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Fall Semester 2005


Dr. Stephen Liu

(O) x3796, (F) 303/384-2189
webpage url:

Teaching Assistants:
Adam Rowe
Caleb Roepke
Faustino Perez
Faisal Al-Abbas

Thursdays 8:00 a.m. - 10:00 noon, 1:00 - 3:00 p.m.


Welding Lab
Physical Metallurgy Lab

Laboratory Topics: Each lab work will include discussions on the design of an
experimental matrix and the selection of welding parameters. The weld specimens
prepared will be characterized using chemical, metallurgical and mechanical testing
techniques. Individual written reports will be required. The organization and
conduction of the laboratory work, as well as the results presented will be considered in
the determination of the final lab grade.
Lab Dates:
Lab No.


Lab No.


Lab 1 3: August 25 September 9 Common Industrial Arc Welding Processes:

Oxy-Gas Cutting (OGC),
Plasma Cutting (PC),
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW),
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW),

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW),

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW),
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Demonstration and practice of these processes
Lab Report Operating Manual for the several arc welding processes.
Recognize effects of welding current, voltge and travel speed
Grade weld quality based on weld morphology and presence of defects
Lab 4 - September 15 Weld Defect Recognition & Review of Common Industrial Arc
Welding Processes
Grade weld quality based on weld morphology and presence of defects
Interpret Weld Replicas
Interpret X-Ray Radiography
Lab 5-7 September 22 - October 6 Temperature and arc signal collection
Monitor temperature evolution in weldments using thermocouplesand
recording devices
Monitor arc signal fluctuations during welding
Process arc signal data using FFT
(Long Report)
Lab 8-10 - October 13 October 27 Diffusible hydrogen determination using gas
chromatography and mercury collection method for a high strength steel welding
Practice AWS D4.3 procedure for diffusible hydrogen collection
Determine diffusible hydrogen content using gas chromatography
Detemine diffusible hydrogen content using mercury method
Detemine total hydrogen content using interstitial analyzer
(Long Report.)
Lab 11-14 November 3 December 1 Microstructural characterization of steel weld
metals (Specimens already collected from Lab 8-10)
Practice procedures for documenting weldments
Determine weld penetration depth, width, reinforcement height, visible
defects (undercut, humping, porosity, second phase particles, etc.)
Practice metallographic techniques for weld characterization
Quantify weld metal microstructures
Determine weld hardness profiles transverse and longitudinal
Characterize and quantify weld inclusions and porosity
(Short Report.)

Topic: Measurement of diffusible hydrogen using gas chromatography and arc emission
Objectives: This laboratory program is designed for the students to acquire the knowledge and
practice of experimental determination of hydrogen in a welding arc and diffusible hydrogen in
steel weld metals.
Equipment & Materials:
(a) GMA welding equipment;
(b) Diffusible hydrogen fixture;
(c) Emission spectrometer;
(d) Gas chromotography;
(e) Gas storage canisters;
(f) Ice and water;
(g) Welding wire: E70S-3;
(h) Base metal: Low carbon structural steel (A-36 grade);
(i) Shielding gas: 90%Ar 5%O2 mixture;
(j) Leco interstitial hydrogen analyzer;
(k) Data acquisition system.
Experimental Procedure:
(a) Bead-on-plate (BOP) GMA welds;
(b) Arc emission spectrometry (maybe) in 2 locations in the arc;
(c) Arc signal data processing
(d) Slag cleaning and weld preparation;
(e) Gas collection in canisters
(f) Gas chromatography measurements;
(g) Diffusible hydrogen calculation
(h) Residual hydrogen analysis.
Expected Results/Correlation/Learning:
(a) Arc emission spectrometry procedure and calculation;
(b) Arc temperature determination;
(c) Arc hydrogen concentration determination;
(d) AWS A4.3 Diffusible hydrogen determination specification;
(e) Details of the diffusion hydrogen determination;
(f) Interstitial (total) hydrogen determination;
(g) Details of gas chromatography hydrogen determination;
(h) Hydrogen content calculation.
Topics for consideration:
Source of hydrogen, hydrogen in the arc, effect of diffusible hydrogen on steel welds, principles
of determination, effect of welding parameters on diffusible hydrogen measurement.

