Aircraft management guide

Report No. 6.51/239 March 1998

P

ublications

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OIL INDUSTRY INTERNATIONAL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION FORUM AIRCRAFT MANAGEMENT GUIDE FOREWORD

This Manual, for the use of Management personnel is issued as a guide to air operations. It replaces the Aircraft Management Guidelines, issued October 1993 and May 1996, both of which should now be destroyed. The Aircraft Management Guide is not related to specific local conditions but is aimed at providing general guidance and procedures. It will be amended from time to time to meet our changing requirements. The Manual is not to be construed as authority to operate aircraft other than in strict compliance with the regulations of the country in which an aircraft is registered or operated. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication, neither E&P Forum, nor any of its members will assume liability for any use made thereof. Comment, criticisms and suggestions are welcome as are any specific requests for advice, the aim being to ensure that aviation support is both safe and efficient.

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AMENDMENT RECORD
Amendment Number Effective Date of Amendment Name Amended By Ref Ind Signature Date Inserted

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REFERENCE PUBLICATIONS

AVIATION ICAO-ANNEX 14 UK-CAP-168 US-FAA US FAA ICAO ANNEX 14 UK-CAP 437 US-FAA US-FAA Vol 1 Aerodrome Design And Construction Licensing Of Aerodromes (UK-CAA) Advisory Circular-Ac150/5300-13 Airport Design FAR Part 77 - Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace Vol 2 - Heliports Offshore Helicopter Landing Areas Advisory Circular AC150/5390-2A Heliport Design FAA Part 139 Certification of Airports, Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting American Petroleum Institute API-RP 26-Planning Designing, and Constructing Offshore Heliports on Fixed Platforms Technical Instructions for Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air International Air Transport Association - 618 - Dangerous Goods Regulations Aviation Fuel at Aerodromes Helicopter External Load Operations Helicopter External Load Operations Helicopter Landing Officer (HLO) Hand Book (UK - HSE)

API

ICAO-DOC 9284-AN/905

IATA

UK CAP 434 UK CAP 426 US FAA Part 133 Petroleum Industry Training Board International Chamber of Shipping

Guide To Helicopter Operations and Landing Areas

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CONTENTS

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................... i Amendment Record.............................................................................................................................. ii Reference Publications........................................................................................................................ iii Contents ...............................................................................................................................................iv

PART 1 - MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ...............................................................................1-3 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. 1.9. AIM........................................................................................................................................1-3 SETTING AN AVIATION POLICY..........................................................................................1-3 USE OF NON-SCHEDULED AIRCRAFT ...............................................................................1-4 CHOICE OF SINGLE OR MULTI-ENGINED AIRCRAFT .......................................................1-4 RISK/ENVIRONMENT - HELICOPTERS ...............................................................................1-4 OVER WATER OPERATIONS - MINIMUM SAFETY REQUIREMENTS ...............................1-5 REVIEW AND REVIEW OF AVIATION COMPANIES ...........................................................1-6 SUPERVISION ......................................................................................................................1-6 REGULATORY GUIDELINES................................................................................................1-6

1.10. AVIATION ADVISER INVOLVEMENT IN SCOUTING TRIP ..................................................1-6 1.11 HOW THE AVIATION ADVISER CAN ASSIST IF NO SCOUTING TRIP IS CARRIED OUT .1-7 1.12 LOGISTIC DIFFICULTIES AFFECTING OPERATING COMPANY OBJECTIVES.................1-7 1.13. RISK INHERENT IN OTHER FORMS OF TRANSPORT .......................................................1-7 1.14. ACCEPTING LIFTS ...............................................................................................................1-8 1.15. FLIGHTS ON GROUP COMPANY BUSINESS BY PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE HOLDERS ...1-8 1.16. SENIOR EXECUTIVE PASSENGERS...................................................................................1-8 1.17. EMERGENCY FLIGHTS........................................................................................................1-8 1.18. EMERGENCY EVACUATION BY AIR ...................................................................................1-9

CHAPTER 2 - SELECTING THE RIGHT AIRCRAFT FOR THE JOB ............................................2-3 2.1. 2.2. FIXED WING, HELICOPTER, OR JOINT OPERATIONS....................................................2-3 TYPES OF AIRCRAFT........................................................................................................2-3

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2.3. 2.4. 2.5.

Fixed Wing.....................................................................................................................2-3 Helicopters .....................................................................................................................2-4 Performance ..................................................................................................................2-5 Visual/Instrument Flight Rules (VFR/IFR) .......................................................................2-5 USE OF NON-PRESSURISED AIRCRAFT .........................................................................2-6 LIMITATIONS OF THE HELICOPTER ................................................................................2-6 AIRCRAFT: OIL RELATED OPERATIONS .........................................................................2-7 Gravimetric and Seismic Work .......................................................................................2-7 Drilling Rig Movement by Air ..........................................................................................2-8 Helicopter/Tanker Operations .........................................................................................2-8 Communications ............................................................................................................2-8 NUMBERS OF AIRCRAFT REQUIRED FOR THE TASK....................................................2-8 AVAILABILITY OF TYPES VS OPTIMUM REQUIREMENT ...............................................2-10 Shortage of Time.......................................................................................................... 2-10 Operating Licence ........................................................................................................ 2-10 Military or Government Aircraft..................................................................................... 2-10 Military or Government Aircrew .................................................................................... 2-10 Commercial.................................................................................................................. 2-10 AIRCRAFT DATA.............................................................................................................. 2-10 AIRCRAFT SUPPORT FOR GROUP OPERATIONS BY MILITARY OR GOVERNMENT OWNED OR SPONSORED ORGANISATIONS ...................................... 2-10

2.6. 2.7.

2.8. 2.9.

CHAPTER 3 - CONTRACTS AND APPROVALS............................................................................3-3 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. SCHEDULED CARRIERS ...................................................................................................3-3 SOLE USE AIRCRAFT SERVICES.....................................................................................3-3 BID LIST .............................................................................................................................3-4 AIRCRAFT TYPE APPROVAL ............................................................................................3-5 Procedure for Approval ..................................................................................................3-5 Aircraft Types, Marks and Modifications .........................................................................3-5 Military Aircraft Types.....................................................................................................3-5 APPROVAL AND REVIEW PROCEDURES........................................................................3-5 INVITATIONS TO TENDER ................................................................................................3-7 SELECTION OF TENDERERS ...........................................................................................3-7 TENDER EVALUATION ......................................................................................................3-7 CONTRACT FORMULATION..............................................................................................3-8 Definitions ......................................................................................................................3-8 Insurance .......................................................................................................................3-8 Availability......................................................................................................................3-9 Maintenance Considerations...........................................................................................3-9 Training Costs ................................................................................................................3-9 ROUGH COSTING GUIDE .................................................................................................3-9 Fixed Costs ....................................................................................................................3-9 Variable Costs .............................................................................................................. 3-10

3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 3.8. 3.9.

3.10.

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3.11. 3.12.

TURNKEY OPERATIONS................................................................................................. 3-10 CONTRACTOR/OPERATOR PERFORMANCE MONITORING ........................................ 3-11 Contractor Safety Record and Philosophy towards Safety ............................................ 3-11 Contractor Responsibilities ........................................................................................... 3-12

PART 2 - AVIATION BASE SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER 4 - AIR TRANSPORT ADMINISTRATION.....................................................................4-3 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. GENERAL...........................................................................................................................4-3 START UP OF OPERATIONS ............................................................................................4-3 RESOURCING STRATEGY................................................................................................4-3 SCHEDULING/FLIGHT AUTHORISATION .........................................................................4-4 PASSENGER HANDLING AND MANIFESTING .................................................................4-4 COMPILATION OF STATISTICS AND RECORDS .............................................................4-5 AIRCRAFT EMERGENCY PROCEDURES.........................................................................4-6 Aircraft Operators...........................................................................................................4-6

CHAPTER 5 - AIR TRANSPORT ORGANISATION ........................................................................5-3 5.1. 5.2. AIR TRANSPORT SUPERVISOR .......................................................................................5-3 PILOTS AND AIRCRAFT ENGINEERS...............................................................................5-4 Pilot Establishment.........................................................................................................5-4 Engineering Establishment .............................................................................................5-4 OTHER PERSONNEL.........................................................................................................5-5 CONTRACTOR LIAISON ....................................................................................................5-5

5.3. 5.4.

CHAPTER 6 - AIRFIELDS, RUNWAYS AND THE OPERATION OF FIXED WING AIRCRAFT......6-3 6.1. 6.2. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................6-3 REMOTE AIRSTRIP OPERATION......................................................................................6-4 Airstrip Inspection...........................................................................................................6-4 Airstrip Inspections Following Rain .................................................................................6-4 Airstrip Manning .............................................................................................................6-5 Radio Beacon (NDB) ......................................................................................................6-5 Contact with the Aircraft .................................................................................................6-5 Airstrip Weather Report..................................................................................................6-6 After Landing..................................................................................................................6-7 Extended Transit Time ...................................................................................................6-7 Before Departure............................................................................................................6-7 Night Operations ............................................................................................................6-8 Laying a Flare Path ........................................................................................................6-9

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Security and Picketing....................................................................................................6-9

CHAPTER 7 - HELICOPTER FACILITIES ONSHORE ...................................................................7-3 7.1. 7.2. 7.3 PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................7-3 THE HELIPORT ..................................................................................................................7-4 UNLICENSED HELIPORTS ................................................................................................7-4 Raised Helipad for Desert Operations.............................................................................7-6 Jungle Landing Areas .....................................................................................................7-6

CHAPTER 8 - REFUELLING ..........................................................................................................8-3 8.1 AIRCRAFT FUEL ................................................................................................................8-3 Source of Information.....................................................................................................8-3 Types of Fuel .................................................................................................................8-3 Density ...........................................................................................................................8-3 Batch Number ................................................................................................................8-4 Contamination ................................................................................................................8-4 Water ........................................................................................................................8-4 Solids ........................................................................................................................8-4 Discoloration .............................................................................................................8-4 Micro-biological bacteria and fungi ............................................................................8-4 Additives in Fuel.............................................................................................................8-5 Personal Protection ........................................................................................................8-5 Protective Clothing .........................................................................................................8-5 Static Electricity..............................................................................................................8-5 Bonding..........................................................................................................................8-6 Environmental Management at Airfield Depots...............................................................8-6 Leaks .............................................................................................................................8-6 Drain Samples................................................................................................................8-7 Soil and Ground Water Protection ..................................................................................8-7 Vapour Emissions...........................................................................................................8-7 INSTALLATIONS ................................................................................................................8-7 Storage Tanks ................................................................................................................8-7 Transportable Tanks.......................................................................................................8-8 Bunding..........................................................................................................................8-9 Fuel Delivery System .....................................................................................................8-9 FUELLING OPERATIONS ................................................................................................ 8-11 Onshore ....................................................................................................................... 8-11 Receipts .................................................................................................................. 8-11 Testing .................................................................................................................... 8-12 Responsibilities ....................................................................................................... 8-13 Offshore ....................................................................................................................... 8-13 Storage and Transport............................................................................................. 8-13 Receipt, Testing and Transfer.................................................................................. 8-13 Responsibilities ....................................................................................................... 8-14 FUEL AT REMOTE LOCATIONS...................................................................................... 8-14 Supply.......................................................................................................................... 8-15 Aircraft Fuelling ............................................................................................................ 8-15 Drum Stocks................................................................................................................. 8-15

8.2

8.3

8.5

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8.5.

Receipts .................................................................................................................. 8-15 Storage ................................................................................................................... 8-15 Decanting to Bulk Storage ....................................................................................... 8-16 Refuelling ................................................................................................................ 8-16 TYPES OF REFUELLING ................................................................................................. 8-17 Pressure Refuelling ...................................................................................................... 8-17 Gravity Refuelling......................................................................................................... 8-17 System Design ............................................................................................................. 8-17 Aircraft Refuelling......................................................................................................... 8-17 General ................................................................................................................... 8-17 Pre-Refuelling Checks............................................................................................. 8-17 Ready for Refuelling................................................................................................ 8-18 Refuelling Sequence ............................................................................................... 8-18 Completion of Refuelling ......................................................................................... 8-19 Rotors Running Refuelling (RRR) ................................................................................. 8-19 Emergency Procedures - Fire Guard ....................................................................... 8-19 QUALITY ASSURANCE.................................................................................................... 8-20 Water Checks.......................................................................................................... 8-20 Testing With a Water Detector Capsule................................................................... 8-20 Testing with Water Finding Paste ............................................................................ 8-21 Discoloration Test.................................................................................................... 8-21 Checks following heavy rainfall, snow, high seas or large temperature changes ........... 8-21 Testing of Static Stocks................................................................................................ 8-21 Settling......................................................................................................................... 8-22 Daily Checks ................................................................................................................ 8-22 Periodic Checks ........................................................................................................... 8-23 Filtration Equipment ................................................................................................ 8-23 Hose End Mesh Strainers ........................................................................................ 8-23 Pumps..................................................................................................................... 8-24 Refuelling Dispensers.............................................................................................. 8-24 Hoses ...................................................................................................................... 8-24 Commissioning a Hose............................................................................................ 8-25 Monthly Hose Test Procedure.................................................................................. 8-25 Six Monthly Hose Test Procedure............................................................................ 8-26 Bonding Checks ...................................................................................................... 8-27 Tanks ...................................................................................................................... 8-27 Tank Cleaning ......................................................................................................... 8-28 Annual Inspection of Tanks...................................................................................... 8-28 Seal Drum And Pillow Tank Commissioning ............................................................ 8-29 Equipment.................................................................................................................... 8-30 Record Keeping............................................................................................................ 8-30 Documentation and Manuals ........................................................................................ 8-31 Training........................................................................................................................ 8-31

8.6

CHAPTER 9 - OTHER SUPPORT FACILITIES AND REQUIREMENTS.........................................9-3 9.1. FIRE FIGHTING CRASH RESOURCES .............................................................................9-3 International and Regional Airports and Licensed Aerodromes .......................................9-3 Smaller Manned Airfields, Private Airstrips and Heliports ...............................................9-3 Unmanned Landing Strips and Heliports.........................................................................9-3 Unmanned Helidecks .....................................................................................................9-3 Manned Helidecks ..........................................................................................................9-4 Considerations ...............................................................................................................9-4 Scale A - Fire-Fighting Equipment..................................................................................9-4 Scale B - Portable Fire-Fighting Equipment....................................................................9-5 Scale C - Crash Equipment ............................................................................................9-5

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9.2.

COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT .......................................................................................9-6 Very High Frequency (VHF) Air Band .............................................................................9-6 Single Sideband, High Frequency (SSB-HF) ..................................................................9-7 NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................9-7 TECHNICAL ACCOMMODATION.......................................................................................9-9 Engineering Accommodation..........................................................................................9-9 Battery Charging .......................................................................................................... 9-10 Aircraft Stores .............................................................................................................. 9-10 OPERATIONS ACCOMMODATION.................................................................................. 9-12 Flight Planning Room ................................................................................................... 9-12 Pilot's Crew Room ........................................................................................................ 9-13 Operations Room ......................................................................................................... 9-13 Traffic Office ................................................................................................................ 9-14 METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION ............................................................................... 9-15 SECURITY OF OPERATIONS.......................................................................................... 9-16 VEHICLES WORKING AROUND AIRCRAFT ................................................................... 9-17 Condition of Vehicle and Equipment............................................................................. 9-17 DRIVER COMPETENCE................................................................................................... 9-17 DRIVER SUPERVISION DURING REVERSING ............................................................... 9-17 FORK-LIFT TRUCKS ........................................................................................................ 9-17 VEHICLE SELECTION AND LOADING OF CARGO......................................................... 9-18 AIRFIELD GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT ................................................................. 9-18 Baggage Trolleys and Passenger Steps ....................................................................... 9-18 Mobile Ground Power Units (GPUs) ............................................................................. 9-18 Mobile Cabin Air Heating or Air Conditioning Units ....................................................... 9-18 Body Bags.................................................................................................................... 9-18 Stretcher ...................................................................................................................... 9-18 Manifest and Scales ..................................................................................................... 9-19 Passenger And Freight Booking System....................................................................... 9-19 Meteorological Equipment ............................................................................................ 9-19

9.3. 9.4.

9.5.

9.6. 9.7. 9.8. 9.9. 9.10. 9.11. 9.12. 9.13.

PART 3 - AIR OPERATIONS, GENERAL
CHAPTER 10 - FLIGHT CREW REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 10-3 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 MINIMUM PILOT LEVELS ............................................................................................... 10-3 Aeroplanes ................................................................................................................... 10-3 PILOT QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE LEVELS ................................................... 10-3 Aircrew Experience Requirement ................................................................................. 10-5 FREELANCE PILOTS ....................................................................................................... 10-7 FLIGHT TIME AND DUTY TIME LIMITATIONS ................................................................ 10-7 Definitions .................................................................................................................... 10-7 Standby Duty................................................................................................................ 10-8 Recommended Maximum Flying Hour Limits ............................................................... 10-8 Maximum Flying Duty Periods - General ...................................................................... 10-9

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10.5

Flying Duty Periods/Max Hours - Sole Use Contracts ................................................... 10-9 Maximum Cumulative Duty Hours .............................................................................. 10-10 Pilot Manning - Night Standby Duty ............................................................................ 10-11 FLIGHT CREW TRAINING ............................................................................................. 10-12 Flight Crew - Definition ............................................................................................... 10-12 Pilot Training .............................................................................................................. 10-12 General ................................................................................................................. 10-12 Conversion Training .............................................................................................. 10-12 Recurrent Training................................................................................................. 10-12 Specific Requirements........................................................................................... 10-14 Six Monthly Base Checks ........................................................................................... 10-15 Annual Checks ........................................................................................................... 10-16 Recency Checks......................................................................................................... 10-16 Crew Resource Management Training........................................................................ 10-16 Other Considerations.................................................................................................. 10-18 PILOTS FLYING MORE THAN ONE AIRCRAFT TYPE .................................................. 10-18 SAR CREWMEN TRAINING ........................................................................................... 10-18 Initial Training............................................................................................................. 10-18 Recurrent Training...................................................................................................... 10-19 SINGLE PILOT OPERATION.......................................................................................... 10-19 CABIN ATTENDANTS .................................................................................................... 10-20

10.6. 10.7.

10.8 10.9

CHAPTER 11 - ENGINEER REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................11-3 11.1. 11.2. 11.3. ENGINEER EXPERIENCE AND QUALIFICATIONS ......................................................... 11-3 AVOIDANCE OF FATIGUE - ENGINEERS ....................................................................... 11-4 ENGINEER TRAINING ..................................................................................................... 11-5 Initial Training............................................................................................................... 11-5 Recurrent Training........................................................................................................ 11-5 Promotion to Senior Positions ...................................................................................... 11-5

CHAPTER 12 - REQUIREMENTS FOR OTHER PERSONNEL .................................................... 12-3 12.1. 12.2. 12.3. 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 SEARCH AND RESCUE CREWMAN................................................................................ 12-3 HLOS/HELIDECK CREW.................................................................................................. 12-3 REFUELLING SUPERVISORS ......................................................................................... 12-3 AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS......................................................................................... 12-3 RADIO OPERATORS ....................................................................................................... 12-3 DESPATCHERS/TRAFFIC CLERKS................................................................................. 12-3 CARRIAGE OF LOAD MASTERS..................................................................................... 12-4

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CHAPTER 13 - PASSENGERS..................................................................................................... 13-3 13.1. 13.2. 13.3 13.4 13.5. 13.6. 13.7. 13.8 13.9. BRIEFING......................................................................................................................... 13-3 PASSENGER AND BAGGAGE WEIGHTS ....................................................................... 13-3 EMBARKING/DISEMBARKING PROCEDURES ............................................................... 13-3 SAFETY AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT ........................................................................... 13-4 DISCIPLINE ...................................................................................................................... 13-5 Smoking....................................................................................................................... 13-5 ALCOHOL......................................................................................................................... 13-5 AUTHORITY OF CREW ................................................................................................... 13-5 CARRIAGE OF PASSENGER OPERATING ELECTRONIC DEVICES ............................. 13-6 DRESS ............................................................................................................................. 13-6

13.10. CARRIAGE OF FREIGHT WITH PASSENGERS.............................................................. 13-6 13.11. USE OF CO-PILOT SEAT FOR A PASSENGER .............................................................. 13-7

CHAPTER 14 - HEALTH, SAFETY AND OCCURRENCE REPORTING....................................... 14-3 14.1 HEALTH, SAFETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT................................................................. 14-3 Chief Executive ............................................................................................................ 14-3 Line Supervision........................................................................................................... 14-4 Employees ................................................................................................................... 14-5 Implementation ............................................................................................................ 14-5 HEALTH AND FITNESS.................................................................................................... 14-6 Periodic Medical Checks .............................................................................................. 14-6 Drugs and Alcohol Policy.............................................................................................. 14-6 Alcohol ......................................................................................................................... 14-6 Drugs ........................................................................................................................... 14-7 Smoking....................................................................................................................... 14-7 General Hygiene .......................................................................................................... 14-7 ACCIDENT/INCIDENT REPORTING AND ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION ......................... 14-8 Aircraft Accident........................................................................................................... 14-8 Aircraft Incident ............................................................................................................ 14-8 Reporting outside the Company system........................................................................ 14-9 Accident Investigation .................................................................................................. 14-9 MEDIA RELATIONS......................................................................................................... 14-9 REMOVAL OF DISABLED AIRCRAFT............................................................................ 14-10 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES - MAN MADE MINERAL FIBRES..................................... 14-10 Protection................................................................................................................... 14-10

14.2.

14.3.

14.4. 14.5. 14.6.

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CHAPTER 15 AIRCRAFT AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT........................................................... 15-3 15.1 PROTECTION OF PASSENGERS AND CREW ............................................................... 15-3 Seats and Seatbelts ..................................................................................................... 15-3 Immersion Suits ........................................................................................................... 15-3 Life Jackets .................................................................................................................. 15-3 Inflatable Liferafts......................................................................................................... 15-3 Underwater Location Beacons ...................................................................................... 15-4 Materials Used in Upholstery and Internal Trim ............................................................ 15-4 Helicopter Flotation Gear.............................................................................................. 15-4 Security of Cargo ......................................................................................................... 15-5 Sideways Facing Seats ................................................................................................ 15-5 EQUIPMENT FITTED IN AIRCRAFT ................................................................................ 15-5 Emergency Locator Transmitters.................................................................................. 15-6 Cockpit Voice Recorders (CVR).................................................................................... 15-6 Flight Data Recorder (FDR).......................................................................................... 15-6 High Intensity Strobe Lights (HISLs) ............................................................................. 15-6 Ground Proximity Warning Systems (GPWS)............................................................... 15-7 First Aid Kits................................................................................................................. 15-7 Survival Equipment ...................................................................................................... 15-7 Radio Transmission Equipment .................................................................................... 15-7

15.2.

CHAPTER 16 - OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES .......................................................................... 16-3 16.1. 16.2. COMMUNICATIONS AND FLIGHT FOLLOWING PROCEDURES ................................... 16-3 FUEL PLANNING.............................................................................................................. 16-4 Aeroplanes ................................................................................................................... 16-4 Helicopters ................................................................................................................... 16-4 CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS AND RESTRICTED ARTICLES BY AIR ............. 16-5 CARRIAGE OF FREIGHT WITH PASSENGERS.............................................................. 16-7 SHUTDOWNS AWAY FROM BASE ................................................................................. 16-7 USE OF CO-PILOT SEAT FOR A PASSENGER .............................................................. 16-8 INDEMNITIES FOR CARRIAGE OF NON-COMPANY PERSONNEL ............................... 16-8 EMERGENCY FLIGHTS ................................................................................................... 16-8 Fixed Wing Operations................................................................................................. 16-9 Helicopter Operations................................................................................................... 16-9 Types of Emergency Flight......................................................................................... 16-10 Evacuation from Work-Site/Onshore - Day................................................................. 16-10 Evacuation from Work-Site/Onshore - Night............................................................... 16-10 Evacuation from Work-Site - from Base Camp to Medical Facility.............................. 16-11 Authority for Despatch ................................................................................................ 16-11 Search and Rescue .................................................................................................... 16-11 Other Aviation Emergencies....................................................................................... 16-11 Typical Decision Making Team Organisation - Shore Based Aircraft (Day) ................. 16-12 Typical Decision Making Team Organisation - Shore Based Aircraft (Night) ............... 16-12 Typical Decision Making Team Organisation - Offshore Based Aircraft (Day & Night)..16-12 ADVERSE WEATHER POLICY ...................................................................................... 16-13

16.3 16.4. 16.5 16.6. 16.7. 16.8.

16.9

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PART 4 - AIR OPERATIONS, SPECIFIC

CHAPTER 17 - AIR SUPPORT OF LAND SEISMIC OPERATIONS ............................................. 17-3 17.1. HELICOPTER SUPPORT OF LAND SEISMIC OPERATIONS.......................................... 17-3 Provision of Helicopter Support .................................................................................... 17-4 Twin Engine Helicopter Performance Considerations ................................................... 17-4 The Base Camp Helipad............................................................................................... 17-5 The Helicopter Rejected Take Off at Base Camps........................................................ 17-5 Line Helipads ............................................................................................................... 17-6 SEISMIC BASE CAMP CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................................... 17-6 Location ....................................................................................................................... 17-6 General Layout of the Base Camp................................................................................ 17-7 Helicopter Parking Areas .............................................................................................. 17-8 CARGO AND PASSENGER HANDLING........................................................................... 17-8 ACCOMMODATION (LIVING AND WORKING) ................................................................ 17-8 Flight Operations Office ............................................................................................... 17-9 Engineering Facilities ................................................................................................... 17-9 Sleeping Quarters ...................................................................................................... 17-10 AVIATION FUEL ............................................................................................................. 17-10 BASE CAMP HELIPAD LIGHTING.................................................................................. 17-11 BASE CAMP LOCATION AIDS ....................................................................................... 17-11 BASE CAMP COMMUNICATIONS ................................................................................. 17-11 FOCAL POINT PERSONNEL.......................................................................................... 17-12

17.2.

17.3. 17.4.

17.5. 17.6. 17.7. 17.8. 17.9.

Company/Contractor Liaison ...................................................................................... 17-12 Base Camp Personnel................................................................................................ 17-12 Air Operations Supervisor .......................................................................................... 17-12 Pilots .......................................................................................................................... 17-13 3D Seismic Operations............................................................................................... 17-13 Engineers ................................................................................................................... 17-14 Refuellers................................................................................................................... 17-14 Loadmasters (also known as Hookmen, Marshallers).................................................. 17-14 Radio Operators ......................................................................................................... 17-14 Winch Operators ........................................................................................................ 17-15 Training...................................................................................................................... 17-15 Explanatory Note on Pilots Qualifications and Training............................................... 17-15 17.10. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT................................................................ 17-15 17.11. HELICOPTER OPERATORS .......................................................................................... 17-16 Aircraft Scheduling ..................................................................................................... 17-16 Air Operations Safety Meetings .................................................................................. 17-16 Responsibilities of the Contractor ............................................................................... 17-16 Pilots remaining at the Controls of the Helicopter ....................................................... 17-17 Radio Communications .............................................................................................. 17-17 Flight Following .......................................................................................................... 17-17 Search and Rescue .................................................................................................... 17-18 Helicopter Winches .................................................................................................... 17-18 Crash Rescue Boxes .................................................................................................. 17-18 Emergency Locator Transmitters, Aircraft Homing Devices and Survival Equipment.. 17-18

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Navigation Equipment ................................................................................................ 17-19 Lifting Equipment ....................................................................................................... 17-19 Helicopter Cargo Hooks.............................................................................................. 17-20 External Load Operations ........................................................................................... 17-20 Carriage of Dangerous Goods (Restricted Articles)..................................................... 17-21 Rotors Running Refuelling.......................................................................................... 17-22 Use of Helicopters and Facilities by Third Parties ....................................................... 17-23 17.12. LONG LINE SEISMIC SUPPORT ................................................................................... 17-23 Basis for Requirement ................................................................................................ 17-23 Conventional Operations ............................................................................................ 17-24 Long Line Operations ................................................................................................. 17-24 Considerations ........................................................................................................... 17-24 Helicopter and Equipment Selection for Long Line Operations ................................... 17-25 Trace Baskets ............................................................................................................ 17-25 Dropping Zones (D.S.s) .............................................................................................. 17-25 Personnel - Pilots ....................................................................................................... 17-26 Personnel - Crewmen ................................................................................................. 17-26 Personnel - Hookman................................................................................................. 17-26 17.13. SEISMIC LINE OPERATIONS ........................................................................................ 17-26 Landing Areas and Clearings...................................................................................... 17-26 Line Helipads in Desert Areas (Special Considerations).............................................. 17-27 Line Helipads in Mountainous Areas (Special Considerations) .................................... 17-27 Line Helipads in Jungle Areas (Special Considerations).............................................. 17-28 Ground to Air Communications................................................................................... 17-29 Hazards...................................................................................................................... 17-29 Aircraft Shutdown ....................................................................................................... 17-30 Administration and Documentation ............................................................................. 17-30

CHAPTER 18 - HELIRIG OPERATIONS....................................................................................... 18-3 18.1 GENERAL......................................................................................................................... 18-3 Provision of Helicopter Support .................................................................................... 18-3 Helicopter Contract....................................................................................................... 18-4 HELICOPTERS................................................................................................................. 18-4 BASE AIRPORT FACILITIES............................................................................................ 18-5 Buildings ...................................................................................................................... 18-5 Hard-Standings and Aprons.......................................................................................... 18-5 Service and Ground Equipment.................................................................................... 18-5 Aviation Fuel ................................................................................................................ 18-6 Base Camp Facilities and Procedures .......................................................................... 18-7 Personnel ..................................................................................................................... 18-7 Safety........................................................................................................................... 18-7 Specific Items............................................................................................................... 18-8 Emergencies ................................................................................................................ 18-9 Standards and Practices............................................................................................... 18-9 Communications .......................................................................................................... 18-9 Publications and Documentation .................................................................................. 18-9 Designed Documentation ........................................................................................... 18-10 Accounting ................................................................................................................. 18-10 Flying Programme...................................................................................................... 18-11 Manifests and Loadsheets .......................................................................................... 18-11 Refuelling Sheets ....................................................................................................... 18-11 Medical Evacuation .................................................................................................... 18-11 RIGSITE ......................................................................................................................... 18-11

18.2. 18.3.

18.4.

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18.5. 18.6.

Considerations ........................................................................................................... 18-11 Equipment.................................................................................................................. 18-12 Fuel Storage and Consumption .................................................................................. 18-13 Jet A-1 Refuelling Units.............................................................................................. 18-14 JET A-1/DIESEL FUEL TRANSPORTATION - SEAL DRUMS ........................................ 18-14 Identification............................................................................................................... 18-15 HELIRIG ......................................................................................................................... 18-15 Pre-Rig Arrival............................................................................................................ 18-15 Rig in Broken Down State........................................................................................... 18-15 Rig Arrival .................................................................................................................. 18-16 Rig Mobilisation.......................................................................................................... 18-16 Rig Assembly ............................................................................................................. 18-16 Demobilisation/Rig Move............................................................................................ 18-17 LOADMASTER ............................................................................................................... 18-18 HELICREW EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................... 18-19 HELIRIG SLING EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................ 18-20

18.7. 18.8. 18.9.

18.10. HELICOPTER LOADS ...................................................................................................... 18-21 Casing........................................................................................................................ 18-21 Consumables, General ............................................................................................... 18-21 Consumables, Mud Chemicals ................................................................................... 18-21 Consumables, Cement ............................................................................................... 18-21 Consumables, Barytes................................................................................................ 18-21

CHAPTER 19 - OFFSHORE EXPLORATION ............................................................................... 19-3 19.1 19.2. 19.3. 19.4. 19.5. 19.6. 19.7. 19.8. 19.9. GENERAL......................................................................................................................... 19-3 POLICY ON OVERWATER FLIGHTS............................................................................... 19-3 ADVERSE WEATHER POLICY ........................................................................................ 19-3 OFFSHORE ALTERNATES .............................................................................................. 19-3 TWIN ENGINED HELICOPTER PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS ........................... 19-4 PASSENGER HANDLING FACILITIES ............................................................................. 19-5 MAINTENANCE FACILITIES ............................................................................................ 19-6 AIRFIELD REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................. 19-7 OFFSHORE HELIDECKS ................................................................................................. 19-7

Design and Construction............................................................................................... 19-7 Maintenance and Inspection ......................................................................................... 19-8 Fire Fighting and Crash Rescue Equipment.................................................................. 19-8 Passenger Facilities ..................................................................................................... 19-9 19.10. EMERGENCY GAS RELEASE ON OFFSHORE PLATFORMS ........................................ 19-9 19.11. EMERGENCY GAS RELEASE ON OFFSHORE PLATFORMS - NORMALLY UNATTENDED INSTALLATIONS (NNMP)............................................................................................... 19-10 19.13. SHUTTING DOWN A HELICOPTER ON A REMOTE INSTALLATION ........................... 19-10 19.14. HELICOPTER OPERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION TESTING.................................. 19-11

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19.15. SAFETY AND SURVIVAL ............................................................................................... 19-11 19.16. HELICOPTERS BASED OFFSHORE ............................................................................. 19-12 19.17. SAFETY UNDER THE ROTOR DISC ON OFFSHORE HELIDECKS .............................. 19-12 19.18. HEIGHT OF ROTOR DISC ............................................................................................. 19-12 19.19. ROTOR SPEED .............................................................................................................. 19-13 19.20. EFFECT OF WIND AND MOVEMENT OF HELIDECK ................................................... 19-13 19.21. SIZE OF HELIDECKS AND POSITION OF ACCESS POINTS ....................................... 19-13 19.22. NUMBER OF AIRCREW AND ACTIVITY........................................................................ 19-13 Heli-Admin ................................................................................................................. 19-13 Helicopter Operators .................................................................................................. 19-13 HLO ........................................................................................................................... 19-14 Passengers ................................................................................................................ 19-15 Cranes ....................................................................................................................... 19-16 19.23. HELICOPTER UNDERWATER ESCAPE TRAINING (HUET) ......................................... 19-16 19.24. MEDICAL EVACUATION (MEDEVAC) FROM OFFSHORE............................................ 19-16 19.25. HELICOPTER ROTORBRAKE - THE REQUIREMENT FOR FLIGHTS OFFSHORE...... 19-17 19.26. MOTION LIMITS FOR LANDING ON MOVING DECKS.................................................. 19-17

CHAPTER 20 - OTHER SPECIALISED OPERATIONS ................................................................ 20-3 20.1. 20.2. 20.3. AERIAL TOP SPRAYING.................................................................................................. 20-3 OIL DISPERSANT SPRAYING ......................................................................................... 20-4 WINCH OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 20-4 Emergency Winch Capability........................................................................................ 20-4 Winch Equipment......................................................................................................... 20-5 Empty Winch Hooks..................................................................................................... 20-5 HELICOPTER EXTERNAL LOAD OPERATIONS ............................................................. 20-5 Specialist Personnel ..................................................................................................... 20-6 Pilots ....................................................................................................................... 20-6 Aircrewmen ............................................................................................................. 20-6 Loadmasters............................................................................................................ 20-6 Lifting Equipment ......................................................................................................... 20-6 Personal Protective Equipment .................................................................................... 20-7 SAR PROCEDURES......................................................................................................... 20-7 DESERT OPERATIONS ................................................................................................... 20-8 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS ..................................................................................... 20-8

20.4.

20.5. 20.6. 20.7.

