-10875/L
P. N. Udayasankar
CHN/APM/R-10884/L
K. S. S. ThanigaiArasu
KOL/APM/R-10892/L
SushantaSengupta
CHN/APM/R-10893/L
CH. Malathi Devi
MUM/APM/R-10896/L
VadirajaRao

Mumbai
Mumbai
Kolkata
Mumbai
Chennai
Chennai
Kolkata
Chennai
Mumbai

H. Associate Professional Member


KOL/BBSR/APM/
R-10859
Tapan Das
DEL/APM/R-10863
Anuj Kumar Kanchan
MUM/APM/R-10864
Ajay Chaurasiya
MUM/APM/R-10868
Sanjiv Vagal
KOL/APM/R-10872
RajibBiswas
COCH/APM/R-10885
P. C. Prakas
BAR/APM/R-10886
Padala V. V. S. N. S. Kumar
DEL/APM/R-10891
Jasmer Singh
MUM/APM/R-10897
Sandeep Kumar
DEL/APM/R-10899
Sukhmander Singh

Kolkata
(Bhubaneswar)
Delhi
Mumbai
Mumbai
Kolkata
Cochin
Baroda
Delhi
Mumbai
Delhi

I.
Life Associate
KOL/AS/R-10866/L
COCH/AS/R-10881/L

Bankim Paul
A. Prasad Kumar

Kolkata
Cochin

J. Associate
DEL/AS/R-10853
JAM/AS/R-10858
CHN/AS/R-10860
VIZ/AS/R-10861
VIZ/AS/R-10862
BAR/AS/R-10874
BANG/AS/R-10903
BANG/AS/R-10905
KOL/AS/R-10906
KOL/AS/R-10907
KOL/AS/R-10908
KOL/AS/R-10909
JAM/AS/R-10911
KOL/AS/R-10912

Ajay Kumar
Durgeshnandan Kumar
RajeshkannahVenkatesalu
A. V. SatyaDurga Prasad
Vinay Kumar Vinnakota
TejNarendraMachhar
K. H. Raju
ErachariAkkashali
BijanMondal
Md. Bappaditya SK
SujayGhosh
ShantanuDey
Chandrakant Sharma
RajarshiPahari

Delhi
Jamshedpur
Chennai
Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Baroda
Bangalore
Bangalore
Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata
Jamshedpur
Kolkata

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No.2 April 2012

REPORT ON NWTCS PROGRAMME & MES-SDI SCHEME


Report on NWTCS programme (National Welders' Training and Certification Scheme)
During the period January to March, 2012 NWTCS Certification had been conducted at the following ATIs for the MMAW (Standard
Level) course.
l
Ashmeet Institute of Welding Technology, Barnala, Punjab
l
Technocon Trg. Inst., Rajarhat, W.B.

Under IIW-India's National Welders Training and Certification programme, during January to March 2012, 2-new Institutes had
applied us for becoming IIW-India's Approved Training Institute for conducting NWTCS programme. They are
1)
2)

TVS Training and Services Pvt. Ltd., Ambattur, Chennai


New Mark Tehnical Centre, Thiruvottiyur, Chennai

Report on MES-SDI scheme of DGE&T, Govt. of India


As an Assessing Body under DGE&T, Govt. of India, during the period January to March 2012, IIW-India MAB conducted
assessment in the VTPs under various RDATs as follows:
1.

RDAT-Chennai
National ITC, Perambalur
Infant Jesus Polytech. College, Trichy

2.

RDAT-Faridabad
ITI - Kapurthala
GITI-Patiala
ITI Samrala, Punjab
ITI (SC)-Garhsankar
ITI-Solan

3.

RDAT-Hyderabad
Dolphin IIT, Kendrapara, Orissa
Naba Bharat Rural Devt. Society, Khammam, Karnataka

4.

RDAT-Kanpur
ITI Bahoriband, Katni, MP

5.

RDAT-Kolkata
Vidyasagar Tech. college, W.B.
ITI-Chhatna, Bankura, W.B.
I.T.I. Nagaon ,Assam
Quivan (India), W.B.
ITI - Howrah Homes
St. Vincent ITC, Asansol, W.B.
Bill Edgar Memorial, Bankura, W.B.
ITI-Jhargram, W.B.

6.

RDAT-Mumbai
Don Bosco, Narukot, Gujarat
ITI-Khed, Maharashtra
ITI-Surat, Gujarat
Vivekanand Institute of Vocational & Entrepreneurial Competence, Gujarat
Xavier Technical Training Centre, Gujarat

22

ANB NEWS

ANB India News


IWCP diplomas through the Transition route
Following the decision to extend the Transition Arrangements of ANB India at the IAB Group B meeting in July 2011,
7 more Transition courses were held from September 2011 to February 2012 for award of IWCP diplomas as detailed
in the table below :
IWE

IWT

IWS

IWP

Total No. of
Diplomas Awarded

Upto 2010

200

126

38

11

375

2011

28

36

21

87

2012

14

23

237

176

59

13

485

TOTAL

We are pleased to inform that the IAB group B in their meeting at Paris in January 2012 has taken a decision to further
extend the transition arrangement for ANB India upto 31st July 2012. In view of this a number of ANB refresher
courses have been planned starting from 30th April in Bangalore followed by Mumbai and Delhi.
IWCP diplomas through Standard and Alternate routes
The course for the second batch of 6 IWE and 1 IWT candidate by Standard Route commenced at the Cornerstone
Academy, Chennai from November 2011 and has been completed in mid March. The dates for the final examinations
have been fixed from 16th 21st April 2012. Three Alternate Route candidates would also be appearing for the final
examination at Corner Stone Academy at this time.
New ATB for International Welder course
Members will be pleased to learn that the ADOR Welding Institute, Pune has now received provisional approval as an
ATB for International Welder Course. They have started their first batch from February 2012.
Report on Welder Certification Activity
ANB India's welder certification activity has been progressing very satisfactorily and the following jobs were carried
out in the interim period.
Certification of 62 welders at Vendors of TELCON, Jamshedpur unit was completed for a total order value approx
Rs.3 lakhs. A further order for certification of 114 welders at vendors of TELCON, Dharwad unit has been received
recently, which will be executed in April '12.
In support of the Andritz Hydro ISO 3834 certification application to our ANBCC, certification of 16 of their welders as
per EN 287-1 was conducted by our authorised examiner at their Faridabad plant for a total order value of approx
2 lacs.
Apart from TELCON and Andritz Hydro some smaller welder certification jobs, including development of WPS and
WPQR testing, have been done for the following companies: Frontier Alloy Steels Ltd, Kanpur, Usha Telehoist Ltd,
Subtle weigh Electric Pvt Ltd., Oscar Equipments Pvt Ltd and Stone India Ltd.

23

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No.2 April 2012

THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF WELDING


(A Member Society of The International Institute of Welding)
Head Quarter & Regd. Office Address:
MAYUR APARTMENTS, Flat No. 4 B/ N, 3A, Dr. U. N. Brahmachari Streey, Kolkata - 700 017, INDIA
Phone: 91 33 2281 3208 | Telefax: 91 33 2287 1350
E-mail: indianwelding@vsnl.net | Website: http://www.iiwindia.com

AM - IIW Examinations : Summer Session, 2012


From June 11 to 14

SCHEDULE
Forenoon
10:00 A.M. - 1:00 P.M.

Date / Day

Afternoon
2:30 P.M. - 5:30 P.M

11.06.2012
(Monday)

1. AME - 01 : Elementary Mathematics


2. AME - 14 : Heat and Mass Transfer
3. AME - 19 : Testing and Quality Assurance

1. AME - 02 : Physics
2. AME - 15 : Welding and Allied Processes - I
3. AME - 21 : Welding Applications

12.06.2012
(Tuesday)

1. AME - 04 : General English


2. AME - 08 : Electrical Engineering and Electronics
3. AME - 17 : Computation Methods and Computer
Programming

1. AME - 06 : Industrial Sociology


2. AME - 09 : Material Science
3. AME - 18 : Weldment Design and Weld Procedure

13.06.2012
(Wednesday)

1. AME - 07 : Strength of Materials


2. AME - 11 : Engineering Drawing
3. AME - 23 : Welding Equipment and Consumables

1. AME - 05 : Applied Mechanics


2. AME - 13 : Welding Metallurgy - I
3. AME - 16 : Engineering Economics

1. AME - 03 : Chemistry
2. AME - 12 : Engineering Mathematics
3. AME - 20 : Welding Metallurgy - II

1. AME - 10 : Production Engineering


2. AME - 22 : Welding and Allied Processes - II
3. AME - 24 : Advanced Welding Technology

14.02.2012
(Thursday)

Last date for Receipt of Enrolment Forms : May 12, 2012

AM - IIW Examinations fees w.e.f. 01.06.2011


Sl. No

Type of Fee

(Rs.)

