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INTRODUCTION

Ovarian cysts are small fluid-filled sacs that develop in a woman's ovaries. Most cysts
are harmless, but some may cause problems such as rupturing, bleeding, or pain; and
surgery may be required to remove the cyst(s). It is important to understand how these
cysts may form.
Women normally have two ovaries that store and release eggs. Each ovary is about the
size of a walnut, and one ovary is located on each side of the uterus. One ovary
produces one egg each month, and this process starts a woman's monthly menstrual
cycle. The egg is enclosed in a sac called a follicle. An egg grows inside the ovary until
estrogen (a hormone), signals the uterus to prepare itself for the egg. In turn, the uterus
begins to thicken itself and prepare for pregnancy. This cycle occurs each month and
usually ends when the egg is not fertilized. All contents of the uterus are then expelled if
the egg is not fertilized. This is called a menstrual period.
In an ultrasound image, ovarian cysts resemble bubbles. The cyst contains only fluid
and is surrounded by a very thin wall. This kind of cyst is also called a functional cyst, or
simple cyst. If a follicle fails to rupture and release the egg, the fluid remains and can
form a cyst in the ovary. This usually affects one of the ovaries. Small cysts (smaller
than one-half inch) may be present in a normal ovary while follicles are being formed.
Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages. The vast majority of ovarian cysts are
considered functional (or physiologic). In other words, they have nothing to do with
disease. Most ovarian cysts are benign, meaning they are not cancerous, and many
disappear on their own in a matter of weeks without treatment. Cysts occur most often
during a woman's childbearing years.
Ovarian cysts can be categorized as noncancerous or cancerous growths. While cysts
may be found in ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts typically represent a normal process or
harmless (benign) condition.
Ovarian Cysts Causes
Oral contraceptive/birth control pill use decreases the risk of developing ovarian cysts
because they prevent the ovaries from producing eggs during ovulation. The following
are possible risk factors for developing ovarian cysts:
• History of previous ovarian cysts
• Irregular menstrual cycles
• Increased upper body fat distribution
• Early menstruation (11 years or younger)
• Infertility
• Hypothyroidism or hormonal imbalance
• Tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer

Ovarian Cysts Symptoms


Usually ovarian cysts do not produce symptoms and are found during a routine physical
exam or are seen by chance on an ultrasound performed for other reasons. However,
the following symptoms may be present:
• Lower abdominal or pelvic pain, which may start and stop and may be severe,
sudden, and sharp
• Irregular menstrual periods
• Feeling of lower abdominal or pelvic pressure or fullness
• Long-term pelvic pain during menstrual period that may also be felt in the lower
back
• Pelvic pain after strenuous exercise or sexual intercourse
• Pain or pressure with urination or bowel movements
• Nausea and vomiting
• Vaginal pain or spots of blood from vagina
• Infertility
Self-Care at Home
Pain caused by ovarian cysts may be treated at home with pain relievers, including
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin), acetaminophen
(Tylenol), or narcotic pain medicine (by prescription). Limiting strenuous activity may
reduce the risk of cyst rupture or torsion.
Medical Treatment
Ultrasonic observation or endovaginal ultrasound are used repeatedly and frequently to
monitor the growth of the cyst.
The reason why we chose this case because it is an interesting topic that gives
information on how the disease is acquire for this is one of the most common
gynecological problem. It gives awareness to us woman in preventing this disease since
some type of ovarian cyst may lead to cancer, so woman must raise their knowledge to
prevent acquiring this disease. In our group most of us are girls, this will help us in
prevention of the disease and promotion to other woman and so they will be aware also.
What is special in our case is that the patient has a serious complication
because she has other cases that burdens in here condition. So, this case could
happen to anybody that other complications may be all at once.

MEDICATIONS

CEPHALOSPORIN – (ceforoxime) treatment of the following infections caused by


susceptible organism: respiratory tract infections, skin and skin structure infections,
Bone and joint infections, Urinary tract infections. Meningitis, gynecological infections
and Lyme disease. Action: bind to bacterial cell wallmembrane, causing cell death.
Therapeutic effects: Bactericidal action action against susceptible bacteria.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to cephalosporins; serous hypersensitivity to
penicillins. Adverse reaction: CNS: seizure.GI: pseudomembranous colitis, diarrhea,
cramps, nausea, vomiting. DERM: rashes, urticaria. HEMAT: eiosonophilia, hemolytic
anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia. LOCAL: pain at IM site, phlebitis at IV site.
MISC: allergic reactions including anaphylaxis and serum sickness, superinfection.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: assess for infection at beginning and during therapy. Before
initiating therapy, obtain a history to determine previous use of and reactions to
penicillins or cephalosporins. Persons with a negative history of penicillin sensitivity may
still have allergic response. Obtain specimen for culture and sensitivity before initiating
therapy. First dose may be given before receiving results. Observe sign and symptoms
of anaphylaxis. PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHNING: instruct the patient to take medication
around the clock evenly spaced times and to finish the medication completely, even if
feeling better. Advise patient to report sign of superinfection. Alcohol and and alcohol-
containing medications should not be avoided during and for several days after terapy.

BISACODYL – INDICATIONS: treatment of constipation. Evacuation of the bowel


before radiologic studies or surgery. Part of a bowel regimen in spinal cord injury
patients. ACTION: stimulates peristalsis. Alters fluid accumulation in the colon.
THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS: evacuation of the colon. CONTRAINDICATIONS:
hypersensitivity; abdominal pain; obstruction; Nausea or vomiting. SUE CAUTIOUSLY
IN: severe cardiovascular disease, anal or rectal fissures; excess or prolonged use,
products containing tannic acid should not be used as multiple enemas; may be used
during pregnancy and lactation. ADVERSE REACTION: GI: abdominal cramps, nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea, rectal burning. F and E: hypokalemia. MS: muscle weakness MISC:
protein-loosing enteropathy, tetany. NURSING IMPLICATIONS: assess patient for
abdominal distention, presence of bowel sounds, and usual pattern of bowel function.
Assess color, consistency, and amount of stool produced. PATIENT TEACHING: advise
patient, other than those with spinal cord injuries, that laxatives should be used only for
short-term therapy. Prolonged therapy. Prolonged therapy may cause electrolyte
imbalance and dependence. Advise patient to increase fluid intake. Encourage patient
to use other bowel regulation. Instruct patient with cardiac disease to avoid straining
during bowel movements.

CEFAZOLIN- INDICATION: treatment for skin infections, perioperative prophylaxis,


biliary tract infections, genital infections, bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis foer dental
and upper respiratory tract procedure. ACTION: bind to bacterial cell wall membrane,
causing cell death. CONTRAINDICATION: hypersensitivity to penicillin. ADVERSE
REACTION: CNS-seizures, GI-pseudomembranous colitis, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting,
and rashes. NURSING IMPLICATION: asses for infection, obtain history to previous
reactions to penicillin, obtain specimen for culture and sensitivity, observe patient for
signs and symptom of anaphylaxis. PATIENT TEACHING: instruct patient to take
medication around the clock, report any signs of superinfection(furry overgrowth of
tongue,vaginal itching or discharge,loose or foul-smelling stools) and allergy.