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CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .............................................................................. 1-3 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. 1.9. AIM....................................................................................................................................... 1-3 SETTING AN AVIATION POLICY........................................................................................ 1-3 USE OF NON-SCHEDULED AIRCRAFT.............................................................................. 1-4 CHOICE OF SINGLE OR MULTI-ENGINED AIRCRAFT ..................................................... 1-4 RISK/ENVIRONMENT - HELICOPTERS.............................................................................. 1-4 OVER WATER OPERATIONS - MINIMUM SAFETY REQUIREMENTS .............................. 1-5 REVIEW AND REVIEW OF AVIATION COMPANIES .......................................................... 1-6 SUPERVISION ..................................................................................................................... 1-6 REGULATORY GUIDELINES .............................................................................................. 1-6

1.10. AVIATION ADVISER INVOLVEMENT IN SCOUTING TRIP ................................................ 1-6 1.11 HOW THE AVIATION ADVISER CAN ASSIST IF NO SCOUTING TRIP IS CARRIED OUT ..................................................................................................................................... 1-7 1.12 LOGISTIC DIFFICULTIES AFFECTING OPERATING COMPANY OBJECTIVES .............. 1-7 1.13. RISK INHERENT IN OTHER FORMS OF TRANSPORT ..................................................... 1-7 1.14. ACCEPTING LIFTS ............................................................................................................. 1-8 1.15. FLIGHTS ON GROUP COMPANY BUSINESS BY PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE HOLDERS............................................................................................................................ 1-8 1.16. SENIOR EXECUTIVE PASSENGERS ................................................................................. 1-8 1.17. EMERGENCY FLIGHTS ...................................................................................................... 1-8 1.18. EMERGENCY EVACUATION BY AIR.................................................................................. 1-9

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GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.1. 1.1.1. Aim The aim of this Manual is to provide a ready reference for the management of aviation. It deals with operations from the conceptual phase onwards. In doing so it addresses the factors to be taken into account when contemplating aircraft operations, the tendering and contractual process, the setting up of support facilities and the expectations required of our contractors. Clearly the Air Transport Industry is enormous, with its own accepted structures, processes and standards. However, these do not necessarily relate directly to the practices, procedures and requirements of the Oil Industry, whilst those responsible for managing aviation, particularly if they are not aviation specialists, cannot hope to develop immediate expertise. This Manual and the readily available support from Aviation Advisers, should enable them to plan, develop and control, safely and efficiently, air transport operations that are best suited to their needs. Setting an Aviation Policy Companies should consider the establishment of an Aviation Policy to provide guidelines for the safe, economic and efficient use of aircraft in support of Company operations. Such a policy would apply equally to Company and contractors` personnel. As an example the aviation policy could require that: 1.2.2.1. Preference be given to the use of those international airlines and regional carriers with low accident rates. Where any doubt exists, advice is should be sought from an aviation adviser. Exposure to high risk operations should be minimised. In this regard, fixed wing aircraft flying into established airports are to be preferred to operations into airstrips or flight by helicopter. For all aviation activities, other than scheduled airline travel, only aircraft operators and aircraft types approved for use by the accredited Aviation Adviser should be used. Contracted aircraft are to be operated only by aircrew, and maintained by engineers, meeting specified minimum qualifications, and experience and currency requirements. Aircraft operators are to meet Company Insurance requirements. Specific operational restrictions may be applied, taking account of the contractor and local environment; amongst these will be the requirement to operate to public transport standards and to meet airfield performance criteria. The decision to use aircraft should be weighed against the alternatives of using other forms of travel, taking full account of operational, economic and, above all, safety implications.

1.1.2.

1.2. 1.2.1.

1.2.2.

1.2.2.2.

1.2.2.3.

1.2.2.4.

1.2.2.5. 1.2.2.6.

1.2.2.7.

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1.3. 1.3.1.

Use of Non-Scheduled Aircraft When travel by non-scheduled aeroplane or helicopter is deemed appropriate, this may be on dedicated contract aircraft, by spot charter or on aircraft of joint venture partners. In these cases, specialist advice should be sought from the Aviation Adviser regarding the approval status of the aircraft operator and aircraft type, and the qualifications of the pilots to be used. The operator must always be properly licensed for the task, in terms of both operations and maintenance. Pilots and engineers should meet as a minimum the requirements set out in this Manual. The normal flight crew complement is to be 2 pilots although single pilot operations are acceptable in certain circumstances. Guidance should be sought from the Aviation Adviser when single pilot operations are proposed. Choice of Single or Multi-Engined Aircraft A major requirement is that at all times from take-off to landing, including the en route phase, in the event of an engine failure, the fixed wing aircraft must be able to make a safe emergency landing and the helicopter a safe autorotative landing. A safe landing is defined as the aircraft being substantially undamaged and the occupants unhurt. This may restrict the use of single engine aircraft for use in harsh environments and for night operations and flight under IFR conditions. Only twin engine helicopters crewed by two qualified night current instrument pilots shall be used for all IFR and any night flight operations. Where flight routes are at relatively lower levels, over short distances and favourable terrain, and supported by closely monitored flight following with back up Search and Rescue resources, day Visual Meteorological Conditions, i.e. Visual Flight Rules (VFR), single engine aircraft may be acceptable (e.g., seismic or geology support or float planes). NOTE: A qualified aviation consultant should be contacted prior to chartering/ contracting for single engine aeroplanes.

1.3.2.

1.3.3.

1.4. 1.4.1.

1.4.2.

1.4.3.

Certification standards for twin engine aeroplanes vary significantly relative to demonstrated and documented performance criteria. Those aeroplanes certificated to Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25 (or equivalent such as JAR 25) have higher performance criteria than those certificated to FAR Part 23 (or equivalent). A qualified aviation consultant should be contacted to assist in the selection of an appropriate twin engine aeroplane. Major considerations in the selection of an aeroplane are, performance, runway requirement, including type of surface, airport elevation, obstacle clearance, terrain, and mission requirements. Wherever practical those aircraft that are certificated to Part 25 or JAR 25, or have demonstrated and published single engine performance which meets the criteria of Part 25 should be used. It is further recommended that turbine powered twin engine aeroplanes crewed with two pilots be used wherever practical. Risk/Environment - Helicopters In determining the class of helicopter to be specified for a specific contract, factors to be considered are harsh and non-harsh operating environments. The environment may affect the methods of operation and the equipment selected. Risk factors to be considered in assessing and characterising the environment are:

1.4.4.

1.4.5.

1.5. 1.5.1.

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Geographical characteristics of the operating area Politically sensitive areas Weather conditions, including temperatures Performance characteristic of the helicopter Search and rescue resources and response time. 1.5.2. Harsh or Hostile Environment: For this operating environment, a Class I or Class II performance helicopter should be specified because it is an environment in which a successful emergency landing cannot be assured, or the occupants of the helicopter cannot be adequately protected from the elements, or search and rescue response/capability cannot be provided consistent with the anticipated exposure. Non-Harsh or Non-Hostile Environment: For this operating environment, a Class I, Class II, or Class III performance helicopter may be specified because it is an environment in which a successful emergency landing can be reasonably assured, the occupants can be protected from the elements, and search and rescue response/capability is provided consistent with anticipated exposure. The definition of Class I, II and III is found at 19.5.8. Over Water Operations - Minimum Safety Requirements Only twin engine helicopters should be used when operating in a harsh environment such as remote jungle, arctic conditions, or cold weather water offshore operations, and when search and rescue resources are limited. These helicopters when operated over water shall also be fitted with flotation equipment. The helicopter will also carry life rafts. Double-sided reversible life rafts are recommended for offshore helicopter operations. Transport helicopters shall carry two rafts as a minimum each capable of 50% overload so that in the overload condition one raft will contain all helicopter occupants. Where possible, and given the option, it is desirable that life rafts be externally jettisonable. Depending on water temperatures and search and rescue response time and resources, passengers may have to wear an approved immersion suit and with approved life vest. Single Engine - if permitted by local regulatory authorities, single-engine helicopters may be operated over open water beyond auto-rotational distance from land provided ALL of the following conditions are met: • • • • • • • • The environment is determined to non-harsh or non-hostile Daytime VFR operations, and the helicopter shall be on the helideck offshore or on the beach 30 minutes prior to official sunset. The helicopter is fitted with flotation devices Inflatable buoyancy vest worn by each person on board Each helicopter is fitted with a life raft secured to the helicopter by a lanyard Water temperatures are above 60°F Acceptable Search/Rescue Services available Helicopter operations are conducted with constant radio watch

1.5.3.

1.6. 1.6.1.

1.6.2.

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Helicopter characteristics have been demonstrated by experience to provide safe emergency landings and terrain survivability

1.7. 1.7.1

Review and Review of Aviation Companies Any aircraft operator invited to tender should be reviewed and approved by the Aviation Advisor. Furthermore, all operators should be reviewed on a regular basis. Operators used for Ad hoc charter flights are also subject to review. Should this not be practical, an exceptional “one off clearance” may be given subject to certain criteria being met and accepted, although it must be recognized that this provides less assurance about the safety of the operation and the contractor’s suitability for the proposed task. Supervision All Companies using aircraft should have a nominated focal point, responsible for overseeing aviation activities in accordance with the advice laid down in this manual. Advice is available at all times from the nominated Aviation Adviser, and this advice is supplemented by the "Guidance to Air Operations Supervisors" booklet issued by E&P Forum. Regulatory Guidelines Most Governments have some form of Civil Aviation Authority, the function of which is to lay down standards for both the aircraft and the manner in which they are operated. However, Aviation Authorities vary in their effectiveness and standards, although a good aircraft operator may apply more exacting standards than those legislated. Indeed, even the best Aviation Authority can only lay down minimum standards, and the ultimate responsibility for safety in the air lies with the aircraft operator. This Manual has been formulated from both best industry practice and the regulations of the leading regulatory authorities; it does not however, seek to impose unreasonably high standards. Indeed, additional requirements may be imposed on any operation by the civil aviation authority in the host country. Aviation Adviser Involvement in Scouting Trip Aviation Adviser involvement, in the early stages of planning a new venture where aircraft transport, is an option which has proved invaluable in arriving at the optimum solution for aviation transport requirements. In such cases, Aviation Adviser representation on the scouting team provides the necessary expertise to evaluate influencing factors such as terrain, distances, climate, SAR facilities, and make timely recommendations. In remote and developing areas, a considerable lead time (typically a minimum of six months) may be required to ensure availability of suitable aircraft operated by an approved contractor. To varying degrees, all types of aircraft will require ground facilities, and the location and siting of runways, helicopter operating area, hangarage and aviation administration facilities require careful consideration in order to minimise 'dead' flying time, while providing adequate support. Adequate lead time is also required for the planning of these facilities.

1.7.2

1.8. 1.8.1.

1.9. 1.9.1.

1.9.2.

1.10. 1.10.1.

1.10.2.

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1.11. 1.11.1.

How the Aviation Adviser Can Assist If No Scouting Trip is Carried Out Aviation Adviser involvement at the earliest possible stage is encouraged, as details of operating performance of various aircraft types are held, and the necessary expertise exists for interpreting these parameters in the context of the potential operating environment. The most suitable aircraft for the task is essential if the operation is to be safe and ton/mile or seat/mile costs are to be minimised. Should analysis of the potential traffic show that load and frequency requirements can be met with a single aircraft, before letting such a contract account should be taken of the need for continuous availability (which cannot be guaranteed with only one aircraft on site), and the need for mutual search and rescue support if adequate coverage is not provided by local civil or military authorities. As an alternative to a sole use or 'hull' charter, if the local aviation industry is sufficiently well developed, it may be possible to enter into a service agreement for "call-off" as required from a pool of suitable aircraft. Logistic Difficulties Affecting Operating Company Objectives Where large numbers of personnel have to be moved over long distances on a regular basis, a dedicated aircraft service should be considered. Regular scheduled services may be available, or offered by a national airline, and, if so, block booking of seats will invariably represent the most economical option, although standards vary widely, and before selecting such an option Aviation Adviser advice should be sought. Where distances are relatively short, but no infrastructure exists, then charter of a smaller aircraft is likely to prove necessary. Chapter 2 deals with the advantages and disadvantages of various types of aircraft, but at the stage of assessing whether or not air transport will be required or cost-effective, it is important to realise that the simpler (and cheaper) unpressurised aircraft may be incapable of crossing safely high mountain ranges, or avoiding severe weather. Only in exceptional cases will the carriage of freight alone justify the regular use of air transport, such as for the deployment of high-cost rented specialist equipment, or where land transportation is either impracticable or prohibitively expensive. Risk Inherent in Other Forms of Transport Aviation support generally, and particularly the use of helicopters in areas where infrastructure is poor or non-existent, should be considered not only against costs, but also against the risk to personnel and costly equipment when transported by other means. As a general rule, over the shorter distances where roads are well developed or waters are calm, surface transport is preferred. However, this may not always be the case and analysis of the factors is required. For example, in desert areas with poorly marked tracks, the possibility and consequences of drivers becoming lost can be significant. In mountainous regions, where roads are badly constructed or maintained, land transport may also be hazardous. Also, where driving standards are generally low, the risk of collision is a factor, particularly at night. In offshore operations, it has been found that, even with the facilities located close to the coastline, it may not always be practical to transfer personnel from marine craft, to the fixed structure in conditions of poor weather or heaving seas. For this reason helicopters are invariably used, at least for much of the year. Terrorism can also be a significant risk, both on the ground and in scheduled airlines. Where operations take place in such areas, sole-use aircraft may represent the only secure form of transport.

1.12. 1.12.1.

1.12.2.

1.12.3.

1.13. 1.13.1.

1.13.2.

1.13.3.

1.13.4.

1.13.5.

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1.14. 1.14.1.

Accepting Lifts Personnel are sometimes offered lifts in private aircraft or in aircraft operated by unreviewed or non-approved companies. In such cases the Aviation Adviser is unable to comment on the operators 'Safety'. For this reason, accepting 'lifts' on aircraft is discouraged when travelling on business; in such cases the unknown safety risk should be weighed against the importance to the business relationship, as well as any possible embarrassment, in declining a seemingly reasonable offer. Conversely, Corporate operations tend to be at the safe end of general aviation and the Aviation Adviser may well be able to provide guidance on a particular operation. At the very least, prospective passengers should check that their personal insurance is not adversely affected by flying in a privately operated aircraft. Flights on Company Business by Private Pilot Licence Holders From time to time, enquiries are received from Company employees holding PPL about the policy for use of private aeroplanes when travelling on Company business. Stringent operating and technical standards are required of aircraft contractors or company aviation departments before approval is given to operate services in support of Companies, and it is unlikely that a non-professional pilot will meet either the qualification/experience requirements or that maintenance standards of his aircraft would be acceptable. The type of aircraft normally owned by private individuals is also unlikely to be approved, and for these reasons, private flying on company business is not recommended. Senior Executive Passengers In Companies with a large management team and limited, heavily utilised aircraft services, the question frequently arises whether senior executives should fly together in the same aircraft. On this difficult matter there can be no hard and fast rule, but consideration should be given to limiting the number of senior executives flying in the same aircraft be it on a scheduled service, chartered or company owned aircraft. The criteria used by the Aviation Adviser when evaluating types of aircraft and suitability of operators to transport Company personnel are designed to determine that chartered operations may be conducted at a level of safety compatible with the Company safety policy. Emergency Flights Even if aircraft are not employed on day to day business, Companies should consider inclusion of an emergency flight Medrescue procedure in their Company Emergency Procedure Guide. Such arrangements would be a sensible precaution in those areas where operations take place far from proper medical facilities. In some cases, particularly remote areas, it may well be possible to pool emergency requirements with third parties. If aircraft for use in emergency are not available in the country in which operations are conducted, it may be possible to arrange evacuation to a suitable medical facility by use (on contract or otherwise) of an aircraft based in a convenient location in an adjacent state.

1.14.2.

1.15. 1.15.1.

1.15.2.

1.16. 1.16.1.

1.16.2.

1.17. 1.17.1.

1.17.2.

1.17.3.

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1.18. 1.18.1.

Emergency Evacuation by Air The Aviation Adviser is available for advice and for support in the provision of aircraft outside the Companies resources. Contingency plans should be prepared for the evacuation of Company personnel and their families in an emergency. Contingency plans should take into account : 1.18.2.1. 1.18.2.2. The number of people involved (Company - Contractors - families). The nearest suitable airfield as a safe haven. If no bulk fuel of the appropriate type (usually Jet A-1) is available there, drum fuel of the required type with pump should be pre-positioned, stored correctly, and maintained in date by rotation. Alternative airfield. This should be a less obvious staging post in case the whole operation has to be re-located in the last minute due to unforeseen circumstances. Whether passengers can be moved onward from the safe haven? If not, where from? With what (helicopter)? Using likely available resources, the time needed to complete the evacuation. The names of appropriate local contacts, including telephone/fax numbers. This should include Managers of the expatriate companies with transport aircraft (f/w and r/w) or marine vessels, such as barges etc. The Corporate contact number (Co-ordination and Aviation Adviser), and possible local contacts with HF or SATCOM communication equipment Internal communications for co-ordinating the evacuation, (e.g. company VHF-FM radio system). Diplomatic clearance, lead time, and who obtains them. Local contacts in all western diplomatic representations should be established.

1.18.2.

1.18.2.3.

1.18.2.4.

1.18.2.5.

1.18.2.6.

1.18.2.7.

1.18.2.8.

1.18.2.9.

1.18.2.10. Flight authorisation (who gives the final word and under what condition can his deputy - name - authorise the evacuation). 1.18.2.11. The absolute minimum baggage case (5kg per family) and the standard baggage case (20kgs per person) should be specified as appropriate when limited air lift capacity is available.

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CHAPTER 2 - SELECTING THE RIGHT AIRCRAFT FOR THE JOB ................................................2-3 2.1. 2.2. FIXED WING, HELICOPTER, OR JOINT OPERATIONS.........................................................2-3 TYPES OF AIRCRAFT ............................................................................................................2-3 Fixed Wing ........................................................................................................................2-3 Helicopters ........................................................................................................................2-4 Performance......................................................................................................................2-5 Visual/Instrument Flight Rules (VFR/IFR) ........................................................................2-5 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. USE OF NON-PRESSURISED AIRCRAFT..............................................................................2-6 LIMITATIONS OF THE HELICOPTER.....................................................................................2-6 AIRCRAFT: OIL RELATED OPERATIONS .............................................................................2-7 Gravimetric and Seismic Work.........................................................................................2-7 Drilling Rig Movement by Air............................................................................................2-8 Helicopter/Tanker Operations ..........................................................................................2-8 Communications...............................................................................................................2-8 2.6. 2.7. NUMBERS OF AIRCRAFT REQUIRED FOR THE TASK ........................................................2-8 AVAILABILITY OF TYPES VS OPTIMUM REQUIREMENT ..................................................2-10 Shortage of Time.............................................................................................................2-10 Operating Licence...........................................................................................................2-10 Military or Government Aircraft......................................................................................2-10 Military or Government Aircrew .....................................................................................2-10 Commercial .....................................................................................................................2-10 2.8. 2.9. AIRCRAFT DATA..................................................................................................................2-10 AIRCRAFT SUPPORT FOR GROUP OPERATIONS BY MILITARY OR GOVERNMENT OWNED OR SPONSORED ORGANISATIONS .....................................................................2-10

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SELECTING THE RIGHT AIRCRAFT FOR THE JOB
2.1. 2.1.1. Fixed Wing, Helicopter, or Joint Operations Once the decision has been taken to use air transport, the next step is to decide whether the operation should be performed by fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters. In some cases, such as offshore Exploration and Production support, only a helicopter will be able to land on the offshore structures. For other operations, where base and destination are onshore, and airstrips can be made available, a fixed wing operation is likely to be preferable. If airstrips cannot be made available, however, then a helicopter operation is necessary. Some operations will benefit on both cost and safety grounds from a joint fixed wing/helicopter service. Longer distances overland point towards fixed wing aircraft due to their higher speed, thus reducing journey time, increasing comfort, and lowering operating costs. Flights of much more than one hour's duration in a helicopter are in any case fatiguing, due to noise and vibration levels, and, the load which the helicopter can carry decreases greatly with increase in distance. Conversely, the helicopter is extremely practical for providing a short distance "door to door" service. Operations in jungle, forest, bush and also in mountainous areas are dictated by the availability of existing airfields, or the ease with which they can be constructed should the duration of the operation warrant the effort and expense. Flying over desert terrain is not normally a helicopter operation. However, helicopters are often used for survey work because of the short distances between landing areas, and the ease with which unscheduled landings can be made to inspect areas of interest. In sum, fixed wing aircraft are less costly than helicopters and should always be used when task requirements and the operating environment permit. Types Of Aircraft When the decision to use either a fixed wing aircraft or a helicopter, or perhaps a combination of both, has been made, the next decision is the specific type. There is a bewildering array of different types with none designed specifically for the oil industry. The major subdivision is the power plant. Fixed wing aircraft can be jet, turboprop and piston, and helicopters turbine and piston, although turbine helicopters should always be used.. Fixed Wing 2.2.1.1. In the Company, owned or contract fixed wing aeroplanes may be used for: a. b. c. d. 2.2.1.2. Executive transportation/communications (Jet and Turboprop) Commuter/crew change activity (Principally turboprop) Joint passenger/freight ("Combi") movement (Turboprop) Pure Freight (Turboprop)

2.1.2.

2.1.3.

2.1.4.

2.1.5.

2.2. 2.2.1.

Ad hoc charters are also employed to provide any of the above services, with the poorer performance piston engined aircraft normally used only when turboprops are not locally available. It is unlikely that special role equipment will be needed, although the following types of specialist aircraft and equipment, can be chartered:a. Medical evacuation

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b. c.

Large freight aircraft Aerial Application

(Examples of specialist role modifications include:-) d. e. f. g. 2.2.1.3. Balloon tyres for desert or rough field operations Deflectors to prevent engine ingestion of gravel on rough fields. De-icing equipment Oxygen systems in unpressurised aircraft.

Jet powered fixed wing aircraft normally require well maintained, level, hard surfaced runways and sophisticated backup and maintenance, but have the ability to fly high and fast. Depending on type, they can carry any number of passengers from six to over four hundred, but they can be expensive to operate. Some of the newer executive jets are comparable in operating costs to turboprop aircraft of the same capacity. Turboprop fixed wing aircraft combine the reliability of the turbine with the lower operating costs and flexibility of the propeller. They are generally more rugged, and can operate from smaller, less sophisticated airfields, while requiring less back-up and maintenance. They can carry between six and one hundred passengers, but at lower altitudes and speeds than jet aircraft. They provide the backbone of the fixed wing aircraft support for the oil industry. Piston engined fixed wing aircraft are the least desirable option. They are less reliable than turbine engines, so that the chances of a piston failure are higher. The power to weight ratio of turbine engines is also higher than for piston engines, providing more excess power. Piston engined aircraft are less costly to operate than turboprops, but if suitable turboprop aircraft are available at affordable cost, they are strongly preferred. Airfield requirements
for piston engined aircraft are similar to those needed by turboprops with variations depending on the specific type.

2.2.1.4.

2.2.1.5.

Helicopters 2.2.1.6. Turbine power is the standard for helicopters which are capable of carrying more than about three passengers. Due to much greater reliability of turbine engines, and the increased power availability, turbine powered machines should always be chosen. Helicopters can be used in a multitude of roles. Owned or contract machines are usually configured in passenger or Combi role, with the capability of very quick change to search and rescue aircraft by installation of a winch or hoist. Such equipment is not normally carried simultaneously with passengers because of the weight penalty, requirement to carry a winchman or operator, interference with safety arrangements and blocking of normal or emergency exits. Role change from passenger to SAR can take as little as 10 minutes on certain types provided maintenance personnel and aircrews are given regular practice in this activity.

2.2.1.7.

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2.2.1.8.

The extent to which search and rescue duties may be undertaken will depend on the specialist equipment carried in addition to the winch: such equipment may invariably include full instrumentation for operation in bad weather by day, plus auto-hover for operations in fog or by night. Actual rescues by night requires additional search equipment. Each increase in capacity adds to the cost of the helicopter partly because of the hardware needed and partly because of the additional pilots required to provide 24 hour service. The level of training needed to keep aircrew fully competent in the night SAR role also contributes to the high costs. Other examples of helicopter specialist role equipment include: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Camera (vibration free mounts) Cargo hook (including long-line) Datalink (Automatic position reporting) Emergency Medical Kit (Airborne ambulance) Fixed floats (for amphibious operations) Loud hailer (for airborne control of rig evacuations etc.) Nightsun (searchlight) Oil pollution spraying (either fitted or underslung) Aerial Application (for top dressing)

2.2.1.9.

Performance 2.2.1.10. Only flight manuals approved by competent airworthiness authorities contain performance information which can be regarded as accurate, and each situation and/or aircraft type must be carefully assessed for the proposed task. The Aviation Adviser's advice should be sought, as various marks and modification states of a specific type may differ enormously.

Visual/Instrument Flight Rules (VFR/IFR) 2.2.1.11. The aircraft service requirement and the operating environment vary widely between areas and type of company activity, and before starting the process of acquiring air support, the Aviation Adviser should be approached, to assess the requirement, and advise whether IFR operations are necessary. In essence, VFR aircraft operate on a 'see and be seen' basis in weather conditions (outside controlled airspace where special rules will apply) where the aircraft can remain at least 1 nautical mile horizontally and 1,000 feet vertically from cloud, and in flight visibility of at least 3 nautical miles (5 n.m. above 3,000 feet a.s.l.) or 1nm for helicopters. In Europe, more complicated rules apply to helicopters operating over water. If the above weather conditions cannot be met, then the aircraft will have to conform with Instrument Flight Rules, which dictate a certain standard of aircraft instrumentation, pilot qualifications, routing and reporting procedures. This will invariably necessitate some form of landing aid and approach procedure approved by the regulatory authority at the destination, and this will normally mean taking off from and landing at an established properly equipped airfield or heliport.

2.2.1.12.

2.2.1.13.

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2.2.1.14.

There are numerous exceptions, exemptions and additional restrictions to qualify the above requirements, and it is essential for the maintenance of flight safety standards that the rules are strictly followed; any pressure to continue operations under VFR in conditions that do not technically allow them is extremely dangerous and a common cause of fatal accidents in the industry. Conversely, there is no point in paying the incremental cost for an IFR capability if this is not required and the en-route and destination navigation aids required for it do not exist at the operating locations. One exception to the above is helicopter flight over water, when an IFR capability is always recommended because of the increased safety margins derived from higher standards of training of aircrew and higher aircraft equipment standards that attend this capability. The capability is especially important in marginal conditions when horizon is indistinct and sea surface lacks texture, again a common cause of fatal accidents.

2.2.1.15.

2.3. 2.3.1.

Use of Non-Pressurised Aircraft To improve the margins of safety, pressurised aircraft should be used wherever possible on flights above an altitude of 10,000 feet - where such an option is not available, the Aviation Adviser may approve the use of non-pressurised aircraft taking into account such factors as aircraft type, operator, terrain, weather patterns, airfields, navigation and approach aids, on board oxygen equipment, routing and minimum IFR altitudes. However, wherever possible, the use of non-pressurised passenger carrying aircraft should be limited to those routes where flights can legitimately take place below an altitude of 10,000 feet, with safe terrain clearance under all conditions. This restriction should be reflected in contracts and the supervision of operators. For cargo carrying, approved non-pressurised aircraft and approved operators may be used subject to no passengers being carried above 10,000 feet and the flight crews using oxygen. Limitations of the Helicopter Contrary to popular belief, a helicopter cannot climb vertically and carry out hovering manoeuvres under all conditions. The performance of a particular helicopter is dependent upon three main factors while taking off, hovering and landing. These factors are:2.4.1.1. The effect of increased weight upon the helicopter is self evident, and strict weight limitations are imposed upon the helicopter, because of aerodynamic limitations and structural considerations. Increases in both altitude and temperature will reduce air density. Under conditions of reduced density, the rotor system of a helicopter becomes less efficient, which means that its lifting ability or performance is reduced. As wind speed increases, the performance, and therefore the lifting ability of the rotor system increases. At a wind speed of some 15 knots (25 km/h) or greater, the airflow pattern through the rotor system changes, and a phenomenon known as translational lift takes effect. The effect of this is to reduce the amount of power required for the helicopter to hover under a given set of conditions. As the wind speed factor is not, of course, controllable, it cannot be taken into account at the planning stage, although if wind blows during the actual operation, it becomes a bonus.

2.3.2.

2.3.3.

2.4. 2.4.1.

2.4.1.2.

2.4.1.3.

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2.4.1.4.

Thus, from the foregoing, the worst conditions in which to operate a helicopter, are, a hot and high environment, at a high gross weight, with no wind. The ability of a helicopter to climb vertically, hover at various heights (more power is required to hover above 30 ft. (10m.) over the ground, than below it) and manoeuvre in these flight regimes is dependent upon the amount of excess power which is available under the prevailing air density, air temperature and gross weight conditions. The greater the power available in excess of that required to hover at approximately 6 ft. (2m) skid or wheel height, the greater the flexibility the pilot will have in choosing his flight path. However, if the helicopter is not carrying the maximum load possible, it is not operating at its most cost effectiveness. It is therefore, unusual for the pilot to have that flexibility and he is forced to follow a very strictly defined procedure or flight path. He will not have the ability to climb vertically to a high hover, may not have the ability to take-off in the safest direction, as he has to take-off into wind, and when landing, may not be able to follow the safest route, because he has to land into wind. Thus, to maximise cost effectiveness, the pilot would be forced to compromise flexibility, and ultimately safety. Therefore, for safety reasons. it is sometimes necessary to reduce the payload. For specialist operations, such as long-line sling operations, which require the helicopter to hover at heights often in excess of 100 ft. (27m), the payload will have to be reduced considerably. In addition to these considerations, current twin engined helicopters spend a short period of time, some 1 or 2 seconds, during the early stages of a take-off, and the late stages of an approach to landing, when they will be unable to continue flight in the event of failure of one engine. Thus, on every take-off there is a need to rapidly achieve full single engine flying capability, and on every landing the final speed reduction is delayed, to maintain single engine flying capability, for as long as possible. In the event that an engine fails while the aircraft is exposed in either of these two flight regimes, the pilot will be committed to a landing straight ahead. This means that landing areas need to be of certain minimum dimensions to provide a suitable landing area in the event of an engine failure while in the critical area of flight.

2.4.1.5.

2.4.1.6.

2.4.1.7.

2.5. 2.5.1.

Aircraft: Oil Related Operations The use of aircraft in oil related operations, can greatly assist both production and marketing by accelerating the job programme. In addition to offshore support, there are four major areas in oil related operations where aircraft are used. These are:Gravimetric and Seismic Work 2.5.1.1. Small to medium sized aircraft, fixed wing and helicopter, are of great value to ground geophysical parties in both the transport and support role. They are able to move men and equipment quickly over terrain which would be impenetrable at surface level, thus speeding up the operation. Helicopters are normally used for seismic support, and by the continual preparation of landing sites for temporary use, rapid progress can be made through the area. This factor and the time taken in construction and preparation of sites has a very significant impact on the cost of operation. However, there is a higher risk involved in helicopter support of seismic operations than in most other helicopter operations. All possible precautions should therefore be taken to minimise the effect of an aircraft accident.

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Drilling Rig Movement by Air 2.5.1.2. If a drill string can be moved into a location and out again quickly to the next one, substantial savings can be made, helping to offset the ever-increasing drilling costs. Aerial transport of helirigs may be cheaper than construction of surface access roads or canals, the costs of which are not recoverable. The speedy movement of equipment also reduces the cost of committed surface support equipment. The advantages of speed will help in the fulfilment of lease obligations and concession requirements generally. The use of air transport is complex, and planning presents many difficulties such as assessing comparative costs of equipment positioning, rig breakdown weights, terrain conditions and geographical location, all of which must be evaluated before a decision can be made. The advice of the Aviation Adviser should invariably be sought by any Company contemplating such an operation.

Helicopter/Tanker Operations 2.5.1.3. The use of helicopters to transfer stores and personnel between tankers at sea and a land base is now accepted practice which involves special procedures and safety precautions. The International Chamber of Shipping under the title of "Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations" and is the standard work on the subject. Any Company likely to become involved with this type of operation should seek specialist advice from the Aviation Adviser.

Communications 2.5.1.4. This is the broadest area of the four, and can be subdivided into three general classes:a. b. c. 2.5.1.5. senior management transport, general staff transport, general freight.

Costing of projects of this kind is complex, and there are many factors which must be considered in relation to one another. While there are many cases where the application of transport aircraft of the right type will result in considerable savings in cost and time, there are others which show that such savings are marginal or non-existent.

2.6. 2.6.1.

Numbers of Aircraft Required for the Task Estimation of numbers of aircraft required is not always straightforward, and varies depending on the possible fleet composition - that is whether aircraft are fixed wing, helicopter or both, and whether one is dependent on the other as in, for example, offshore crew changes originating from a shore airfield where changeovers take place.

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2.6.2.

Generally speaking, turboprop and jet fixed wing aircraft are more reliable and likely to remain available for planned use than turbine engined helicopters: this is purely because of the larger number of moving parts on any helicopter, and the greater maintenance effort and "downtime" required to maintain serviceability. Numbers of fixed wing aircraft required can therefore be estimated on the assumption that planned availability will be approaching 100%: this will be ensured by careful attention to forthcoming maintenance requirements on any given aircraft at the time of commencing a contract, and by accurate forecasting of scheduled maintenance which can be brought forward (or in certain cases slightly delayed) to coincide with, for example a period of slackened activity. If this does not suit the Company, it may be possible to lease in a replacement aircraft for a limited period. Almost inevitably, despite their generally excellent serviceability, turboprop or jet aircraft will suffer unscheduled 'snags' from time to time. If this unavailability can be taken up by use of helicopters in lieu, or can simply be absorbed, then there is no case for having a spare aircraft on site. If however, it is essential that the flying task is carried out 100% with only minor delays acceptable, then it makes sense to have a spare available, either permanently or on an ad hoc basis. Obviously the utilisation (hours used per month) will have some bearing on the overall fleet establishment. The greater the planned utilisation, the more necessary it becomes to provide an increased number of aircraft. Provided aircrew and maintenance staff are available in sufficient numbers to ensure planned use, turboprop aircraft can be expected to fly at least 150 hours per month, daylight use only considered. Jet executive aircraft, because of their more specialised use, will seldom fly more than 100 hours per month though there is no reason why this should not be exceeded if necessary. In E & P Companys employing helicopters for offshore support, it is general practice to provide a spare helicopter to ensure the flying task is met in full. Cost of the additional helicopter has to be weighed against numerous factors including the penalty cost to the Company of downtime on rigs offshore, cost of waiting for specialist oil field contractors and employee relations. The method of providing the spare machine will vary depending on the locality of use: in remote areas, a permanent on site "spare", which is in fact rotated within the fleet on the daily flying programme, is a sensible example of a hull contract dedicated machine. In places where there is a great deal of helicopter activity, such as Aberdeen, it is possible to enter into a service contract where the machines used are drawn from a pool of like types providing service to a number of clients. Broadly speaking, the same philosophy applies to provision of spare aircraft for seismic support and helirig operations, where non completion of the flying task can have serious operational and financial consequences. Both seismic and helirig activities generally take place in unfriendly environments, and it is practice never to have less than two helicopters on site regardless of task. The second machine must be available and serviceable to undertake SAR missions in case of accident to the first machine. Flying operations would not normally take place in the event of unserviceability of one helicopter, unless a reliable alternative means of SAR was available. Like their fixed wing counterparts, modern medium twin engined helicopters can be expected to provide 125 hours or more per month. Competent spares backup will be required to realise this utilisation for extended periods due to the need to change rotating assemblies at regular intervals based on accumulated flying hours. In all cases, the Aviation Adviser can advise on the optimum number of aircraft required for any particular task.

2.6.3.

2.6.4.

2.6.5.

2.6.6.

2.6.7.

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2.7. 2.7.1.

Availability of Types vs Optimum Requirement In ideal conditions the most suitable type of aircraft will always be identified and contracted, usually after an invitation to tender has been extended to approved contractors. Factors which may adversely influence procurement of the optimum types for the job include:Shortage of Time 2.7.1.1. Desirable types may not be available due to commitment to other clients. The time factor may also affect mobilisation if this is over a long distance.

Operating Licence 2.7.1.2. Some countries will not permit use of civil aircraft which are not already on the register of civil aircraft of that state. Normally it is possible to get round this problem by importing aircraft to work on the licence or operating permit of companies already in the state.

Military or Government Aircraft 2.7.1.3. As covered in 2.9, these bodies may insist on use of specific types either military or civil, and whether approved or not for Company use. Influence on costs and operating standards in such cases is likely to be minimal.

Military or Government Aircrew 2.7.1.4. If the qualifications, experience and observed safety standards of imposed aircrew are seen to be unacceptable, it may be possible to specify use of an aircraft type which is not in service with that Military or Government, in which case, certainly for a while at least, suitably qualified pilots may be imported complete with the aircraft. In these circumstances, the aircraft used may not be ideal practically, but from the safety viewpoint entirely acceptable.