1.

Enrolment Fee

400.00

2.

Examination Fee per subject

350.00

3.

Examination Fee for Part D

1,500.00

WELDING - For Nation Biulding


24

AM - IIW

THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF WELDING


(A Member Society of The International Institute of Welding)
Head Quarter & Regd. Office Address:
MAYUR APARTMENTS, Flat No. 4 B/ N, 3A, Dr. U. N. Brahmachari Streey, Kolkata - 700 017, INDIA
Phone: 91 33 2281 3208 | Telefax: 91 33 2287 1350
E-mail: indianwelding@vsnl.net | Website: http://www.iiwindia.com

ANNOUNCEMENT
Winter 2011 AM-IIW Examination will be held during June 11 to 14, 2012 (Monday to Thursday) at different Centres where I.I.W.
Branches are located subject to the availability of candidates. The examination schedule and other related information will be sent
to all the enrolled candidates individually as well as to the Branches for information.
The last date for submission of the Registration Form and Enrolment Form for appearing at the examination, which will be
available from the Prospectus, is May 12, 2012. Details of rules, regulations, subjects, course content etc are available in the
Prospectus, which can be obtained from the IIW Head Office on payment of Rs.150/- by a Demand Draft favouring The Indian
Institute of Welding payable at Kolkata. Bound copies of question papers of two previously held examinations at a price of
Rs.225/- by Demand Draft are also available from the Head Office.
EXEMPTION AVAILABLE IN THE REVISED SYSTEM OF COURSE
QUALIFICATION

SUBJECTS EXEMPTED

10+2: with Maths, Physics, Chemistry

NIL

Diploma in Engineering

AME 1, AME 2, AME 3,


AME 5*, AME 7*, AME 8*, AME 11*

Bachelor of Science (B.Sc)

AME 1, AME 2, AME 3

Degree in Engineering or equivalent

AME 1 to AME 6,
*Also AME 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17

NOTE: * Provided the subject has been successfully completed during the Qualifying Examination (Column 1).
Exemption has to be claimed. In all claims, mark sheets must be produced to get exemption at the time of registration and
exemption would be given only, if all documents, to the satisfaction of the examination committee are received.
Prof. Joshi M. Das
Controller of Examination
SUBJECTS (REVISED SYLLABUS)
PART A

PART B

PART C

AME-1 : Elementary Mathematics

AME-7 : Strength of Materials

AME-16 : Engineering Economics

AME-2 : Physics

AME-8 : Electrical Engineering &


Electronics

AME-17 : Computation Methods &


Computer Programming

AME-3 : Chemistry

AME-9 : Material Science

AME-18 : Weldment Design & Weld


Procedure

AME-4 : General English

AME-10 : Production Engineering

AME-19 : Testing & Quality Assurance

AME-5 : Applied Mechanics

AME-11 : Engineering Drawing

AME-20 : Welding Metallurgy-II

AME-6 : Industrial Sociology

AME-12 : Engineering Mathematics

AME-21 : Welding Applications

AME-13 : Welding Metallurgy-I

AME-22 : Welding & Allied Processes-II

AME-14 : Heat & Mass Transfer

AME-23 : Welding Equipment &


Consumables

AME-15 : Welding & Allied Processes-I

AME-24 : Advanced Welding Technology

N. B. : Last Date for Enrolment : May 12, 2012.

WELDING - For Nation Biulding


25

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No.2 April 2012

GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS FOR SUBMISSION OF PAPERS


TO THE INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL
INTRODUCTION

Margins and Spacing

The Indian Welding Journal (IWJ) is the official journal of

The top, bottom, left, and right margins should be kept

the Indian Institute of Welding (IIW-India), and it is

one inch each, with justified format. Spacing should

published four times a year. Papers are invited in the

adhere to the following format:

areas of welding and allied processes for publication in

The body text of the paper should be single-spaced

the IWJ as per the following categories;

and fully justified in 11-point Arial font. Leave one line

a) Original papers

space between paragraphs, but do not indent the first


line of a new paragraph. Page numbers should be

b) Conference papers (For journal special issues, etc.)

centered at the bottom, and the first page should be

c) Critical assessments / Reviews

numbered.

d) Case studies / Application areas

Insert a line space after the final paragraph in a

section.
TITLE PAGE

First level heading should be consequently numbered

The title page should include:

like 1., 2., etc., left justified, all caps and bold. Insert
one line space before and after a first level heading.

The name(s) of the author(s)

Second level heading should be numbered

A concise and informative title

consequently like 1.1., 1.2., 2.1., 2.2., etc., left

The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the authors

justified, with running letter and bold, with one line

The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of

space above it.

the corresponding author

The heading of Abstract, Appendix and References

are to be all caps, 11-point, bold, and centered, with


ABSTRACT

two line spaces above, and one below.

An abstract should be of 150 to 250 words and it should

Figures and Tables

not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified

Figures and tables should appear close to their first

references

citation inside the text. Each table or figure should be


centered. Each table and each figure should have

KEYWORDS

centered titles that should be self explanatory. Table

Four (4) to six (6) keywords can be used for indexing

titles should go above the table and figure captions

purposes

below the figure. Leave one line space between the title
and the table or figure. Figures and tables are to be
numbered consequently. Refer these inside the text as

TEXT

Table 1 or Figure 1, etc. In addition, each figure should

Text Formatting

be given as separate file(s), naming the file as Fig 1, Fig

Manuscripts should be submitted either in PDF version or

2, etc. Figures (including photographs, line drawing,

in Word files.

etc.) must be clear and reproducible.

26

GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS

COPYRIGHT

REFERENCES

Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article

Citation

to the Indian Institute of Welding(IIW-India). This will

The list of references should only include works that are

ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination

cited in the text and that have been published or

of information under copyright laws.

accepted for publication. Reference citations in the text


should be identified by numbers in square brackets.
Some examples :

PEER REVIEW PROCESS

1. The effect has been widely studied [5-9,12]

Manuscripts of contributed articles submitted under


each category will be peer reviewed. Author(s) will be

2. The same results has been observed by Reddy et al.

communicated with the review results without revealing

[17].

the names of reviewers, and if needed, author(s) will be

Example

required to incorporate necessary changes in his/their

Badheka, V. J. and Albert, S. K. (2009); Improving the

manuscript for final acceptance. Typically, there are four

weld penetration by application of oxide coating in GTAW

review recommendations:

of P91 steel, Proc. Nat. Weld. Sem., Kolkata, India, p.18.


Sabiruddin K., Das

a) Publish as it is (accept),b) Minor revisions (conditional

S. and Bhattacharya A. (2009);

acceptance), c) Major revisions (revise and resubmit), d)

Application of the analytic hierarchy process for

Reject.

optimization of process parameters in GMAW, IWJ,

For further information /clarification please

42(1), pp.38-46.

contact
The Chief Editor
Indian Welding Journal
The Indian Institute of Welding
3A, Dr. U. N. Brahmachari Street,
Kolkata- 700 017.
Email: iwj.iiw@gmail.com
Website: www.iiwindia.com

APPENDICES AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT


Appendices, if needed absolutely, should be placed after
references section. Uses of appendices are not
encouraged, in general. Acknowledgment, appendices,
etc., if any, may follow the References section.

27

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No.2 April 2012

SUBSCRIBER'S FORM FOR INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL

[Established in 1966 with its' headquarters in Kolkata and 11 branches throughout the country, The Indian Institute
of Welding (IIW India ) is the premier professional institute on the joining of engineering materials and the only
member society of the International Institute of Welding in India. The Institute publishes quarterly journal viz.
Indian Welding Journal in technical association with American Welding Society (AWS)]

1.

Name of the Organization

2.

Address

3.

Email

4.

Duration for subscription

5.

Annual subscription fee Rs. 1000/-

6.

