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VOCAB

DEFINITION

SIGNIFICANCE

Skin traction

Straps or foam boots


secured to lower
extremities with a cord
pulling no more than 6
pounds

Fat embolus

Complication related to
orthopedic injuries
involving long bone
fracture

Examine skin under boot or bandage wrap


4-6 hours for reddened areas
Maintain correct balance
between traction pull and
countertraction force
Care of weights
Skin inspection
Pin care
Assessment of neurovascular
status
S/S: tachypnea, hypoxia, fever, tachycardia,
ALOC, petechaie
Monitor VS, IS, TCDB
Close monitoring first 412
hours
Incentive spirometry
Patient assisted out of bed as
soon as able
Monitoring for pneumonia

Fat globules from bone


marrow travel to
venous system and
pulmonary vessels
ARDS
Gouty arthritis

SLE

Condition in which
there is an imbalance in
purine metabolism,
increases uric acid in
the joints and leads to
the formation of uric
acid crystals

Affects great toe


S/S: elevation of blood uric acid, pain at
night from deposits, swelling, inflammation

Chronic inflammatory
autoimmune disease
that attacks connective
tissue or organs

Affects women, childbearing age


S/S: weakness, sensitivity to light, pain in
joints, butterfly rash, weight loss, organ
dysfunction

Triggers: stress, illness, drugs alcohol


Well-balanced, low-calorie,
low-purine diet
Reducing alcohol
consumption
Antigout medications

Improving diet
Controlling fluid volume
Reducing anxiety
Adhering to medication
regimen
Occasionally difficult to connect to an injury
or illness and may persist for months to
years.

Chronic pain

Occurs when resolution


of pain does not occur
within expected time
frame and is persistent

beyond 3 to 6 months

Associated with low to absent pathology that


can be linked to injury, surgery, or illness
perception of pain may be inconsistent with
existing pathology
Ex: back pain, arthritis, nervous system
Reducing focus on pain
Optimizing comfort
Increasing participation
Activities of daily living
(ADLs), work,
relationships
Restoring joy

Breakthrough
pain

Intense increase in pain


that occurs with rapid
onset even when paincontrol medication is
being used

Can occur spontaneously or in relation to a


specific activity
Breaks through pt. regular pain medication
Commonly associated with cancer pain

Equianalgesia
dose

Neuropathic
pain

Osteoarthritis

Changing patients
medication in order to
arrive at a proper
dosage of the new
medication
New drug or route that
is approximately equal
in ability to relieve pain
When there is direct
damage to nerves;
result of injury or
dysfunction of the PNS
and can progress to
CNS , altering its
function and resulting in
chronic painful disease
Most common form of
arthritis; chronic
condition that
accompanies aging and
most commonly affects
weight bearing joints

Treatment with PRN medications


Patient NPO, transition to NPO, side effects
Due to differences in absorption,
organ dysfunction, or tolerance to
different drugs

Can be associated with abnormal pain


Normal stimuli may cause significant pain

Leading cause of joint pain and disability in


older adults
Idiopathic, localized or generalized
Assess S/S: morning stiffness, joint
deformity, pain on motion, fatigue,
weakness, cold intolerance, paresthesia

Highest priority: pain relief


Heat and cold applications

Complementary and
alternative therapies
Exercise, firm mattress,
splints
Fall protocol in hospital and at
home
Promotion of independence
Weight loss
Support
Osteoarthritis prevention

Adjuvant
medications

Pharmacological
agents that help and
enhance the effect of a
drug or treatment
Administered for
reasons other than pain
relief; treatment plans
for chronic and cancer
pain

May enhance the effect of opioids or


NSAIDs, provide analgesia on their own,
reduce side effects of other analgesic
medications, provide analgesia on their own
Aware of rational for specific medication for
pain management
Offer education regarding use of adjuvants