Commercial 2.7.1.5. Differences in bid prices for various types of aircraft may point to use of a particular machine. Before deciding, however, a careful comparison of costs between the optimum operational type and the economically preferable type will have to be carried out taking utilisation into account, as this will vary according to the size and speed of the contenders.

2.8. 2.8.1.

Aircraft Data Aircraft type and mark specifications vary widely and are constantly changing as modifications are incorporated. Any attempt to publish data for use by Companys therefore has inherent dangers and the Aviation Adviser should be consulted in all cases. Aircraft Support For Company Operations By Military Or Government Owned Or Sponsored Organisations When an Operating Company requires air support and the national situation demands that such service be provided by the military, or government owned or sponsored civil operators, the initiative in setting standards, improving performance, achieving operational reliability and negotiating costs is invariably restricted.

2.9.

2.9.1.

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2.9.2.

Some of the more liberal sponsored civil operators will welcome and respond to the Aviation Adviser involvement. It may not, however, be always possible to negotiate costs and as normal contractual relationships do not exist, there are no "rights of review" and choice of aircraft, personnel or support facilities may not be available. Even if a "review" is agreed, there may still be no free access to information, freedom of speech, acceptance of adverse reporting or realistic hope of action on recommendations. The problems presented to an Company when obliged to use the aviation services of the above types of organisation, can range from very difficult to the normal day to day hassle experienced with any contractor. However, in the better cases, an almost normal client-customer relationship can exist, albeit with the background knowledge that the contractor can call the tune particularly when it comes to charging for services rendered. In all cases, with a tendering exercise denied, there is no control of costs at the outset and subsequent price increases for whatever reason cannot be contested with any chance of success. In consequence, normal methods of assessing operating costs cannot apply and contingencies must be expected. A further factor which may have a significant impact on the operation is that less than ideal aircraft types may have to be accepted with consequent incremental costs for facilities, (e.g. longer/possibly paved runways, larger seismic helipads/clearings) and factors such as range, payload/capacity, speed, ease of operation and fuel consumption are not controllable. Reliability and smooth running of an operation is controlled by choice of aircraft, operations and maintenance staff, and procedures, availability of spare parts, and back-up aircraft. None of these is truly negotiable in such a situation. Difficulties are by no means confined to military operators, and monopoly operators can and do present equally intractable fronts. The difficulty of highlighting unsatisfactory or dangerous situations in these circumstances is of serious concern because of the unknown and possibly considerable risks to Company personnel. It is appreciated that when a concession agreement is negotiated there are many aspects to be considered and that air transport may be considered a relatively minor item. However, the decision to embark on an operation in the above circumstances should be taken at the highest level after due consideration. If concern is registered with the authority at an early stage, it may be possible to influence some of the conditions normally set.

2.9.3.

2.9.4.

2.9.5.

2.9.6.

2.9.7.

2.9.8.

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CHAPTER 3 - CONTRACTS AND APPROVALS ..............................................................................3-3 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. SCHEDULED CARRIERS .......................................................................................................3-3 SOLE USE AIRCRAFT SERVICES .........................................................................................3-3 BID LIST .................................................................................................................................3-4 AIRCRAFT TYPE APPROVAL................................................................................................3-5 Procedure for Approval ....................................................................................................3-5 Aircraft Types, Marks and Modifications .........................................................................3-5 Military Aircraft Types.......................................................................................................3-5 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 3.8. 3.9. APPROVAL AND REVIEW PROCEDURES ............................................................................3-5 INVITATIONS TO TENDER.....................................................................................................3-7 SELECTION OF TENDERERS................................................................................................3-7 TENDER EVALUATION ..........................................................................................................3-7 CONTRACT FORMULATION..................................................................................................3-8 Definitions .........................................................................................................................3-8 Insurance...........................................................................................................................3-8 Availability.........................................................................................................................3-9 Maintenance Considerations............................................................................................3-9 Training Costs...................................................................................................................3-9 3.10. ROUGH COSTING GUIDE ......................................................................................................3-9 Fixed Costs .......................................................................................................................3-9 Variable Costs.................................................................................................................3-10 3.11. TURNKEY OPERATIONS .....................................................................................................3-10 3.12. CONTRACTOR/OPERATOR PERFORMANCE MONITORING.............................................3-11 Contractor Safety Record and Philosophy towards Safety ..........................................3-11 Contractor Responsibilities............................................................................................3-12

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CONTRACTS AND APPROVALS
3.1. 3.1.1. Scheduled Carriers When the numbers of personnel required to be moved are relatively small and the Company's operational requirement can be met by the use of scheduled fixed wing carriers then these will invariably prove the cheapest method of moving personnel by air. However, Companies has no "right of review" for scheduled operations. Before being granted a licence to carry passengers on scheduled air services, an aircraft operator will have been subjected to an examination by the relevant authority in the country of registration, and this in many countries provides a stringent control. In some countries, however, confidence in the relevant authority examinations may not be so well founded and the quality of scheduled operations is by no means assured. The Aviation Adviser recognises the concerns that may exist on the use of certain scheduled airlines and is available to provide limited advice based on general industry knowledge and observation, and to assist in producing guidelines for use of scheduled carriers. Where, however, there remains serious doubt about the standard of scheduled operations, then the only recourse is to establish a corporate aircraft or to arrange ad-hoc or sole use charter of suitable aircraft; in either case the Aviation Adviser's advice should be sought. Where a scheduled carrier also performs charter work there may be different operating standards, aircraft, crews and maintenance procedures. Moreover, the nature of a sole use charter is often quite different from flying scheduled operations. In such cases the Aviation Adviser would be entitled to review, and an review would be appropriate since, for any charter operation, the Company must assume responsibility for employee safety. Sole Use Aircraft Services In companies using dedicated aircraft, there are two types of management; those employing a Contractor, and those operating their own aircraft. The decision whether to own and operate aircraft, whether to charter, or a combination of both, is likely to depend on the duration of the requirement and its degree of specialisation. The principal advantage of a company owning and operating its own aircraft, is that in the long term, substantial cost savings will accrue from the elimination of the Contractor's profit and the reduction of the contingencies factor which all Contractors include in their contract price. In addition to these savings, there may also be considerable tax advantages to be gained by owning aircraft. A company owned and operated aircraft operation benefits from unquestioned employee loyalty, and their identification with aims. Management can also maintain a much tighter control of an in-house operation. Using a Contractor, on the other hand, also has its advantages. The capital commitment is avoided, and the day to day administration of the operation becomes the responsibility of the Contractor. The second point is to a degree offset in practice as the performance of the Contractor has in turn to be monitored, and his administration checked. A third major point in favour of using Contractors, is that they are required to provide their own specialist qualified personnel, and, on termination of the contract, be responsible for them. This eliminates the requirement for the company to recruit such specialised personnel, and then provide suitable career development.

3.1.2.

3.1.3.

3.2. 3.2.1.

3.2.2.

3.2.3.

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3.2.4.

Under certain circumstances a combination of the two alternatives may be the best solution to a particular problem. It may be worthwhile leasing aircraft, providing company flight crew, and contracting the maintenance to an outside organisation, or, owning the aircraft and contracting the provision of both the operational and maintenance personnel to an outside organisation. There is obviously a wide choice when taking into account considerations of this nature, and great care must be taken to make the correct decision. Use of resources is valuable in enabling companies to maintain standards, and, if no suitable Contractor and/or aircraft are available, to assist in achieving their goal. If the decision is taken to set up a Company operation under any of the above categories, then the Aviation Adviser has the necessary experience to advise closely on all operational and technical matters. Bid List If it is decided to put the whole or any part of the aircraft operation out to contract, then the choice of the Contractor is the next consideration. It should be noted that in order to provide a satisfactory service the Contractor's aircraft type and the Contractor's operations should be of a standard that can be approved by the Aviation Adviser. For reasons of economy, and sometimes political necessity, a list of local operators with the perceived potential to perform the required service should be drawn up. In regions where the Company has maintained a presence for some time, the Aviation Adviser is likely to be able to respond rapidly with general guidance on suitability of operators for inclusion in a bid list. In any case, The Aviation Adviser should be requested to carry out an operational and technical review of these operators if their approval is not current (normal validity one year). In some cases, although local operators abound in the concession area, they may lack the necessary equipment or personnel to perform satisfactorily the contract services from their own resources. If this is the case, then it will be appropriate either to invite tenders only from established international operators, or if local circumstances dictate, to invite tenders only from local operators with the support of an international aviation company. For very specialised work such as helirig support it may be necessary to insist on aircraft, crews and operational and administrative organisation being provided directly by the major operator, using the local company only as the licence holder. Satisfactory results have been achieved by using various combinations, but great care should be taken to include only companies capable of performing cost effectively and, above all, safely on the contract bid list to avoid possible later recriminations. While it is acceptable but not desirable to invite tenders from operators "subject to successful review", contract award should never be made subject to this condition. The bid list ideally should contain only approved operators. Another factor to consider when compiling bid lists is the performance, based on past experience if any, of individual operators. This assessment should include safety record, "value for money", ease of administration, performance on contract and ability to continue to provide high quality service in the type of activity required.

3.2.5.

3.3. 3.3.1.

3.3.2.

3.3.3.

3.3.4.

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3.4. 3.4.1.

Aircraft Type Approval Great care must be taken in selecting a specific type of aircraft. Procedure for Approval 3.4.1.1. Before considering a particular type of aircraft for use, the management should seek advice from the Aviation Adviser on its operational suitability for the job, and technical safety and reliability. Approval of a particular type (or sub type) of aircraft will be granted only after an exhaustive review of technical and in-service operational reliability, usually in an environment similar to that envisaged. To assist in this, liaison is maintained with aircraft manufacturers and operators world-wide. Accidents and incidents are reviewed for the purposes of establishing trends and monitoring corrective action. Due to the complicated nature of helicopters (of which only turbine powered models will be approved) and the relatively small number of types, these are kept under constant review, and response to a type approval query will be more or less immediate. The large number and variations of aeroplane types, however, means that if approval is required for a type that has not previously seen service, extended research may have to be undertaken. This process will take from several days to some weeks if the aircraft is not on the register of a state to whose records the Aviation Adviser has reasonable access.

3.4.1.2.

3.4.1.3.

Aircraft Types, Marks and Modifications 3.4.1.4. While the ultimate decision to use an unapproved type (e.g. for a one-off ad hoc charter) must rest with the Chief Executive, it is strongly recommended that only approved types be considered. In this context it should be noted that an apparently small change in the type reference number may indicate a significant difference in performance or reliability and therefore require individual research. Furthermore, the safety and reliability of some unapproved types is poor, and much worse than their approved counterparts.

Military Aircraft Types 3.4.1.5. Because of the lack of readily available safety and reliability information, the use of military aircraft of any type without exhaustive review will not be approved.

3.5. 3.5.1.

Approval and Review Procedures The Aviation Adviser provides specialist advice to companies who contract aircraft on a regular or occasional basis, or wish to screen locally available aircraft services. The advice and assistance available is aimed at ensuring the safe and efficient use of aircraft, partly achieved by carrying out operational, technical and limited financial reviews on Contractors. These reviews are carried out before aircraft are contracted and during contract periods on a regular on-going basis. The Aviation Adviser aims to approve aircraft operators by establishing that they are of a suitable standard for the provision of service to the Companies and their Contractors. This implies not only a high standard of aircraft maintenance and operation, but also an assessment of the operator's ability to provide a reliable and efficient service.

3.5.2.

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3.5.3.

The authority to issue an approval for an aircraft operator to carry Company or Contractors personnel should be vested only in the Aviation Adviser. This policy determines that in view of the far-reaching implications of aircraft operator approvals, criteria applied are consistent and interpreted by personnel with appropriate experience, and suitably removed from possible internal pressures. Aviation advisers are available to carry out operational and technical reviews of aircraft operators, and for tendering purposes, the object is to establish by detailed inspection of operational and maintenance procedures, whether an operator is competent to tender on the contract. The procedure normally includes an assessment of management, administration, and all operational and technical procedures and standards. A comment on financial status is desirable, and aircraft types considered suitable will be itemised as being available for use by the Company. The review may also include providing the contractor with the E&P Forum Questionnaire/Checklist to be completed prior to visiting the contractor, followed up by a formal review of the contractor. To complete reviews prior to issue of invitations to tender, it is advisable to give as much notice as possible of the requirement, preferably three months, in order to assist in programme planning. Sufficient notice will also assist in reducing costs where possible, by combining visits within a region. Similarly, for a recurrent review, the Aviation Adviser will liaise with the Company to agree a visit programme in good time. In order to be of value, sufficient time must be allocated to an review visit, to enable the adviser to inspect operational and crew training procedures, engineering facilities and maintenance control procedures. Inspection of an actual flight is a requirement and should be representative of the type of service required by the company, and over a relevant route. Alternatively a representative training flight (e.g. a base check) is normally acceptable. However, a ten minute demonstration confined to the airport vicinity would be of little value. If the review is required only to place the operator on a list of possible providers of ad hoc services, it may not be possible to justify the time and expense of an inspection flight. Conversely, if the contract is for provision of a sole-use aircraft, then inspection of a representative flight, if necessary by arrangement with another oil company or similar client, is considered essential. The time taken to review a small (say 2 or 3 aircraft) ad hoc operator by one adviser may be up to one working day, but in any event not less than five working hours. Inspection of a large company operating from several bases may take a number of days depending on the size and complexity of the company and travelling time involved between bases. Frequency of an Aviation Adviser review will depend on various factors and is assessed according to a formula taking account of area and type of operations, safety record, exposure, whether or not there is a specialist aviation focal point and the result of the previous review. Normally, the period of approval is for one year, but can be less if a follow-up review is required to ensure certain recommendations have been carried out. Conversely, it can be extended by up to two years if exposure is low in a well regulated environment and where close and expert supervision is exercised by the focal point. Extension to the approval period can only be given by the Aviation Adviser. When a review is being carried out, the Adviser will also assess which of the aircraft operated and/or available is on the Aviation Adviser list of Approved Aircraft Types, and he will make recommendations on their suitability for use by Company or Contractors personnel.

3.5.4.

3.5.5.

3.5.6.

3.5.7.

3.5.8.

3.5.9.

3.5.10.

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3.5.11.

A general report will be made for management, covering all aspects of the visit, and making recommendations where appropriate, which may be applicable only to the operating area. Individual reports will also be made on the visit to each aircraft operator and it is left to the discretion of the company management to forward this report to the Contractor concerned. The reports are written with the intention of giving constructive criticism and recommendations, and are usually, although not exclusively received in the right spirit. As a general rule, it is beneficial for the report to be passed to the aircraft operator, although in some cases certain information may be confidential to companies. Where confidentiality is stated in a report it should be treated accordingly. Aircraft operators must be made fully aware of the scope of a review. The requirements may be provided in the form of the E&P Forum Questionnaire/Checklist. They must realise that if standards are not sufficiently high, or that if they are seen as unlikely to improve to an acceptable standard in a reasonable period, they will be disqualified from operating on Company business. If an operator should refuse a review visit, that operator will automatically be dropped from the approved list of carriers. Invitation to Tender (ITT) In order that tenders from all operators on the bid list may be assessed and evaluated on an equitable basis, it is essential that invitations to tender be standardised and adequately detailed, particularly in the area of aircraft payload and performance and provision of supporting facilities by Company and Contractor respectively. In aircraft performance, seemingly small variations of temperature and altitude can have a large effect on the maximum weight authorised for take off of a particular aircraft. It is therefore important that competing tenderers use the same parameters for calculation of this maximum weight. The available payload will be further affected by the basic weight of the aircraft when prepared for service, and this may vary significantly from machine to machine, although Contractors will often quote for a fleet average which may or may not be representative. Selection of Tenderers There is a fine balance between selecting sufficient tenderers to promote competition and having too many companies bidding for work who have not got any chance of winning the contract. No one should be included on a bid list unless they meet operating guidelines and have a chance of winning the contract. The actual exercise of putting a tender together is expensive for Contractors and if their efforts are perceived as being wasted this could have a detrimental effect on future relations. Where practicable, the tenderers selected should be taken from those that have a current review approval. Where a non reviewed Contractor is invited to tender, it is highly desirable that it be informed that an aviation review will be conducted of the probable candidate with award of work dependent upon a satisfactory outcome. Tender Evaluation Commercial evaluation of tenders may appear a simple process, and if all competing aircraft operators submitted unconditional bids, this might be the case. In practice however, variations in modification and equipment status of similar aircraft types operated by different companies results in differing quotations of aircraft performance and specification. When such operational or technical conditions are placed on a tender, the evaluation becomes more complicated and decisions need to be taken with some degree of judgement, taking into account both cost and operational impact of variations.

3.5.12.

3.6. 3.6.1.

3.7. 3.7.1.

3.7.2.

3.7.3.

3.8. 3.8.1.

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3.8.2.

In order to maintain a visible display of detachment on behalf of those conducting the evaluation, it is recommended that the weighting of the relative importance of particular factors to be addressed in the evaluation be agreed and recorded prior to opening the tender. This may allot weightings to different aircraft types, speed, comfort, existing operational knowledge etc., but there should be no attempt to try to evaluate safety record as a weighting. If an operator does not meet the required safety standards they will not be considered for the work in the first place. Contract Formulation The Aviation Advisor should provide assistance and recommendations pertaining to the technical and operational aspects of the contract. Aircraft contracts are highly specialised documents and even though check lists, standard conditions and standard contracts may be made available by the Aviation Adviser, there are many pitfalls in contract formulation, and therefore contracts should be prepared by contract administrators in conjunction with the company’s legal staff. Some of the issues to be considered in contract formulations are as follows: Definition of "Flying Hours" 3.9.2.1. Flying Hours are defined as "the period between which the aircraft takes off and lands". It is proposed that this definition continue to be used, although there are now a number of options available to aircraft operators under their maintenance schedules which can allow significant differences in the methods of recording time for the life and overhaul of components. It is important that this definition is made clear in the contract document, as it is otherwise impossible to compare the various bids. Whatever arrangement is made, it must be easily administered and not liable to misinterpretation. Some Contractors will try and argue for "Block Hours" to be the measure used, because the block hours will invariably be more than the flying hours, and can considerably increase their profit margins. Whatever unit is used, it is essential to 'normalise' these between contractors during any tender evaluation.

3.8.3.

3.9. 3.9.1.

3.9.2.

3.9.2.2.

Insurance 3.9.2.3. The levels of insurance quoted in the specimen contract document for use on contracted aircraft are under constant review by insurance, in the light of the relevant fluctuating indices. Any amendments which it is felt necessary to implement will be notified immediately to all Companies holding current aircraft service agreements. While the risks of under-insurance are obvious, it is equally important not to over-insure as the cost of the excess insurance borne by the Contractor is fed straight back to the Company, directly increasing the cost of operating. Equally important is the status and financial standing of the insurance company providing the cover. If local expertise is not available to assess this, the insurance department can provide advice.

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Availability 3.9.2.4. It must be appreciated that the Operator needs time to maintain their aircraft and the availability clause should be drafted to allow that with minimum interference to the operation. The availability clause used as a standard defines the amount of unavailability which is allowed within the contract and the conditions under which time not available will not be counted as unavailability for the purpose of reducing the Standing Charge paid to the Contractor.

Maintenance Considerations 3.9.2.5. A reasonable amount of scheduled maintenance downtime must be allowed in hull contracts if no spare aircraft is included. If spare aircraft are included no additional allowance should be made for either scheduled or unscheduled maintenance. This may lead to a reduction in the number of aircraft available on a particular day, and this should be set out by the Company in agreement with the Contractor. The scheduled maintenance, downtime will have to be assessed by an inspection of the aircraft operators maintenance schedule, which covers such items as the check cycles, the frequency of inspections, and component replacement periods. An allowance of two to three days per month for unscheduled maintenance is also normally included. The Aviation Adviser can provide the necessary expertise to advise on required maintenance downtime allowance, but it is important to detail in the contract what maintenance is to be achieved and the down time allowance set aside for it.

Training Costs 3.9.2.6. Where the aircraft operation includes specialist tasks such as search and rescue or winching, it may be necessary for the aircraft operator to undertake specialised training and/or currency and proficiency checks, subsequent to contract signature, prior to commencing operations, or during the contract period. It is considered reasonable for the Company to reimburse the aircraft operator for the extra costs involved. The cost of providing for normal aircraft type proficiency training and checking and for the renewal of instrument rating is, however, a standard burden, and will normally be reflected in the fixed monthly charge element of contract payments.

3.9.2.7.

3.10. 3.10.1.

Rough Costing Guide Aircraft operating costs are conventionally broken down into fixed and variable cost: Fixed Costs 3.10.1.1. Fixed Costs are those costs which arise whether or not the aircraft flies. They are not affected by the hours flown, remaining relatively unchanged from month to month, and can therefore be forecast with reasonable accuracy. Fixed costs normally include: a. Depreciation b. Interest on capital c. Insurance d. Rental of hangar space and other facilities

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e. Taxes f. Salaries, wages and welfare costs for aircraft personnel g. Professional services, including where applicable private weather information service, personnel membership fees of professional societies, periodical subscriptions, pilot and engineer training and refresher curses and outside medical examinations. h. Administrative costs such as communications, accommodation, office supplies, heating and lighting. Variable Costs 3.10.1.2 Variable costs are directly attributable to the operation of the aircraft, thus they will vary with the utilisation of the aircraft measured in hours flown. Variable costs normally include:a. Fuel and oil. b. Maintenance and repair. c. Materials and supplies necessary for the maintenance of the aircraft but also including catering if applicable. d. Landing and handling fees. e. Crew travelling expenses such as accommodation and meals when away from base. 3.10.2. It is normal practice to charge a profit element only on the fixed costs. The only other significant costs involved in providing aircraft services are Mobilisation and Demobilisation at the start and end of the services. These can be particularly significant for short term contracts, especially if the operation is remote from the supplier of the service. Such costs usually include: Mobilisation Flight to the location. Set up of hangar/office/base facilities, if applicable. Administration in acquiring visas etc. Flight to next location or company base. Closing down/tidying up of a location before leaving.

Demobilisation

3.11. 3.11.1.

Turnkey Operations Turnkey contracts provide a particular challenge for the assurance of flight safety. With the responsibility for supervision delegated to the prime Contractor the danger exists that without direct supervision of the aircraft operator and with the pressing need for the Contractor to stay within budget, the control of flying may not be up to standards nor the needs of this manual met. It is important therefore, that if a turnkey contract is being considered embracing aircraft operations, then the Aviation Adviser's advice be sought on the wording of the contract. It is recommended that the operation be reviewed and approved by the Aviation Adviser, who should also be present before and during operation start-up. In essence: 3.11.2.1. 3.11.2.2. The contract should embrace the Aviation Adviser standard conditions. The aircraft and operator must be approved by the Aviation Adviser.

3.11.2.

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3.11.2.3.

The operation must meet the minimum standards and requirements set by the Aviation Adviser. The Aviation Adviser should be present at the start-up of the operation. The Company's focal point should have the right competence to manage the operation and his responsibility and accountabilities should be clearly set out in his job description. He must have sufficient time to supervise the operation in detail. The focal point should be adequately trained in the special aspects of the operation e.g. seismic work. The contract must allow the focal point and, with the approval of the Company, the Aviation Adviser, free access to the aircraft operator.

3.11.2.4. 3.11.2.5.

3.11.2.6.

3.11.2.7.

3.12. 3.12.1.

Contractor/Operator Performance Monitoring Once the contract has been awarded, it is essential for the maintenance of high standards of flight safety, maintenance quality assurance, cost effective utilisation and speedy resolution of problems, that the operator's performance against contract standards and other criteria be continuously monitored. The costs directly and indirectly attributable to aircraft operations are significant and may represent a substantial proportion of an Company's capital and operating budget. Where this is the case, and aircraft are contracted on a sole-use base, the most satisfactory method of monitoring performance and maintaining standards is to introduce a position of Head of Aircraft Services, filled by a trained employee. Additionally, in seismic operations, it may be found advantageous to employ a Seismic Aviation Supervisor who will both monitor performance and control the flying programme on site. The position in the company reporting relationship will inevitably vary, but it has been found appropriate in companies making sole use of say 5 - 6 aircraft, for the incumbent to report to the Operations Manager. In the case of a large offshore Company, employing also significant numbers of vehicles and marine craft, the aviation commitment clearly belongs within the Logistics function. With the aim of achieving measurable performance and safety data on operators of sole use or ad hoc contracts it is necessary to collect and collate information from Companies on their usage of aircraft services, and their assessment of reliability and the quality of the service provided. This will necessitate regular reports from Heads of Aircraft Service, where the position is established, and these will also be invited from all Companies using aircraft services. Such information sent to the Aviation Adviser is not only useful for the monitoring of safety and utilisation but will lead to the compilation of performance ratings, which will be used for influencing selection for the "bid list", and allocation of a weighting factor, if possible in financial terms, prior to putting the contract out to tender and for subsequent use in the tender evaluation. Contractor Safety Record and Philosophy towards Safety 3.12.3.1. Aircraft operators' safety and accident/incident records are monitored by the Aviation Adviser and adverse trends may be considered sufficient to withdraw approval, or removal from the bid list. While many countries require by law the reporting of specific types of occurrence and others operate a voluntary system (there are good arguments for each system or a combination, so long as there is a system), guidelines have been developed for the use of Companies in the reporting of accidents or incidents suffered by operators engaged on contracted operations.

3.12.2.

3.12.3.

3.12.4.

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Contractor Responsibilities 3.12.3.2. It is the responsibility of the Contractor to comply with:a. All laws and regulations for the time being in force in the area of operations relating to the employment, recruitment and conditions of service of workmen and other employees or relating to or affecting any of the operations under the Agreement. b. All permits, licences, or clearance which are granted by competent authorities to either the Company or the Contract in connection with the operations under the Agreements. c. All instructions, practices and procedures as to the safety welfare of workmen and other employees which the Company may from time to time recommend to the Contractor. 3.12.3.3. Prior to the start of any contract, the Contractor should submit a proposed list of personnel, with whom he proposes to man the operation, to the Company concerned. If at any stage during the contract, the Contractor wishes to change any of the accepted personnel, or if additional personnel are required, the same procedure should be followed. These personnel details should be examined by the Company aviation representative, to see if the proposed staff meet the required standards of experience, as laid down in the standard conditions. Under normal circumstances, only personnel who meet these rigid experience requirements will be acceptable to operate on operations. Although the aircraft operator may be approved, if during the period of validity a new type of aircraft should be acquired, even if that type is already approved by the Aviation Adviser, the company would not automatically be approved to operate that type. The reason for this is that the Aviation Adviser would wish to ensure that the necessary levels of skill and experience for both pilots and engineers on that type, and the required level of technical and spares support, has also been acquired. Notwithstanding routine renewals, however, an aviation adviser should be made available at short notice if a Company has cause for concern and so requests. In case of accident to an aircraft contracted to, it would be expected that an adviser, experienced in aircraft accident investigation techniques would immediately be despatched to the operating area to assist in the Company and for regulatory authority investigations.

3.12.3.4.

3.12.3.5.

3.12.3.6.

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CHAPTER 4 - AIR TRANSPORT ADMINISTRATION.......................................................................4-3 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. GENERAL ............................................................................................................................... 4-3 START UP OF OPERATIONS ................................................................................................4-3 RESOURCING STRATEGY ....................................................................................................4-3 SCHEDULING/FLIGHT AUTHORISATION.............................................................................4-4 PASSENGER HANDLING AND MANIFESTING .....................................................................4-4 COMPILATION OF STATISTICS AND RECORDS .................................................................4-5 AIRCRAFT EMERGENCY PROCEDURES .............................................................................4-6 Aircraft Operators .............................................................................................................4-6

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AIR TRANSPORT ADMINISTRATION
4.1. 4.1.1. General Whether the aircraft operation is company-owned or contracted, the guidance given in Chapters 2 and 3 will help to ensure that the correct number of suitable aircraft, adequately crewed, is available to meet the Company's requirements at the minimum cost. Once the aircraft and personnel are on site and working, however, it is important for safety, operational efficiency and cost control (particularly the variable cost) to ensure that the contract or aviation department is well administered. Much of the routine but essential work such as payload, utilisation, and fuel statistics may be handled by non-specialist personnel, but overall supervision is best carried out by an experienced pilot or engineer able to identify the details that combine to make the difference between a satisfactory and a highly cost-effective operation. Start up of Operations It is important, particularly in a multi-function company, to establish from the beginning of operations, an administrative cell independent of any one user department, in order that the optimum use may be made of the aircraft resources, without any one function or department independently establishing priority. When air operations are difficult due (for example) to climate, altitude or topography, it is recommended that management request the assistance of the Aviation Adviser in providing on-site personnel to set up the necessary procedures and documentation. If the procedures recommended in foregoing sections have been followed, arrival on site approximately 6 weeks before start-up would be adequate, but if there are anticipated difficulties with the local regulatory authorities, then it would be advisable to make an earlier start in order to pre-empt problems. A visit period of 7-10 days would be the norm. Resourcing Strategy One of the features of aircraft utilisation is that it tends to expand with time and familiarity, and unless periodic re-assessments of the requirement are carried out, costs and exposure will rise unnecessarily. While exclusive use of an aircraft generally remains the prerogative of senior management, there is a tendency for individual departments to demand aircraft at the same (convenient) times and this rapidly leads to extra aircraft being required on site in order to cover peak periods. The maximum monthly availability of an aircraft will vary with its complexity and the operating environment, but the range of 110-170 hours per month is an indication, and clearly the most efficient utilisation will be achieved by filling the available payload at all times, if necessary calling at several locations to embark and disembark passengers rather than originating special flights for each location. The number of aircraft and crew coverage required should be based on information researched by the department responsible for transport administration, and will preferably be based on a 'seat-mile' requirement per department, which is readily converted to flying hours.

4.1.2.

4.2. 4.2.1.

4.2.2.

4.3. 4.3.1.

4.3.2.

4.3.3.

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4.3.4.

At this stage a judgement has to be made as to whether it is more efficient to employ one larger aircraft (which will generally give lower costs per seat mile) or two smaller aircraft, which will be less cost-efficient but give flexibility of operation. It is vital that user departments be made fully aware of the overall costs of aircraft operations, and be made accountable for their proportion of the budget. Actual utilisation against forecast should be circulated to user departments and taken into account when reviewing resource levels. It is recommended that strict control be exercised on the shipping of freight by air. While there may be cases where there is no alternative, and airlifting perishables may be justified, without tight control the situation may arise in which passengers are taking lower priority than non-urgent freight and this should not be tolerated. In U.K., Europe and America, where aircraft may be made available from a reasonably large pool, it will probably be satisfactory formally to review the requirement on an annual basis, as, provided the contract is appropriately written, additional aircraft may be acquired and surplus released at reasonably short notice. In less developed parts of the world it is important to consider the regional market for provision of aircraft service, before settling on the review period. Low availability and reliability may make the consideration of a company operation worthwhile, and high mobilisation/ demobilisation costs dictate careful forecasting of requirements. Scheduling/Flight Authorisation In addition to aiding the control of costs, an efficient flight booking and scheduling organisation is essential in order to ensure that only authorised passengers with a clear need to travel are able to make use of company air transport. Most well established Companies will have a 'Manual of Authority' or similar document which should contain a section referring to the authority levels required for bookings of seats on aircraft, and thus provide the basis of booking procedures. Booking and scheduling functions may either form part of the Transport department planning cell, when marine and land transport is also employed, or may be located within the Aviation department. There are pros and cons in both arrangements, but the essential requirement is for strict control of seat allocation in a function independent of any one user department, and for recording and subsequent analysis of actual payload utilisation. It is often stated, particularly in exploration companies, that the style of operation requires total flexibility of aviation support, and it is true that ad hoc requirements will form a proportion of the activity. It has been shown however, that time spent in planning aircraft routing and cargo loading in advance is well spent and results in considerable cost savings. Even in the most transient of operations it will be possible to establish a backbone schedule of crew change personnel, management inspection routings etc., on which payload utilisations can be maximised and around which short notice requirements may be fitted. Passenger Handling and Manifesting An efficient system is required for notifying passengers of the details of their flight and for the consignment of cargo. The widespread availability of computers has enabled the automatic manifesting of passengers, from information and allocations stored at the time of booking, and there exists a range of systems suitable for use in differing sizes of operation. By pre-processing of the passenger list, time and effort spent at the check-in point will be minimised.

4.3.5.

4.3.6.

4.3.7.

4.4. 4.4.1.

4.4.2.

4.4.3.

4.4.4.

4.5. 4.5.1.

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4.5.2.

The manifest should contain the following details:a. Aircraft Registration b. Flight Number c. Destination (s) d. ETD e. Aircraft Commander's name f. Passenger list with following details:g. Name h. Nationality and passport no. if international flight or if required for offshore travel i. Weight j. Baggage weight k. Freight list with following details:l. Description (to include reference to UN Classification or I.C.A.O. Code if classified as "Dangerous Goods") m. Weights n. Special Handling Instructions o. In some countries, legislation may allow the use of standard passenger weights for payload calculation purposes, but due to the statistically unreliable sample represented by small helicopters, it is recommended that actual weights be used in these cases. p. Manifests should be signed by a crew member. q. Minimum copies required:i. To be filed and left at point of departure ii. For crew in-flight reference iii. To be left at destination

4.6. 4.6.1.

Compilation of Statistics and Records In order to monitor the performance of the aircraft operator against the requirements of the contract or departmental objectives, it is important to ensure that relevant statistics are compiled and recorded. Items for consideration are as follows:a. Aircraft flying hours (preferably defined as take-off to landing, or else in accordance with contract provisions) b. Pilot flying hours.

4.6.2.

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c. Pilot duty hours. d. Sectors flown (take-off point to next landing point). e. Distance flown. f. Passengers (or freight equivalent) flown per sector (by user function) g. Passenger-miles (or freight equivalent miles) flown (by user function). h. Aircraft availability against contractual provision. i. Delays per schedule. j. Rotors running time (helicopters only). k. Cumulative fixed and flying hour costs. l. Cost/flying hour. 4.6.3. Many of the above headings are common to those required by the EP standard Operations Managers Monthly report, and provide measurable performance criteria for assessment against the objectives that will have been set when establishing the number of aircraft and crews required. By continuous and detailed monitoring of the above statistics, it will be possible to reduce wasted flying time, and also ensure that accountable departments and functions are fed back with adequate information to minimise costs. Aircraft Emergency Procedures Wherever Companies are responsible for the operation of aircraft on a charter basis, management should determine that there exists adequate procedures in the company and adequate resources (if necessary in-house) for search and rescue purposes in the event of aircraft accident or incident. Aircraft Operators 4.7.1.1. The operator has a prime responsibility for determining that his Operations Manual covers all potential aspects of aircraft accident or incident. Contingency planning and the contents of safety and survival equipment specified for carriage in aircraft should be appropriate to the type of terrain to be encountered.

4.7. 4.7.1.

Companies 4.7.1.2. Emergency procedure guides should be produced and distributed throughout the company organisation in order to determine that appropriate personnel are aware of their duties in the event of the procedure being activated. The actual procedure to be followed in the event of aircraft accident will vary somewhat, depending on the environment, functional organisation within the companies, availability of government resources etc., but key elements are as follows:-

4.7.1.3.

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a.

Duty Personnel

-

A nominated co-ordinator must be ready and available at all times, to take over this role. Must be established between base and aircraft in flight, between bases, and between base and a portable set to be used by search parties. Containing equipment appropriate to search and rescue activities in the terrain to be encountered.

b.

Communications

-

c.

Crash Box

-

d.

Rescue Teams

-

Particularly in jungle areas, nominated personnel, with knowledge of the local area should be available to form search parties, and protective clothing and tools should be maintained in a special store, specifically for use in emergency. Equipment such as bush knives, chain saws, bolt croppers etc., may be necessary, and if it is deemed likely that the team will need to be inserted by means of winching from a helicopter, members should be familiarised with this procedure.

4.8.1.4.

The requirement is that effective Search and Rescue cover should exist for all air transport operations. Typical organisational procedures for SAR, crash, and medrescue will be developed by the contractor. This subject is also addressed in Chapter 16.8. The Aviation Adviser's advice should be sought on all occasions. Recommendations can be made on all aspects, including the initial need for company cover down to a suggested list of items to be held in the crash box.