D.D./Cheque Details*

i)

D.D/Cheque No.

ii)

Amount

(* DD/Cheque is to be drawn in favour of The Indian Institute of Welding payble at Kolkata )

Date:

Signature

Mailing address:
The Indian Institute of Welding
Mayur Apartments, Flat No. 4 B / N,
3A, Dr. U. N. Brahmachari Street,
Kolkata 700 017, India,
Tel : +91 - 33 - 2281 3208,Tel / Fax : +91 - 33 - 2287 1350
Email : indianwelding@vsnl.net, iiw@iiwindia.com

78

G. Padmanabham - LASER-MIG Hybrid Welding of Thick plates of Mild Steel in Single Pass

LASER-MIG Hybrid Welding of Thick Plates of Mild Steel


in Single Pass
*

G. Padmanabham, #B.Shanmugarajan and *K. V. Phani Prabhakar

International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI),

Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500 005, Andhra Pradesh, India, gp@arci.res.in.


#

Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Tiruchhirappalli, Tamilnadu

ABSTRACT
Laser hybrid welding combines the deep penetration capability of laser beam and edge gap bridging capability
of an arc welding process such as MIG/MAG. In the present work, a 3.5 kW slab CO2 LASER -MIG hybrid welding
system was used to carry our laser hybrid welding studies with an aim to achieve butt welds of 12mm thick mild
steel plates in single pass. Bead-on-plate studies were carried out to first understand the effect of parameters
such as laser power, focal plane position of the laser, MIG wire feed rate, composition of shielding gas, distance
between laser and MIG arc on the weld penetration. The optimized parameters were then applied on butt welds
with Y-groove edge preparation with varying root face height and groove angle to identify suitable joint design.
Combining the results of bead-on-plate experiments and butt welding experiments, welding of 12 mm thick
mild steel plates in single pass could be achieved. The LASER-MIG hybrid butt welds so fabricated showed
100% joint efficiency and high bend ductility.
Keywords: LASER hybrid welding, 12 mm thick mild steel plate, single pass weld

ARCI is shown in Fig. 1b. Primary purpose of hybrid process is

1.0 INTRODUCTION

combining the deep penetration capability of laser and edge

LASER welding process is a well-known power beam process

bridging capability of laser. There are other advantages as well.

owing to its advantages such as high weld aspect ratio, high

Such as, possibility to change the fusion zone chemistry etc.

welding speeds, narrow weld and small weld/heat affected


zone (HAZ) resulting in good mechanical properties and high

when compared to laser welding and higher welding speeds

productivity [1,2]. However, laser welding demands high joint

and less usage of filler compared to MIG welding.

fit-up accuracies which are difficult to maintain in large scale

Consequently, the laser hybrid welds are deeper than MIG

production and in thick sections. To overcome this limitation,

welds and broader than laser welds. Fig. 2 compares cross

LASER-MIG hybrid welding (LHW) process has been developed

section macrographs of beads-on-plate produced by arc,

and is becoming popular in the recent times with applications

autogenous laser and hybrid welding on 12mm thick mild steel

in many fields such as aerospace, automotive, ship building,

plate. The arc weld shown in Fig. 2a is shallower than both the

pipelines, pressure vessels etc. LHW is a fusion welding

laser and hybrid weld pools shown in Fig. 2b and Fig. 2c,

process which combines laser and arc sources in such a way

respectively. The width of the hybrid weld is comparable to that

that the benefits of both welding processes are effectively

of the arc weld. Hybrid welding also provides enhanced

utilised. [3-8] Schematic of laser hybrid welding set up is

productivity and capabilities in excess of what can be achieved

shown in Fig. 1a and the actual laser hybrid arrangement at

by either laser or arc welding alone. While the process has

29

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

(b)

(a)

Fig. 1 : (a) Schematic of laser hybrid welding; (b) Laser-MIG welding set up at ARCI

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 2 : Weld cross-section of (a) MIG, (b) Laser and (c) Laser-MIG hybrid welded mild steel specimens

many advantages, it is more complex compared either laser

welding of 10mm thick AISI 304 stainless steel plates. They

alone or MIG alone due to increased number of process

observed that minimum 30% helium content in gas mixture is

parameters to be controlled to be able to really get the

required to limit plasma formation. In India, there are no

synergistic effect of combining the two processes. For

investigations carried out on this process (to the best

example, if the arc generates too much plasma, all the laser

knowledge of the authors) until the Centre for Laser Processing

energy gets entrapped in it and none of it contributes to

of Materials at ARCI, Hyderabad set up the laser hybrid welding

penetrate the work piece. Similarly, when the distance

system (Fig. 1b) by integrating an existing 3.5 kW slab CO2

between the laser source and the MIG arc are not optimized,

laser and a pulsed MIG welding system a couple of years ago.

the synergy of the process cannot be achieved. Several

Information from laser hybrid welding practitioners is that an

researchers carried out investigations on effect of various

every 1 mm depth of penetration 1 kW of laser power is

process parameters to draw the best benefit from the process.

required. However, as the slab laser at ARCI has high beam

Ming Gao et al [9] studied microstructure characteristics of CO2

quality with capability to weld 7 mm thick steel plates in single

laser-MIG bead on plate welds on 7 mm thick mild steel. They

pass it was felt that it may be attempted to use the facility for as

showed that hybrid weld shape has wide upper zone (arc zone)

high thickness as possible. Accordingly, in the present study,

and narrow nether zone (laser zone) and the microstructure,

laser hybrid welding of low carbon steel plates (mild steel) of

alloy element distribution and microhardness all have evident

12 mm thickness was chosen, as the experience and data could

difference between arc zone and laser zone. Giovanni Tani et al

be useful for a wide variety of applications. It is attempted to

[10] examined the effect of different shielding gas

maximize the depth of penetration by optimization of welding

compositions and gas flow rates on CO2 Laser-MIG hybrid butt

parameters such as shielding gas, laser beam focal plane,

30

G. Padmanabham - LASER-MIG Hybrid Welding of Thick plates of Mild Steel in Single Pass

distance between the laser beam spot and MIG arc and MIG

laser hybrid welding parameters such as composition of torch

wire feed rate to reduce plasma shielding effects, increase

gas (50% Ar + 50% He, 45% Ar + 45% He + 10% CO2, 40% Ar

laser penetration, maximize synergistic effects of laser and arc

+ 45% He + 15% CO2 and 40% Ar + 40% He + 20% CO2), wire

welding processes and further enhance weld penetration and

feed rate (4 to 14 m/min), distance between sources (2 to 8

filling of the joint to be able to butt weld 12 mm thick plates in

mm), focal position of the laser with respect to the surface (2-6

single pass, with the available 3.5 kW laser power. Weld

mm below the surface), and the optimal parameters were

geometry and quality of the butt welds were evaluated by

subsequently applied on butt welding with Y-groove edge

metallography, tensile testing and bend testing.

preparation with various root face heights and included angles.


A laser power of 3.5 kW was used for all the experiments. A gap

2.0

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

2.1

Equipment

of 0.2 mm was maintained between the edges of the prepared


specimens. Before each weld, the laser beam in conjunction
with MIG was aligned with the joint, to ensure an equal and

The laser hybrid welding system comprised of Rofin DC035

constant amount of melting in both plates.

slab CO2 laser integrated with Kemmpi synergic pulsed MIG

2.4

Characterization

system. Laser beam in gaussian mode (TEM00) was focused

After visual inspection of the welds, dye penetrant testing was

using 300 mm focal length focusing mirror using a welding

conducted according to ASTM standard (ASTM E 165), to

head supplied by Precitec, which gives a focused spot size of

identify surface defects, if any. The weld bead on both face and

180 microns. The MIG system (Kemppi make) was integrated

root side was cleaned properly and penetrant sprayed on the

with the laser in such a way that the arc and laser can operate

weld area and allowed 15 minutes dwell time. The excess

together. MIG power source is attached with a Witt-

penetrant was removed by applying the cleaner. Then to view

Gasetechniks gas mixing unit which is capable of supplying

the defects, developer was applied and allowed to dry.

different mixtures with gases like Ar, He, N2, CO2 and O2. The

Metallographic specimens were prepared as per standard

flow rate of the gas mixture can be controlled by controlling the

procedures. Subsequently, the samples were etched using 2%

pressure at the outlet, which can be varied from 0.5 6 bar.

nital and the macrostructures were taken using a stereo

The gas mixture is passed through MIG welding torch and no

microscope. The bead geometry measurements like depth of

separate plasma/shielding gas was used for the CO2 laser. MIG

penetration, width of the weld, width of HAZ, etc were

welding was used in synergic pulsed mode.

conducted using image analysis software attached to the

2.2

microscope. The butt welds were subjected to transverse

Materials

tensile testing according to ASTM E8. Specimen schematics is

The filler wire was 1.2 mm dia. mild steel Cu coated wire of

shown in Fig. 3.

specification AWS ER 70S-6. The chemical composition of mild


steel and filler wire is given by weight percent (%) in Table 1.