Topic: Designing a filler metal for Stainless steel-to-aluminum welding

Objectives: The key to successfully weld stainless steel to aluminum is to identify the proper
filler metal. Through the use of phase diagrams, it is possible to determine the likelihood of
forming a weld metal with predominately single-phase solid solutions, without significant
amounts of intermetallic compounds. Several candidate filler metals such as V and Cr could be
identified for the stainless steel and aluminum system. If base metal dilution is limited to below
20%, i.e. approximately 10% from stainless steel and 10% from aluminum, the probability of
intermetallic formation can be minimized. In the case of V, AlV3 and NiV3 appear to be the only
ones that form. In the case of Cr, the phase, sigma phase are the two phases to form.
Equipment & Materials:
(a) Pulsed GTA welding equipment;
(b) Cold wire feed system;
(c) Optical microscope;
(d) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS);
(e) Base metal: 304SS (19% Cr, 9% Ni, 2% Mn (max), 1% Si (max), and 0.03% C) and Al 5083
alloy (0.7% Mn, 4.4 Mg, and 0.15% Cr);
(f) Shielding gas: Ar.
Experimental Procedure:
(a) Bead-on-plate (BOP) GTA welds using pulsed gas tungsten arc welding with vanadium
wire feed with different sets of welding (current, arc length, pulsing parameters, travel
(b) Weld characterization - Metallography (Macro and micro - bead morphology, dilution,
microstructure, intermetallic compounds, and defects);
(c) Mechanical properties determination - hardness distribution in weld metal and heataffected zone.
Expected Results/Correlation/Learning:
a) Relationship between weld fusion zone dimensions and welding parameters (current,
arc length, pulsing parameters, travel speed);
b) Description of defects, particularly intermetallic compounds (qualitative and
quantitative) and chemical heterogeneity (macro and micro) in the welds;
c) Characterization of weld metal microstructures.
Topics for consideration:
Performance of dissimilar metal joints, corrosion behavior of dissimilar welds, intermetallic
formation thermodynamics and kinetics, and principles of SEM and EDS.

Topic: Designing a self-shielded arc welding consumable regarding optimal amount of

shielding ingredient
Objectives: This laboratory program has as objective the investigation of the design
methodology of self-shielded arc welding consumables. What is the optimal amount of
deoxidizers and denitriders to be added to the core of a tubular wire?
Equipment & Materials:
(a) GMA welding equipment;
(b) High aluminum and low aluminum FCAW-S electrode
(c) Optical microscope;
(d) Glow discharge sputtering spectrometer;
(e) Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer;
(f) SEM/EDS;
(g) Base metal: Low carbon structural steel;
(h) Shielding gas: Ar, Ar-5%O2, and without shielding.
Experimental Procedure:
(a) Bead-on-plate (BOP) FCA-S welds with two different electrodes and three different
shielding conditions; Welding parameters to be provided by TA (prior testing);
(b) Sample characterization - Metallography (Macro and micro);
(c) Defect characterization;
(d) Chemical Analysis Al, O, N;
Expected Results:
(a) Description of weld macro-and microstructure;
(b) Use analytical aluminum content from Ar weld as the formulated aluminum
(c) Using measured weld metal oxygen content, calculate stoichiometric aluminum
content in Al2O3 (AlO);
(d) Using measured weld metal nitrogen content, calculate Al contained in AlN (AlN);
(e) Calculate excess aluminum content by subtracting AlO and AlN from analytical
aluminum content;
(f) Repeat steps (b) to (e) for Ar-O2 weld and weld without shielding;
(g) Compare the three excess aluminum content;
(h) Relate weld metal microstructure with the excess aluminum content;
Topics for Consideration:
Self-shielding mechanism, second phase particles in FCAW-S welds, effect of high aluminum
content on phase transformations in ferrous systems.




Title page

Abstract or summary, comprising a maximum one-half page of doublespace type, must discuss succinctly the results by specific reference to figures or

3 to 5

Figures or tables, limited to the three most important for clarifying the

TECHNICAL REPORT (Required sections are capitalized and underlined below):



Title page

ABSTRACT (do not reference figures)

3 and 4

Text, limited to two double-spaced typed pages (minimum type size: 12

pt). Text must include these sections:
INTRODUCTION - Two to three sentences which scope the experiment
DISCUSSION - Analysis of results emphasizing fundamental principles
CONCLUSIONS - Maximum of three statements that incorporate the
most important points


Al to A?

Appendix A (if required)