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CHAPTER 5 - AIR TRANSPORT ORGANISATION .......................................................................... 5-3 5.1. 5.2. AIR TRANSPORT SUPERVISOR ........................................................................................... 5-3 PILOTS AND AIRCRAFT ENGINEERS................................................................................... 5-4 Pilot Establishment........................................................................................................... 5-4 Engineering Establishment .............................................................................................. 5-4 5.3. 5.4. OTHER PERSONNEL ............................................................................................................. 5-5 CONTRACTOR LIAISON ........................................................................................................ 5-5

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AIR TRANSPORT ORGANISATION
5.1. 5.1.1. Air Transport Supervisor The prime responsibility of the Air Transport Supervisor is to maintain safe and efficient operating standards in all aspects of the Company's aviation operations and to promote a high standard of flight safety. The responsibilities and accountability of this position should include the following: 5.1.2.1. 5.1.2.2. Provision of aircraft support to meet the needs of the company. Formulation, administration, amendment and control of contracts for the provision of aircraft services. Ensuring that a comprehensive monitoring and recording system is maintained to generate relevant data for evaluation of costs and efficiency of the operation. Controlling scheduling and usage of company contracted aircraft in an efficient manner and supplying records to management and user departments to quantify efficiency. Liaison with requirements. user departments concerning aviation support

5.1.2.

5.1.2.3.

5.1.2.4.

5.1.2.5.

5.1.2.6.

Monitoring the operational and technical performance of the aviation contractor to determine that high standards of flying and maintenance are being practised. Preparation, distribution and amendment of emergency procedures relating to aircraft emergencies. The provision and control of all aviation related facilities including, where appropriate, the supply, storage and quality control of aviation fuel. Responsibility for all contacts, liaisons and negotiations with government bodies concerning the operation of aircraft. Determining that all necessary permits, permissions and licences which are required for the operation of aircraft in support of the Company's business are held or obtained by the aviation contractor and kept in date thereafter. Provision of advice on aviation matters to senior management. Implementation of Company's policy and standards in all areas of the aviation operations.

5.1.2.7.

5.1.2.8.

5.1.2.9.

5.1.2.10.

5.1.2.11. 5.1.2.12.

5.1.3.

The incumbent of this position should have a direct reporting relationship to a sufficiently high level of management to promote effective execution of the foregoing responsibilities and accountabilities and have adequate seniority to deal effectively with user departments.

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5.2. 5.2.1.

Pilots and Aircraft Engineers Although under I.C.A.O. influence there is a trend towards standardisation, and most if not all national governments nominate a department responsible for regulating civil aviation, the depth of knowledge encountered and the quality of control exercised varies throughout the world, from informed and practical guidance, to complete laisser-faire. Both legislation and administration of licensing requirements can be extremely variable. As aircraft become technically more complex - albeit with greater reliability of individual components, it becomes increasingly important that pilots and engineers are adequately qualified and suitably experienced. In the first instance, it is essential that pilots and engineers conform with the licensing requirements of the state of registration of the aircraft operated. If aircraft are registered in a state other than that in which the work is being carried out, then additional requirements may apply. In addition, to determine as far as possible that Company and contracted personnel are provided with an aircraft service that is safely and efficiently conducted. Specimen guidelines for the minimum qualifications and experience levels acceptable for pilots and engineers employed on contracts may be found in Part 3, Chapters 10 and 11. These may vary within companies and any queries should be referred to the Aviation Advisor. A significant number of incidents and accidents can be attributed to human factors of some kind - what used to be called 'pilot error', and it is strongly recommended that the pilot and engineer qualifications and experience level requirements be included as a standard condition of contract. Experience levels are of necessity detailed and specific as the demands made of a pilot in, for example, seismic operations differ greatly from those made on him in the same aircraft type employed on offshore production support, and dispensations from recommended minima are rarely advised. Pilot Establishment 5.2.4.1. Noting the pilot flight time and duty limitations as laid down at Part 3, Chapter 10, the calculation of the numbers of pilots required on site for an operation is straightforward, but must be based not only on the forecast flying hours, but also the hours of stand-by cover needed. The nominated senior pilot will be required to spend some time in management, administration and monthly returns for the operator and for the Company and these hours must be included in the duty hours calculations. The additional hours will be proportional to the numbers of aircraft and crew employed.

5.2.2.

5.2.3.

5.2.4.

5.2.4.2.

Engineering Establishment 5.2.4.3. Levels of engineering manpower required to provide adequate engineering support of flight operations will be very much dependent on such factors as number and complexity of aircraft to be operated, hours to be flown in support of operations, length of operational day, intensity of weekend operations, requirements for night and weekend maintenance, levels of maintenance to be carried out, etc. Whilst engineers are not subject to the stringencies of flight crew flight and duty hour restrictions, they do require adequate time away from the work-site for rest and relaxation and the labour laws of some countries do in fact lay down the maximum number of overtime hours that can be worked in a given period of time. Guidelines for Company Operations are set out at Part 3 Chapter 11.

5.2.4.4.

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5.2.4.5.

It is recommended that a minimum of two type licensed or approved engineers per type to be operated form part of any establishment. Even in the case of a single aircraft operation, a second A and C engineer is occasionally needed in order to meet the requirement for duplicate inspection of any work which has involved disturbance of the flying or engine controls or any vital points. It should be noted that although this requirement is regarded as mandatory by the UK C.A.A. this is not the case with many other regulatory bodies; it may therefore be necessary to make it a standard condition of contract. The second engineer required to meet this condition need not be directly employed if arrangements can be made to call up such services from another source on an ad hoc basis. Furthermore, in an emergency away from base, a pilot may be authorised to carry out the role of the checking engineer. It is considered essential that where complex aircraft are operated, at least one multi-category avionics and Radio Engineer forms part of the establishment and in the case of smaller less complex machines, such a rated engineer should be available on site at short notice. The manpower loading of the contract operation should be reviewed by the Aviation Adviser to determine that number of personnel assigned and their respective disciplines and qualifications are appropriate for the task.

5.2.4.6.

5.2.4.7.

5.3. 5.3.1.

Other Personnel In considering the personnel required to staff an Air Transport organisation, it is necessary to take into account both the size of the operation and the contractual obligations of the Company and the operator. Thus the number of personnel, and their responsibility will vary. Contractor Liaison It is essential for the smooth running of a contracted operation that a focal point also be nominated within the contractors' organisation, and this will normally be an area manager or Operations Manager. Day to day problems should be discussed between the senior pilot on site and the field Company Supervisor.

5.4. 5.4.1.

5.4.2.

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CHAPTER 6 - AIRFIELDS, RUNWAYS AND THE OPERATION OF FIXED WING AIRCRAFT.........6-3 6.1. 6.2. INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................6-3 REMOTE AIRSTRIP OPERATION ..........................................................................................6-4 Airstrip Inspection ............................................................................................................6-4 Airstrip Inspections Following Rain.................................................................................6-4 Airstrip Manning ...............................................................................................................6-5 Radio Beacon (NDB) .........................................................................................................6-5 Contact with the Aircraft...................................................................................................6-5 Airstrip Weather Report....................................................................................................6-6 After Landing ....................................................................................................................6-7 Extended Transit Time......................................................................................................6-7 Before Departure...............................................................................................................6-7 Night Operations...............................................................................................................6-8 Laying a Flare Path ...........................................................................................................6-9 Security and Picketing......................................................................................................6-9

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AIRFIELDS, RUNWAYS AND THE OPERATION OF FIXED WING AIRCRAFT
6.1. 6.1.1. Introduction The operation of fixed wing aircraft in support of Company activities is a daily occurrence and most of these flights are into licensed airfields. There are, however, occasions when fixed wing air transport is needed to support activities in remote areas. A small airfield may exist in the proposed theatre of operations but its use by local aircraft operators should not be seen as automatic endorsement of its suitability. In all probability the existing runway will need to be extended. Experience has shown that operators of smaller twin engined aeroplanes, and sometimes even the larger twins, all too often find it convenient to disregard the take off and landing performance characteristics of their aircraft. Some pilots are not too familiar with the performance section of the Aircraft Flight Manual and unwittingly expose their passengers to unnecessary exposure which could result in serious injuries. Whilst such an approach to the operation of aircraft is clearly unacceptable, it is not uncommon. The need to extend a runway or restrict the number of passengers is often brought into question . A 1200 m runway for a small 8 seater piston engined twin versus a 1100 m runway for a 19 seater turboprop aircraft also raises questions. Runways are built to accommodate aeroplanes and it is the performance characteristics of the particular aeroplane intended to be used that needs to be considered. As an example, turbo prop aircraft such as a DHC-6 Twin Otter has a Short Take Off and Landing (STOL) performance that far outstrips the performance characteristics of light piston engined twins. It is emphasised that separate criteria apply to a runway used with visual conditions compared to a runway required for instrument conditions. Having decided that fixed wing support is required and either an airfield exists but the runway needs to be extended or an airfield is just not available in the proposed theatre of operations, it is necessary to consult the National Aviation Authorities prior to embarking on any construction work. Assuming an airfield and runway are to be developed it should be made clear to the Authorities that the airfield is intended for use in support of Company activities only and not for public use. Most runways constructed or further developed by the Company are initially used in support of seismic and exploration drilling campaigns and as such are unpaved, visual runways. The need to keep costs to a minimum is understandable but minimum standards must be attained. Furthermore, although these minimum standards are acceptable for a limited traffic flow and a limited period, when operational requirements demand an increase in utilisation or the use of larger aircraft then consideration will need to be given to upgrading the runway and support facilities. International standards and recommended practices in airfield design and operations are set down in Annex 14, Volume 1, of the ICAO document to the Convention on International Civil Aviation; this document is available in English, French, Russian and Spanish and can be obtained by either contacting the National Aviation Authorities. Further guidance is available in UK CAA Publication CAP 168 Licensing of Aerodromes.

6.1.2.

6.1.3.

6.1.4.

6.1.5.

6.1.6.

6.1.7.

6.1.8.

6.1.9.

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Figure 25 Windsocks 6.2. 6.2.1. Remote Airstrip Operation The following guidance applies particularly to the operation of remote airstrips. Airstrip Inspection 6.2.1.1. At remote airstrips an inspection must be at least 60 minutes prior to the ETA of an aircraft. This safety inspection must be made over the full length of the airstrip driving at a low speed of approximately 10 kph. Drivers should keep to the right and watch out for any animals, obstructions, washouts, holes or large stones, etc., in the middle of the area. Stones measuring 4cm or more in diameter should be removed. Repeat the exercise above but driving back down the right hand side of the runway on the opposite side. Particular attention should be paid to landing areas approximately 200 metres from the runway ends. The pilot must be warned if there are serious defects which may present a hazard when landing. Runway side markers should be checked to see that they are correctly positioned. Fire extinguishers/fire tender must be in place and the windsock(s) free.

6.2.1.2.

6.2.1.3.

6.2.1.4.

Airstrip Inspections Following Rain 6.2.1.5. Many remote airstrips are made up of laterite, compacted sand, etc. They must be inspected, preferably by Field Engineering, after heavy rain before being declared serviceable. In some circumstances Air Operations, Safety or Rig Personnel may be requested to inspect an airstrip. It is essential that the inspection is carried out by the most senior person available, and the correct criteria must be met before the airstrip is declared fit for use.

6.2.1.6.

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a.

No visible water is permitted on a runway or parking area that will be used. (Remember that if the strip is a remote desert or laterite strip it will not be covered by bitumen). Sand/mud must not accumulate on the tyres of the inspection vehicle, nor be thrown up on the underside of the vehicle. The surface must be tested by driving a Land Rover or similar vehicle over it. If 80 kph cannot be attained, or if ruts deeper then 2.5 cm are made, then the surface is probably too soft. check for good braking action by hard-braking at 60 kph and that this action causes no deep ruts (i.e. deeper than 3.5cm). Dig a small hole to a depth of 15 cm in the centre area of the wettest part of the airstrip and check if soft mud or sand is reached. The hole should not fill with water. Refill the hole. Check the edges of the runway for washouts and ruts where water has deposited the grade surface.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Airstrip Manning 6.2.1.7. Remote airstrips must be manned 30 minutes prior to the estimated time of arrival (ETA) of an aircraft. The airstrip must be manned at least 30 minutes after departure or up until the point of no return, whichever is the least time. Aircraft must be monitored by radio whilst in flight and position reports regularly given by the pilot. A log is to be kept of all aircraft movements. Search and rescue procedures, with regular exercises, are to be in place.

6.2.1.8.

6.2.1.9.

Radio Beacon (NDB) 6.2.1.10. Where possible, a party operating an airstrip must use a Non Directional Beacon (NDB). This equipment assists the pilot to locate the airstrip using the Aircraft Radio Compass (ADF). The position of the NDB will be shown on a Pilot's Route Map with courses from/to other locations. The NDB should be activated one hour before the scheduled estimated time of arrival (ETA) of the flight and remain switched on for at least 30 minutes after the departure of the aircraft or up until the point of no return, whichever is the least time. If an airstrip is used by more than one party, then only one NDB is to be operated.

6.2.1.11.

Contact with the Aircraft 6.2.1.12. When contact is made, the following information is to be given to the pilot of the aircraft. The information is to be given in the order listed below and written down prior to aircraft arrival. a. Flight.... this is ..... Airstrip. The runway has been inspected and is clear. DO NOT SAY: Clear to land. b. c. The surface wind is .... degrees at ... knots. Visibility is ... kilometres.

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d.

IF less than 5 kilometres, say why (e.g. fog, rain, dust, haze, etc.). IF over 10 kilometres say: more than 10 kilometres.

e. f. Note:

Cloudbase is ... octas at ... feet estimated. Temperature is plus ... degrees Celsius. Reference items c and d: report a single CAV OK if visibility is more than 10 kilometres and the sky is clear.

Airstrip Weather Report 6.2.1.13. If a remote airstrip is called upon to give a weather report(s), the following details are required: a. b. c. d. Name of airstrip (this may be different from a Rig Location). Type of report (routine or Special). time of report (Local). Surface horizontal visibility in kilometres (this can be judged by using a vehicle to lay off markers) and any significant weather (e.g. 4 kilometres in rain, dust, haze, fog, etc.). Cloud cover in octas (8ths) - 4/8 equals half blue sky - and estimated height of lowest cloud (in feet). Temperature in degrees Celsius.

e.

f. 6.2.1.14.

At permanently manned airstrips, markers should be placed to give a reference point for estimating horizontal visibility to improve accuracy of reporting. A special weather report must be sent immediately to aircraft (if possible) or base if conditions deteriorate considerably after a routine report and exceed the following parameters: a. Wind exceeding 25 knots This may impose crosswind limits on the aircraft, therefore the direction as well as the speed is important b. c. Visibility less than 3 kilometres Unusual weather For example, fog, moderate to heavy rain, thunderstorms, dust/sandstorms, hail, snow etc. Light rain is not significant unless the runway is affected. d. Low cloud covering more than half the sky This is probably the most difficult for an untrained observer to judge. Four octas below 2000 feet is probably best described as 'low overcast', and becomes significant at those airfields which have no position-fixing aids or approved approach procedures.

6.2.1.15.

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After Landing 6.2.1.16. 6.2.1.17. Inform base control of the actual time of landing. The responsible person at the airstrip must keep personnel away from the aircraft until the propellers/rotor blades have stopped. Personnel must not be allowed to approach the aircraft until the pilot indicates that it is safe to do so. This is vital for safety reasons. A fire extinguisher is to be positioned in the front of the aircraft where it can be seen by the pilot, in preparation for starting of engines, refuelling, etc. The crews will open the aircraft doors. Other personnel must keep clear while this is being done. It is important that all cargo consigned to the airstrip is offloaded. The cargo manifest must be thoroughly checked. Any cargo remaining/added must be secured. The crew, or sometimes the loadmaster, will advise on this. Particular attention must be given to ensuring that: a. b. The name and weight of all boarding passengers are recorded. All pieces of cargo to be loaded are weighed in advance and items marked. No dangerous goods are loaded. A list of dangerous goods must be available at all rigs, stations and remote airstrips. If in doubt, the item must not be carried.

6.2.1.18.

6.2.1.19.

6.2.1.20.

c.

6.2.1.21.

The cargo/passenger manifest is to be issued by the person handling the flight and given to the pilot, who will sign for receipt. It is a legal requirement that copies are retained on file for the period of one month. Scheduled transit times at remote airstrips must be observed. This will avoid delays at other locations and to later flights.

6.2.1.22.

Extended Transit Time 6.2.1.23. If for good reason the aircraft is to remain at the airstrip for a period longer than the normal transit time, accommodation should be made available for passengers and crew. It is important that pilots have reliable two-way communication with a radio room and/or telephone in order that they may be contacted in the event of an emergency situation developing at another location. The aircraft should be guarded whilst on the airstrip to prevent tampering by unauthorised persons.

6.2.1.24.

Before Departure (Manned airport or airstrips) 6.2.1.25. On completion of loading freight and passengers, the doors will be closed and checked by the crew. People must be kept away from the aircraft and the fire extinguisher must be manned. The person in charge of the extinguisher must be in the pilot's line of sight.

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6.2.1.26.

The pilot will request clearance to start the engines. Clearance is indicated by the 'thumbs up' sign from the aircraft marshaller or the person holding the fire extinguisher in the marshaller's absence. When both engines are started, the pilot will, by waving crossed hands, signal confirmation that all equipment is clear and there are no chocks at the wheels. This should then be checked and fire extinguisher removed. Clearance to the pilot to taxi is indicated by a further 'thumbs up' sign. The person in charge of the fire extinguisher must know how to use it and where. (Most fires occur at engine start-up). Staff involved in aircraft operations should wear ear defenders while engines are running. After take-off, VHF and fire coverage must be maintained at the airstrip for 30 minutes or up until the point of no return, whichever is the least time. The departure time must be radioed to base. Note: NO SMOKING WHEN INVOLVED IN AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS.

6.2.1.27.

6.2.1.28.

6.2.1.29.

Night Operations 6.2.1.30. Night operations may be required for emergency purposes (e.g. Medevac, etc.) at remote locations. In such cases it is normal to fly with two pilots (this is appropriate for both fixed wing and rotor aircraft). An attendant, preferably a person with medical knowledge, should travel with the sick or injured person. The flight crew are unable to attend and supervise a sick or injured person and safely fly the aircraft. Night flying will impose restrictions on pilots' normal duty hours. The following definitions of emergency flight are now accepted throughout the Industry: a. Search and Rescue (SAR) An emergency mission to locate and rescue a person who is in an abnormal environment and whose life is threatened if not removed from the environment or if not provided with protection and assistance. This has priority over all other operations. b. Medrescue (medical rescue) Indicates a 'life and limb' emergency and is a medical mission to rescue a person who is in hostile environment. Also indicates that an evacuation or doctor's visit is necessary to prevent death or serious damage to a person's health. c. Medevac (medical evacuation) Indicates a non-urgent situation requiring a seat in an aircraft a t a time to be specified by Medical. This terminology is necessary to alert those concerned to the degree-of-response facilities required. This has no priority other than seat allocation; priority shall be advised by the doctor. Note: The term 'Casevac' has been dropped by the UK Rescue Coordination Centres and the UK Offshore Operators Association.

6.2.1.31.

6.2.1.32. 6.2.1.33.

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Laying a Flare Path 6.2.1.34. Wherever possible battery operated glim lights should be used rather than flare pots. On arrival at the airstrip, pass a weather report to the person who asked for the strip to be illuminated. If unable to determine which is the upwind end of the runway, the air operations supervisor or the aircraft captain will advise as to which way the flare path is to be laid. If flare pots are the only means of illumination, ensure that flare wicks are protruding and the reservoir is sufficiently filled with kerosene, paraffin or diesel. Note: 6.2.1.37. DO NOT USE PETROL.

6.2.1.35.

6.2.1.36.

The flares are to be positioned 50 metres (ICAO) apart along the edge of the airstrip, on the inside of the normal edge markers. Six flares should be placed across the upwind end of the runway. The downwind end should be marked with additional flares on each side and the surface can be lit with dipped headlights of two vehicles. The parking area (if any) is to be marked. The flare path is to be lit 30 minutes before the flight is expected and must not be extinguished until at least 30 minutes after the flight has departed. When contact is made with the aircraft, handle as for a day operation. However, the pilot must be informed if a major change in the wind direction has occurred since the flare path was laid (i.e. if the flare path is laid the wrong way). When giving wind state, be as accurate as possible. The pilot is unable to see the windsock and the wrong information can lead to a downwind landing which is potentially dangerous. If possible, the windsock should be illuminated by spotlights.

6.2.1.38.

6.2.1.39. 6.2.1.40.

6.2.1.41.

Security and Picketing 6.2.1.42. No aircraft is to be left unattended, day or night. A guard must be posted no matter how short or long the transit time of the aircraft. If high winds are forecast, the aircraft is to be 'picketed' (lashed down). The aircraft crew will advise and must be in attendance when this is carried out. If possible, the aircraft should be turned 'head to wind'.

6.2.1.43.

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CHAPTER 7 - HELICOPTER FACILITIES ONSHORE ......................................................................7-3 7.1. 7.2. 7.3 PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS ....................................................................................7-3 THE HELIPORT ......................................................................................................................7-4 UNLICENSED HELIPORTS ....................................................................................................7-4 Raised Helipad for Desert Operations .............................................................................7-6 Jungle Landing Areas.......................................................................................................7-6

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HELICOPTER FACILITIES ONSHORE Reference: 7.1. 7.1.1. I.C.A.O. Annex 14 Vol 2 - Heliports

Performance Considerations Offshore helicopter facilities are detailed in Chapter 19. This chapter concerns itself with the onshore environment. The definitions reference is ICAO Annex 14 Vol 2(Heliports) The regulation of helicopter operation varies widely between countries, and the first requirement when establishing a helicopter base is to determine that the law of the land is complied with. That said, the Aviation Adviser is aware of the need to minimise restrictions in order to exploit the helicopters flexibility, without jeopardising safety. In principle, the Aviation Adviser would wish to see the dimensions and relative location of helicopter take-off, landing areas and parking areas selected in such a way that in the event of a engine failure (in either a single or multi-engined machine) at any stage of flight, including air taxiing, the aircraft should either be able to make an immediate safe landing back in the departure site, or be able to fly safely to and complete a controlled approach and landing at a predetermined site. It is accepted that in certain specialised operations, notably support of seismic activities, this will not always be practicable due to the temporary nature of line clearings, and this subject is addressed in Chapter 17 It is recommended however, that the above requirements be met at all helicopter bases. The following Performance Classes are recognised internationally: 7.1.4.1. Performance Class 1 Helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that in case of critical power unit failure, it is able to land on the rejected take off area or safely continue the flight to an appropriate landing area. Performance Class 2 Helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that in case of critical power unit failure, it is able to safely continue the flight except when failure occurs prior to a defined point after take off or after a defined point before landing, in which case, a forced landing may be required. Performance Class 3 Helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that in case of a power unit failure at any point in the flight profile, a forced landing must be performed.

7.1.2.

7.1.3.

7.1.4.

7.1.4.2.

7.1.4.3.

7.1.5.

Pilots of Class 3 helicopters are required to follow flight paths that will allow forced landings at all times. Helicopters are also constructed to one of two build standards reflecting their overall performance: Category A and Category B, but for practical purposes it is the Performance Class which reflects the chosen method of operation Helicopter operators are required to ensure that: 7.1.7.1. Helicopters which have a maximum approved passenger seating configuration of more than nineteen are always operated in accordance with Performance Class 1 requirements. Helicopters which have a maximum approved passenger seating configuration of nineteen or less but more than nine may be operated in accordance with Performance Class 1 or Performance Class 2 requirements, depending on their actual take-off weight.

7.1.6.

7.1.7.

7.1.7.2.

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7.1.7.3.

Helicopters which have a maximum approved passenger seating configuration of nine or less may be operated in accordance with Performance Class, 1 2 or 3 requirements.

7.1.8.

Present generation helicopters are not built to full Category A and hence unlimited Performance Class 1 standards but it is recommended that wherever possible, payload and profiles should be adjusted to operate to as near Performance 1 standards as possible. Certain activities, in particular seismic work, do not allow this opportunity and this is covered in Chapter 17. The Heliport The physical characteristics for a Heliport are set out in ICAO Annex 14. They set out dimensions required of a licensed heliport i.e. one suitable for scheduled public transport flights. Whereas unscheduled public transport flights may not be compelled legally to use such heliport dimensions, it is desirable for them to do so. Fire/Crash response requirements are set out in Chapter 9. It is essential that helicopter operations are conducted safely and with the minimum risk of danger to persons or property. It is also important from the "good-neighbour" aspect that disturbances or annoyances to others is minimised. Both these aims can be met to a large extent by ensuring that flight paths to and from a heliport pass over ground which will provide open areas suitable for a forced landing. Engine failure at a low height in a Performance 3 or in restricted areas. Performance Class 2 helicopters will give a pilot very little option as to where he will land. Unlicensed Heliports Whereas the aim is to set up heliports to the "licensed" standard in accord with ICAO Annex 14, this may not always be fully achieved but the main principles still apply: sufficient clearance on the ground for both parking and for movement by personnel and vehicles and sufficient clearance for helicopter ground manoeuvring, approach and landing, and take off and climb away. Where the licensed standard cannot be achieved, advice from the Aviation Adviser should be sought.

7.2. 7.2.1.

7.2.2. 7.2.3.

7.3. 7.3.1.

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7.3.2.

An example of an unlicensed site with adequate reject area, to accommodate a Bell 212 is shown below:

REJECT AREA REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMANENT LANDING SITES
MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR LIGHT TO MEDIUM TWIN ENGINED HELICOPTERS ETC. Reduce RTOW by 5% if 1. Obstacle height > 15mm max 30m or 2. Reject area reduced by <30m or 3. Part of reject area (max 50m) is swamp or water Note: - No more than two of the above circumstances (10% reduction) should occur simultaneously - No more than two degrading steps should be allowed to occur concurrently
Max obstacle height 15 m (50’) Add 30m of reject area for every 3m of obstacle height increase.

15M 15M

40° 20m

170m

20m

Reject area
Surface should: 1. Be smooth enough to allow road vehicle to travel on (4WD) 2. Not have obstacles, including grass, higher than 0.25m
20m 40m 60°

40m

Wind direction must be within 30° either side of runway direction

7.3.3.

The positioning of helicopter parking spots requires careful consideration to avoid the possibility of main or tail rotor contact with an obstacle or adjacent helicopter during manoeuvring. Notwithstanding the distances specified in the reference, it is recommended that adequate rotor clearance be maintained, such that no part of one helicopter shall ever come closer than rotor diameter to another helicopter or other obstacle. It should also be noted that static electricity continues to cause aircraft explosions and fires year after year. Fixed floats, fibre glass skis, wooden dollies (or landing pads) and poor bonding can effectively insulate the helicopter, preventing it from dissipating its electrostatic charge on landing. If such conditions are coupled with an accumulation of fuel-air vapour in either empty or partly full fuel-tanks then there can be a high risk of ignition from an electrostatic discharge. When using any landing site particularly those constructed of wood, fibre-glass, or any other non-conductive material, one should be aware of the electrostatic hazards and ensure that any bonding is regularly checked for integrity. In the absence of any clear static discharge path, consideration should be given to fitting a surface mounted earthing strap laid across the normal points of contact with the helicopter undercarriage or skids. The layout of, for example, a seismic base camp should allow for complete segregation of helicopter activity from passenger and vehicular traffic, with only authorised and trained personnel allowed access to the helicopter operating area. Routes for embarking and disembarking passengers should be marked and a clear indication should be given of the point beyond which passengers must not proceed unless accompanied by a member of the aviation staff. The siting of refuelling points should be chosen to reduce the necessity for rotors running refuelling, and the bulk fuel installation should be sited as far as possible from the helicopter parking and landing/take-off areas. Under no circumstances should the bulk fuel installation infringe the zone defined in the reference as the "peripheral area".

7.3.4.

7.3.5.

7.3.6.

7.3.7.

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7.3.8.

All the foregoing is intended to show the large variety of important considerations when setting up an on-shore helicopter base, but there is no substitute for on-site expert involvement at the earliest possible stage of the operation planning process, as late modifications to facilities invariably involve higher costs. Raised Helipad for Desert Operations 7.3.8.1. The Spreeuwenberg Steiger Bouw C.V. Helipad is suitable for working in sandy conditions. The equipment can easily be handled by manpower alone and the building technique is not complicated. The helipad consists of a steel framework built on a base of wooden scaffold boards. The actual deck is made up of two layers of 18mm plywood attached by screws to the wooden crossbeams. The helideck is 25 metres square and 1.75 metres above ground level. The construction of the raised pads can be by any number of means, however, there are light-weight easily constructed portable systems available, other alternatives are large tarpaulins suitably secured or oiled sand/bitumen or even watered sand. Clearly sand erosion and sandouts on approach or take off are hazardous considerations and therefore, the reduction of these effects to the minimum is highly desirable.

7.3.8.2.

7.3.8.3. 7.3.8.4.

Jungle Landing Areas 7.3.8.5. Remote sites to be used for helicopter operations in jungle locations for short periods of time should follow the criteria listed below. a. Landing area at Ground Level Width Equal to overall length (main to tail rotor tip) of largest helicopter intended for use (D).

Length Twice dimension (D) above. Surface Smooth, stable and firm under both wet and dry conditions. Maximum inclination not to exceed three degrees from the horizontal. b. Elevated Landing Pad This is an alternative to (a) and is likely to prove most suitable for jungle clearings with uneven ground. For ease of access it is recommended that the pad should not be raised more than an average of one metre above ground level. c. Recommended Dimensions The area should be large enough to contain a circle the diameter of which should be equivalent to the overall length (main to tail rotor tip) of the largest helicopter intended for use. d. Minimum Dimensions for Skid Fitted Aircraft An area large enough to contain a circle of a diameter equivalent to three quarters of the main rotor diameter.

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e.

Construction Local materials may be used. If logs are to be used the top layer should be approximately fifteen centimetres in diameter. The joints of the top surface should be as close as possible in order to afford the best possible "ground effect" for helicopters and ease of movement by personnel. There should be no projecting articles which might hazard underslung load operations. Construction should be of logs or sawn timber. Note that packed sand and/or clay is not recommended. Operational procedures should indicate that aircraft be landed with skids across and not parallel with the top timbers.

f.

Transition Area Length 20 metres from edge of landing pad in direction of take-off path. Width 10 metres or equivalent to width of landing pad whichever is the greater.

Surface Should be cleared of brush and stumps to maximum height of half metre above ground level and with no obstructions to extend through the horizontal plane subtended by the landing pad surface. g. Cleared Area Length Shall be a minimum of 25 metres measured from the edge of the landing area/pad to the base of the trees and with a maximum slope of 40 degrees measured from the same edge of the landing area/pad to the top of the trees on the same side. Also a minimum of 150 metres horizontally and a maximum slope of 15 degrees measured from the other side of the landing area/pad to the base/tops of the trees respectively. Notes: i. Hilltops and ridges make good areas for landing sites if sufficiently close to the area of operations, as the clearance required is considerably reduced and due consideration is taken into possible wind tolerance. Loose brush and all material likely to be moved by helicopter downwash must be cleared well away from the landing area. The landing area/pad must be kept clear of all items for landings and take-offs, therefore, a baggage assembly/load despatching area should be designated/constructed clear of the landing area and no items awaiting loading/unloading may be above level of landing pad.

ii.

iii.

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CHAPTER 8 - REFUELLING.......................................................................................................... 8-3 8.1 AIRCRAFT FUEL ................................................................................................................. 8-3 Source of Information.................................................................................................... 8-3 Types of Fuel.................................................................................................................. 8-3 Density ........................................................................................................................... 8-3 Batch Number ................................................................................................................ 8-4 Contamination................................................................................................................ 8-4 Water.......................................................................................................................... 8-4 Solids......................................................................................................................... 8-4 Discoloration............................................................................................................. 8-4 Micro-biological bacteria and fungi.......................................................................... 8-4 Additives in Fuel ............................................................................................................ 8-5 Personal Protection ....................................................................................................... 8-5 Protective Clothing ........................................................................................................ 8-5 Static Electricity ............................................................................................................. 8-5 Bonding.......................................................................................................................... 8-6 Environmental Management at Airfield Depots ............................................................ 8-6 Leaks .............................................................................................................................. 8-6 Drain Samples................................................................................................................ 8-7 Soil and Ground Water Protection ................................................................................ 8-7 Vapour Emissions.......................................................................................................... 8-7 8.2 INSTALLATIONS ................................................................................................................. 8-7 Storage Tanks ................................................................................................................ 8-7 Transportable Tanks...................................................................................................... 8-8 Bunding.......................................................................................................................... 8-9 Fuel Delivery System ..................................................................................................... 8-9 8.3 FUELLING OPERATIONS.................................................................................................. 8-11 Onshore........................................................................................................................ 8-11 Receipts................................................................................................................... 8-11 Testing..................................................................................................................... 8-12 Responsibilities ...................................................................................................... 8-13 Offshore........................................................................................................................ 8-13 Storage and Transport............................................................................................ 8-13 Receipt, Testing and Transfer ................................................................................ 8-13 Responsibilities ...................................................................................................... 8-14 8.5 FUEL AT REMOTE LOCATIONS ....................................................................................... 8-14 Supply .......................................................................................................................... 8-15 Aircraft Fuelling ........................................................................................................... 8-15 Drum Stocks................................................................................................................. 8-15 Receipts................................................................................................................... 8-15 Storage .................................................................................................................... 8-15 Decanting to Bulk Storage...................................................................................... 8-16 Refuelling ................................................................................................................ 8-16 8.5. TYPES OF REFUELLING................................................................................................... 8-17 Pressure Refuelling ..................................................................................................... 8-17 Gravity Refuelling ........................................................................................................ 8-17 System Design ............................................................................................................. 8-17 Aircraft Refuelling........................................................................................................ 8-17 General .................................................................................................................... 8-17 Pre-Refuelling Checks ............................................................................................ 8-17 Ready for Refuelling ............................................................................................... 8-18 Refuelling Sequence ............................................................................................... 8-18

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Completion of Refuelling ........................................................................................ 8-19 Rotors Running Refuelling (RRR) ............................................................................... 8-19 Emergency Procedures - Fire Guard...................................................................... 8-19 8.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE..................................................................................................... 8-20 Water Checks .......................................................................................................... 8-20 Testing With a Water Detector Capsule ................................................................. 8-20 Testing with Water Finding Paste .......................................................................... 8-21 Discoloration Test................................................................................................... 8-21 Checks following heavy rainfall, snow, high seas or large temperature changes.... 8-21 Testing of Static Stocks............................................................................................... 8-21 Settling ......................................................................................................................... 8-22 Daily Checks ................................................................................................................ 8-22 Periodic Checks ........................................................................................................... 8-23 Filtration Equipment ............................................................................................... 8-23 Hose End Mesh Strainers ....................................................................................... 8-23 Pumps ..................................................................................................................... 8-24 Refuelling Dispensers............................................................................................. 8-24 Hoses....................................................................................................................... 8-24 Commissioning a Hose........................................................................................... 8-25 Monthly Hose Test Procedure ................................................................................ 8-25 Six Monthly Hose Test Procedure.......................................................................... 8-26 Bonding Checks...................................................................................................... 8-27 Tanks ....................................................................................................................... 8-27 Tank Cleaning ......................................................................................................... 8-28 Annual Inspection of Tanks.................................................................................... 8-28 Seal Drum And Pillow Tank Commissioning ......................................................... 8-29 Equipment .................................................................................................................... 8-30 Record Keeping ........................................................................................................... 8-30 Documentation and Manuals....................................................................................... 8-31 Training ........................................................................................................................ 8-31

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REFUELLING
8.1. 8.1.1. Aircraft Fuel This section is intended as a basic guide to operating companies when setting up or supervising the operation of aircraft fuelling systems for upstream operations, and not retail operations. Those handling and dispensing aviation fuel should fully understand that the safety of an aircraft and its passengers is affected by on their ability to deliver the correct grade of uncontaminated, dry fuel into its tanks. Source of Information 8.1.1.1. Most Companies that have downstream operations will have procedures in place for quality assurance for aviation products. The relevant Company procedures should be checked but the remainder of this chapter should not be found to be at variance with normal good practices.