Tensile testing was carried out using servo controlled Instron

Steel specimens of size 220 mm x 110 mm x 12 mm with

5584 machine at a cross head speed of 1 mm/min. All the

varying joint designs were used for laser hybrid butt welding

acceptable butt welds were subjected to root bend testing


according to ASTM E192 using specimens as shown in Fig. 4.

experiments.
2.3

The welds were subjected to only root bend test because it is

Methodology

more critical than the face bend tests. The testing was

Initially, bead-on-plate (BOP) welding experiments were

performed on a hydraulic controlled bend testing machine.

carried out on 12 mm thick mild steel plates to optimize the

Table 1: Chemical composition (wt %)

Grade
Mild Steel
Filler wire AWS ER 70S-6

Mn

Si

Fe

0.15

0.47

0.021

0.017

0.2

Bal.

0.07- 0.15

1.4-1.85

0.035

0.025

0.8-1.15

Bal.

31

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

Weld

63.5

63.5

R 15.0
12.7

19.0

57.2
Fig. 3 : Dimensions of the tensile test specimen in mm

WELD

38.1

152.0
Fig. 4 : Schematic of bend test specimen, dimensions in mm

3.0
3.1

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

here again. Cross sectional macrograph of typical laser hybrid


bead-on-plate weld is shown in Fig. 5. Nomenclature of

Bead-on-Plate (BOP) Welding

various geometrical features is also shown. It shows a typical

Although some of the results are reported in earlier works [11]

wine-cup shape: wide upper zone (arc zone) and narrow

of the authors, for the sake of better appreciation of the

nether zone (laser zone). This is similar to that reported by

process and completeness, some of the results are explained

other workers.
Fig. 6 shows the effect of torch / shielding gas combination on
weld penetration, due to laser and MIG. MIG penetration
decreased with increasing He content and reducing carbon
dioxide. This probably may be effect of reducing carbon
dioxide, which generally aids in more heat input as it is a
reactive gas. Laser penetration increased with increasing He
and reducing Ar and CO2. This may be attributed to reduced
plasma formation. It is well known that the plasma plume
formed in the weld zone traps the laser energy and causes
reduction in the power density and consequently reduction in
depth of penetration. Overall penetration is high when a

Fig. 5 : Cross sectional macrograph of a typical


laser-MIG hybrid bead on plate

minimum of 50% He is present in the shielding gas.

32

G. Padmanabham - LASER-MIG Hybrid Welding of Thick plates of Mild Steel in Single Pass

Fig. 7 shows the effect of distance between laser and MIG with
laser power of 3.5 kW, wire feed rate of 6 m/min (current of
172A and voltage of 29.3V) on weld bead geometry. As the
distance varied from 2 8 mm there is no significant change in
penetration. But, weld width increased. The experiments were
repeated at higher wire feed rate 14 m/min. The bead
geometry variations at two wire feed rates are compared in
Fig. 8. In both the cases increase in the distance between
sources resulted in decrease in depth of penetration. But, the
decrease is more significant at wire feed rate of 14 m/min than

(a)

at 6 m/min. At higher wire feed rates, due to increased current,


the arc plasma will be more compared to lower wire feed rates
which, can attenuate the laser beam resulting in loss of laser
energy. Further, beyond 4 mm distance between sources, at
low wire feed rates, the combined effect of the heat sources is
not seen and the penetration is by autogenous laser welding
only. However, at higher wire feed rates the combined effect of
the heat sources was not seen at a distance beyond 6mm. So,
optimum distance between laser and MIG seems to be 2-4 mm.
Fig. 8 also shows the effect of distance between sources on
bead width. There is an increase in bead width with increase in

(b)

distance but not as significant as on depth of penetration.


In laser keyhole welding, for thick section welding the laser is
focused below the surface of the material to obtain increased
depth of penetration. This effect in case of laser hybrid welding
is investigated. Fig. 9 shows the effect of focal plane position
on depth of penetration at different wire feed rates and
distance between sources. Increase in defocus of laser has
increased the penetration at higher wire feed rates and the
effect is more pronounced at distance between sources of 2
mm. However, in case of lower feed rates of 4 m/min, the total

(c)

penetration has decreased at a distance between sources of


Fig. 6: Effect of gas composition on
a) penetration due to MIG; b) penetration due to laser;
and c) and combined value as laser-MIG hybrid.
Welding parameters: Laser power-3.5 kW, Focal plane
position 4 mm below surface, MIG wire feed rate6m/min and Welding speed-1m/min

(a)

(b)

4 mm and has shown very marginal increase at a distance


between sources of 2 mm. At lower wire feed rates, the MIG
penetration will be less compared to high wire feed rates.
However, the increase in total penetration is only upto a

(c)

(d)

Fig. 7 : Laser hybrid weld cross-sections with varying distance between laser and MIG
a) 2mm, b) 4mm, c) 6mm and d) 8mm

35

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

Fig. 8 : Effect of distance between sources on a) Penetration depth and b) Top bead width

(a)

(b)
Fig. 9 : Effect of focal plane position on depth of penetration with different wire feed
rates and distance between sources a) 2mm and b) 4mm

Angle

defocus distance of 5 mm and beyond which again the


penetration decreases as the laser power density with respect
to the actual un-melted surface reduces.

Root Face

Based on the bead-on-plate studies, following parameters are


identified as most suitable to obtain single pass butt weld

Gap between plates

specifically for high depth of penetration:

Fig. 10 : Schematic view of various geometrical


considerations during butt welding

Laser Parameters: Power : 3.5 kW; Spot size : 180 microns;


Focal plane position : 5 mm below surface; and

Root gap was maintained at 0.2mm. As 6 mm laser penetration

MIG Parameters: Wire feed rate : 14 m/min; Shielding gas :

could be consistently obtained, Y-Grooves with 5 mm root face

50%Ar+50%He; Nozzle standoff : 15 mm.

(RF) were started with and groove angles of 8 and 16 were

3.2

chosen based on volume of the molten material. The

Butt welding

macrographs of single pass welds made at different groove

Having identified the welding process parameters, the next

designs with almost similar parameters are shown in Table 2.

requirement is to get a good butt weld with optimal joint design

At 8 groove angle, while the laser penetration is sufficient to

which can take advantage of laser penetration as well as edge

fuse the root, the filling by MIG process was not adequate

bridging and gap filling by MIG. Experiments were conducted

leaving a gap between the MIG part and the laser part. When

with 'Y' groove configuration (Fig. 10) by varying root face

the groove angle is increased to 16, with root face as 5 mm

heights and included angles.

similar gap was observed. Both the situations improved a little

36

G. Padmanabham - LASER-MIG Hybrid Welding of Thick plates of Mild Steel in Single Pass

Table 2 : Laser hybrid butt welds with different joints designs


Sample
No.

Joint
Design

Focal
Plane
position
from top
surface
(mm)

Welding Parameters
Welding
Speed
(m/min)

Laser
Power
(kW)

WFR
(m/min)

24

5 mm RF
16o angle

-9.0

3.5

14

25

5 mm RF
8o angle

-9.0

3.5

14

26

2.5 mm RF
8o angle

-9.5

3.5

14

27

2.5 mm RF
16o angle

-9.5

3.5

14

28

2.5 mm RF
16o angle

-9.5

0.9

3.5

14

Cross sectional
macrograph of the
laser hybrid welds

bit when focal plane was further lowered. The amount of

specimens failed away from the weld in the base metal. The

molten metal deposited by the MIG also seems to affect the

ductility of the welds as can be seen from the Table 3 was

laser penetration. Acceptable weld without defects could be

lower than the base material. The low ductility observed in the

obtained at a combination of 2.5 mm root face height and 16

welds could be due to overmatching weld metal causing strain

groove angle as seen in cross section of sample 27 in Table 2.

concentration on one side of the weld which started deforming

The tensile testing results are given in Table 3. All the

first. Specimens subjected to bend tests are shown in Fig. 11.


All the welds showed good bend ductility.

37

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

Table 3 : Tensile properties of base materials and laser hybrid welds

Specimen

UTS (MPa)

Elongation (%)

Location of fracture

Base Material

483.88

55.17

--

Single pass butt weld

486.62

43.21

Base metal

Fig. 11 : Bend tested laser hybrid welds

38

G. Padmanabham - LASER-MIG Hybrid Welding of Thick plates of Mild Steel in Single Pass

On the basis of parameter optimization to achieve maximum

4.