Types of Fuel 8.1.1.2. There are two types of aviation fuel used, namely Kerosene and Gasoline, with various grades available in both types. However, generally Jet A1 and AVGAS-100LL will be encountered. a. Jet A-1 is a kerosene grade of fuel suitable for most turbo-prop or jet engined aircraft. Usually clear in colour, it has a relatively high flashpoint for a fuel, and the ability to absorb significant quantities of water, holding it in suspension. The amount of water the fuel is capable of absorbing is directly proportional to its temperature. The ICAO colour code to identify Jet-A1 is black on a white background. Note: TC-1 is commonly used in the CIS. this wider cut grade, with a flash point that can be as low as 28°C, requires additional handling care. Other grades are also available and all are normally wider cut than Jet A1. b. Aviation Gasoline (AVGAS) is the grade of gasoline fuel for reciprocating piston engined aircraft and, having a very low flash point, is extremely flammable at normal operating temperatures. For easy identification AVGAS-100LL fuel is dyed blue. Note: As a safeguard against Jet A1 being mistakenly decanted into a piston engined aircraft, steps were taken in the late 1980's to introduce a smaller size refuelling orifice to the aircraft tanks, and a correspondingly smaller refuelling nozzle. However, many piston engine aircraft are not fitted with this modification and refuelling operators should take great care to ensure the correct grade is delivered. Refuelling with the wrong fuel continues to be a regular cause of fatal accidents in aviation. Density 8.1.1.3. The mass (or weight) per unit volume of a product and a density result must include units of measurement. While kg/lt at 15ºC is still widely used kg/m³ at 15ºC is the unit measurement standard that should be adopted where possible.

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Batch Number. 8.1.1.4. The batch number, given on the Aviation Tank Filling Record, should be carefully maintained on all documentation relating to a consignment of fuel, as it enables its storage and movement of to be traced in the event of contamination being found.

Contamination - Water 8.1.1.5. Water may be present in three forms: a. Dissolved Water. Water molecules are present in JET A-1 as part of its chemical structure. Provided the molecules remain chemically combined with the fuel they are undetectable and present no hazard to aircraft. It should be remembered, however, that the quantity of dissolved water held by the fuel is directly proportional to its temperature, i.e. the warmer the fuel the more water it can hold. b. Suspended Water. A very fine mist of water droplets suspended in fuel, which can cause it to take on a cloudy appearance if present in sufficient quantity; but at very low concentrations the fuel will appear clear. Suspended water will gradually settle to the bottom of the tank, forming large drops of free-water. c. Free-water. When sampling fuel, free water will appear as slugs, or as a layer lying on the bottom of the glass sample jar. Contamination - Solids. 8.1.1.6. Solid contaminants comprise mainly of dirt, dust, pipe or tank lining scale, or rust particles. Fuel must not be passed for use until a clean, contamination free sample, taken from the clean side of filters is obtained.

Contamination - Discoloration. 8.1.1 7. Discoloration of fuel can be caused by many contaminants, including other petroleum fuels and substances, fine suspended solids or water. Fuel that shows signs of discoloration must not be used.

Contamination - Micro-biological bacteria and fungi 8.1.1.8. There are many species of bacteria and fungi that can grow in hydrocarbon fuels, given suitable temperature conditions and the availability of water, and certain essential nutrients; two in particular can cause problems in fuel handling systems and in aircraft. They are the fungus Cladosporium Resinae and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB's), in particular Desulfouibrio. The development of corrosive fuel in storage due to bacterial action can be avoided by stringent adherence to water drain procedures.

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Additives in Fuel 8.1.1.9. Generally, additives are included in the composition of the product during manufacture; however, Anti-Icing Additive (AIA) may have to be introduced separately, due in part to the high risk to refinery staff when handling bulk AIA. For example, "Prist", a commonly used AIA product is considered hazardous to health as it can be absorbed through the skin and is thought to be a carcinogen. A metered nozzle should therefore be used when applying Prist into fuel.

Personal Protection 8.1.1.10. Contamination of the skin by fuels, can cause chapping, irritation and infection. Skin should never be exposed to prolonged contact. This can occur when operatives continue wearing clothing that has been contaminated and soaked with fuel. First aid treatment is essential: a. Fuel, however small a quantity, must be washed from the skin as soon as possible, using soap and water. b. Contaminated clothing must be removed at once and laundered before reuse. c. Protective gloves must be worn and barrier cream used to protect exposed skin. Protective Clothing 8.1.1.11. Correct Personnel Protect Equipment (PPE) is essential when dealing with fuel or fuel additives such as Prist or AIA. When handling additives the PPE should include a long sleeved garment, long rubber gloves and goggles and when dealing with Jet-A1 fuel the gloves and goggles are still considered necessary. Operators must always stand upwind of the refuelling activity, in case there is leakage from the applicator. In the event of clothing being accidentally splashed by neat AIA, the garments must be immediately removed and the affected area of skin washed vigorously with soap and water. Similarly if clothing becomes wetted by fuel it is important to change out of the clothes quickly and wash the affected parts. Overalls or protective clothing made of synthetics such as Nylon or Polyester can be uncomfortable in hot climates and can be hazardous in a fire situation by sticking to the skin when it burns.

8.1.1.12.

Static Electricity 8.1.1.13. When fuel is flowing through handling systems, in particular filters, electrostatic build-up will increase until the potential difference is sufficient to allow an electrical discharge to earth through an adjacent member, thus causing a spark. To prevent a static discharge and subsequent risk of fire or explosion in a fuel rich atmosphere, all components must be effectively bonded before the commencement of any procedure for the movement or transfer of fuel (including fuel drain).

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Bonding CAUTION: Pipework and major components, pumps, meters, filters, etc., must be effectively bonded to clean unpainted metal parts. 8.1.1.14. The danger of fire or explosion brought about by faulty or ineffective bonding, or negligence in carrying out bonding procedures, cannot be over stressed. Bonding leads must be checked for continuity at least weekly. Fuel installation bonding cables, located in the refuelling cabinet and attached to the gravity refuelling nozzle, must be connected to the aircraft before refuelling commences and not removed until it is completed. Similarly, hoses must not be connected to transportable or sample recovery tanks until te bonding lead has been attached. Refuelling hoses have an antistatic covering, but must be bonded to the aircraft to ensure complete continuity. Bonding the hose to the aircraft when pressure refuelling is effected through the coupling, as the coupling forms a positive metal to metal contact and during gravity refuelling must be effected by the use of a nozzle end cable by connection to a nearby aircraft structure.

8.1.1.15.

Environmental Management at Airfield Depots 8.1.1.16. Environmental matters assume an ever increasing importance and wherever personnel operate, they should adopt a policy of continuous improvement in environmental performance. The potential for environmental pollution is always present when handling, transporting and storing fuel, and great care should always be taken to contain the product. This section highlights the most common causes of release into the environment and offers guidance on minimising the risks. As a minimum, discharges should be controlled in line with national or local legislative standards and be consistent with internationally agreed conventions. A quantitative inventory of current emissions, effluents and discharges of waste material for all processes should be maintained. The potential consequences of the environmental effects of past operations should be assessed. Action plans should be developed to implement improvements, with quantitative targets supported by regular audits, reports and appraisals of performance.

8.1.1.17.

8.1.1.18.

8.1.1.19.

8.1.1.20.

8.1.1.21.

Leaks 8.1.1.22. Leakage is more likely to occur from ageing hydrant systems and buried pipelines than from tank bottoms and buried tanks. If a hydrant leak is suspected, immediate efforts must be made to identify its location. Methods of detection will depend on hydrant size, position and design, but the following should be considered:a. Digging. This involves physically locating the leak by excavation of the pipeline at selective points; it is a crude and is only likely to be effective on small hydrants.

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b. Ultrasonic Sounding. In its simplest form, a single ultrasonic transducer is fitted to various points along the line and the local noise level is noted on a hand held meter. Leakage may then be traced to the area producing the loudest ultrasonic noise signal. This technique has been used with considerable success, and is simple and reasonably inexpensive. c. Local Pressure Testing. Provided the hydrant line can be sectioned using valves, short sections may be individually pressure tested to confirm their integrity, thereby narrowing down the source of the leak. d. Gas Sniffing. This technique involves the injection of a light gas, usually helium, into the pipeline and monitoring concentrations of the gas in the area above the pipeline using a special detecting device. 8.1.1.23. Tank installations should also be reviewed to minimise the risk of leakage. In new installations, buried horizontal tanks should be avoided. The design and construction of vertical tank bottoms should take into account measures to minimise the risk of leakage due to corrosion, and consideration should be given to secondary containment of leakage.

Drain Samples 8.1.1.24. Drain samples should not be tipped into the ground, but should be returned to tank storage systems by means of a suitable product return system.

Soil and Ground Water Protection 8.1.1.23. Top soil and the ground water layer at airfield depots may be contaminated by minor leakage and spills, or by oil contaminated water e.g. drained from the tank bottom, overflowing from the tank during filling, leaking pipelines, or leaking drainage channels. The bunded areas should be impervious to fuel.

Vapour Emissions 8.1.1.25. AVGAS tanks should either have an internal floating cover or be fitted with conventional pressure vacuum (PV) valves as a means of reducing vapour loss. Both floating covers and PV valves require regular maintenance to assure their effectiveness.

8.2. 8.2.1.

Installations The specification for a refuelling system in general, consists of a number of elements connected together to form a complete installation. Elements include bulk storage tanks, filtration, sample testing orifices, pumping facilities, pipework, valves, quantity gauges and dispensing equipment. The various elements described in this part assume a refuelling system for Jet A1 dedicated to the uplift of fuel and having a flow rate of 50 GPM. Storage Tanks 8.2.1.1. Tanks will either be fixed or transportable and will vary in type, dependant on whether they are installed on-shore or off-shore; however, they should incorporate the following features: a. Be constructed from stainless steel, steel, reinforced neoprene rubber, (pillow tanks) or glass reinforced epoxy, although the latter is rarely used. Stainless steel tanks are preferable for general use and are mandatory for the storage and transportation of fuel offshore.

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b. Tanks fabricated from steel (other than stainless steel) must have interior surfaces coated with an amino epoxy paint finish. c. Tanks should be installed in a frame or on supports. (Tanks are normally cylindrical and mounted with a slope of at least 1 in 60 to give a low point, where an externally mounted sump with gate valve for protection and a 3/4" diameter steel ball drain valve with a dust-cap on the outlet, is fitted. The drain valve has at least 12" clearance above the ground to allow fuel samples to be taken. Buried tanks require a suitable manual "thief pump" to allow bottom samples to be taken). d. With the exception of transportable and pillow tanks, floating suction should be fitted to draw-off fuel. Some dispensations have been granted to older fixed installation but certain operational restrictions apply. New tanks require floating suction. e. Tanks must have a flanged and bolted manhole (pillow tanks excepted) in the top surface at the high end of the tank. There should also be a means of checking the contents and the floating suction through easy access sealable ports. f. Tanks must allow space for expansion, amounting to 2% of the total content when full. A pressure vacuum valve with a mesh cover to prevent the ingress of contamination is also fitted on Avgas and offshore Jet A1 tanks. Pillow tanks and seal drums will not have this installed. Transportable Tanks 8.2.1.2. Transportable tanks are subject to additional criteria, which is detailed below, However, the standard continues to evolve and before purchasing new tanks advice should be sought. a. Off-shore Transport Tanks. These tanks are designed for transporting fuel to offshore locations, where they are either used to supply a bulk storage system or connected directly to the installation's refuelling system. Tanks transporting Jet A1 at sea must conform to the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation Code entitled 'International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code Class 3 Inflammable Liquids'. However, national authorities may have higher standards, as is the case in the UK. It is therefore strongly recommended that the local Marine Authority is consulted prior to purchasing tanks, to ensure they meet the required standard. b. Pillow Tanks. Collapsible rubber (pillow) tanks may be used as bulk storage. This type of tank has the advantage of being available in a wide range of sizes and is readily transportable when empty and collapsed. This type of tank requires a firm, flat base, with 1 in 60 slope, otherwise ripples can form on the bottom, and lead to the formation of water pockets and subsequent micro-biological growth. The construction of the base area must also include a bund capable of holding 110% of the tanks maximum capacity. It will also be necessary to provide shelter for the tanks when used in hot climates to avoid deterioration of the tank and leaching from the tank walls.

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c. Seal Drums. Neoprene rubber seal drums are available in various sizes and are strengthened for transportation either underslung, in nets, on trucks or even towable. These tanks have the added advantage of being used as the bulk tank on location, and are filled and drained via a filter monitor to ensure that the fuel remains clean and dry. The seal drum is collapsible and when empty takes up 15% of the filled out volume. It has a stainless steel cable mounted internally between the upper and lower end plates, from which it gains its strength and rigidity when being moved. Seal drums should be housed within a bund, capable of containing 110% of the largest seal drum. Use of these drums requires specific commissioning procedures to be followed which is detailed in 8.6.1.38. When underslung they can be lifted one above the other, the first being connected via a two point sling to the two lugs on the bearing supported swivel neck; this is connected to the helicopter. The second seal drum is connected from the lower plate of the first drum to the upper two lugs on the bearing supported swivel neck of the second tank. It has been found practical to carry seal drums two at a time in a suitable underslung net. To aid the pilots underslinging the seal drums and to ensure that the contents of the drums are not confused, the practice of painting the top plate of the seal drum yellow for Jet A1, white for water and red for diesel is used. Disadvantages of Seal Drums are: i. They are virtually impossible to clean, and are therefore downgraded to diesel after a year in operation. ii. They are relatively expensive for their short service life. d. Drum stock. This should only be used as an emergency fuel supply and not as the prime source of bulk storage unless absolutely unavoidable. Drums (normally 45 gallons) should be metal. Bunding 8.2.1.3. Storage tanks must be housed in a protective barrier (a bund) capable of retaining the fuel, thus preventing environmental damage, should the tank rupture. The bund should be capable of holding 110% of the tank capacity and be of sufficient strength to withstand the initial shock should the tank suffer an instantaneous rupture. Where multiple tanks are housed within a bund, it must be capable of retaining 110% of the largest tank. There must be a means of draining the bund to clean standing rainwater, and contingency plans in place to deal with product leaks.

Fuel Delivery System 8.2.1.4. Each delivery system will be designed for the specific location or type of application. However, certain guidelines and requirements should be met: a. General Requirements. A permanent site fuel delivery system consists of pipework and valves from a bulk storage system, connecting it to pumps and a dispenser cabinet via a filter separator and filter monitor. A pressure differential gauge measures any pressure drop across the filters and a metering system measures the quantity of fuel delivered. The meter outlet is fitted with a 1½" lever operated ball type shut off valve, approximately 25 feet of 1½" aviation delivery hose and a stainless steel, trigger operated fuelling nozzle with static ground wire. The delivery hose should be stored on a hose reel or suitable stowage brackets to facilitate easy stowage clear of the ground.

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Fuelling components are so positioned to minimise connecting pipework, which should be of stainless steel. A static electricity bonding reel, connected to the pumping and metering equipment and fitted with 50 feet of braided copper cable, covered by a clear PVC sheath is located near the delivery hose. The end of the bonding cable is fitted with a crocodile clip for attachment to the aircraft when refuelling. The installation should have adequate fire extinguishers and fire alarms. The types and quantity of extinguishers may be dictated by legislation or decided by local fire officers; however, at least two 12Kg dry powder extinguishers are recommended on an on-shore helicopter fuelling pad, and a further two at the tank storage area. As with storage tanks, the delivery system must be laid out such that product spillage does not become a hazard. Drainage must be provided with an oil interceptor or other container to avoid the risk of pollution from any spillage. The layout and requirements for refuelling systems at temporary sites should meet the above specification but may be scaled down for ease of transportation. b. Filtration Units. Filters, including micro filters, filter water separators and filter monitors will be required in a fuelling system to provide protection against contaminants. The majority of fuelling installations will have a filter water separator at the pumping unit, and must have a fuel monitor at the dispenser cabinet. On the inlet to the bulk tank, dependant on the design, there should be either a dedicated filter water separator, or pipework routing the fuel via the outlet filter water separator to the inlet side of the tanks with valves to direct the flow as required. Automatic shut off, where water is detected in the fuel, achieved by using special filter elements which rapidly swell on contact with water to block the flow of fuel. Filter housings should be fitted with an air eliminator, low point drain valves and a differential pressure gauge to monitor any pressure drop across the filter pack. The differential pressure gauge should be a moving piston type, with a three way valve facilitating full deflection testing in both directions. Alternatively we accept the use of separate pressure gauges measuring the inlet and outlet pressures on established facilities. c. Pumps. Fuel pumps can either be independent, or form part of a composite unit, including filtration, control valves and gauging equipment, and can be driven by diesel or petrol engines, electrical motors, compressed air, or by an aircraft's electrical power supply, in the case of some portable models. Units should have adequate pumping rates for the desired flow, with the correct level of filtration. The pump inlet is normally protected by a 60 mesh Y-strainer. If electrically powered they, and any starters, switches and wiring must be explosion proof. Pump motor controls should be fitted with an easily identifiable 'emergency stop' control, readily accessible to the system operator. The pumping system should be fitted with a device to prevent excessive pressure in the hoses. Hand pumps are least favoured as a means of moving fuel, however, they must be provided as an emergency back up and to prime motorised pumps when required.

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Portable pumps, either powered or hand operated, should be complete with the proper filtration, and care must be taken to ensure that the unit is maintained in a clean condition, and that both inlet and outlet are blanked at all times when not in use. d. Weather Protection. All components should be designed for outside operation in the prevailing climatic conditions, without special protection. It is recommended that on drilling rigs, aircraft fuelling components, fittings and supporting structures are, wherever possible, made from stainless steel. In addition, dispensing equipment should be protected by a fully enclosed cabinet, preferably of fibreglass, with shutters or doors that can be easily locked in the closed or open positions. Onshore installations will normally have a cabinet for both the dispensing and the pumping units. e. Paint Colour Scheme & Grade Marking. All tanks, fuelling pipework and components should be painted; onshore installations are normally silver, whereas offshore tanks, requiring improved visibility, should be painted Yellow with the framework and supporting structures in black. Irrespective of usage and colour scheme, each tank should have a data plate displaying the following information on a visible external surface: i. The product and grade. ii. The serial number of the tank iii. The due inspection date. iv. The due cleaning date. v. The tank capacity. The Data plate should be painted, black on pale grey for JET A1 and Red on White for AVGAS. Near the fill and discharge connections, and at the point of delivery, there should be product identification labels and surface pipelines should be marked at 10 metre intervals with the API code of the product they carry: Jet A1 AVGAS-100 two black bands on a pale grey background. a red band on a green background. a red band on a blue background.

AVGAS-100LL -

Trigger nozzles used for overwing fuelling should be colour coded to identify the grade of product - jet fuels should be painted black, whilst AVGAS should always be red. 8.3. 8.3.1. Fuelling Operations Detailed procedures should be in place at each fuelling facility. The following provides guidance in the development of such procedures. One important aspect of receipt, delivery and maintenance of the system, often found lacking, is the need for good records. Onshore - Receipts 8.3.1.1. Deliveries of fuel are generally by road, although the following guidelines apply for other means of delivery. Before discharge:

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a. Check that seals on the bridger discharge connections and manhole cover are intact. Dip the tanks to confirm the quantity. b. Check that the correct grade plates are displayed. c. Check that documentation, (release or advice note) shows grade, batch number, quantity and density of the product. d. Draw 5 litre samples from the drain connection of each vehicle compartment. Inspect visually for colour and particulate or water contamination. When testing jet fuels check for water in suspension, using Water Detector capsule. e. Whenever practical, measure the density of the fuel and check that the corrected value agrees with the advice note or expected batch value to within .002 kg/lt. Note Only road bridgers dedicated to one grade of fuel should be accepted; further checks are required for non-dedicated vehicles.

Onshore - Testing 8.3.1.2. Fuel sample testing should be carried out before the stock is released for service and where an aircraft operator is responsible for the control and supply of his own fuel, it is essential that he carries out at least the minimum checks, given below: a. Visual checks - must be carried out: i. On receipt of bulk stocks, before transfer to on-site storage tank(s) ii. Having transferred into storage, on completion of the appropriate settling period. iii. Before commencement of refuelling operations each day. iv. At additional times during the day, if requested by the pilot of the aircraft or if conditions warrant close monitoring. b. Water detection Test. Using a Water Detector capsule (or similar acceptable test method) and a syringe, test in conjunction with visual checks shown above. c. Density test. Using a hydrometer, measure the fuel density and temperature, correct the reading to the standard reference temperature and check against batch records. Again, carry out in conjunction with the visual checks: d. Membrane filtration test (Millipore test). This test is used to check the cleanliness of fuel as it passes various points in a system, by determining the amount of solid contamination. Checks can either be colorimetric or gravimetric. However, in both cases results are difficult to interpret and staff require training to carry out this task successfully. Colorimetric checks are normally carried monthly and gravimetric quarterly. e. Conductivity check. Using either a Maihak or Emcee meter.

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Onshore - Responsibilities 8.3.1.3. The operator is responsible for determining that all fuel uplifted is of the correct grade and quality, and that the tests are carried out.

Offshore - Storage and Transport 8.3.1.4. Fuel must be transported to off-shore locations in purpose built, dedicated sealed tanks. Drum stocks are not acceptable. At some off-shore installations the transportable tanks are also used to supply fuel, in which case only one may be connected to the supply manifold at any one time.

Offshore - Receipt, Testing and Transfer 8.3.1.5. Tanks should be used in order of receipt and, on installations where a fixed stock tank is used, transportable tanks should be discharged into the stock tank as soon as possible following the compulsory setting time and quality control checks. On receipt of full transportable tanks, the following checks should be carried out: a. Examine the tank seals to confirm that they are not broken. All seals except the inspection hatch cover seal should then be removed. b. Examine the tank for signs of damage and leakage. c. Vent the tank to relieve any pressure. d. Connect the bonding wire between the tank and the filling facilities to prevent static discharge. e. Remove the dipstick cover and take a dipstick reading; on completion, replace the dipstick and cover. f. Check the advice note for the correct grade of fuel (JET A-1), quantity of fuel, tank serial number, and fuel batch number. Record this information in the appropriate installation record. g. Check that the test dates on the tank test certificate and sling are valid (date of sling test is stamped on the ferrule). h. Having allowed the fuel to settle: i. From the tank sample drain valve draw a 3 litre fuel sample. ii. Visually inspect and check the sample for quality, check for sediment, clarity, free water, colour and for water in suspension, using a detector capsule and record results. Measure the density and ensure compatibility with the advice note (as for 8.3.1.1.e) iii. Transfer the fuel to the fixed installation tanks if applicable or connect the transportable tank into the delivery system.

8.3.1.6.

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8.3.1.7.

Suspect tanks, those damaged or giving unacceptable fuel samples, or with seals broken, must be returned to the point of dispatch for further checking without being used. Empty tanks returned to shore without intact seals must be sent for cleaning before further use, irrespective of their visual cleanliness. If a tank is being returned for further checks, the local Aviation Focal Point must be immediately advised. He is to ensure the tank is not inadvertently returned to service without being checked. Fuel installations should have a sample recovery tank into which clean fuel samples are put after being tested. They should be allowed to settle before carrying out quality control checks, normally at the end of the days flying. If acceptable, the fuel can be transferred back into the bulk tank for future use, after the minimum settling period. The quantity returned to bulk storage should be noted, from the transfer meter, and recorded on the appropriate documentation. Dirty fuel samples shall be discharged into a separate container and returned to the shore for environmentally safe disposal. Fuel states should be checked daily at completion of flying. The quality of fuel in each transportable or fixed stock tank should be recorded on the relevant documentation and passed daily to the Aviation Focal Point to facilitate the planning of replenishment stocks. Fuel should only be transferred during the day when the following conditions can be met: a. The shorter settling period of two hours is only allowable when the fixed storage tank is equipped with a floating suction; this allows the fuel to be taken from near the surface. b. Fuel in transportable tanks with no floating suction device must be allowed the full time of one hour per foot to settle before transfer. The settling time should be recorded on the fuel tank documentation. Note: On mobile installations the motion of the vessel will continually agitate the fuel, keeping water in suspension, often to the extent that an acceptable sample cannot be obtained. Therefore it is recommended that all fixed tanks on vessels should have a sump at the base and be fitted with floating suctions.

8.3.1.8.

8.3.1.9.

8.3.1.10.

Offshore - Responsibilities 8.3.1.11. The responsibility for fuel quality on an offshore location rests with the helicopter operator. He may delegate some of the work in controlling the fuel but must determine the overall quality of the product is acceptable. Any problems must be reported to the Aviation Focal Point and the helicopter pilot before uplifting/dispensing fuel. The pilot is ultimately responsible for deciding whether the fuel is acceptable. If fuel is not fit for use, helicopter pilots must be informed immediately, as it may be necessary for them to carry extra from the shore or to divert if already airborne.

8.3.1.12. 8.3.1.13.

8.4. 8.4.1.

Fuel at Remote Locations The following paragraphs offer guidance on refuelling facilities used in support of aircraft operating from remote locations such as jungle and desert drilling sites, forward support heli-lift bases, forward air strips, seismic camps, etc.

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Supply 8.4.1.1. The method of supplying bulk fuel to the area of operations will depend on available access routes, and may be by land, water or air, or any combination of the three, but where possible, should be shipped by road or barge. Fuel transported by road should normally be carried in dedicated tankers. Otherwise transportable tanks, which can also be carried by boat or barge, may be used. In some areas underslinging fuel by helicopter may be the only practical method of supply, in which case the use of rubber seal drums is strongly recommended. Seal drums are specially designed, rubberised, transportable containers, available in a variety of sizes to suit the lifting capacity of most helicopter types, and may also be used as bulk storage tanks. They do, however, require specific commissioning checks before use and the advice of the Aviation Adviser should be sought prior to the commencement of operations. Normal steel drums should not be used as they are not designed to cope with the type of damage usually sustained during underslung operations. They are susceptible to splitting if dropped or being set down at the landing site, and create a problem of disposal after use. Pillow tanks are an option as are fixed bulk tanks, but both have to be filled via road tanker or barge. Drum stock fuel is also listed as a Dangerous Goods cargo and therefore can not be carried inside the aircraft, unless special arrangements are made. They are governed by the IATA or ICAO rules.

8.4.1.2.

8.4.1.3.

8.4.1.4.

8.4.1.5.

8.4.1.6.

Aircraft Fuelling 8.4.1.7. Aircraft refuelling requirements at remote locations do not differ from the basic minimum standard required at any other facility. Contractors must be made aware of the required standard and some training may be necessary to ensure routine refuelling guidelines are followed.

Drum Stocks 8.4.1.8. Whenever possible the use of drum stock fuel should be avoided as it is the least easy to control, and carries the highest risks of contamination and abuse. Drums may also inadvertently become mixed and the wrong product delivered to an aircraft.

Drum Stocks - Receipts 8.4.1.9. No tests are required on receipt of drum stocks, provided there is no doubt on the grade and quality, i.e. all markings clear and drums in good condition, with seals intact, and the consignment is accompanied by satisfactory release documentation. However, prior to release for use testing will be required. Drums not meeting this standard should be rejected on delivery.

Drum Stocks - Storage 8.4.1.10. Drums should be segregated by batch number and filling date, and the oldest stock used first. They should be stored off the ground and on their sides, with the bungs below liquid level, and should be inspected weekly for leaks.

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8.4.1.11.

After 12 months' storage, the stock should be replaced, and the old stock sent back to the supplier for test and reprocessing as required. If re-testing is available locally then a further six months storage is acceptable following a successful re-test.

Drum Stocks - Decanting to Bulk Storage 8.4.1.12. Check condition of each drum and its markings, ensuring it contains the correct grade of fuel and that the seals are intact. Roll the drum to the required location, and allow to stand on its end for a minimum of 10 minutes. Place a wedge under the rim of the drum at the opposite side to the filler cap to create a low point for water to run. Check for water using water finding paste or paper on a dip stick. Draw a bottom sample using a "thief pipe" and transfer to a glass jar. Check for colour, clarity and freedom from dirt or free water. Check for water in suspension using a Water Detector capsule and syringe. If the tests are satisfactory the drums should be set back in the upright position and decanted to storage using a transfer pump fitted with a microfilter, filter/separator or filter/monitor. Ensure the pump has been correctly stored with blanks on the inlet and outlet. The pump standpipe should have a suction break 1½" (4cm) from the bottom of the drum to avoid uplifting the fuel at the bottom of the drum. Note: The pump filter should be kept moistened with fuel whilst in storage. The maximum operating life for filter elements is 3 years, although due to the continued disruption to the system and the high potential for contamination, the E & P Forum strongly recommend filters are routinely replaced every six months. The due change date should shown on the filter housing. 8.4.1.17. Prior to commencing the transfer, ensure the drum, pump unit and receiving tank are electrically bonded together. Take a 3 litre sample from the nozzle, into a glass jar and carry out the standard quality checks. On completion of the transfer, having allowed the fuel to settle, draw a 3 litre sample from the bottom drain of the receptor tank and check for water using a Water Detector capsule. To avoid the ingress of contaminants, ensure the standpipe and the outlet hose of the pump unit are always blanked when not in use. Drums may only be re-used subject to condition and must be inspected to an approved standard before reuse.

8.4.1.13.

8.4.1.14.

8.4.1.15.

8.4.1.16.

8.4.1.18.

8.4.1.19.

8.4.1.20.

Drum Stocks - Refuelling 8.4.1.21. The above procedure should be followed when uplifting the fuel directly into aircraft except for the after transfer sampling and testing; this is covered as follows. A filter drain (clean side) sample should be taken and tested with a Water Detector capsule and the result shown to the pilot, who should confirm the quality is acceptable. He must also confirm (preferably in writing) that he is satisfied the correct grade and quantity of fuel was delivered to has aircraft.

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8.5.

Types of Refuelling Pressure Refuelling 8.5.0.1. Pressure refuelling utilises a female quick release, self sealing connector fitted to one end of the refuelling hose, and coupled to a corresponding male connector permanently installed on the aircraft. The hose coupling should be assembled with a pressure control valve incorporating surge protection and an integral 100 mesh strainer. The action of the connection automatically opens self sealing valves in the two halves of the coupling, allowing the fuel to flow.

Gravity Refuelling 8.5.0.2. A gravity or overwing refuelling system has an open, trigger operated nozzle fitted to the end of the hose, and is inserted into a refuelling orifice on the aircraft. The nozzle should have a 100 mesh cone shaped strainer in the spout.

System Design 8.5.0.3. Refuelling systems for smaller aircraft, and helicopters in particular, are flow rate limited to a standard 50 GPM. Systems with higher flow rates are not suitable and must be mechanically restricted before use.

Aircraft Refuelling - General 8.5.0.4. Refuelling Operations must not take place during local thunder storms, or if lightning is evident, and will normally be carried out with the aircraft engines or the helicopter rotor and engines shut down. It is permissible to carry out rotors running refuelling on helicopters under certain conditions, but special safety procedures must be followed. Personnel in charge of refuelling operations should have received some formal training in fuel receipt, storage and dispensing procedures, and ideally should attend periodic refresher training. It is essential that proper records of all aspects of refuelling operations are maintained. Although the aircraft captain is ultimately responsible for ensuring the correct grade, quality and quantity of fuel is delivered to his aircraft, there is no room for complacency, and system operators should always follow approved procedures and constantly strive to maintain the highest standards. The refueller should determine that the correct grade fuel is to be delivered and that the decals by the aircraft fuel receptacle matches that of the fuel.

8.5.0.5.

8.5.0.6.

8.5.0.7.

Aircraft Refuelling - Pre-Refuelling Checks 8.5.0.8. Prior to each refuelling: a. Daily quantity/quality control checks must be carried out on the tanks and the system. b. Necessary documentation must be completed before the aircraft arrives. c. The "on line" tank must contain sufficient fuel for the aircraft's requirements.

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d. The isolation valves on the suction and discharge side of the pump must be open. e. Check and record the meter readings, zero the issue record meter reading. f. Off-shore A minimum refuelling crew of two people is required. Helideck fire fighting crews must be standing-by during all refuelling operations. On-shore Refuelling should be carried out by at least two personnel, one of which may be supplied by the aircraft operator. One, usually the system operator, should oversee the function and position himself accordingly. He should stand in sight of the pilots, if they remain in the cockpit, and must be able to shut down the refuelling operation instantaneously if required to do so. The second person should operate the refuelling nozzle during gravity refuelling operations. Aircraft Refuelling - Ready For Refuelling 8.5.0.9. When the aircraft is ready to receive fuel: a. Passengers should disembark the aircraft or helicopter and move off the helideck or away from the refuelling operation. However, in some circumstances it may be safer for them to remain on board, in which case at least two exits on the side opposite to where refuelling is taking place should remain open throughout the refuelling operation. Smoking or use of high energy electrical equipment is not permitted during refuelling. b. Take a minimum 1 litre sample of fuel from the outlet side of the filter, monitor and check for quality, showing the result to the pilot where possible. c. When authorised to commence refuelling by the pilot, ensure the power is switched on and personnel are in their correct positions. 8.5.0.10. If the passengers are to remain on board then the following additional precautions should be taken: a. Passengers remain in their seats with seat belts fastened. b. The "NO SMOKING" lights must be on and strictly enforced. c. At least two cabin doors on the opposite side to the aircraft's refuelling points must remain open. d. Passengers must be briefed on emergency procedures, including the warning they will receive and the action they must take should there be a need for emergency evacuation. Aircraft Refuelling - Refuelling Sequence 8.5.0.11. Commence the refuelling task: a. Bond the aircraft to the dispensing unit with the main bonding lead. b. Run out the hose to the aircraft.

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c. Confirm that the grade identity plate, located next to the filling point on the aircraft, specifies the requested grade of fuel. d. Gravity refuelling: before removing the tank filler cap, connect the hose end bonding lead to the bonding point on aircraft, adjacent to the refuelling orifice, or touch the nozzle on an unpainted metal surface of the aircraft. Remove fuel tank filler and refuelling nozzle caps and insert the nozzle into the filler orifice. e. Pressure refuelling: will be conducted in accordance with the procedures contained in the contractors air operations manual. The Aviation Adviser should review the process. Aircraft Refuelling - Completion of Refuelling 8.5.0.12. On completion of the refuelling the refueller should: a. Check and record meter trip and totaliser readings. Zero the meter. b. Take a 1 litre fuel sample from the outlet side of the filter monitor, check it for quality and show the water detector capsule to the pilot. c. Close the refuelling cabinet doors where applicable. d. Obtain Pilot's signature accepting the fuel grade, quantity and quality. 8.5.0.13. These procedures are also applicable where fuel is uplifted from a fueller, and its operator is responsible for their completion. The fueller should be parked in a manner such that in an emergency it can be driven away in a forward gear without further endangering the aircraft.

Rotors Running Refuelling (RRR) 8.5.0.14. Rotors running refuelling may be authorised for both on and off-shore operations. However, local management should be aware of the additional risks involved and seek the advice of the Aviation Adviser, giving sufficient notice to enable them to comment or render practical assistance. If it is an operational requirement to carry out rotors running refuelling the operator should determine that there are written procedures stipulating that all staff involved should have formal training. Rotors running refuelling shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures contained in the contractors air operations manual. The Aviation Adviser should review the process.

8.5.0.15.

8.5.0.16.

Emergency Procedures - Fire Guard 8.5.0.17. In an emergency the Fire Guard should: a. Discharge 45kg Dry Powder extinguisher onto source of fire and continue fighting the fire using hand held extinguishers, whilst safe to do so, until the installation fire team arrives. b. Follow the refueller’s instructions

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8.6. 8.6.1.

Quality Assurance To maintain the integrity of aircraft fuel it is essential that the product and all equipment used to deliver or store it is subject to regular maintenance and stringent quality checks. A programme of inspections and checks should be written for those responsible for fuel on offshore installations, and checks are equally applicable to aircraft operators controlling their own fuel stocks and/or delivery systems. WARNING Plastic containers must not be used for fuel sampling (or fuel drainage from aircraft), due to the possible discharge of accumulated electrostatic charges. Glass containers are the most suitable, but care should be taken in handling due to their fragility. Steel sampling containers if used must be correctly bonded and are used to drain initial samples and dead fuel prior to the final test sample, which will be taken in a glass container. Failure to observe these precautions may result in fuel igniting and/or exploding. Sampling Methods - Water Checks 8.6.1.1. Storage tanks and refuellers are checked for water by taking a bottom sample from the low point of the tank and testing with either a Water Detector capsule or water finding paste as follows: a. Tanks in use should be sampled daily prior to the first refuelling. In the UK, CAP 434 requires samples to be retained for 7 days, elsewhere it is recommended that it be retained for 24 hours, or until the next sample is taken. Samples should be stored in sealed 4 litre cans, clearly labelled and recorded in a fuel sample record book. b. Tanks not in use should be sampled at least weekly. c. Bulk tanks located on offshore installations should always be sampled after a periods of heavy seas, storms etc. d. After inter-tank transfers, fuel in the receptor tank should be allowed two hours to settle before testing and release to service. e. Prior to releasing a delivery system into service each day, and before the first delivery of the day, a sample should be taken from the Filter separator drain point and tested with a Water Detector capsule. f. Where gravity refuelling is used, prior to delivery into an aircraft, samples should be taken from the filter monitor drain and from the hose end, and tested with a Water Detector capsule. Sampling Methods - Testing With a Water Detector Capsule 8.6.1.2. If water or solid contamination is found in the initial sample, further checks must be carried out, until a clear sample is obtained, otherwise the fuel should be rejected (maximum 5 samples). Additional settling time may help to clear the problem, but in any case the contamination should be recorded and reported to the person responsible. He in turn should advise the aircraft operator, particularly where no other fuel is available. In the case of an offshore installation, helicopter crews need this information before departure for the platform, to allow alternate arrangements to be made.

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8.6.1.3.

The Water Detector capsule kit is used to identify the presence of finely dispersed suspended water in concentrations smaller than those normally detected by visual examination. The kits are usually comprised of two parts, a standard 5ml polythene syringe with nozzle fitting, and a plastic detector capsule containing water sensitive filter paper. The capsules are supplied in metal tubes and are life limited to one year from manufacture. The expiry date is etched on the base of the tube. Note: Care should be taken to keep the tubes sealed when not in use to avoid the ingress of contamination and moisture. The syringe must also be kept scrupulously clean to avoid false indications.

CAUTION

Vital evidence, for example filter break up, can be gained from the initial sample; therefore, it is essential that it is not flushed away whilst attempting to obtain a clear one. Such practices tend to mask problems until it is too late. Fuel must not be drained off for any reason before the initial sample has been taken.

Sample Methods - Testing with Water Finding Paste or Paper 8.6.1.4. The use of water finding paste or paper is a simple method of identifying free or droplets of water that may have collected at the bottom of a fuel sample. Its poor sensitivity and the difficulty in interpreting results makes the paste unsuitable for identifying water in suspension. The method of testing for settled water is as follows: a. Collect a minimum 3 litres bottom sample in the prepared container. b. Using the spatula, or rod with paste or paper on the end section, gently agitate the sample, ensuring the water finding paste on paper is at the bottom of the container. The paste or paper will change from GREEN to PURPLE where water is present and the same rejection criteria applies to contaminated samples as with tests using Water Detector capsules. Sampling Methods - Visual Check 8.6.1.6. The visual check is carried out by examining the fuel in a clear glass container, looking for contaminants that cloud or colour the fuel, or for free water (settled at the bottom). The fuel should be clear and bright or clear and straw coloured.

8.6.1.5.

Checks following heavy rainfall, snow, high seas or large temperature changes 8.6.1.7. Following heavy rainfall, snow or high seas, fuel sample should be taken from the tank sump and checked for quality. The system should also be checked for damage and water ingress. In operations carried out in humid conditions, condensation within the tank will result in water in the fuel. Where such conditions exist, tanks should be kept well filled whenever possible and bottom drain samples taken daily.

Testing of Static Stocks 8.6.1.8. Where fuel has remained in storage tanks (fixed or mobile) for six months without receipts (even though deliveries may have been made), a 2 litre bottom sample should be drawn and sent to a laboratory for the following tests to be carried out:

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Jet A1 Appearance Colour (by inspection) Density Existent Gum Copper Strip Corrosion Silver Strip Corrosion Water Reaction

AVGAS Appearance Lead content Colour (by inspection) Density Distillation Reid vapour pressure Copper strip corrosion Existent gum

8.6.1.9.

Provided that the results are satisfactory, the stock may be used but must be further re-tested at three monthly intervals if still not replenished.

Settling 8.6.1.10. All fuels, Jet fuel in particular, need time to settle before being tested and released for use. As a general rule jet fuels will settle at a rate of 1 hour per foot of depth. The minimum acceptable time before a fuel product may be delivered from a tank is one hour after receipt, and testing is required before release. Off-shore transport tanks may require to be repositioned when putting them into service, if so, a further 1 hour settling period should be allowed before release.

8.6.1.11.

Daily Equipment Checks 8.6.1.12. The following daily inspections should be carried out on the fuelling installation in conjunction with fuel quality checks shown in the preceding paragraphs: a. Calculate the total fuel state of the installation by dipping each tank. Replace all dipstick covers and record the results. b. Check the entire system for evidence of leaks and physical damage. During the inspection check each tank and filter placard to confirm the due date for inspection has not lapsed. c. Confirm the integrity and cleanliness of the bulk stock bunding. d. Check valve positions to ensure only released tanks are on line to the delivery system. e. Check the signs indicating each tanks current status are in place. f. Check the delivery meter totaliser and record the figure; also check the delivery meter is zeroed. g. Visually inspect the hose and nozzle/coupling for condition. h. On systems fitted with air powered equipment, check and empty the moisture and filter auto drain traps. i. Using a standard continuity tester, check the following for continuity:

• Fuel bund delivery/transfer bonding cable. • Main dispensing cabinet bonding cable.

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• Gravity refuelling nozzle bonding cable.
j. Examine the bonding cables for damage, fraying and serviceability of the clip/plug. k. Maintain a record of these checks. Daily Fuel Stock Checks 8.6.1.13. Take and test samples of fuel from the drain points at the tank sump and inlet (dirty) side of each filter on fixed or mobile units. Samples will be a minimum of one litre depending whether the drain point is direct or offset with intervening pipework.

Periodic Checks 8.6.1.14. Some periodic maintenance is required in addition to the above checks. This can fall due at weekly, monthly, quarterly or annual intervals, or as specified for a particular installation. Local operating conditions should be taken into consideration when determining the periodicity of this maintenance: for example the filter element on a portable pump on seismic operations would as a minimum be changed every six months, whereas at a fixed installation in Europe or the USA it may remain in service up to three years. Guidelines on the type of maintenance work required are given below, but are not intended to be exhaustive. Each facility manager should draw up a schedule of inspections in accordance with the equipment manufacturers recommendations, or with the assistance of the facility constructor and/or bulk supplier.

8.6.1.15.

Periodic Checks - Filtration Equipment 8.6.1.16. Each differential pressure gauge should be checked weekly at maximum flow rate and the readings plotted to obtain a trend. A progressive rise indicates choking of the filter elements, and replacement will be necessary should the differential pressure exceed a value recommended by the manufacturer. A rapid rise is indicative of blocked filter elements, possibly due to water contamination. If samples drawn from the dirty or clean drain points are contaminated, and the trend continues, dismantle and clean the filter housing. Otherwise open and inspect the filter casing annually. Replace the filters at every third inspection or if found to be contaminated. Items containing gauze elements should be inspected and cleaned at least once every three months. Note: The addition of an approved filter water separator upstream of the filter monitor is considered necessary on new facilities, and on existing facilities where the presence of water has been a continuous problem. Although not mandatory on existing facilities where there are no operational problems, it is advisable for the same modification to be incorporated. Periodic Checks - Hose-End Mesh Strainers 8.6.1.19. Inspect and clean at least once a month. The cone mesh, in particular, should be checked for fragments of hose liner, indicating break-up, which may occur due to ageing or kinks in the hose. If rubber particles are found, they should be retained for further investigation.

8.6.1.17.

8.6.1.18.

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CAUTION: Handle nozzle filters with extreme care as they are fragile and if kinked, can develop large holes in the mesh. 8.6.1.20. Inspect cone mesh filters is as follows: a. Unscrew the nozzle spout from the main assembly and remove the cone filter. b. Withdraw the cone from the spout. c. Check for debris and damage to the mesh and joints, and replace as necessary. Replacement is essential as this last chance filter could avoid contamination of the aircraft tanks, filters and fuel valves with particles of hose lining rubber. d. Wash the filter gently in clean Jet A-1 and blow through with low pressure clean, dry compressed air. Use protective clothing and take the necessary precautions when dealing with compressed air and fuel particles. e. Replace the filter, ensuring the sealing ring is clean and serviceable. Fit the spout into the nozzle body. f. Tighten the retaining nut finger tight only; to avoid damage do not use excessive force when tightening the nut. Periodic Checks - Pumps 8.6.1.21. Pumps suitable for use in refuelling installations may be powered manually, electrically, pneumatically or by diesel engine; petrol powered pumps are not considered suitable. The most common types are powered by explosion proof electric motors. Although the bearings of pump and motor are prepacked and sealed, they require periodic checking and replacement. Similarly regular checks of the power supply, switching and connections should form part of the inspection programme. Pumps generate considerable heat when in operation, therefore, their ventilation, position in regard to other equipment and the availability of fire appliances should be considered when planning a facility. The emergency shut off system should be checked monthly.

Periodic Checks - Refuelling Dispensers 8.6.1.22. These cabinets normally house a hose drum, meter, filter monitor, where provision for drawing samples should be made, and a bonding lead. Combustible loose articles, sampling containers, test capsules and rags, should not be kept inside the cabinets as ventilation is poor with the doors closed.

Periodic Checks - Hoses 8.6.1.23. Hoses used for aviation refuelling should by of the heavy duty semiconducting type, conforming to specification BS3158 Grade 2 type C or equivalent. Hoses should be stored away from direct ultra violet light and laid flat, or in coils of not less than 20 times the diameter of the hose, and end caps must be fitted. They have a recommended shelf live of two years and should always be used in rotation, i.e. oldest first. Total life must not exceed 10 years from date of manufacture recorded on the hose, and records should be maintained to ensure they are changed at the appropriate time.

8.6.1.24.

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Periodic Checks Commissioning a Hose 8.6.1.25. When commissioning a hose, the following procedure will be followed:a. Visually inspect the new hose for defects or for damage in shipment. b. Check the hose assembly details against the suppliers certification. c. Check that the couplings have been correctly installed and using standard hand tools, check that the bolts on clamp type couplings are properly tightened. d. Pressure test in accordance with the six monthly test procedure. e. Soak the hose in product for at least eight but preferably twenty four hours. f. Flush the hose for at least two minutes at maximum flow rate either by circulation or preferably back to main storage. g. Check the hose end strainer for any foreign matter and if necessary, flush the hose again. If a newly installed hose is not used for several days, a hose-end sample should be visually checked for deterioration in colour and if necessary the hose should be re-flushed as in (f) above. This check is particularly important for small bore hose at high ambient temperatures. New hose should not be into immediate service where the ambient temperature is very cold without a period of soaking at room temperature. To improve flexibility, the hose should be filled with product (leaving a small air space for expansion), securely capped and allowed to soak in a safe area of the workshop for at least seven days and preferably longer. It can then be installed following the above procedure. Periodic Checks - Monthly Hose Test Procedure 8.6.1.26. With the hose connected to the fuelling unit, extend it to its full length. Pressurise to normal operating level at zero flow and inspect for the following defects: a. Darker areas on the cover indicating that fuel is percolating through the lining. b. Cuts, gouges, nicks or abrasion which expose the reinforcement. c. Bulges or blisters. d. Coupling slippage or leakage. Reduce the pressure to zero and examine the hose by pressing the circumference along its length to feel for kinks, soft spots or blisters which may indicate delamination or other structural damage. Special attention should be paid to sections of the hose within about 2 metres of couplings, at hose reel connections and support contact points. These areas are particularly prone to deterioration.

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Check the bolts on clamp type couplings for tightness and, without removing them, inspect the pins on hinged type couplings for signs of wear or distortion that could indicate imminent breakage due to shear forces. Checks should also ensure that a gap remains between the clamp halves and that it is in parallel alignment. Periodic Checks - Six Monthly Hose Test Procedure 8.6.1.27. The purpose of this high pressure test is to establish that the structural integrity of the hose is satisfactory rather than its ability to withstand normal operating pressure. It therefore applies equally to hose used in both high and low performance situations. a. Extend the hose to its full length either still attached to the vehicle or removed. Testing with hose attached may only be carried out providing suitable isolating valves are fitted to protect vehicle pipework, meters, filter vessels etc. not rated to withstand the test pressure of 20 bar (300 lbf/in²). If hose is to be tested on the vehicle, then the whole vehicle should be pressurised to approximately 5.5 bar (80 lbf/in²) before the isolating valves are closed. This will minimise leakage across the valves. The vehicle pressure level should be monitored closely to see that it does not increase due to valve leakage. If this happens, some fuel should be drained to restore the 5.5 bar pressure. Valves which are found to leak unduly should be repaired at the earliest opportunity. b. Hose end nozzles and regulators should be protected from the potentially damaging effects of the test pressure by: either removing them and substituting a threaded blanking cap or plug. removing the nozzle from the quick disconnect and inserting a plug formed from a spare adaptor and blanking plate of adequate thickness. connecting the nozzle to a blanked off aircraft adaptor, opening the poppet handle and using a 'block out device' to ensure that the hose end regulator remains open. using a isolating valve (if fitted) upstream of the hose end regulator and connecting the nozzle to an aircraft adaptor, e.g. on a drain trolley, with the poppet open.

or

-

or

-

or

-

c. Connect the hose to a suitable hydraulic pump combined with a line pressure gauge, fuel reservoir and coupling. Fill the hose with the grade of fuel it normally handles, ensuring that all air is bled from it. Gradually apply and maintain a test pressure of 20 bar (300 lbf/in²) for five minutes.

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d. After this time, inspect the hose as described in the monthly test procedure part (a). e. Reduce the test pressure to zero. f. Increase the pressure to 3.5 bar (50 lbf/in²) and maintain for two minutes. This low pressure test is to ensure that any inherent (already existing) hose damage made worse by the high pressure test (which may not appear at high pressure due to the lining having self sealed) becomes apparent. The high pressure test itself will not damage a hose which is in good condition. g. Inspect the hose for fuel leakage, bulges or blisters. h. Reduce the pressure to zero and examine the hose as described in the monthly test procedure part (b). i. Check coupling security as described in the monthly test procedure part (c). j. If the hose was disconnected from the refueller or facility or if a delivery nozzle was removed to carry out the high pressure test, the system integrity should be checked at normal maximum operating pressure after re-installation. Periodic Checks - Bonding Checks 8.6.1.28. Bonding leads should be checked at least weekly as follows: a. Run the bonding cable out to its fullest extent, check the connections at both ends are well made, and not clamped on the insulation. b. Ensure the plastic covering is intact along the entire length of the cable. c. Attach one lead of a tester to the crocodile clip or pin at the end of the bonding lead and attach or rub the other on any clean dry part of the metal base of the refuelling cabinet. d. Press the button at the same time - the tester will illuminate if the connection between bonding lead and frame is good. Note: On off-shore installations which have metal decking, the hose end coupling must be clear of the deck when carrying out the test. Periodic Checks - Tanks 8.6.1.29. Weekly checks: Floating suction (if fitted) should be tested by pulling on the check cable attached to the float. Monthly checks: a. Tank tops should be securely in place and be dirt and water tight. b. Gratings and safety railings mounted on the tanks should be secure and safe. c. Fixed ladders should be secure and handrails in place.

8.6.1.30.

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d. Bonding jumpers between tank connections and the surrounding pipework should be intact. e. Tank vents should be clear. Periodic Checks - Tank Cleaning 8.6.1.31. Entering a fuel vessel is a high risk activity, and the dangers should not be under estimated; at all depots "Vessel Entry Permits" should be required. The vessel should be drained and vented, with entry ports open, and the atmosphere inside tested. Personnel should not be allowed into the vessel until non explosive readings are obtained, and then only with full face breathing apparatus fed from an external source. At all times with one or more men in the vessel a safety man must remain outside the tank, and be immediately available to rescue/raise the alarm in case of emergency. To protect the lining, clean rubber soled shoes should be worn, and individuals entering the vessel should wear suitable protective clothing to avoid fuel contacting his skin. Ad hoc contractors should also apply these standards, although it may not always be possible to influence them to do so. Fixed storage tanks should be cleaned at least every three years and a record maintained of their internal condition. The date of cleaning should be clearly marked on the outside of each tank. Visual internal checks for the build up of debris or damage to the lining, where tanks are treated with Epicote, are normally made through an inspection port and should be carried out at least annually. Transportable tanks should be sampled before each filling, and flushed or cleaned as necessary. Empty tanks held on off-shore installations should be returned to the shore depot as soon as convenient, with all connections sealed before despatch. The criteria for good tank management needs the tank to be controlled and maintained throughout its working life. We consider the following inspection criteria should be applied. Depending on the ability to control the tanks it may be necessary to inspect them more frequently. However, we strongly recommend that frequent opening of the tanks is avoided. Note: The storage of unleaded product in a tank which has previously contained leaded gasoline does not make it safe and lead warning notices must be displayed on the tank even though it has been gas-freed, desludged, de-scaled and cleaned. Annual Inspection of Tanks 8.6.1.36. This work will include but not be limited to the following operations: a. Visual inspection of the exterior, lift tests and inspection of lift lugs to comply with the requirements of local legislation and good safety practice. The tank should be filled with Jet A-1 for lift test.

8.6.1.32.

8.6.1.33.

8.6.1.34.

8.6.1.35.

b. Dip tank to ascertain contents. Sample and transfer the contents to a recovery tank. c. Open the tank and vent then internally steam clean and inspect interior. d. Ensure all water removed and close up the tank ready for return to service.

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e. Check details on tank identification plate, load test plate, inspection date plate are correct, re-stamp and re-new as required. f. Raise documented records to cover inspections above. 8.6.1.37. After checking for water, residual product may be transferred to another tank by drawing from the normal outlet or, if necessary, by drawing from the low point drain, although particularly stringent precautions should be taken to avoid contamination and spillages.

Seal Drum and Pillow Tank Commissioning Procedure. 8.6.1.38. The following procedure is the accepted requirement for commissioning a new flexible neoprene tank and is necessary to ensure that the tank is fit for service. Only new or reconditioned tanks are acceptable for aviation fuels. a. Seal Drums. The screwed self sealing adapter is fitted to the tank outlet (not normally removed again during service life). The elbow coupler complete with seal adapter opening device is clamped to the outlet and the coupling opened when fuel supply is connected. All fuel is to be pumped via a filter monitor unit, once it has been tested clear. Partially fill the drum sufficient to wet all the internal surface (25-30 litres of Jet A-1) The drum is to be agitated at regular intervals to keep the surfaces wetted, for a period of one week. This leaching process will allow any excess adhesive from manufacture to be drawn out. Completely fill the drum with Jet A-1 and allow to settle, take and test the sample. Look for colour, clarity and water content. If satisfactory release the seal drum to service. b. Pillow tanks. Position the tank on the base with the drain point at the lowest point, ensuring that this is level and well prepared, and has a slope of at least 1 in 60. check that easy access to the drain valve can be achieved to allow sampling and draining as required. Connect the inlet/outlet connection and check that the vent valve is in place. All fuel is to be pumped via a filter water separator and filter monitor unit, once it has been tested clear. Fill the tank to 95% of the manufacturer's maximum capacity (allowing space for expansion of the fuel). The site chosen should ideally allow the tank to be in the shade or under a cover, with an air gap of at least 1 metre between the tank and the cover. Allow the tank to stand unused for 7 days and then draw of a sample for testing. Check the sample for clarity colour and water content. Draw off a second sample and send it to a laboratory for recertification. If satisfactory release the tank to service.

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Equipment 8.6.1.39. The probable equipment requirement for a small fuel facility to allow the routine maintenance and testing of the fuel system: a. A number of 3 litre screw top jars with protective wire cages. b. Enough metal screw top sample cans for the storage of samples with labels to identify date place from which the sample was taken. c. Calibrated dipsticks suitable for the bulk fuel containers used. d. Tank tables for conversion of depth to volume (dependant on availability of calibrated dipsticks). e. Water finding paste (drum fuel). f. Water Detector capsules (in date), complete with 5ml syringe. g. One stainless steel bucket with bonding lead attached. h. Hydrometers for the ranges 0.75 to 0.8 and 0.8 to 0.85. i. Measured glass for density checks. j. Temperature conversion charts for density checks. k. Thermometer in brass protective case, range -10 to 50°C. l. Meger Ohmmeter. m. Avo multimeter. n. Field flash point testing apparatus (nice to have) Record Keeping 8.6.1.40. It is essential to maintain clear, concise and accurate records of all fuel quality control checks and routine maintenance carried out at fuelling depots and installations. Some operatives may not be completely aware of their importance, and managers should issue precise instructions to ensure staff are fully conversant with the requirement. During audit visit where an inspection of fuelling facilities is required, the level and quality of the record keeping should be examined, to include: a. Records of all daily and periodic checks, and maintenance carried out. b. Water drain sampling records. c. Stock records covering all fuel receipts and deliveries, to enable product movement to be traced through the system 8.6.1.42. To assist those bases not having adequate records of their own, a selection of sample forms has been developed and are available from Shell Aircraft Ltd.

8.6.1.41.

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Documentation and Manuals 8.6.1.43. The processes and practices for operating a fuelling facility should be clearly set out in a manual produced by local management. Manuals to ensure the correct operation and maintenance of equipment should also be available, together with documentary records of component changes, maintenance and quality checks. Where fuel supply forms part of the Aviation Contractors activities and responsibilities, the contracted company should have its own procedure guide, covering all aspects of refuelling operations.

8.6.1.44.

Training 8.6.1.45. Personnel involved in fuelling operations should receive formal, recognised training, with the award of a certificate on completion, followed by regular biennial refresher courses. This is particularly important for the supervisor nominated as being responsible for the facility, and he should personally train those assigned to work with him, and organise them into an effective and safe team.

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CHAPTER 9 - OTHER SUPPORT FACILITIES AND REQUIREMENTS............................................9-3 9.1. FIRE FIGHTING CRASH RESOURCES ..................................................................................9-3 International and Regional Airports and Licensed Aerodromes ....................................9-3 Smaller Manned Airfields, Private Airstrips and Heliports..............................................9-3 Unmanned Landing Strips and Heliports.........................................................................9-3 Unmanned Helidecks........................................................................................................9-3 Manned Helidecks.............................................................................................................9-4 Considerations..................................................................................................................9-4 Scale A - Fire-Fighting Equipment ...................................................................................9-4 Scale B - Portable Fire-Fighting Equipment ....................................................................9-5 Scale C - Crash Equipment...............................................................................................9-5 9.2. COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................9-6 Very High Frequency (VHF) Air Band...............................................................................9-6 Single Sideband, High Frequency (SSB-HF)....................................................................9-7 9.3. 9.4. NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................................9-7 TECHNICAL ACCOMMODATION...........................................................................................9-9 Engineering Accommodation...........................................................................................9-9 Battery Charging.............................................................................................................9-10 Aircraft Stores .................................................................................................................9-10 9.5. OPERATIONS ACCOMMODATION ......................................................................................9-12 Flight Planning Room .....................................................................................................9-12 Pilot's Crew Room ..........................................................................................................9-13 Operations Room............................................................................................................9-13 Traffic Office....................................................................................................................9-14 9.6. 9.7. 9.8. METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION ...................................................................................9-15 SECURITY OF OPERATIONS...............................................................................................9-16 VEHICLES WORKING AROUND AIRCRAFT .......................................................................9-17 Condition of Vehicle and Equipment .............................................................................9-17 9.9. DRIVER COMPETENCE .......................................................................................................9-17

9.10. DRIVER SUPERVISION DURING REVERSING ....................................................................9-17 9.11. FORK-LIFT TRUCKS ............................................................................................................9-17 9.12. VEHICLE SELECTION AND LOADING OF CARGO.............................................................9-18 9.13. AIRFIELD GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT ......................................................................9-18 Baggage Trolleys and Passenger Steps ........................................................................9-18 Mobile Ground Power Units (GPUs)...............................................................................9-18 Mobile Cabin Air Heating or Air Conditioning Units......................................................9-18 Body Bags.......................................................................................................................9-18 Stretcher..........................................................................................................................9-18 Manifest and Scales........................................................................................................9-19 Passenger And Freight Booking System.......................................................................9-19 Meteorological Equipment..............................................................................................9-19

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OTHER SUPPORT FACILITIES AND REQUIREMENTS
9.1. 9.1.1. Fire Fighting Crash Resources The principal objective of a rescue and fire fighting service is to save lives in the event of an aircraft accident or incident. An important factor affecting rescue in a survivable aircraft accident is the standard of training of personnel, the effectiveness of their equipment and the speed at which they and their equipment can be brought into use. The numbers of emergency response personnel at an airfield, their reaction time and the levels of fire and rescue equipment shown in this section are based on Annex 14 (Chapter 9.2) of the ICAO Aerodromes Manual, which relates the requirement to the size of the largest aircraft expected to operate there. The figures quoted constitute a minimum requirement, but may be supplemented as deemed necessary by local Companies. In some countries the local regulatory authority neither endorses Annex 14 nor offers guidance, and in such cases a simplified policy is recommended, but still based on the Annex 14 guideline. The size of the aircraft being operated is generally relational to the numbers it can carry. Therefore fire fighting equipment should be supplied equivalent to table A. In cases where larger aircraft (more than 49 passengers) are in use then the Annex 14 standard for fire fighting equipment should be the standard. There is a great diversity in the size and standard of airfields and landing sites from/to which aircraft supporting activities operate, including: International and Regional Airports and Licensed Aerodromes 9.1.4.1. There are invariably operated by the local Civil Aviation Authority or by third parties licensed and controlled by them. They should conform to the ICAO standard in every way.

9.1.2.

9.1.3.

9.1.4.

Smaller Manned Airfields, Private Airstrips and Heliports 9.1.4.2. These may not be under the control of the local aviation authority and standards could be minimal. The crash and fire-fighting resources may be supplied by the owner, or an aircraft operator. As these locations are by definition manned, staff should be trained in equipment use and have a designated vehicular capability to reach runway and local off-site incidents. Prior to any regular flights to such locations the Company should determine that suitable levels of crash rescue equipment are available.

Unmanned Landing Strips and Heliports 9.1.4.2. These are often found in remote and/or infrequently used locations. There maybe no specific equipment on site and it is often up to the user to make his own arrangements. For flights to such locations the Company should determine that mobile fire-fighting and crash rescue personnel and equipment is available.

Unmanned Helidecks 9.1.4.3. These will be constructed to various international, national and/or Company specifications. During the design phase the most appropriate method of fire and crash rescue protection, relative to all the perceived risks should have been considered. The number of flights to such installations is likely to be minimal, with limited self help crash rescue and fire cover provided on the deck. The supply of fire fighting equipment should be to Scale B and rescue equipment as appropriate.

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Manned Helidecks 9.1.4.4. These will be constructed to various international, national and/or Company specifications. During the design phase the most appropriate method of fire and crash rescue protection, relative to all the perceived risks should have been considered. The crewing of the deck should include the supply of a trained fire fighting crew, usually 3 in number. The supply of suitable levels of equipment will vary dependant on the aircraft type used. The prime fire fighting equipment is normally two or more monitors which are capable of spraying a foam type extinguishant (such as AFFF) to all parts of the helideck and these will be supported by hand held branch lines and portable fire extinguishers. Fire fighting equipment will be to Scale A. Crash rescue equipment will be supplied to Scale C.

Considerations 9.1.4.5. The following points should be considered when establishing, monitoring or auditing fire fighting and crash resources: a. The Numbers of Staff available. b. Availability of information. c. The training they have received. d. Aircraft fire fighting and rescue procedures. e. Frequency of exercises. f. Response times achieved. g. Communications and alarm systems. h. Specification and quality of fire fighting vehicles. i. Protective clothing and respiratory equipment. j. Extinguishing agent characteristics. k. Ambulance and medical services. l. Local water supply. m. Emergency access roads. n. Environmental conditions (i.e. jungle, swamp, marine,). Scale A - Fire-Fighting Equipment 9.1.4.6. Dependant on the type of foam extinguishant used and the concentration of the mix (water to foam), the bulk will vary however as a minimum a discharge rate of 5.5 litres/m2/min and being capable of a continuous discharge for a minimum of 10 minutes.

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Aircraft length 9 metre 12 metre 15 metre 20 metre 25 metre

Seats Approx. 8 10 20 40 50

Water in litres plus foam compound 250 750 1000 2000 3000

Dry chemical or Halons (Kg) (kg) 45 90 135 135 180 45 90 135 135 180

or CO2 (kg) 90 180 270 270 360

Scale B - Portable Fire-Fighting Equipment Dry chemical (Kg) 45 or Halons (kg) 45 or CO2 (kg) 90 and Foam/ AFFF (lt.) 90

A lance or hose and horn nozzles is recommended for dealing with engine fires (not dry powder) *Note: The use of Halon should be avoided where a suitable alternative exists. Scale C - Crash Equipment 9.1.4.7. The crash equipment should consist of the following items: a. . b. . c. . d. . e. . f. . g. . h. . i. . j. . k. . l. . m. . n. . Aircraft or fireman's type axe. Large axe. Heavy duty hacksaw with blade. Four spare hacksaw blades. Grab hook with a long handle or line. Harness knife with sheath (2 off). Heavy duty crowbar. 24 inch (61cm) bolt croppers. Flameproof gloves (at least two pairs). Two fireman's face masks. Torch with spare batteries. Adjustable spanner. Fire blanket. Side cutting pliers.

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o. . p. . q. . 9.1.4.8.

Assorted screwdrivers. ladder. (8 ft. min) Breathing Apparatus (2 sets) (note: offshore locations only).

Useful publications for reference are:a. United Kingdom Civil Aviation Publications 168 "Licensing of Aerodromes" and 437 - "Offshore Helicopter Landing Areas Guidance on Standards". The Petroleum Industry Training Board - "Helicopter Landing Officer's Handbook". ICAO Annex 14 Aerodromes Manual. U.S.F.A.A., Part 139, Certification of Airports. Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting.

b.

c. d.

9.2. 9.2.1.

Communication Equipment It is vitally important for the safe and efficient conduct of flights, that aircraft shall be able to communicate with a ground station at all times. Adequate, serviceable equipment of a type authorised for aeronautical use is therefore essential, both in the aircraft and on the ground, and the Operations and Flight Manuals of the aircraft operator should include a section on the minimum level of equipment required for the despatch of the aircraft. There should always be a back-up system both in the air and on the ground, and it is normal practice for aircraft engaged on public transport operations to carry at least three independently powered radios in two or more of the following frequency bands, which must also be capable of receiving broadcast meteorological information. Very High Frequency (VHF) Air Band 9.2.1.1. This is the most common band in use in civil aviation, and generally applies to the frequency range 117.975 MHz to 137 MHz. VHF airborne equipment is small, lightweight and easy to use, although propagation is limited to line of sight, leading to short range capability between aircraft at low level and temporary or low ground antennae. Typical maximum range of between an aircraft flying at 1,000 feet and a building roof mounted antennae is 20 miles. Range may be extended by increasing ground antenna height and by careful locations of antennae relative to local topography. The readability of VHF air band (am) propagation is good, although not to the same standard as FM transmissions.

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Single Sideband, High Frequency (SSB-HF) 9.2.1.2. The aeronautical mobile service operates in the band 2.8 MHz to 22 MHz in multiples of 1 KHz, normally in the Upper Side Band (USB) and is in widespread use throughout the world. It has the advantage of long range propagation, provided that a range of frequencies is available in order to avoid the problem of diurnal variation of the sky wave, and the "dead zone" between ground and sky waves. HF reception is noisy and fatiguing to listen to for long periods although SELCAL systems are used in larger aeroplanes and helicopters to provide an alerting signal to crews not on listening watch. For low level operations, especially in mountainous or jungle areas, where line of sight between transmitter and receiver cannot be maintained, HF is the only option until sophisticated satellite relaying becomes widely available. It should be appreciated that in almost all countries licences are necessary for the operation of all radios, and the control of frequency allocation is particularly tight in the air bands. Due to congestion on administration frequencies, it is often necessary to have a dedicated aviation frequency, set and operator to ensure flight safety, and if the ATC network does not provide adequate coverage, it is essential that the necessary permits are acquired to allow the company to provide flightwatch cover. Advance planning is necessary, as telecommunications bureaucracies are notoriously slow.

9.2.1.3.

9.3. 9.3.1.

Navigation Equipment Navigation equipment for aviation is used in standard form throughout the world as a major aid to positioning and flight safety. First of all there is the basic aircraft equipment concerned with navigation and positioning but being self contained in the aircraft and requiring no ground station for its operation. 9.3.2.1. 9.3.2.2. Compass - to fly specific magnetic headings. Airspeed Indicator - to indicate speeds flown throughout the flight parameters. Altimeter - to maintain selected heights. Vertical Speed Indicator - to climb and descend at required rates. Radar - mainly used to show weather build ups and enable safe avoidance, it is also used by helicopters as an offshore approach aid. Radio Altimeter - to give height indications at low altitudes and to provide a trigger for ground proximity warnings.

9.3.2.

9.3.2.3. 9.3.2.4. 9.3.2.5.

9.3.2.6.

9.3.3.

Secondly there is equipment fitted to the aircraft which complements and responds to ground stations. 9.3.3.1. A supplementary method of communication is secondary surveillance radar (SSR). The aircraft is fitted with a transponder and its signals (pulses) are interrogated on the ground and information concerning the aircraft's identification and flight level is available to the ground station. NDBs (non-directional beacons) are ground stations and may be situated at airfields, beneath air routes on offshore locations and in any position that will assist in positioning aircraft. NDBs transmit on the MF band radiating in all directions and provide a basic navigational positioning system. The cockpit presentation is a single needle indicating the direction of the ground station.

9.3.3.2.

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9.3.3.3.

This indication can be displayed on a compass and the pilot can utilise this information to steer towards or away from a charted ground position. The system uses a radio receiver to identify the direction and directional indication is displayed on a radio magnetic indicator (RMI). VOR (VHF omni-directional radio range) - the VOR is a ground navigational aid operating in the VHF band as a standard short range facility. The VOR transmits through 360° and therefore theoretically produces an infinite number of tracks. The cockpit presentation can be in two forms: it will be represented as a needle on the Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) and will therefore indicate the direction of the VOR. It will also be shown on a left and right indicator, and in this mode the pilot can pre-set a heading required and fly towards it by using the left/right indications. It will also provide to/from information. VORs are used on airways and for final positioning before airport approach procedures are instigated. DME - distance measuring equipment - the DME is a secondary radar system which provides accurate and continuous indications in the cockpit of the distance between an aircraft and the ground transmitter. DME will also enable the pilot to assess ground speed and time to go before arriving at the DMEs location. G.P.s. Global positioning system, transmitting a signal from the aircraft to pre positioned satellites and retransmitted back provides long./lat. position, ground speed, heading and altitude and through DGPS application can be used for instant approaches where approved by the Regulatory Authority. ILS - instrument landing system - the ILS is a pilot interpreted precision runway approach aid and is installed at virtually every major airport. The system provides the pilot with visual instructions enabling the aircraft to be flown along a predetermined flight path to the threshold of the runway being served by the system. The procedure is started by the aircraft self-positioning or being vectored by ground radar to a point where the ILS may be used as the next and most reliable aid. In using the ILS the pilot follows the indications in the cockpit for final approach, the instrument provides two references. One needle shows left or right deviation from the centre line, the other indication is up or down telling the pilot if he is above or below the final glide slope. By flying the indications on centre line (localiser) and glide slope the aircraft arrives at a pre-determined decision height, from which point a visual landing is made or an overshoot commenced. Marker beacons, typically an inner and outer markers will provide way points for the approach. Area navigational aids - Apart from navigating overland by ground stations providing short range assistance, aircraft travel over vast areas of ocean and uninhabited lands and require the use of long range assistance. LORAN (Long range aid to navigation) is a hyperbolic navigation system: a hyperbola is defined as the locus of a point having a fixed difference in range from two other fixed points. Loran works on the principle of differential range by pulse techniques. DECCA - is another hyperbolic navigation system but is a shorter range navigation aid.

9.3.3.4.

9.3.3.5.

9.3.3.6.

9.3.3.7.

9.3.3.8.

9.3.3.9.

.

9.3.3.10.

9.3.3.11.

9.3.3.12.

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9.3.3.13.