G. Campana, A. Fortunatao, A. Ascari, G. Tani and

depth of penetration in bead-on-plate studies and selection of

L. Tomesani: J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2007, 191, 111-

joint design based on volume of metal to be deposited to fill the

113.

joint, sound butt welds could be obtained with repeatability.

5.

This result could be of great industrial significance as many


structures use sections in this thickness range and with this

6.

process it is possible to weld at higher welding speeds than


more studies need to be undertaken to establish the welding

7.

procedures.

48.

Butt welding of 12mm thick mild steel plates could be


9.

achieved in single pass by laser-MIG hybrid welding at a

Ming Gao, Xiaoyan Zeng, Jun Yan, Qianwu Hu,

laser power of 3.5 kW and a MIG wire feed rate of 14

Microstructure characteristics of laser-MIG hybrid

m/min and welding speed of 1 m/min.

welded mild steel, Applied Surface Science 254 (2008)


5715-5721.

Not only the welding parameters but the joint design is


10.

important in achieving sound joints.

Giovanni Tani et al, The influence of shielding gas in


hybrid LASER-MIG welding, Applied Surface Science 253

The laser hybrid joints showed 100% Joint efficiency and

(2007) 8050-8053.

180 bend ductility.


4.

T. Graf, H. Staufer, Laser-hybrid welding drives VW


improvements, Welding Journal, January 2003, pp. 42-

4.0 CONCLUSIONS

3.

R. S. Huang, L. M. Liu and G. Song: Mater. Sci. Eng. A,


2007, A447, 239-243.

8.

2.

B. Hu and I. M. Richardson: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007,


A459, 94-100.

conventional processes and with one side access. However,

1.

G. Casalino, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2007, 191,


106-110.

11.

The above result could be of great significance in

B. Shanmugarajan, P. Rajesh, E. Krishanveni and


G. Padmanabham, Process and fusion behavior during

practical applications and more studies in that direction

CO2 laser MIG hybrid welding of thick section mild steel

can be taken up.

plates, Proceedings of the International Welding


Symposium (IWS 2k10), 10-12 February, 2010, Mumbai.

5.0 REFERENCES
1.

Xia M., Tian Z., Zhao L. and Zhou Y. N. 2008 Mater. Trans.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

4746
2.

3.

The authors extend their gratitude to Director, ARCI for

W. Walter, Duley: Laser Welding, John Wiley and Sons,

granting permission to publish this work. The authors also

New York, 1999, pp. 25-66.

thank Mr. E. Anbu Rasu for his assistance in experimentation

W. M. Steen: J. Appl. Phys., 1980. 51. 5636-5641.

and characterization.

39

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

Corrosion Fatigue behavior of Submerged Arc Welded high


strength steel used in Naval Structures
H. Das and T. K. Pal
Welding Technology Centre, Metallurgical & Material Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, India
d.hrishikesh@yahoo.com; tkpal.ju@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Corrosion prevention is a major concern for naval structures particularly for welded joint of high strength steel.
Although cathodic protection (CP) is still widely used to prevent corrosion of structural steels in marine
environment, effectiveness of CP has not been proven for structural steels with a yield stress above 400 MPa. In
the present investigation, high strength steel plate of DMR 249A was welded by Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
process and the corrosion fatigue tests were performed on weld metal in air and 3.5% NaCl solution at room
temperature with R ratio of 0.1 and a cyclic frequency of 0.01 Hz with and without cathodic potential. Optimum
cathodic potential for weld metal was also evaluated in unstressed condition from the minimum corrosion
coefficient among four potentials (under at -800, -875, -950, -1025) mV based on potentiostatic polarization
curves (Ecorr value) of weld metal. Corrosion fatigue results suggest that optimum cathodic potential data
(-875 mV) determined in unstressed condition could be used to improve the corrosion fatigue life of weld metal
used in naval structure.
Key words: High strength steel, SAW, Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR), Polarization Curve, corrosion
coefficient, Corrosion Fatigue.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

that paint damage will occur, has led to the use of secondary
systems, such as cathodic protection systems, to provide

Corrosion prevention is a major concern for naval structures.

additional defense against corrosion damage.

The primary methodology for corrosion control on ship hulls is


anti-corrosion epoxy coatings (paints). Anti-corrosion epoxy

Fatigue damage is one of the most important factors to be

coatings are typically multi-layer systems that are based on

considered in designing of large welded structures such as ship

detailed chemical evaluation of the base metal and the

hull. A ship structure has to withstand loads of different types

proposed operating environment. But no matter how good the

such as static loads and cyclic loads. For quasi-static wave

paint or coating system, or how well applied, these systems are

loads, a conventional life span of 108 considered to verify the

subjected to mechanical wear and damage, biological attack,

ship's design, a figure which corresponds approximately to a

improper application and aging with time. The end result is that

life span of 20 to 25 years [1]. The number of cycles can differ

there will be regions of exposed metal that were originally

for other loads (ice impacts, slamming impacts, vibratory

protected by coatings. In addition, there are multiple inlet and

responses etc.) and marine environment. Marine structures

outlet ports for various piping systems as well as other features

exposed to severe marine environment should be protected

of the ship on a ship hull. These features and the knowledge

against corrosion in an appropriate way. Cathodic Protection

40

H Das - Corrosion Fatigue behavior of Submerged Arc Welded high strength steel used in Naval Structures

(CP) is widely used to prevent corrosion of structural steels in

and dirt. The welding parameters are given in Table 3.

marine environment [2]. Most of the accidents occurred

The welds were first examined visually followed by X-ray

recently were associated with the corrosion of welding part and

radiography test. The sound welded joints were used to

hydrogen embitterment of marine structure steel under

prepare samples for metallography, tensile, charpy impact,

cathodic protection [3, 4]. Existing guidance on the design and

fatigue testing (at 0.01Hz) in air and in 3.5% NaCl solution with

construction of marine structure does not define the optimum

and without CP.

level of CP and notes that the effectiveness of CP has not been

2.1 Microstructure of base metal and Weldments

proven for structural steels with a yield stress above 400MPa


[5]. Thus, there is clearly a need to establish the optimum and

The metallography specimens of the weldments were ground

safe working limits of CP in realistic environments, if higher

and polished using standard method. The polished specimens

strength steels are to be more widely employed in marine

were etched with 2% nital. The microstructures were studied

structure.

under optical microscope (Carl Zeiss made: AX10 Imager A1m)

In the present investigation, high strength steel of DMR 249A

and photo micrographs were taken at different magnifications.

grade which is currently being used for ship construction in

2.2 Micro hardness of welded joint

stead of low carbon steel in India, has been welded by

Micro hardness was taken across the weldment using Vickers's

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) process and fatigue crack

hardness testing machine using a load of 100gm.

growth rate (FCGR) has been studied in air and in 3.5% NaCl

2.3 Preparation of Samples for FCGR

solution at cyclic frequency of 0.01 Hz with and without CP.

Single Edge Notch three-point bend sample specimens of 7.2


2.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

mm X 15 mm cross section and 80 mm length as per ASTM


E647 as shown schematically in Fig. 1 are used for Fatigue

The low alloy steel plate of DMR 249 A of size 300mm X 150mm

Crack Growth Rate (FCGR) tests in air and in environment.

X 15mm was used as base metal in this work. Chemical

FCGR tests were carried out on a 100 KN servo-electric

composition and mechanical properties of base metal are given

machine (INSTRON 8862) using software controlled

in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively.

decreasing K envelope with constant R-ratio (0.1) as per

Steel plates were made double V- Groove of 60 included angle

ASTM E647. The crack was monitored using a COD gauge with

and welded by submerged arc welding (SAW) process. Before

the help of da/dN software.

welding the plates were surface ground to remove the oxides


Table 1: Chemical composition of base metal

Material

Si

Mn

Cu

Ni

Cr

Mo

Nb

Al

Ti

Fe

DMR

0.10

0.24

1.6

0.018

0.02

0.312

0.688

0.21

0.02

0.015

0.02

0.016

Bal.

249
Table 2: Mechanical Properties of base metal

Base Metal

Plate thickness

Y.S (MPa)

UTS (MPa)

% El.

DMR 249A

15 mm

464

607

33

Table 3: Welding Parameters used in SAW process

Welding
process

Welding
position

Inter pass
temp.