Both the above systems have ground stations variously over the world, Loran operates on MF (medium frequency) and Decca on LF (low); both are used for maritime navigation and have largely been surpassed in International Aviation usage. For helicopters, however, Decca is still widely used especially in European waters and the once tedious methods of plotting on a chart have been replaced by a sophisticated computerised aircraft receiver providing instant accurate position information including distances travelled, distance to go to next destination, speed and bearings. VLF (very low frequency) also provides area navigation aid services in the form of ONTRAC II and the Omega system, operating on a system of worldwide transmitters and using the principle that signals from different stations arrive at a given position at different times. INS (inertial navigation system) is the system used by the majority of airlines on long haul routes. The principle of the inertial navigation system is of accelerometers so arranged that they can detect changes of aircraft motion and through two successive integration procedures indicate aircraft position and velocity. Currently while INS and OMEGA compete to be used as global navigation systems the future awaits the introduction of laser-based INS (LINS) and the formal adoption as a primary aid of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) or GLONASS (the CIS equivalent) based on a constellation of satellites. The generic term GPS (Global Positioning System) is used to describe this aid and it is already in use, albeit regarded as a supplementary aid until world-wide reliable coverage is proven. It is likely using differential GPS that it will eventually be used as a primary approved aid, even to the extent of replacing ILS..

9.3.3.14.

9.3.3.15.

9.3.3.16.

9.4. 9.4.1.

Technical Accommodation Adequate technical accommodation is required to ensure sound maintenance support. Engineering Accommodation 9.4.1.1. The amount of accommodation required will depend on the size of the operation. For a small operation, an office for the Senior Engineer which also doubles as a Technical Records Office is considered sufficient, whereas a large operation which has an independent Quality Control function will require office space for a Chief Engineer, Engineering, Technical Records, Technical Library and Quality Control office which will require sufficient space to house a Standards Room. Irrespective of the size of the operation, provision should be made for an engineers crew room which should be reasonably comfortably furnished. On contracts of some duration it is normal to expect that the contracted aircraft will be operated from a fixed base. This fixed base should have hangarage and ancillary facilities suited to support of the maintenance requirements of the type/types of aircraft to be operated during the duration of the contract. The hangarage and ancillary facilities at the fixed base should include but not be limited to:a. Hangarage sufficient to house all aircraft on contract and furnished with lighting, air, water and electrical supplies and lifting equipment safe weight loaded to lift the heaviest component installed in the contract aircraft.

9.4.1.2.

9.4.1.3.

9.4.1.4.

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b. Ground equipment, maintenance stands and special tooling sufficient to support all maintenance tasks to be carried out. c. Technical office accommodation. d. Engineer's crew room. e. Stores Suite f. Quarantine store. g. Commercial store. h. Flammable store. i. Ancillary workshops sufficiently equipped with special tooling to perform the overhaul and repair tasks as approved by the Regulatory Authority responsible for the operational area. j. Battery Shop. 9.4.1.5. Where the nature of the operation is such that provision of hangarage is not practical, i.e. contracts of short duration, seismic operations which change base camps at regular short intervals, etc. aircraft can be expected to be operated and maintained under these conditions for short periods of time. However, due to the fact that aircraft require general husbandry which only a fixed base can be reasonably expected to provide, the maximum period an aircraft should be operated away from a proper fixed base is 300 hours or three months. In all cases, an aircraft operated away from its fixed base should be returned to that base for scheduled major component changes and major inspections. At all operating bases which do not have hangarage, there remains a requirement to provide simple office, workshop and storage accommodation.

9.4.1.6.

Battery Charging 9.4.1.7. Where there is a requirement to service aircraft batteries, an intrinsically safe battery shop should be provided. If there is a requirement to service both lead acid and Nicad batteries, these must be serviced in widely separated dedicated battery shops. These shops must be fully ventilated, fitted with smoke alarms and have a mains electricity power breaker fitted externally, but in the immediate vicinity.

Aircraft Stores 9.4.1.8. The aircraft spare parts should be stored in a dedicated, secure area. This generally forms part of the operators engineering accommodation. The items contained within such a store are aircraft parts which have been received, inspected and released as being fit for use on an aircraft and will be supported by documentation that allows traceability. Items such as general use commercial parts, oil, greases and paints should not be stored in the same area as aircraft spare parts. The Aircraft Parts Store should be supported by several sub-stores. These could include all or some of the listed stores, depending on the size of operation, local legislation, and the level of sophistication of the operators procedures. The list is not exhaustive but the following need to be considered when developing a store:

9.4.1.9.

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a. Receipt and Despatch Area. Self explanatory use; but should be a secure and separate area. Incoming items are not acceptable for use on aircraft until inspected and authenticity is established. Outgoing parts are generally unserviceable or on dispatch to another base and as such are not acceptable for use. b. Quarantine Store. Is a secure and strictly controlled room in which parts that need to be isolated from possible use are retained. These could be suspect or undocumented incoming parts, or unserviceable or suspect parts removed from aircraft. We should check if the stock held in this area is regularly checked and is processed in a reasonable time frame, generally not exceeding one year. c. Dark Store. An area within the bonded store which contains aircraft parts that would deteriorate in sunlight. Normally this covers the rubber based products, but can contain other items that could be affected. d. Commercial Store. A place to store the support products required to run the base and maintain aircraft, but not intended for aircraft installation. e. Lubricants Store. Normally expected to be located on the exterior of the hangar, it contains the oils and greases used on the aircraft and its systems. This should be equipped with explosion proof lighting (if any) and be of robust fireproof type construction. Stock should be batched and issued on an oldest stock first basis. Most of the products found in this store should be subject to life limit controls. f. Chemicals Store. Many of the dangerous and hazardous chemicals used in maintaining aircraft can react with lubricants and general cleaning products. Therefore the ideal solution would be a separate store although this is not often found to be the case. g. Paint Store. Paints and their relative products should be stored in a ventilated external store similar to the lubricant store and their life subject to similar controls. h. Explosives Store. Normally a steel cabinet to hold flares and squibs used in aircraft and survival equipment. i. Role Equipment Store. Part of the aircraft parts store in which the seating, spare covers, SAR, EMS and other specific role equipment is housed. 9.4.1.10. The operator should have a written procedure guide to cover all aspects of his stores operation which should include the names or positions of the person authorised to carry out receipt inspections and release to bond. Some of the storage areas need to be temperature and humidity controlled dependent on global location and planned use. All parts should be racked or binned in a manner such that they are individually stored by part number and readily locatable. Every item should be identified, normally with a label, although for smaller items this may cover a batch (e.g. a bag of washers). The label should contain the following information: part number, serial number (if applicable), description, quantity, authenticity information (e.g. reference number of the incoming approved certificate) and the store location. The label must advise the current serviceability state of the item and will often be signed by the stores inspector at the base.

9.4.1.11.

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9.4.1.12.

A records system should be kept which affords easy location of all spare parts held in the store and reflects an accurate record of the stock levels of each individual item. Regular stock checks should be carried out; this may include a continual selective check of items as well as the annual total check. The operator should have a formal policy on shelf life control and accurate records of any such controlled items should be in evidence. It is recommended that access be restricted to storemen and management. If this is not possible then restricted access by selected users could be agreed. Information on approved stores access should be posted at the store entrance. All issues must be recorded and the record system updated. A booking out system is normally used but direct requests through a computer based record would be acceptable. In most cases, operators storage space will not be large enough to store such large items as main rotor blades, main gearboxes, engines, etc. In such cases the larger items will usually be stored in the hangar. The control of issues of stock stored in this manner needs additional effort as the staff have direct access. All parts thus stored must be clearly labelled and protected against environmental and other damage. They are normally best kept in their transfer boxes with silicon-gel to prevent damage through humidity. Aircraft spare parts should be traceable through bona fide records (Approved certificates, Airworthiness releases and certificates of conformity) to their source of manufacture to ascertain the validity of the item. The purchase of new and used spare parts should be closely scrutinised to be certain of condition, traceability and correct specification. Used parts need additional effort to confirm that the quoted time since new, time since overhaul, and life remaining are supportable. Airworthiness tags in themselves are not sufficient evidence to establish integrity, and it is up to each aircraft operator to establish, by audit and cross checks, suitable levels of trust and reliability with its suppliers.

9.4.1.13.

9.4.1.14.

9.4.1.15.

9.4.1.16.

9.4.1.17.

9.5. 9.5.1.

Operations Accommodation For quality assurance purposes, adequate office space must be made available for operations and technical functions of the aircraft service organisation. The question of whether company or Contractor(s) will be responsible for providing these facilities should be addressed at the invitation to tender stage, as the cost has a significant impact on fixed charges, and the responsibility must be clearly defined in the final contract. If the Contractor(s) is to be responsible, then the amount and standard of such accommodation should be stipulated and monitored throughout the period of the contract to ensure that crews, administrative and technical personnel have appropriate space to plan and document flying and maintenance operations. Offices should be heated or cooled to the standards normally expected by office staff, although the case for air conditioning in temporary seismic camps is considered in Chapter 18. Flight Planning Room 9.5.2.1. This area should be quiet and have adequate communications (either by virtue of location or telecommunications facilities) with the following agencies:a. Contractor(s) Operations Office,

9.5.2.

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b. or Company Traffic Organisation c. Air Traffic Control d. Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network (AFTN) e. Meteorological Information (Area forecast, destination, METARS and terminal forecasts) f. Maintenance Control Office g. Live Maintenance Office h. Refuelling co-ordinator (if not Operations office) 9.5.2.2. Desk space should be sufficient to allow the maximum number of crews to carry out essential flight planning in reasonable comfort, and when operations only take place during normal working hours, this will mean catering for peak periods in the early morning. While feeder and offshore flying is normally conducted on well-established routes or airways, support of exploration activity may require planning from basic maps before each flight, and wall and desk space for the handling of large aeronautical charts will be required. While it will be the responsibility of the aviation department or Contractor(s) to provide up to date copies of aeronautical publications, operations manuals, etc. these are bulky publications and space for their ready-use storage must be considered. While not ideal, if crew numbers are small, the Flight Planning office may be combined with the space allocated for pilots day use as a crew room. If more than two or three crews are employed on an operation, then it is advisable for the nominated senior pilot to be allocated individual office space for his administrative duties, which will include a variety of returns called for by the company.

9.5.2.3.

9.5.2.4.

Pilot's Crew Room 9.5.2.5. A reasonably quiet room should be provided for use by crews between trips, and should be simply but adequately furnished, and within easy reach of the Operations or Traffic room. Occasionally it is necessary for crews on night-emergency duty, to stand by at the aircraft base, for example, when domestic accommodation is distant from the operating base. In such cases, suitable beds must be provided in a quiet and private area with sanitary facilities. A camp bed set up the crew room for example, is not considered satisfactory if the pilot is to be available for a flying duty period the following day. Provision of a reasonably comfortable crew room for day time use has the attendant benefit of keeping the aircrew immediately available for short notice flights.

9.5.2.6.

Operations Room 9.5.2.7. In areas such as the North Sea, where several aircraft operators serve a variety of oil company customers, the Contractor(s) will invariably have an operations organisation, complete with office facilities at each location, and day to day liaison with the customer department will be through this office, and not directly with aircraft crews.

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9.5.2.8.

In another situation, for example, where the Company has been established for some years and a long-term sole-use contract exists, the Company may be responsible for providing the office accommodation, as it forms part of the oil field infrastructure, but the Contractor(s) provides operations personnel for co-ordination of flights, passenger handling and aircraft availability. In short-term, highly mobile aircraft contracts, such as seismic or helirig support activities, Company will usually be responsible for the provision of office accommodation and personnel for the limited degree of operational co-ordination that is required. The Contractor(s) chief pilot will normally carry out the duties that call for specialist knowledge. Whatever the level of Company involvement, it is important that the following functions are available, from a room (size appropriate to the scale of operations). a. Communication with:-

9.5.2.9.

9.5.2.10.

• Contractor(s) main operations centre • Contractor(s) central maintenance office • Aircraft in local area • Aircraft en-route (if necessary via another agency). • Refuelling organisation • Passenger traffic office
b. Access to:-

• Aircraft payload and basic weight information • Company backbone and detailed flight schedules • Aircrew flight time and duty time records • Telex facilities (except in seismic field operations) • Desk space and clerical equipment. • Shelf space and filing cabinets.
Traffic Office 9.5.2.11. It is a legal requirement in most countries and should be a Company requirement elsewhere, that the names of all occupants of an aircraft be recorded on a manifest document. A suitable traffic office must therefore be provided, where passengers arriving, duly authorised, are required to report prior to embarking. A good traffic section will also provide the opportunity to conduct security checks (including search for contraband), passenger safety briefing by video or other audio-visual medium, and to ensure that passengers proceed to the correct aircraft in an orderly way, under supervision. Depending on the scale of operation, any or all of the following rooms will be required.

9.5.2.12.

9.5.2.13.

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a. Traffic clerk administration area, separated by a check-in counter from passengers. b. Waiting room before check-in. c. Waiting room after check-in (this is the ideal place for pre-flight briefing systems). d. Changing room (where survival suits are issued, if required) e. Security checking area. f. Cargo check-in bay, which for ground transport safety reasons should be well separated from the passenger movement area. 9.5.2.14. To avoid bottlenecks, it is important to consider carefully the flow of passengers in the traffic handling organisation, and at peak periods, a visual display of the current flight schedule is helpful to minimise personal enquiries. Where flight booking, scheduling etc. is computerised, this information can be displayed at small additional cost, on large V.D.U.s close to the check-in area.

9.6. 9.6.1.

Meteorological Information For flight planning purposes, pilots must have access to accurate, up to date information on the weather actually being experienced, and forecast for the departure, en-route and destination stages of their flight. For international and long range flights, the requirements for weather reporting and forecasting are met by stations at most airports and by World and Regional Area Forecast centres, which conform to standard reporting codes and formats, and provide Aeronautical Meteorological Service (AMS) to international standards as detailed in I.C.A.O. Document 8896-AN/893/3 "Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice". Thus, company owned or chartered aircraft operating to and from licensed aerodromes conforming with international standards will experience little difficulty in obtaining the following information, which is required for pre-flight planning purposes:Upper/medium level winds and temperatures Significant en-route weather phenomena Aerodrome forecasts Aerodrome reports Take-off forecasts SIGMET (potentially hazardous en-route weather information) Air reports NOTAMS - (Notice to Airmen) A variety of media (telephone, broadcast, telex, facsimile) is used to disseminate this information, and use is made of automatic broadcasting equipment for in-flight information.

9.6.2.

9.6.3.

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9.6.4.

In many operating areas however, company or chartered aircraft operate from remote bases with limited or no access to the sophisticated AMS. This has led in some cases to a private meteorological facility being funded by oil companies (although other parties have also benefited from the service). This was essential in the North Sea area where extreme weather conditions are encountered, and are frequently difficult to predict. In other areas with a more benign climate, a lower standard of service may be acceptable, where sector distances are shorter and the area of operation restricted. In such cases access to area forecasts by radio or telephone may be acceptable, at the discretion of the aircraft operator, but accurate reporting of conditions at departure and destination point is essential. It is recommended that the Aviation Adviser be consulted prior to establishing an aircraft base, and detailed guidance will be given but the following information must be available: 9.6.6.1. 9.6.6.2. 9.6.6.3. 9.6.6.4. 9.6.6.5. Pressure at runway/helipad level (QFE) Dry bulb air temperature (plus preferably wet bulb) Wind speed and direction Assessment of surface visibility Estimate of cloud base and cover (in octas) Note 1 Many countries have established minimum legal requirements for pre-flight planning and these must be strictly complied with irrespective of other recommendations. Note 2 A high proportion of aircraft accidents occurring due to human factors involve poor or deteriorating weather and many of these, particularly in developing countries could have been avoided by better pre-flight planning, and established procedures to be following in the event of encountering weather worse than anticipated.

9.6.5.

9.6.6.

9.6.7.

Under no circumstances should pressure be exerted on pilots or operations personnel to fly in marginal conditions. Security of Operations Aircraft operation is a high-profile activity, involving expensive equipment, and often passengers who present an attractive target to criminal elements. Hijacking incidents and other threats to scheduled flights of international airlines are well publicised, and there is no need to expand further in this manual, other than to point out that use of dedicated, company-owned and operated executive aircraft does provide a degree of insulation against these threats. In countries or locations where security is a significant problem, protection of owned or contracted operations may well have to be considered as part of overall company security precautions. Aircraft and associated ground facilities, including fuel installations are clearly attractive targets for criminal or terrorist elements, as are offshore oil installations, and in all cases, advice on protective measures should be sought from Company Security, who are in a position to advise of the measures appropriate to the perceived threat. There are, however, some basic precautions for consideration by all operating companies, which can perhaps best be described as the avoidance of unnecessary risks, at minimal inconvenience. Some such measures are:-

9.7. 9.7.1.

9.7.2.

9.7.3.

9.7.4.

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9.7.4.1.

Adopting as low a profile as possible - avoid unnecessary publicity concerning company operations. Avoiding the use of stickers etc. with company logos on baggage, decals on aircraft etc. Restricting the distribution of flight schedules to those with a real need to know. Recognition of V.I.P. passengers, and security checks and baggage checks on others. Institution of strict flight authorisation procedures, and passenger booking procedures.

9.7.4.2.

9.7.4.3.

9.7.4.4.

9.7.4.5.

9.7.5.

In certain cases, it may be considered necessary for aircrew to receive ground training, in the response to hijack or bomb threats. The Aviation Adviser can advise on this, and arrange short courses on request. Vehicles Working Around Aircraft The operation of vehicles adjacent to aircraft requires care and supervision to ensure sufficient separation from aircraft, personnel and equipment. Condition of Vehicle and Equipment 9.8.1.1. Vehicles must be in good condition with serviceable handbrakes. In many countries the vehicle may have driven over rough terrain to meet a flight. On arrival at the airstrip it must be checked for damage (e.g. fuel tank leakage). A buffer should be fitted to vehicles used in the loading/offloading of aircraft to prevent damage in case of the vehicle touching the aircraft. Old tyres may be used for this purpose and should be in place only for the actual reversing and loading/offloading operation.

9.8. 9.8.1.

9.8.1.2.

9.9. 9.9.1.

Driver Competence Aircraft are easily damaged and therefore the driver chosen for aircraft operations must be well briefed and competent. Drivers should be regularly checked to see that they are performing their duties in a calm and competent manner. Driver Supervision During Reversing When reversing up to the aircraft, the driver must be guided and supervised by an aircraft crew member or the senior person in charge of the aircraft handling party. When the vehicle is correctly positioned, the handbrake is to be applied, neutral selected, and the engine switched off. Wheel chocks are to be placed behind the vehicle rear wheels to prevent movement of the vehicle towards the aircraft during loading/offloading operations. Fork-Lift Trucks When using a fork-lift truck for loading/offloading heavy objects to/from aircraft, the utmost care must be taken. The operation must be supervised by an aircraft crew member inside the aircraft and by the senior materials-handling member present at the airstrip.

9.10. 9.10.1.

9.10.2.

9.10.3.

9.11. 9.11.1.

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9.11.2.

Aircraft crews will advise on weights and point loadings. However, all heavy objects due for air transportation should be palletised if at all possible, to facilitate weight distribution. Air cargo is to be lashed down and preferably netted. Palletising will depend on the weight and shape of the cargo to be carried. Each aircraft has its own loading criteria. Information is available in the flight manual of the aircraft. Vehicle Selection and Loading of Cargo The vehicle selected must be large enough for the freight to be collected. This may seem obvious, but fresh and frozen food boxes in particular are often seen piled far too high on vehicles with insufficient capacity. This frequently results in the load falling from the truck with the chance of damage to the contents and injury to personnel. Airfield Ground Support Equipment The contractor should wherever practicable be required to provide ground support mobile equipment at main and other locations. If this is not agreed then the Company must consider purchase of such units as "Moveable Capital Assets". Baggage Trolleys and Passenger Steps 9.13.1.1. Baggage trolleys are often towed by battery-operated 'tractors'. The tractors are also used for manoeuvring helicopters and small fixed wing aircraft in and out of hangars. A battery-charging unit should be available at the airstrip with one spare set of batteries on charge. Flight schedules are often delayed by the slow loading/offloading of baggage. The delays in many cases are caused by the lack of baggage trolleys. There should be sufficient trolleys on site to ensure that outward-bound and inwardbound baggage can be handled simultaneously.

9.11.3.

9.12. 9.12.1.

9.13. 9.13.1.

9.13.1.2.

Mobile Ground Power Units (GPUs) 9.13.1.3. To avoid aircraft using on board batteries in start-up engines, mobile Ground Power Units should be positioned at base locations to provide a power source.

Mobile Cabin Air Heating or Air Conditioning Units 9.13.1.4. In very hot or cold climates such units should be provided to make the internal cabin environment comfortable for aircrew and passengers. Units should be provided at main base and major offbase locations.

Body Bags 9.13.1.5. There should be available at least 5 body bags at the main base of operations and at each location at least one body bag for the transport of a fatality. This is a requirement which is often overlooked. Avoid transporting dead bodies and passengers on the same aircraft. Legal documents are required for the transportation of dead bodies - check with the local authorities (e.g. CAA and police).

9.13.1.6. 9.13.1.7.

Stretcher 9.13.1.8. A stretcher of the rigid type should be available.

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Manifest and Scales 9.13.1.9. Scales must be available for the correct weighing and manifesting of passengers, personal baggage and freight.

Passenger And Freight Booking System 9.13.1.10. Operators are recommended to have a centralised, manual or computerised booking system. Meteorological Equipment 9.13.1.11. The meteorological equipment available at airstrips will vary. However, remote strips should, as a minimum, have the following to meet the requirements at 9.6. a. Wind Sock. Fixed at each end of the airstrip and clear of obstructions. b. Thermometer. To measure shade temperature in degrees Celsius. This should be positioned in the shade away from a radiant heat source (e.g. not on the bonnet of a vehicle or closer than one metre to the ground when taking a reading). c. Anemometer. To measure wind speed in knots. If not on a fixed structure, it should be held in shoulder height away from the body. d. Compass. To measure wind direction from the direction in which it is blowing (e.g. from 020 degrees, from 180 degrees etc.). Note: All of this equipment is very fragile and will not stand up to rough treatment.

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CHAPTER 10 - FLIGHT CREW REQUIREMENTS ..........................................................................10-3 10.1 MINIMUM PILOT LEVELS .................................................................................................10-3 Aeroplanes....................................................................................................................10-3 10.2 PILOT QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE LEVELS ....................................................10-3 Aircrew Experience Requirement ................................................................................10-5 10.3 10.4 FREELANCE PILOTS ........................................................................................................10-7 FLIGHT TIME AND DUTY TIME LIMITATIONS ..................................................................10-7 Definitions.....................................................................................................................10-7 Standby Duty ................................................................................................................10-8 Recommended Maximum Flying Hour Limits .............................................................10-8 Maximum Flying Duty Periods - General.....................................................................10-9 Flying Duty Periods/Max Hours - Sole Use Contracts ................................................10-9 Maximum Cumulative Duty Hours ............................................................................. 10-10 Pilot Manning - Night Standby Duty .......................................................................... 10-11 10.5 FLIGHT CREW TRAINING ............................................................................................... 10-12 Flight Crew - Definition .............................................................................................. 10-12 Pilot Training .............................................................................................................. 10-12 General........................................................................................................................ 10-12 Conversion Training................................................................................................... 10-12 Recurrent Training ..................................................................................................... 10-12 Specific Requirements ............................................................................................... 10-14 Six Monthly Base Checks .......................................................................................... 10-15 Annual Checks ........................................................................................................... 10-16 Recency Checks ......................................................................................................... 10-16 Crew Resource Management Training ...................................................................... 10-16 Other Considerations ................................................................................................. 10-18 10.6. 10.7. PILOTS FLYING MORE THAN ONE AIRCRAFT TYPE.................................................... 10-18 SAR CREWMEN TRAINING............................................................................................. 10-18 Initial Training............................................................................................................. 10-18 Recurrent Training ..................................................................................................... 10-19 10.8 10.9 SINGLE PILOT OPERATION............................................................................................ 10-19 CABIN ATTENDANTS...................................................................................................... 10-20

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FLIGHT CREW REQUIREMENTS
10.1. 10.1.1. Minimum Pilot Levels The recommended number of pilots for routine flight operations has been set after many years experience and takes into account aircraft equipment, cockpit workload and in-flight conditions. Pilot levels have been determined assuming the crews meet or exceed the E & P Forum minimum qualification and levels of experience. Where, exceptionally, regulatory requirements are more stringent then these must be followed. Helicopters
VFR Single Engine Multi Engine <5,700 kgs Multi Engine >5,700 kgs 1 † 2* † 2 IFR and Night Not recommended 2 2

* Exceptionally one pilot may be utilised provided the aircraft is certified for single pilot operations and performance/requirements dictate e.g. single blind flying panel or because of the special payload demands for a specific task. All cases of proposed single pilot operation should be referred to the Aviation Adviser. † Under no circumstances should the control of a helicopter be left unattended while either engines are running or rotors are turning. Aeroplanes
VFR Single Engine Propeller driven <5700 kgs Pure jet and propeller driven >5700kg 1 2* 2 IFR and Night Not recommended 2 2

*

Exceptionally one pilot may be utilised where certified for single pilot operations, where workload is very light, the flight does not take place in a busy air traffic environment, poor or uncertain weather conditions, or does not consist of multiple sectors or sectors of over 1½ hours in duration. All cases of proposed single pilot operation should be referred to the Aviation Adviser.

10.2. 10.2.1.

Pilot Qualifications and Experience Levels The following tables stipulate the flying experience and qualifications of pilots recommended by E & P Forum before they can fly passengers of the Company or Contractor(s) either on ad hoc charter or under contract. Where these requirements cannot be met it may be possible to obtain a dispensation and, in any event, companies may wish to establish their own specific requirements. Where this is requested, full details of an individuals experience and qualifications under the headings shown in the tables must be submitted to the Aviation Adviser for assessment and consideration prior to agreeing or otherwise such a dispensation.

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10.2.2.

For those operators on sole use contract who have an ab initio pilot training scheme involving carefully structure modules from selection through to ab initio training, conversion training and supervised line training, then dispensation may be given to the graduates of such a scheme for acceptance as captains or co-pilots on Company flights. Such a requirement could arise during a process of regionalisation or where there is a shortage of suitably qualified and experienced pilots in the market place. Some civil aviation authorities allow "captaincy under supervision", or "PI U/S" as it is sometimes called, to count towards captaincy time, usually counting as half captaincy time. Before such an arrangement can be agreed during the progression of a co-pilot towards captaincy on a Company contract, guidance should be sought from the Aviation Adviser to ensure the validity of that flying. In some countries air taxi and helicopter pilots may not be entitled to an ATPL. If this is the case then a CPL is considered acceptable.

10.2.3.

10.2.4.

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Aeroplanes

AIRCRAFT COMMANDER QUALIFICATIONS

OVER 5,700kgs MAUW & ALL JETS
ATPL CURRENT CURRENT

TURBOPROP LESS THAN 5,700kgs MAUW (1)
ATPL CURRENT CURRENT

PISTON ENGINED LESS THAN 5,700kgs MAUW
CPL CURRENT CURRENT(3)

MULTI-ENGI OVER 5,700kgs MA
ATPL(H)

LICENCES TYPE RATING ON CONTRACT AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT RATING ON CONTRACT AIRCRAFT(2)

CURRENT

CURRENT

EXPERIENCE
TOTAL HOURS

Not less than
4,000 2,500 2,000 500 100 3,000 1,500 1,200 500 100 100 1,500 1,000 750

3,00

TOTAL HOURS IN COMMAND (4) TOTAL HOURS IN COMMAND - MULTI-ENGINED (4) TOTAL HOURS IN COMMAND OF GAS TURBINE OR JET AIRCRAFT (4) TOTAL HOURS IN COMMAND ON CONTRACT TYPE

1,50

1,20

10

CO-PILOT QUALIFICATIONS
LICENCES INSTRUMENT RATING ON CONTRACT AIRCRAFT(2) TYPE RATING ON CONTRACT AIRCRAFT
CPL CURRENT CURRENT CPL CURRENT CURRENT CPL CURRENT(3) CURRENT CPL(H)

CURRENT

CURRENT

EXPERIENCE
TOTAL HOURS

Not less than
1,000 500 250 150 100 50 50 100 50 500 250 100 500 250

1,00

TOTAL HOURS ON MULTI - ENGINED AIRCRAFT (4) TOTAL HOURS ON GAS TURBINE AIRCRAFT (4) TOTAL HOURS IN COMMAND OF MULTI-ENGINED AIRCRAFT (4) TOTAL HOURS IN COMMAND (4) TOTAL HOURS ON CONTRACT TYPE (4)

50

10

5

FLIGHT ENGINEERS
LICENCE TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS

(6) 2nd Class Licence 2,000

2nd Class Licenc

2,00

NAVIGATORS
LICENCE

(6) 1st Class Licence 2,000 1,000

1st Class Licenc

TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS MINIMUM NAVIGATOR HOURS
Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4 5.

2,00

1,00

Maximum All Up Weight Instrument ratings are required to be tested at periods not exceeding 13 months. [Instrument base checks should be at 6 monthly intervals]. Requirement for Instrument Rating depends on role or task. However, in all cases, proven and current instrument competence is required. These Hours to be fully on either aeroplanes or helicopters as appropriate. Up to 10% may be achieved in a flight simulator approved for the purpose by the regulatory authority It is unlikely that a co-pilot will be required.

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6.

Flight Engineer and Navigator experience requirements are applicable to all Former Soviet Union (FSU) aircraft when flown in or outside the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS

RELEVANT ROLE EXPERIENCE AEROPLANES Where specialist activities are involved, such as airborne pollution control, top dressing, aero magnetic surveys, then advice on specialist experience requirements should be sought from Aviation Adviser.

RELEVANT ROLE EXPERIENCE HELICOPTERS

Land Seismic Operations - Total time required for seismic support is 300 hours which, where relevant must areas. A formal and recorded training scheme of underslung operations must have been undertaken plus a min operations. [50 of the 200 hours must be relevant to the role to be flown on contract, i.e. short or long line as app hours may form part of the total requirement, pilot under instruction flying must not be undertaken within a Compa

Offshore Role Experience - Total time for operating to fixed and moving platforms - 500 hours [(above 5,700kgs)

Mountain Flying Operations - A formal and recorded training scheme flying in mountain operations must h operations in mountainous terrain.

Winching - A formal and recorded training scheme must have been undertaken plus a minimum of 50 hours of w land seismic operations as appropriate as above. Offshore Spraying / Pollution Control - Prior offshore experience. Details in each case to be agreed with SAL.

For all the above role requirements recent experience is considered essential and pilots who have not operate excess of a year will require refresher training [more frequent in the case of winching]. Advice should be sought fr

In those cases where a co-pilot has no opportunity to accumulate 50 hours on the contract type, then an allowable variation is for him to have fl hours on the contract type as follows: Total Hours On Contract Type Which Must Include The Following Minimum Hours Under Each Section Aeroplanes Helicopters Aeroplanes Helicopters Helicopters Helicopters Helicopters Both Aeroplanes Helicopters Type conversion plus Instrument flying training on type Type conversion VMC Initial type test, day Base Check, night BC and IR on type Initial type test, day Base Check, night BC Instrument flying Training Instrument rating test and IR Base Check Rig approaches (5 Day & 5 Night) Simulator / procedural trainer if available Third pilot in jump seat on representative routes & observing procedures & duties of first officers in the normal area of operations At least 15 hours which must also include a minimum of 30 sectors with maximum exposure to all the current routes to be flown, as third jump seat or equivalent passenger seat, observing the operating procedures, paperwork in the cockpit and duties of a First Officer. AEROPLANES Must be followed by further experience which may be gained during contract revenue flights : HELICO

Must be followed by further experience which may

• •

a further 30 hours on line with type Training Captain and final P2 Line Check on achieving 50 hours on type before being rostered to fly with other type qualified Line Captains.

• •

On completion he is to fly on line a further 30

A final P2 line check on achieving 50 hours other type qualified Line Captains.

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10.3. 10.3.1.

Freelance Pilots Freelance pilots are not normally recommended to be employed on Company flights. There are, however, occasions on the smaller operation where their use cannot always be avoided. In such cases the freelance pilot should only be employed in the co-pilot role and prior to his use he should at least have carried out full base and line checks by the senior Company Training Captain, preferably be included in simulator training, and be indoctrinated in company procedures. He should sign to the effect that he is fully conversant with such procedures and will abide by them, and should be included in the system for ensuring that amendments, warnings, and notices are drawn to the attention of crews. his competence and suitability should also be formally endorsed by the senior management of the company. He must of course meet all Aviation Adviser flying qualifications and experience levels. An exception to the foregoing is where 'self-employed' pilots are used by the company on a 'permanent' basis. In such cases, provided that management has determined that these pilots are fully conversant and compliant with company rules and procedures, and provided training and checking is under the aegis of the operator and in accordance with a properly controlled and supervised programme, then they may be employed as captains. As a condition of their employment, these pilots may be free to fly with other Contractor(s), in which case the operator must determine, by proper controls, that Aviation Adviser standards for flight and duty times are being met. Flight Time and Duty Time Limitations In most but not all countries, flight crews are governed by regulations on the maximum number of flight and duty hours over different periods of time. The prime objective of any flight time limitations scheme is to provide crew members who are adequately rested prior to the beginning of each flight, and when flying are sufficiently free from fatigue so that they can operate to a satisfactory level of efficiency and safety in all normal and abnormal situations. Aircraft operators are expected to appreciate the relationship between the frequency and pattern of scheduled flying duty periods, rest periods and time off, and give due consideration to the cumulative fatigue effects of working long hours interspersed with minimum rest. The actual limitations will vary from country to country, and the first requirement in a Company managed operation is that work schedules shall not exceed the legal maxima in force in the country of operation, which in some cases, may be generous. It is strongly recommended that even if not legally required, all operators should have a system for control of maximum flight time and duty periods, on call periods and minimum rest periods. This should be detailed in the Operations Manual for the benefit of all crew members and the staff concerned with the preparation and day to day management of rostering and scheduling. Definitions 10.4.2.1. Flying Hours - The definition of flying hours varies with different civil aviation regimes but a generally acceptable criterion is the time between first moving with the intention of taking off, and coming to rest after a flight. In the case of helicopters completing multiple sectors, this will include time spent with rotors running between landing and next take-off. Flying Duty Period (FDP) - Any time during which a person operates in an aircraft as a member of its crew. It starts when the crew member is required by an operator to report for a flight and finishes at on-chocks, engines off, or rotors stopped, on completion of the final sector. It is desirable that a recording system is used to help prevent excessive FDPs.

10.3.2.

10.4. 10.4.1.

10.4.2.

10.4.2.2.

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10.4.2.3.

Duty Period - Any continuous period during which a crew member is required to carry out any task associated with the business of an aircraft operator including any period spent completing post flight duties. Duty periods particularly affect crew members required to carry out administrative, managerial or executive roles in addition to flying duties. Rest Period - A period of time before starting a flying duty period which is designed to give crew members adequate opportunity to rest before a flight. Split Duty - A flying duty period which consists of two or more sectors, separated by less than a minimum rest period Days Off - Periods free from all duties. A single day off shall include two local nights. Consecutive days off shall include a further local night for each additional consecutive day off. A rest period may be included as part of a day off. Acclimatised - When a crew member has spent 3 consecutive local nights on the ground within 2 hours of the local time zone, and is able to take uninterrupted nights sleep. The crew member will remain acclimatised thereafter until a duty period finishes at a place where local time differs by more than 2 hours from that at the point of departure

10.4.2.4.

10.4.2.5.

10.4.2.6.

10.4.2.7.

Standby Duty 10.4.2.8. A period during which an operator places constraints on a crew member who would otherwise be off duty. However, it should not include any time during which an operator requires a crew member to be contactable for the purpose of giving notification of a duty which is due to start 10 hours or more ahead.

Recommended Maximum Flying Hour Limits 10.4.2.9.
CATEGORY

The following table will serve as a general rule for all operations.
PER YEAR 3 X 28 DAYS PER 28 DAYS PER 7 DAYS PER 3 DAYS PER 24 HOURS One Two Pilot Pilots 8 10 7 9

Fixed Wing Helicopter

900 800

240

100 80

30

18

10.4.2.10. The following either singly or in combination will affect the amount of flying hours considered available for a pilot: a. Where there is a high frequency of landings, continuous underslung/heli rig operations, high ambient temperatures, wearing of immersion suits, night flying and shuttling in night or IMC. For instance in underslung loads/heli rig work, one pilot should be restricted to 5 hours a day and two pilots 7 hours a day. When wearing immersion suits schedules which involve continuous flying in excess of 4½ hours will include provisions for a break free of duty of at least 30 minutes not including a total of 30 minutes for immediate post and pre-flight duties. The break will be scheduled prior to exceeding a total of 6 hours flying. b. Helicopter pilots may exceptionally fly up to 90 hours a month but 80 hours should be the planning maximum and in no case should 240 hours in 3 consecutive 28 day periods be exceeded.