Dia. of
filler wire

Welding
current (A)

Welding
voltage (V)

Welding
speed cm/min

Heat input
kj/mm

SAW

Downhand

150oC

3.2

600

32

30

3.84

41

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

shown in Fig. 2b along with Teflon sheet chamber of size 360


mm X 266 mm X 150 mm containing about 8 liters of 3.5% NaCl
solution were used. The inside of this container was lacquered

15.0000

and the rollers of the bend fixture were Teflon wrapped so that

3.750
10
40

40

undesirable chemical reaction is prevented. The pH of the bulk

7.5000

solution was monitored at regular intervals and was


maintained within 6-7 throughout the test. The corrosion

80

fatigue test was carried out at room temperature with R ratio of


0.1 and a cyclic frequency of 0.01 Hz.
60

Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR) tests were carried out on a


18.8599

30

1.5

90

100 KN servo-electric machine (INSTRON 8862) using


software controlled decreasing K envelope with constant R-

60

0.433
0.75
Fig. 1: Schematic diagram of 3 point bend sample

2.4

Potentiostatic Polarization

The potentiostatic polarization curves for base metal, weld


metal and HAZ were determined in 3.5% NaCl solution using
AUTOLAB PGSTAT 302 Potentiostatic machine at a scan rate of
0.5mv/s using Ag/AgCl electrode as reference and platinum as
counter electrode. Tafel's slopes were derived from the
polarization curve.

Fig. 2(a)

2.5 Cathodic protection without stress


Based on the Ecorr values of base metal, weld metal and HAZ
derived from polarization curves, four potentials for each zone
(base metal, weld metal and HAZ) were selected to study
cathodic protection .The cathodic protection curves for base
metal under (at -650, -725, -800, -875) mV, weld metal under
(at -800, -875, -950, -1025) mV and HAZ under (at-875, -950,
-1025, -1100) mV are evaluated. Corrosion coefficient for each
potential in each zone of weldment was evaluated and only
minimum corrosion coefficient for base metal, HAZ and weld
metal achieved for a given potential are found out. The
polarization potential, which attributed minimum corrosion
coefficient, were considered as an adequate cathodic
protection in corrosion fatigue test.
2.6 Corrosion Fatigue of Weld Metal

Fig. 2(b)

For corrosion fatigue tests, a specially fabricated inverted

Fig. 2: (a) Experimental set up and (b) Schematic diagram


of 3 point bend fixture fitted with corrosion chamber

three-point bend fixture shown in Fig.2a and schematically

42

H Das - Corrosion Fatigue behavior of Submerged Arc Welded high strength steel used in Naval Structures

Fig. 3: Microstructure of (a)Base Metal (b) Weld Metal and (c) HAZ in SAW process, X500

between 750 oC and 650 oC [7] and grows from grain boundary

ratio (0.1) as per ASTM E647. Crack lengths were measured


using a 10 mm gauge length crack opening displacement

ferritic as long needles which protrudes into the austenite

(COD) gauge fixed on integral knife edges machined samples

grains [6].

across the crack mouth.

Acicular ferrite starts to nucleate intragranulary at inclusions in


the transformation temperature range between 630 oC to 450

2.7 Fracture Surface Study

C simultaneously with or immediate after the formation of side

The Fracture surface of welded samples after FCGR tests in air

plate ferrite.

and corrosion medium at R =0.1 and cyclic frequency of 0.01


Hz was observed under SEM.

Acicular ferrite are promoted with (i) increased in prior


austenite grain size [6], (ii) with increasing element like C, Mn,
Mo and possibly Si & Ni [7, 10] by shifting the austenite

3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

decomposition transformation to large delay times [8, 9] and

3.1 Microstructure of base metal and Weldments

(iii) with favorable size, volume fraction and composition of non

Microstructures of base metal, weld metal and HAZ are shown

metallic inclusion [ 8, 11]. As a result of ferrite formation during

in Fig.3. Microstructure of base metal shows ferrite and

cooling in weld metal, carbon is continuously enriched with the

pearlite. Pearlite appears as banded structure. On the other

remaining austenite depending on cooing rate and weld metal

hand, weld metal consists of acicular ferrite, grain boundary

chemical composition. This carbon rich austenite may

ferrite, ferrite with aligned second phase along with veins of

transform to ferrite with aligned second phase or upper bainite

ferrite. The microstructure of HAZ reveals mostly grain

[6] which forms at temperature below 500 oC [7].

boundary ferrite with aligned second phase within prior

The final microstructure in weld metal depends on complex

austenite grain boundary.

interactions between several important variables such as

The microstructure depends primarily on the chemical

chemical composition (hardenability element), type, volume

composition and cooling rate. In weld metal, in addition to

fraction, size of inclusions, and cooling rate.

chemical composition and cooling rate, the presence of

3.2 Micro hardness of welded joint

inclusion plays an important role in influencing microstructure.


On cooling below AC3 temperature, ferrite will start nucleating

The micro hardness data across DMR 249 A welded joints are

initially at austenite grain corner and boundaries. Since these

shown in Fig.4. Weld metal shows higher hardness than base

sites generally provide lowest energy barrier to nucleation [6],

metal. The hardness of HAZ is in-between.

grain boundary ferrite (GBF) occurs over the temperature

3.3 Potentiostatic polarization

range 1000 oC to 650 oC [7].

Potentiostatic polarization study has been done for base metal,

With increasing degree of under cooling, further growth of

weld metal and HAZ shown in Fig. 5. From the potentiostatic

ferrite can take place by lateral movement of ledges along low

polarization curves corrosion rate and Ecorr have been

energy surface which is characteristics of widmanstatten side

evaluated and are given in Table 4.

plate ferrite structure [6]. Side plate ferrite (SPF) forms

47

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

Fig.4: Microhardness of welded DMR 249 A sample

Fig. 5 : Polarisation curve for


Base Metal,Weld Metal and HAZ

Table 4 : Electrochemical data derived from the


polarisation curve

Specimen

Ecorr (V)

Corrosion Rate
(mm/year)

Fig. 6: Cathodic protection curve for Base Metal


(at -500, -550, -600, 650) mV, Weld Metal
(at -550, -650, -750, -850) mV and HAZ
(at -650, -750, -850, -950) mV

Base Metal

-0.498

0.25

Weld Metal

-0.516

0.3

HAZ

-0.570

2.34

It is clearly observed from Table 4 that corrosion rate is

coefficient for base metal, HAZ and weld metal achieved for a

maximum in HAZ followed by weld metal and base metal in that

given potential. The polarization potential, which attributed

order. Although the base metal and HAZ posses similar

minimum corrosion coefficient, were considered as an

composition, higher corrosion rate in HAZ is likely due to

adequate cathodic protection in corrosion fatigue test.

alteration of microstructure and residual stress developed

3.5

during welding. Again, the improvement of corrosion resistant

In the present investigation, fatigue test in air and environment

in weld metal compared to HAZ is probably due to higher

was performed only in weld metal considering this part

amount of copper. On the other hand, inferior corrosion

associated with more accident under corrosion. A comparison

resistant in weld metal compared to base metal is probably due

of fatigue crack growth behaviour of weld metal in air and

to segregation effect which is encountered during welding.


3.4

Corrosion Fatigue of Weld Metal

3.5% NaCl solution, both unprotected and at the cathodic

Cathodic protection without stress

potential based on minimum corrosion coefficient, for R=0.1

Based on the Ecorr values of base metal, weld metal and HAZ,

and cyclic frequency at 0.01Hz is shown in Fig.7.

four potentials for each zone of weldment were selected to

Corresponding cathodic protection curve (at -875 mV) of DMR

study cathodic protection. The cathodic protection curves for

(249A) Weld metal under fatigue loading is shown in Fig. 8.

base metal under (at -650, -725, -800, -875) mV, weld metal

The results as shown in Fig.7 indicate that the crack growth

(at -800, -875, -950, -1025) mV and HAZ (at -875, -950,

resistance of weld metal is inferior in 3.5% NaCl solution to that

-1025, -1100) mV shown in Fig. 6.

of in air. The fatigue crack growth behavior of weld metal in

In each zone of weldment, corrosion coefficient for each

3.5% NaCl solution further show significant improvement of

potential was evaluated and only minimum corrosion

crack growth resistance under CP over free corrosion.

48

H Das - Corrosion Fatigue behavior of Submerged Arc Welded high strength steel used in Naval Structures

Fig. 8: Cathodic protection (at -875 mV) of DMR (249A)


Weld metal under fatigue loading

Fig.7: FCGR behavior of Weld Metal in Air, Free Corrosion


Medium and with Cathodic Potential

The fatigue life enhancements from CP has been attributed by

opening part of each stress cycle [19, 20 and 21]. The entry of

some authors to calcareous deposits (mainly CaCO3 and Mg

the hydrogen promoted into the metal which transported

(OH)2) within the nascent crack. This calcareous deposit was

under the driving force of the stress gradient to the region of

considered to form wedge at the crack tip, reducing the

higher dilation ahead of the crack leading to hydrogen

effective stress range, thus the early stages of crack growth are

embrittlement. The above arguments on susceptibility to HIC

significantly delayed [12, 13]. However, similar behavior has

under cathodic polarization, however, fails to explain the

been observed on plain tensile specimen tested in 3.5% NaCl

decrease in corrosion FCG rate for applied cathodic potential of

where calcareous deposits do not occur [14]. It appears that

-875 mV in the present study. Recent observation on the effect

the benefits of CP on fatigue crack growth rate, probably

of cathodic polarization indicated that crack growth rate

arising, from suppression of the metal dissolution process

accelerates when Kmax exceeded certain critical values


corresponding to conditions when sufficient hydrogen has

[14, 15].

occurred at a certain characteristic distance [22, 23] ahead of

In aqueous environments, anodic dissolution of metal at the

the crack.

crack tip and the entrance of hydrogen derived from the


environment [16] into the crack-tip plastic zone occur

This will attain the critical combination of stress state and

simultaneously during corrosion fatigue crack propagation.

hydrogen concentration [24]. In line with the above findings, it

Depending on mechanical (stress level, mode of loading, cyclic

is reasonable to believe that Kmax in the present study does

frequency, stress ratio, wave form), metallurgical (chemical

not cross the critical value. Fujii and Smith [25] found that the

composition, microstructure, grain boundary composition /

fatigue crack growth rate acceleration occurred at a stress

orientation) and environmental (composition and concen-

intensity range K exceeded 30-40 MPam at R=0.1 for the

tration of solution, pH, potential, dissolved oxygen,

high strength HY 130 steel in 0.6 M NaCl solution. The result

temperature, flow rate) variables, one of the two mechanisms

obtained in this study conceive a possibility for similar

play a dominant role in crack propagation. It should also be

mechanism in decelerating effect of cathodic polarization on

noted that the intensity of anodic and or cathodic reactions in

crack growth rate up to K of 32-35 and R = 0.1. Furthermore,

the vicinity of the crack tip, the hydrogen dependant properties

the dominant mechanism in corrosion fatigue crack

of material and the hydrogen content in the crack tip zone also

propagation was supported by fractographic observations.

determine the controlling corrosion FCG mechanisms.

Transgranular fracture mode and some evidence of inelastic

An increased generation of hydrogen under cathodic

incremental crack advance occurring along the grain

polarization enters into metal on the external surface of the

boundaries revealed in weld metal as shown in Fig.9 also

specimen [16] and within the growing crack [17, 18]. FCG

suggest that the critical combination of stress state and

provides local breakdown of the passive film at the crack tip

hydrogen concentrations has not been achieved ahead of the

surface and produce a bare (film free) metal surface during the

growing crack.

49

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

Fig. 9: Fatigue Fracture surfaces of Weld Metal

It has also been reported that sufficient or critical protection

6.0 REFERENCES:

potential was closely related to the tensile strength of steels

1.

and the sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement increased

Cyclic Fatigue of Steel Ship welded joints by Bureau


Veritas: IIW/IIS DOC XIII 1169-85.

markedly with their strength [26, 27]. Previous work reported


2.

that the potential required to achieve full protection of carbon

C. Batt and M. J. Robinson: British Corrosion Journal,


2002, Vol 37, No.1, pp. 31-36.

manganese steels in aerated seawater is widely considered to


be 800 mV (Ag/AgCl) and this value is supported by DnV [28]

3.

and NACE [29]. However, recommended potentials range

N. Rothwell and M. E. D. Turner : Mater. Performance,


1990, p.58

between 750 and 830 mV (Ag/AgCl) [30]. The present steel

4.

of DMR249A being higher strength than carbon manganese

K. A. Lucas and M. J. Robinson: Corrosion Science, 1986,


vol.26, no.9, pp 705-717.

steel, applied potential of -875mV could be considered as an


5.

appropriate in protecting the weld metal.

C. Lindley and W. J. Rudd: Marine Structures, 2002,


vol.14, pp. 397-416.

4.0

CONCLUSION

6.

O. Grong and D. Matlock, Micro structural development


in mild and low alloy steel weldmetal, International Metal

1. The crack growth resistance of weld metal is inferior in

Review, 1986, Vol 31, No 1, pp. 27-48.

3.5% NaCl solution to that of in air.


7.

2. Optimum cathodic potential in unstressed condition was

D. J. Abson and R. J. Pargeter, Factors influencing the as


deposited strength, microstructure and toughness of

evaluated from the minimum corrosion coefficient among

manual metal arc welds suitable for C-Mn steel

four potentials based on Ecorr value.

fabrication, International metals Review, 1986, Vol.31,

3. Preliminary results from the corrosion fatigue tests on weld

No 4, pp-141-194.

metal in 3.5% NaCl solution at R=0.1 and cyclic frequency

8.

of 0.01 Hz suggest that optimum cathodic potential data

J. Jang and J. E Indacochca, Inclusion effects on


submerged arc weld micro structure, Journal of Material

(-875mV) determined in unstressed condition could be

Science , 1987, Vol 22, pp 687-700.

used to improve the corrosion fatigue life of weld metal in


naval structure.

9.

S. Liu, D. L. olon, S. Ibarra and O. Runnerstam, oxygen as


a welding parameter the role of light-metallography ASW
International 1993, vol.20, pp-31-44.

5.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

10. L. E Svensson and B. Gretoft, Micro structural and Impact

The authors would like to thank Naval Research Board for


financial support of the work and Mr. Suvasis Mukherjee for his

toughness of C-Mn weldmetal, welding journal, 1990, Vol

help in corrosion fatigue test experiment.

12, Dec , pp.454-461.

50

H Das - Corrosion Fatigue behavior of Submerged Arc Welded high strength steel used in Naval Structures

11. S. Liu and D. L. oho, The role of inclusion in controlling

fatigue crack propagation rate. ISI. Int. 31, 1991, pp. 870-

HSLA steel weld microstructures, Welding Journal, 1986,

874.

Vol 66, June , pp. 139s i49s.

22. P. Doig, and G. T. Jones, A model for the initiation of

12. O Vosikovsky , WR. Tyson Effects of cathodic protection

hydrogen embrittlement cracking at notches in gaseous

on fatigue life of steel welded joints in seawater.

hydrogen environments. Metall.Trans.8A, 1977,pp.1993-

Proceedings of the CANMET Workshop, Halifax, Nova

1998

Scotia, September 1986. pp. 1-43.

23. K Akhurst,. A criterion for hydrogen induced fracture. In:

13. UKORSP 11, Summary Report.

Advances in Fracture ResearchFracture 81, Vol.4 (Edited


by D. Francois, et.al.) Pergamon Press, oxford, (1982)

14. H. Hu Fatigue and corrosion fatigue crack growth

pp.1899-1907.

resistance of RQT 501 steel. PhD thesis, Department of


Mechanical Engineering, University of Shefield, August

24. A. R Troiano The role of hydrogen and other interstitials in

1997.

the mechanical behavior of metals. Trans. ASM52, (1960),


pp.54-80

15. YZ Wang, RA Akid, KJ. Miller The effect of cathodic


polarization on corrosion fatigue of a high strength steel in

25. C. T Fujii,. and J. A Smith,.) Environmental influences on

salt water. Fatigue Fract. Engg. Mater. Struct. 1995;

the aqueous fatigue crack growth rates of HY-130 steel.

pp.18(3):293,303.

In: corrosion Fatigue. Mechanics Metallurgy, Electrochemistry and Engineering, ASTM STP 801.American

16. T. G Owe Berg,. (1960) kinetics of absorption by metals of

society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1983,

hydrogen from water and aqueous solutions, Corrosion

pp.390-402.

16, pp.198t-200t.

26. H H Lee, H H Uhlig: Corrosion fatigue of type 4140 high

17. A. Turnbull, and M. Saenz de Santa Maria, predicting the

strength steel, Metal Trans., 1972; 3, p.2949 57.

kinetics of hydrogen generation at the tips of corrosion


fatigue cracks in structural steel cathodically protected in

27. Vasilenko II; Kapinos VI: the role of adsorption,

sea water.corros.Sci.26,1988, pp. 601-628

dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement processes during


the fatigue failure of steels in aggressive environment

18. T. Zakroczymski, Entry of hydrogen into iron alloys from


the liquid phase. In: Hydrogen Degradation of Ferrous

28. Det Norske Veritas, Cathodic Protection Design, Veritas

Alloys,(Edited by R. A.Oriani, J. P. Hirth and M.

recommended practice RPB 401,March 1986.

Smialowski), Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, 1985,

29. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, control of

pp.215-250

corrosion of offshore steel pipelines, NACE publication RP-

19. D. A. Jones, An unified mechanism of stress corrosion

06-75 (Houstan, Texas), 1975.

fatigue cracking. Metall.Trans.16A, 1985, pp.1133-1141.

30. J. N. Wanklyn, Input data for modeling Marine Cathodic

20. H Masuda,. and S. Nishijima, Application of scratching

protection ,cathodic protection theory and practice, Eds V.

electrode method for corrosion fatigue. Trans. Nat. Res.

Ashworth & C. J. L. Booker, Publ Ellis Horwood, 1986,

Inst Met.29, 1987, pp.44-50.

pp. 68-77.

21. M Shimojo, Y Higo. and S Nunomura. Relation between


the amount of fresh bare surface at the crack tip and the

51

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

In-situ repair of multiple cracks present in the RTJ groove of


high pressure hydrogen bearing DHDS reactor by welding
Swapan Kumar Bagchi, Chief Inspection Manager, Haldia Refinery, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd,
Kaushik Boral, Inspection Manager, Haldia Refinery, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd,
Amit Kumar Mishra, Inspection Engineer, Haldia Refinery, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd,

ABSTRACT
This article describes a detailed repair procedure with necessary heat treatment involving the repair of multiple
cracks in the Ring type joint (RTJ) groove of top man-way flange observed during the first internal inspection of
the Reactor (25-R-01). Detailed site inspection and laboratory investigations, including visual inspection,
thickness measurements, metallographic analysis, hardness testing of RTJ groove and RTJ gasket, Dye
Penetrant testing, cladding disbonding testing by ultrasonic method, ferrite number measurement etc., were
performed to identify the cause and mechanism of damage. Various factors like Stress corrosion cracking,
Hydrogen induced cracking, sigma phase formation, have been involved with respect to the operating
conditions of the equipment. In view of the above observations and ascertaining the severity of the overall
damage of the Reactor, the in-situ repair methodology by welding was developed & repair jobs were
successfully undertaken.
Keywords: Disbonding testing, Cladding, Dye penetrant testing, ferrite number

1.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Diesel Hydro De-Sulphurisation (DHDS) unit in Haldia Refinery

The technical specifications of 1st reactor (25-R-01) are as

removes the Sulphur from the sour diesel feed coming from the

follow:

atmospheric distillation units (Crude distillation units). In


DHDS unit, two numbers of reactors (25-R-01 and 25-R-02) are
present. During the first internal inspection of the Reactor (25R-01) at the time of Maintenance and Inspection (M&I) shut-

Manufacturer

M/S Larsen & Toubro Ltd.

Design Temperature oC

440/177

down of DHDS, since the commissioning (after 10 yr) the

(Internal/External)

multiple cracks with Circumferential and transverse branches


were observed in the RTJ groove of top man-way flange

Operating Temperature oC

410 Max

locations. Detailed internal inspection, including thorough

Design Pressure, Kg/Cm2g

52 / Full vacuum at 177 OC

visual inspection, thickness measurements, metallographic


analysis, hardness testing of RTJ groove and RTJ gasket, Dye

Operating Pressure Kg/

Penetrant testing (DP testing), cladding disbonding testing by

Cm2g

44

Corrosion allowances

NIL (3 mm cladding)

In view of the above observations and ascertaining the severity

Linings

SS-347 Cladding (3 mm)

of the overall damage of the reactor, repair methodology by

Shell

ultrasonic method, ferrite number measurement etc., were


carried out to identify the cause and mechanism of damage.

welding was developed for suitable in-situ repair of observed

SA 264(SA 387 Gr. 11 CL.2


+ SA 240 TP 347)

multiple cracks in the RTJ groove.

52

TECHNICAL REPORT

3.0

OBSERVATIONS

The reactor was offered for inspection after unloading of


catalyst and completion of passivation. Apart from thorough
visual inspection, the Non Destructive Testing (NDT) like D.P.
testing and hardness measurements of RTJ groove, gaskets,
Ultrasonic Examination of welds and cladding disbonding
testing by ultrasonic method, In-situ metallography were
carried out. During the dye penetrant testing (DP test) of RTJ
groove after opening of man way flange and RTJ gasket,
multiple cracks with circumferential and transverse branches in
the RTJ groove location were observed (Fig. 1).
As the presence of multiple cracks of such dimension cannot be
allowed to operate at the high pressure hydrogen bearing
reactor with respect to the operating conditions, the multiple
cracks at the RTJ groove were repaired by in-situ welding and
machining in urgent basis to minimize the shutdown time of
unit.
4.0 PREPARATION FOR WELDING PROCEDURE
The developed repair procedure was qualified, before applying
in reactor was tested with a test coupon, as per the recognized
code such as ASME sec IX, using an experienced welder. The
records of procedure qualification as well as performance
qualification were duly maintained. The procedure qualification test coupon was made using the same P-Number base
Fig.1: The cracks at RTJ groove in the
schematic drawing of Reactor

metal, cladding, and welding process, and filler metal


combination, as per ASME Sec-IX. The dye penetrant test (DP
test) was carried out under the supervision of ASNT level-II
certified inspector with the acceptance criteria of Appendix 8 of

5.0 REPAIR OF REACTOR AS PER APPROVED

ASME Sec. VIII Div 1.

PROCEDURE

In view of the above observations and ascertaining the severity

l
Dressing

of affected locations by grinding of above

of the overall damage of the Reactor with the help of some

mentioned damaged locations was carried out to facilitate

expert's views, welding procedure was finalized and qualified

further operations. However, necessary precautions were

for repair of defects.

Fig. 2 : Multiple cracks observed at RTJ groove of the top manway flange (A) Outer side of RTJ manway flangecircumferential cracks with transverse cracks (B) Inner side of RTJ manway flange- circumferential cracks
with transverse cracks (C) Outer side of RTJ manway flange- circumferential cracks

53

INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL Volume 45 No. 2 April 2012

ensued for not to reduce weld overlay thickness any


further during the dressing.
l
Then

D. P. testing was carried out to assess the nature of

defect.
l
Progressive

machining (maximum 0.5 mm metal removal

in one cut) was carried out and subsequent DP test was


carried out, after every 0.5 mm of machining, for removal
of defects (Fig. 3).
l
Progressive

machining (maximum 0.5 mm metal removal

in one cut) was carried out until DP test was clear.


l
Checking

Fig. 3: In-situ machining at RTJ groove


of man-way flange to remove cracks

with CuSO4 solution testing was carried out to

confirm the material (stainless steel weld overlay or low


alloy steel) at the depth of cutting and measure accurate
dimensions of balance groove at the grinding locations.
l
Preheating was

done at 125 oC using gas burners and hold

for minimum one hour (1 hr) before start of welding.


Temperature was monitored using temperature crayons.
l
Subsequent

layer of weld overlay was carried out using E

347 electrode (3.2 mm dia) by SMAW process to achieve


required finished groove dimensions and also welded
extra thickness to take care of machining allowance.
Welding parameter used : current: 80-120 A, Voltage: 22-

Fig. 4 : Final polishing with lapping

28 V and interpass temperature of 175 oC .


l
Post

weld heating was carried out at 300 - 350 oC for 2 hrs

before cooling below preheating temperature.


l
DP test

was carried out before start of machining as per

acceptance criteria: Appendix 8 of ASME Sec VIII Div 1.


l
After

weld build-up and completion of DP test, in-situ

machining as per measurement was carried out.


l
Post heating was carried out at 300-350
l
After

C for 2 hrs.

repaired by welding followed by grinding, final

polishing with lapping was carried out (Fig. 4). At last,


Fig. 5 : Final D.P. testing after lapping to identify
significant indications, if any

final D. P. testing was carried out to identify significant


indications, if any (Fig. 5).

6.0

CONCLUSION

No crack was observed (Fig. 5). After commissioning of the

The complete in-situ repair job was carried out as per the

reactor, no leakage was observed from repaired RTJ flange. By

developed and qualified welding procedure. After completion

employing this in-situ repair methodology, the repair could be

of repair, final polishing with lapping was carried out followed

successfully accomplished within the scheduled shutdown

by final dye penetrant test for presence of crack in RTJ groove .

period of the unit.

54