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Maximum Flying Duty Periods - General 10.4.2.11. The general rules to be applied to aircrew are: a. Rest periods should normally be a minimum of 12 hours. schedule for rest periods should be laid down. A formal

*b. They should not work more than 7 consecutive days between days off. *c. They should have not less than 2 consecutive days off in 14. *d. They should average at least 8 days off in each consecutive 5 week period averaged over 3 such periods. e. For single pilot helicopter operations a maximum limit of 10 hours FDP is a requirement and for two pilot operations, 12 hours. These will be reduced by early morning or evening starts. f. For single pilot aeroplane operations a maximum limit of 10¼ hours FDP is a requirement and for 2 pilot operations 14 hours. Again these will be reduced by early morning or evening starts, the number of sectors and whether or not pilots are acclimatised to local time. g. For split duties with less than 2 hours rest within the FDP then no extension is allowed. With 2-3 hours rest, the FDP can be extended by one hour and with 3-10 hours rest, the FDP can be extended to half the consecutive hours rest which most not include the time for post and preflight duties. With more than 6 hours consecutive rest, suitable accommodation must be provided. h. Any concern about the FDPs being applied should be referred to Aviation Adviser. i. The wearing of immersion suits can contribute to fatigue and pilots wearing them should not participate in moving freight or baggage or in any other physical effort. His role should be supervisory. j. Records for duty and rest periods of all flying staff should be kept.

*

(Dispensation can be given under b,c, and d if crews are rostered to be on site for limited periods interspersed with extended leave periods (e.g. 14 days on, 14 days off) but discretion will need to be tempered by the intensity and nature of the flying operation).

Flying Duty Periods/Max Hours - Sole Use Contracts 10.4.2.12. For sole use contracts a greater degree of control can be exercised over aircraft operators and the following tables enable FDPs and daily flying hours to be more tightly governed by time of start, single or two pilot operation, numbers of sectors and whether or not pilots are acclimatised. These hours have been determined from careful research by national and international institutions on the immediate and cumulative efforts of work in flight.

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Table of Duty and Flight Time Limitations
HELICOPTERS LOCAL TIME OF START 0600-0659 0700-0759 0800-1359 1400-2159 2200-0559 AEROPLANES - TWO CREW (Acclimatised to local time) LOCAL TIME OF START 0600-0759 0800-1259 1300-1759 1800-2159 2200-0559 AEROPLANES - TWO CREW (NOT acclimatised to local time) LENGTH OF PRECEDING REST (HOURS) Up to 18 or over 30 hours Between 18 and 30 hours AEROPLANES - SINGLE CREW (Acclimatised to local time) LOCAL TIME OF START 0600-0659 0700-1259 1300-1759 1800-2159 2200-0559 Up to 4 10 11 10 9 8 5 9¼ 10¼ 9¼ 8¼ 8 SECTORS 6 8½ 9½ 8½ 8 8 7 8 8¾ 8 8 8 8/+ 8 8 8 8 8 1 13 11½ 2 12¼ 11 3 11½ 10½ 4 10¾ 9¾ SECTORS 5 10 9 6 9¼ 9 7/+ 9 9 1 13 14 13 12 11 2 12¼ 13¼ 12¼ 11¼ 10¼ 3 11½ 12½ 11½ 10½ 9½ 4 10¾ 11¾ 10¾ 9¾ 9 SECTORS 5 10 11 10 9 9 6 9½ 10½ 9½ 9 9 7 9 10 9 9 9 8/+ 9 9½ 9 9 9 SINGLE PILOT Max FDP 9 10 10 9 8 Max Fly Hours 6 7 7 6 5 TWO PILOTS Max FDP 10 11 12 10 9 Max Fly Hours 7 8 8 7 6

Maximum Cumulative Duty Hours AIRCRAFT Helicopters Aeroplanes Cabin Attendant 7 DAYS 60 55 60 14 DAYS 95 105 28 DAYS 200 190 210

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Pilot Manning - Night Standby Duty 10.4.2.13. Companies often state a requirement for nigh stand-by duty and this will require additional pilots to be made available to fulfil what is likely to be a very occasional commitment. 10.4.2.14. The principles to be observed are: a. The requirements of the regulatory authority in terms of flight and duty limitations must be met. b. The maximum FDP/Flying Hours specified must be observed. c. After a day duty period, each pilot should not normally have less than 12 hours rest. d. If the pilots nominated for night standby duty are not used for such, then they can be considered available for duty on the following day period. Otherwise, they will normally be due for 12 hours rest before recommencing duty. 10.4.2.15. Where a fleet of aircraft is in use, careful scheduling will enable night standby to be covered without an increase in establishment. For a one aircraft, two pilot operation, however, it follows that, after a full day's duty, a further two pilots will normally be required, except in the circumstances outlined in 10.4.2.16 below. 10.4.2.16. A problem that could arise, is that where flying rates are low, but duty times are high, pilots could be under-employed and this could have a negative effect on morale and flight efficiency, particularly bearing in mind that nigh-call out is rarely exercised. 10.4.2.17. In such circumstances, and subject to the requirements of the regulatory authority, a concession can be considered whereby the day and night is covered by 3 pilots for one aircraft. For this to be acceptable, the day duty should be foreshortened, to enable there to be a rest period before commencement of night duty. Additionally, the 3rd pilot already rostered for night duty and not utilised during the preceding day should be nominated as commander, with one of the day pilots nominated as co-pilot. A prerequisite for such a scheme is that there should be adequate and convenient rest facilities, to enable the co-pilot to work a safe split shift and that the overall long term workload is light. It is emphasised, however, if a night call out takes place then the full rest period must be available for both crew members, before either can resume a day duty. This will inevitably mean a late start of the following day's programme. 10.4.2.18. As a guide to the prudent maximum previous day's flight before night standby commences, to enable 3 as opposed to 4 pilots to be used, day operations should be limited to a maximum FDP of 8 hours and a maximum flight time of 4 hours. The day programme should be arranged to enable a release from duty as early as practical provided this does not mean an inordinately early start. As every situation is likely to be different, sensitive management is required and guidance should always be sought from Aviation Adviser.

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10.5. 10.5.1.

Flight Crew Training This section sets out guidelines for flight crew training. Flight Crew - Definition 10.5.1.1. A member of flight crew is defined as a pilot, engineer, cabin attendant, loadmaster or other person required to fly in an aircraft for the specific execution of its allocated task.

Pilot Training - General 10.5.1.2. Initial and recurrent training is a vital factor in flight safety and must be carried out to ensure that high professional standards are set and maintained. The validity of a pilots licence depends upon regular flight checks. Each operation will have on site (or access to) a suitably qualified training captain whose responsibilities will include pilot training, testing and maintaining appropriate records. The minimum level of periodic training and testing will be laid down by the civil aviation authority existing in the country of operations, and while these standards are normally acceptable certain countries fall short of the E & P Forum requirements.

10.5.1.3.

10.5.1.4.

Pilot Training - Conversion Training 10.5.1.5. Initial competency on a specific aircraft type is assessed by an examiner approved by the Regulatory Authority and is recognised by the award of a type rating. Although the E & P Forum has no practical way of determining either the adequacy of this training or the standards set by the regulatory authority, safeguards are built into the system by the imposition of pilot experience levels and qualifications.

Pilot Training - Recurrent Training 10.5.1.6. There are two main elements to recurrent training: a. Base training: The purpose of base training is to improve, standardise and test pilots' knowledge of systems and procedures, their handling of a specific aircraft type and their instrument flying skills. b. Line training; The purpose of line training which can take place on revenue flights is to train, standardise and assess crews in the performance of their task. 10.5.1.7. A minimum of five hours per pilot per year is recommended as the target for recurrent training and this would be a firm requirement for any sole use contract. This assumes 3 hours to cover base checks and instrument rating renewal and a minimum of 2 hours line checking. This may need to be extended depending on typical stage lengths flown. If full motion/visual flight simulators are available a proportion of the training may be carried out in them as they provide the ability to practice emergencies which cannot or should not be performed in the air. They also provide the ability to freeze and play back events, to conduct readily third seat supervision and to repeat practise specific events. Simulators can be used for both base and line training.

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10.5.1.8.

Dedicated flight and simulator sorties for training should be for the Contractor(s) account; line training may be undertaken on revenue sorties. Procedures trainers also perform a useful role in training but should be regarded as an addition to the 5 hours total training requirement. Although commitment to training is a measure of a company's attitude to safety and proficiency, it is impractical to insist on five hours per year for operators who provide no more than occasional use when the regulatory authority may require little more than an annual test. In such cases, a pre requisite for charter would be for six monthly and annual base checks to be carried out as described below together with a line check and for training records to reflect the adequacy of this training.

10.5.1.9.

10.5.1.10. Wherever practicable, training should be conducted as a crew, with the training/check captain occupying the third seat. This would improve standardisation and optimise the crews activity as a fully integrated team. 10.5.1.11. In addition to the periodic and recurrent training of aircrew, specialised task training may be necessary depending upon the Company aviation needs. For instance, where the aircraft operator is expected to provide qualified crews in winching and sling load work, a formal course of instruction followed by regular continuation training is necessary to maintain proficiency. Training of all relevant members of the crew should be accommodated during periods of continuation training and should include pilots, winch operators, winchmen, load marshallers, loaders and relevant ground crew. 10.5.1.12. If regular programming demands routine winching and sling load operations then less training would be required but to maintain standards and competency a minimum of three lifts per 30 days winching overland and six lifts per 30 days over water is considered necessary. Similarly if external load lifting is infrequent, then one hour per quarter is considered the minimum to maintain proficiency. 10.5.1.13. In larger companies it is not necessary for all pilots on site to be qualified in each specialised task but nominated pilots will be expected to remain current to meet demands and only these may be used to complete the specialised tasks. 10.5.1.14. Continuation training in specialised tasks is normally accepted for Company account and the hours will be included in the revenue flying returns and charged to the Company. 10.5.1.15. The aircraft operator will either have a separate training manual or it will be a section of the Operations Manual. 10.5.1.16. Results of training exercises and renewal dates for flight checks may be kept in computerised format, but all checks should have a hand-written completed form of the actual exercises carried out, together with the result, recommendations and both the subject's and Training Captain's signatures. These should be kept and available for inspection. Narrative comment on the pilots' performance should invariably be included to enable trends and weaknesses to be identified and actioned. A record of the debrief should also be included. 10.5.1.17. Seismic support, tanker transfers, pollution survey and control, are all individual tasks that require specialised skills and experience. Companies should be aware that certain levels of competence and continuation training will be necessary in areas of flying differing from normal operations, for example mountain flying where only occasional excursions are required.

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Pilot Training - Specific Requirements 10.5.1.18. The addition of a new type to an operating fleet or the replacement of existing types would normally add to the training commitment for the period of introduction. The cost of this additional training would be subject to contractual negotiations but the Company should expect to contribute only when instigating fleet changes. a. Single-Engined Helicopters During day base checks, pilots of single-engined helicopters should carry out one or more full engine off landings to the satisfaction of the training captain. This requirement must be clearly stated to prospective Contractor(s), so that special arrangements may be concluded if necessary to conduct the training; additional hull insurance cover may also be necessary. b. Night Training Where there is a requirement to carry out routine (or emergency) flights at night, then the operator should arrange for each pilot to carry out at least 3 night take-offs and landings at a typical operational location every 90 days. In case of offshore operations, these should embrace a balance of both onshore and offshore locations. c. External Training Should smaller companies not have the in-house capability to perform the required training due to lack of facilities of a formal flight training establishment, approved simulators or the engagement of the services of qualified training captains from other companies, or even the complete training facilities of other companies may be necessary. In such cases, documentary evidence on the satisfactory completion of the training should be available for inspection. d. Emergency and Survival Training For over water operations, on conversion to type, wet and dry dinghy drill should be carried out in addition to training in and checking of evacuation drills and knowledge of safety equipment. Thereafter, dry dinghy drill should be carried out annually and wet dinghy drill on a 3-yearly basis. It is recommended, in accordance with regulatory requirements in several countries, that breathing apparatus be provided for crew use in case of fire. Training on this equipment should be conducted on a 3-yearly basis. e. Training - Offshore Flight Crews Wet dinghy drill should be carried out at least every 3 years. It is an E & P Forum recommendation for operators of offshore helicopters, where practical, to train their crew in response to a ditching by use of an underwater escape simulator. Underwater escape training should also be carried out at three year intervals.

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f. Crop Spraying Aircraft A syllabus for conversion and recurrent training is a requirement and details of an operators training scheme should be referred to the Aviation Adviser for assessment. g. Underslung Load Operations If underslung load operations are likely to be required, it should be specified in the contract, with a requirement that sufficient crews for the cover demanded are line-checked in this role before contract commencement. 200 hours previous sling load experience is required for support of land seismic operations. Pilots' nominated for underslung load work should have the competence check formally signed off under one of the following categories:

• • •

Onshore Offshore Vertical Reference

Unless at least five hours practical application has been achieved in the preceding six months, competency should be re-checked during Visual Base Check procedures and the pilot re-cleared under the above categories. h. Long-Line/Vertical Reference Competence in long-line work is only achieved after considerable line training, and if combined with vertical reference, will generally require aircraft modification. Vertical reference techniques employed by trained crews operating suitably arranged aircraft can save much time particularly for precision work where external visual references are poor (e.g. flare tip changes offshore), safety margins may well be enhanced by use of the technique where permitted by regulatory authority. Since it is unlikely that more than one or two pilots' in a crew change operation will be so qualified, training (refresher) will probably be required prior to a specific operation and this would reasonably be taken for client account. In this regard, a minimum of 10 hours vertical reference work in the preceding six months would be the minimum required for currency. Six Monthly Base Checks 10.5.1.19. Each pilot should be VFR and, if appropriate, IFR base checked every six months on all types of aircraft being flown on contract. The IFR base check is fundamental to both IFR operations and night Medrescue. 10.5.1.20. Where there is a requirement for night flying, whether on a routine or emergency only basis, then alternate base checks should examine the pilot's proficiency in the handling of aircraft emergencies at night. 10.5.1.21. VFR base checks will include normal operating drills with simulated emergencies followed by a written questionnaire based on the Flight and Operations Manuals and/or an oral discussion. 10.5.1.22. IFR base checks will include single engined approaches and overshoots and other suitable emergencies.

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Annual Checks 10.5.1.23. The annual check should embrace the following: a. Instrument Rating Renewal - procedures are flown under simulated or actual instrument conditions where the pilot under check has no visual reference outside the cockpit b. Line/Route Check - this is carried out during a normal revenue flight to ensure continued operating standards are maintained. c. Emergency and survival checks - to cover evacuation drills and knowledge of safety equipment. d. VFR only operations - an instrument check to ensure a minimum ability to maintain height, heading and airspeed and to recover from unusual attitudes, and also tracking to and from a navigational aid. e. Questionnaire covering all aspects of both operational and technical knowledge. Recency Checks 10.5.1.24. Recency checks for all pilots should be carried out after 28 or more days absence from flying and may be carried out by any suitable Senior /Line Check Captain but preferably, the Chief Pilot or Training Captain. For Captaincy the following limitations should apply: TIME OF ABSENCE 3 - 4 weeks 4 - 6 weeks 6 - 12 weeks 12 weeks or more REQUIREMENT 1 flight as Co-Pilot 2 flights as Co-Pilot 1 flight with an Instructor 1 flight as Co-Pilot 1 flight with an Instructor 1 flight as Co-Pilot 1 flight with Check Pilot 2 flights with Instructor and base check if due plus plus plus or

10.5.1.25. Some critical tasks require practice to achieve the necessary high standards e.g. night rig landings, specific site rejects and supervisors must ensure that such techniques are practised after an absence of 28 days or more before routing to captaincy. Crew Resource Management Training 10.5.1.26. With over 80% of accidents ascribed to human factors, the most fertile area for the improvement of safety lies in the cockpit. This requires optimisation of crew activities, procedures and training. This in turn requires a clear understanding of the interaction between all crew members and the effects of the environment i.e. psychology and physiology.

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10.5.1.27. The importance of this has been recognised by certain regulatory authorities and most of the worlds leading airlines. Where these requirements are not met by regulation or by the operators own initiative, it is important that we encourage a proper understanding and response to the needs of effective cockpit resource management. 10.5.1.28. As a minimum for two pilot operations we require: a. Checklists to be in challenge and response format. b. Responsibilities of the aircraft commander and co-pilot, handling and non handling pilot, to be clearly spelt out and endorsed by the Chief Executive. There should be a clear understanding that the non handling pilot has the prime responsibility to monitor the handling pilot's flying and if he believes that a hazard exists or potentially exists, or there is anything he considers to be untoward, he should have the clearly stated responsibility to challenge and if necessary take control. It is vital that at critical stages of flight e.g., final approach, any intervention should be positive and unambiguous. Although parameters for all aspects of flight cannot be legislated, the maintenance of correct altitudes, airspeeds, rates of descent, check and decision heights and standard operating procedures should always be tightly monitored and limits of deviation where practical spelt out. c. Cockpit workload to be optimised between the handling and non-handling pilot so that each plays a fully active and integrated role. The balance between look-out and the monitoring of instruments is particularly important, as is the need to subordinate logistics management and paperwork aspects of the task, to the prime requirement of operating the aircraft safely. d. Training to embrace discussion on the physiology of flight e.g. the effects of fatigue, hypoxia, hypothermia and the recognition of subtle incapacitation. Also to consider how to deal with a incapacitated crew member. It should also embrace a clear understanding of crew relationships and differing personalities to ensure that these do not interfere with correct decision making. 10.5.1.29. Because many countries and air taxi operators are not alive to the requirements of Crew Resource Management (CRM), they should be advised that if at all practical, their Chief Pilots and Training Captains at least should attend one of the growing number of CRM courses being run for third parties. 10.5.1.30. The CRM course is not an end in itself but should be an integral part of ab initio, conversion and recurrent training. It fits neatly into Line Orientated Flight Training (LOFT) which should be encouraged as a concept. 10.5.1.31. Within the total Safety Policy, CRM must have the positive support of senior management. It should also be acceptable as a concept to a new aircrew and they should be encouraged to take the lead themselves in analysis and debriefings. 10.5.1.32. E & P Forum recommend that sole use contracts require a full commitment to Crew Resource Management through the allocation of responsibilities, and through procedures and training.

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Other Considerations 10.5.1.33. The Aviation Adviser should carry out regular reviews of all aircraft operators. These checks include a thorough inspection of the training section to ensure adequate training is flown records are kept and the training staff are fully qualified. 10.5.1.34. Results of training exercises and renewal dates for flight checks may be kept in computerised format, but all checks should have a hand-written completed form of the actual exercises carried out, with the result, recommendations and Training Captain's signature. These should be kept and available for inspection. 10.5.1.35. Seismic support, tanker transfers, pollution survey and control, are all individual tasks that require specialised skills and experience. Companies should be aware that certain levels of continuation training will be necessary in areas of flying differing from normal operations, for example mountain flying where only occasional excursions are required. 10.5.1.36. The addition of a new type to an operating fleet or the replacement of existing types would normally add to the training commitment for the period of introduction. The cost of this additional training would be subject to contractual negotiations and the Company can expect to contribute when instigating fleet changes. 10.6. 10.6.1. Pilots Flying More Than One Aircraft Type Aircraft operator policy regarding how many types of aircraft their pilots may fly varies significantly from company to company. If often either takes the form of underwritten understandings, or is delegated to base Chief Pilots and so varies across the same organisation according to necessity and individual preference. The advisability of pilots flying more than one type will vary with the types involved, the experience level and ability of the individual pilot. A single rule is, therefore, not appropriate. Nevertheless, because flying several types on a day-to-day basis inevitably increases the danger of incorrect responses in the case of emergency, and the likelihood of handling errors or errors of omission, a limit must be placed on the practice. E & P Forum recommends that each company have a written policy on the subject, which applies across their operations. While pilots are quite correctly endorsed on a number of aircraft types, the E & P Forum recommends that only in exceptional circumstances would more than 2 types be flown on a day-to-day basis, and prefer to see a single type flown, or scheduling in blocks of days on a particular type. If more than one type is flown, recency flying and type training must be closely monitored both by individual pilots and a nominate member of the flying, training or operations staff. 10.7. 10.7.1 SAR Crewmen Training Training should embrace: Initial Training 10.7.1.1. A recognised formal course of instruction should include, but not be limited to, the following topics: a. Basic Weight and Balance b. Aircraft safety and survival equipment

10.6.2.

10.6.3.

10.7. 10.7.1.

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c. Emergency procedures. d. Technical details of winch operation. e. First aid and cold water recovery techniques including cold shock and hypothermia. f. Wet dinghy drill. g. Search and Rescue/Coastguard local organisation. h. Wet and dry winching practical instruction which shall include at least twenty lifts as the winch operator and twenty lifts as the winchman where permitted by the regulatory authority. Recurrent Training 10.7.1.2. Recurrent training should be conducted at regular intervals in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority: ANNUAL SIX MONTHLY -Wet dinghy drill. 1. 2. Survival and safety check A minimum of ten lifts, five of each as winch operator and winchman.

10.8. 10.8.1.

Single Pilot Operation Where aircraft are certified for single pilot operations and are practically operable by a single pilot, then this mode of operation will be considered. Among the factors affecting the decision are: 10.8.1.1. 10.8.1.2. 10.8.1.3. 10.8.1.4. 10.8.1.5. 10.8.1.6. Workload. Flight conditions. Whether flights are conducted by day or night. Whether flights are conducted under Instrument Flight Rules. Traffic density. Aircraft equipment (and the interface with approach and en-route aids) and particularly in the case of fixed wing IFR operations whether an operative approved auto-pilot system is fitted. Length and nature of intended flights. Whether flights involve departure or arrival at major Control Zones. Whether traffic flow is managed and STARS/SIDS apply. Whether flights are carried out in a hostile or non hostile environment

10.8.1.7. 10.8.1.8. 10.8.1.9. 10.8.1.10 10.8.2.

It will follow from the above that single pilot operations will be approved only by exception and 2 pilots will always be required for: 10.8.2.1. All executive jet operations.

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10.8.2.2. 10.8.2.3. 10.8.3.

Helicopter operations at night or under I.F.R. When so decreed by the regulatory authority.

It is common practice for small helicopters used for pipeline inspection activities, seismic and helirig campaigns to be flown single pilot in the interests of increasing the available payload. Such operations will be conducted in VMC. Offshore helicopter operations may be conducted with single pilot in Day VFR, non-harsh or non-hostile conditions. The operations should be conducted within 25 miles of a suitable landing area on-shore or heliport or helideck. During single pilot operation, it is vital that the controls of a helicopter are never left unattended with engines running, or rotors turning. The practice of the pilot vacating the helicopter before rotors have run down is strictly forbidden. Cabin Attendants Cabin attendants will inevitably be a requirement when more than 19 passengers are a requirement. Below that number the need to carry a cabin attendant should be assessed against the need for ex-route and passenger loading and unloading supervision. Cabin attendants must have completed a formal and recorded course of training which should include coverage of the following items: Safety Equipment, First Aid, Aircraft Knowledge, Emergency Procedures, Loading Procedures Documentation and The Handling of Dangerous Goods. The training course may be carried out by the operator but it should be formally recorded and a syllabus should be available for reference. Formal training should be carried out yearly and should include dinghy drill etc., in tandem with the training for cockpit crews.

10.8.4.

10.8.5.

10.9. 10.9.1.

10.9.2.

10.9.3.

10.9.4.

10.9.5.

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CHAPTER 11 - ENGINEER REQUIREMENTS ...............................................................................11-3 11.1. 11.2. 11.3. ENGINEER EXPERIENCE AND QUALIFICATIONS ..........................................................11-3 AVOIDANCE OF FATIGUE - ENGINEERS ........................................................................11-4 ENGINEER TRAINING .......................................................................................................11-5 Initial Training ..............................................................................................................11-5 Recurrent Training .......................................................................................................11-5 Promotion to Senior Positions....................................................................................11-5

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ENGINEER REQUIREMENTS
11.1. 11.1.1. Engineer Experience and Qualifications The following qualifications and experience are offered as a guide (They are in accordance with the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority Airworthiness Notice Nº10, other countries have similar qualifications). (C1) Chief Aircraft Engineer/Quality Manager Qualifications : Aircraft Maintenance Engineer's Licence in the appropriate in the appropriate category (airframe and engines) with endorsements to cover contract Aircraft. Exceptionally and depending on experience, multiple Licences may be acceptable. Not less than 15 (fifteen) years aircraft engineering, embracing all aspects of aircraft maintenance. Holder of an appropriate type rated or equivalent licence for not less than 10 years.

Experience :

(C2) Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineer Qualifications : Aircraft Maintenance Engineer's Licence of appropriate category (airframe and engines) with type endorsements to cover at least one of the Aircraft types operated. Not less than 5 (five) years aircraft engineering, embracing all aspects of aircraft maintenance. Holder of a licence with appropriate type ratings for not less than 2 (two) years.

Experience :

(C3) Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (Radio) Qualifications : Aircraft Maintenance Engineer's Licence Category 'R' or US FCC with endorsements to cover such equipment as is used on the contract Aircraft. Not less than 5 (five) years aircraft engineering, embracing all aspects of aircraft radio and associated systems maintenance. Holder of a Category 'R' licence with appropriate type ratings for not less than 2 (two) years or U>S> FCC. license.

Experience :

(C4) Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (Electrics, Instruments, Automatic Pilots, Compasses) Qualifications : Aircraft Maintenance Engineer's Licence Category 'X' with endorsements as applicable and required in respect of equipment used and embraced by the appropriate paragraphs : 8, 9, 10, 13 and 15 of Notice Nº10. Not less than 5 (five) years aircraft engineering, embracing all aspects of applicable aircraft equipment and associated systems maintenance. Holder of an 'X' licence with appropriate endorsements for not less than 2 (two) years.

Experience :

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Note:

The qualifications at C3 and C4 may be combined. However, in such cases each category group should have been held for not less than 2 (two) years

11.2. 11.2.1.

Avoidance of Fatigue - Engineers Other than any specific labour laws that may be applicable locally, engineers are not regulated by duty hour limitations. The following guidelines should therefore apply to all engineering staff as a minimum standard: 11.2.1.1. Work periods should not exceed 12 hours. Where it is essential that the working period be extended, this should be approved by the Chief Engineer on a case by case basis. The type of work carried out during the extension should neither be intricate, nor have significant airworthiness connotations. Where shifts are regularly rostered with a heavy maintenance workload to be completed through the night, the length of the duty period should be reduced from the 12 hour maximum. Medical studies have shown that workers carrying out complex processes between the hours of 03.00 and 06.00 are more likely to make mistakes than at any other time of the day. This factor needs to be taken into account when introducing a shift pattern and when planning high levels of overnight aircraft maintenance. Ideally the bulk of work should be completed by the shifts on duty up to midnight; with the residue completed by a swing shift covering the period from approximately 2300 to 0700. Each full working shift should be followed by a minimum 8 hour rest period. When setting the establishment for any operation, duty and rest periods will affect the numbers of staff required. When working a 24 hour split shift on line operations, at least 6 hours rest must be possible excluding travel. The entitlement for days off should be a minimum of 7 per month of which at least 4 should be in a minimum of 2 day periods; when the location or climate is arduous then this should be increased to minimise fatigue. Suitable relaxation and refreshment facilities should be available. If the shift system routinely encompasses meal times and staff are unable to take their meal breaks away from the work-site, then facilities for an appropriate meal should be provided. In tropical climates, the problems associated with bugs and insects have to be seriously considered and effective control of these pests may be essential for regular evening and night maintenance to be performed. Sufficient and adequate lighting for the depth of work being undertaken should be provided in all areas of the work-site. On locations such as seismic camps, where it is not feasible to provide other than the bare accommodation necessities, a regular "time on site, time off site" routine must be set up to ensure that Engineers working under these conditions do not stay in the field for prolonged periods. The minimum acceptable ratio of time on site to time off site is considered to be 2:1 with a maximum period on site not to exceed 2 months.

11.2.1.2.

11.2.1.3.

11.2.1.4.

11.2.1.5.

11.2.1.6.

11.2.1.7.

11.2.1.8.

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11.3. 11.3.1.

Engineer Training Engineer training is broken down as follows: Initial Training 11.3.1.1. It is considered essential that all engineers receive formal training and have a minimum of 6 months experience on type before issue of licences or type approval for the type/types of helicopters/aeroplanes to be covered. In countries where this is not required by the national licensing authority, then the aircraft operator must provide formal, general and type training for its certifying staff to meet the minimum requirements.

Recurrent Training 11.3.1.2. It is considered desirable that companies provide continuation and 'updating' training for their licensed and approved engineers and the attendance by their senior engineering personnel at manufacturers' conferences and airworthiness authority symposia, it is considered to be of great value.

Promotion to Senior Positions 11.3.1.3. Prior to promotion to a more senior position, it is considered essential that engineers received formal instruction in company procedures and responsibilities applicable to the new position. They should also receive management training appropriate to their own level.

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CHAPTER 12 - REQUIREMENTS FOR OTHER PERSONNEL ......................................................12-3 12.1. 12.2. 12.3. 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 SEARCH AND RESCUE CREWMAN .................................................................................12-3 HLOS/HELIDECK CREW ...................................................................................................12-3 REFUELLING SUPERVISORS...........................................................................................12-3 AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS..........................................................................................12-3 RADIO OPERATORS .........................................................................................................12-3 DESPATCHERS/TRAFFIC CLERKS..................................................................................12-3 CARRIAGE OF LOAD MASTERS ......................................................................................12-4

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REQUIREMENTS FOR OTHER PERSONNEL
12.1. 12.1.1. Search and Rescue Crewman SAR crewmen should have completed a satisfactory approved formal and recorded course . Approval will only be given after examination of the syllabus obtained from the course organiser or governing institution. SAR crewmen should also have some experience, preferably with a military background. HLOs/Helideck Crew All such staff should have completed a formal training course which should equate to the UK Petroleum Industry Training Board course or its equivalent. HLOs should preferably have had at least some experience as helideck assistants. Note: This level of experience and qualifications is recommended for those helideck crew on manned platforms where the volume of air traffic warrants this level of expertise.

12.2. 12.2.1.

12.3. 12.3.1.

Refuelling Supervisors These persons will have completed an approved formal training course. It is recommended that a refresher training course be undertaken at intervals not exceeding two years. Note: It is a firm requirement that specific refuelling supervisors be nominated and available where bulk facilities exist.

12.4. 12.4.1.

Air Traffic Controllers These persons should be licensed or unlicensed in accordance with the requirements of the country in which operations are taking place and they should be familiar with the company emergency and call-out procedures. They are also required to keep a log of air traffic control radio transmissions. Radio Operators They should be VHF/HF licensed where applicable with relevant experience of A/C operations and procedures and be completely familiar with aviation R/T terminology. Additionally, they should also be completely familiar with company emergency and callout procedures. They are responsible for flight watch and the R/T log of all aircraft communications. It is highly desirable that all communications and radio logs shall be in the English language. Despatchers/Traffic Clerks Such persons should be completely familiar with the operation of aeroplanes or helicopters and should have a good understanding of basic weight and balance problems and manifest documentation.

12.5. 12.5.1.

12.6. 12.6.1.

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12.7. 12.7.1.

Carriage of Load Masters For operation (and sometimes commercial) reasons it is expedient to carry "load masters" who are not trained aircrew, for the control of passengers and freight during flight and while the aircraft is on the ground. These personnel should always be given basic training as defined under "Crew" above and then should be given crew status.

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CHAPTER 13 - PASSENGERS.......................................................................................................13-3 13.1. 13.2. 13.3 13.4 13.5. BRIEFING...........................................................................................................................13-3 PASSENGER AND BAGGAGE WEIGHTS.........................................................................13-3 EMBARKING/DISEMBARKING PROCEDURES ................................................................13-3 SAFETY AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT.............................................................................13-4 DISCIPLINE........................................................................................................................13-5 Smoking ..........................................................................................................................13-5 13.6. 13.7. 13.8 13.9. ALCOHOL ..........................................................................................................................13-5 AUTHORITY OF CREW .....................................................................................................13-5 CARRIAGE OF PASSENGER OPERATING ELECTRONIC DEVICES ..............................13-6 DRESS ...............................................................................................................................13-6

13.10. CARRIAGE OF FREIGHT WITH PASSENGERS ...............................................................13-6 13.11. USE OF CO-PILOT SEAT FOR A PASSENGER ...............................................................13-7

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PASSENGERS
13.1. 13.1.1. Briefing The type of aircraft chosen and the operator selected to provide aircraft services for Company will have been subjected to evaluation by the Aviation Adviser and procedures and maintenance standards will conform to minimum requirements. It is however, a legal requirement in most countries, and prudent practice in all others, to determine that passengers and crews are thoroughly familiar with routine and emergency procedures and with equipment carried in aircraft for use in the event of accident or incident. Basic briefing should be carried out by the aircraft operator on boarding the aircraft, but it has been found effective in Companies with sole-use aircraft services agreements, to arrange for mass briefings (e.g. by use of video or audio/visual briefing machines) at the passenger assembly points. Items to be covered during briefings are as follows: Passenger and Baggage Weights At the discretion of the Company and the Contractors, standard weights based on averages relative to the operation may be used when preparing a manifest for aircraft having a maximum gross take-off weight of 5,700 kg or more, or having seats for 12 or more persons, including the crew. This standard figure may include hand carried baggage but no baggage checked in which must always be individually weighed. Such requirements are sometimes stipulated by regulation. For aircraft of less than 5,700 kg in weight, all passengers and all their baggage must always be weighed. Where immersions suits are carried or worn by either passengers or crew, and standard weights are in use, 3 kg should be added for each suit. Where standard weights are used, and even when approved by the regulatory authority, as a control, a full passenger weighing should be undertaken at intervals, to determine that the standard weights in use provide a safety margin over actual weight. If it is found to be inadequate then, until justified otherwise, the standard weight should be factored up by the appropriate amount, or actual weights always used. Embarking/Disembarking Procedures This should cover the access route from passenger assembly point to the waiting aircraft and should highlight the dangers of approaching aircraft with engines or rotors running. In the case of fixed wing aircraft on a shuttle service, embarkation will only be permitted via doors on the opposite side of the fuselage from any engines which remain running during turn-round. Helicopters should never be approached from behind, but always from a sector in full view of the pilot, who will normally operate from the starboard side of the aircraft. Embarkation procedures for helicopters will however be specific to aircraft type, as the rotor height above ground of, for example, the Sikorsky S76 helicopter precludes approach from directly in front of the aircraft. It is essential that the aircraft operator be required to supervise this briefing.

13.1.2.

13.1.3.

13.2. 13.2.1.

13.2.2.

13.2.3.

13.2.4.

13.3. 13.3.1.

13.3.2.

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13.3.3.

Aircraft, particularly helicopters, are constructed from lightweight materials which, although robust, are designed primarily to withstand aerodynamic loads rather than enthusiastic handling by rig floor crews. If a cabin attendant is carried, he or she will normally operate doors and cargo hatches, but if not carried, this task should be carried out only by specified ground personnel who have been briefed on the operation of doors. 13.3.3.1. Helicopters - Basic requirements are that: a. Only passengers or authorised and trained traffic staff should enter the aircraft operating area, and passengers should only approach the helicopter when invited to do so by the crew and under guidance of traffic personnel. Passengers should not embark until any cargo to be carried in the cabin has been loaded and properly secured. The number of personnel around helicopters should be kept to a minimum at all times. Personnel should not approach helicopters when red anti-collision beacons (usually on tail area and underside of the aircraft) are flashing. Lightweight items should be securely attached or firmly held. Personnel at remote locations must always remain outside the rotor disc until called to embark. After landing, passengers should remain seated, with seat belts fastened, until doors are opened and the crew has indicated that it is safe to disembark, when the aircraft should be vacated in a brisk and orderly manner. Only baggage and cargo handlers should remain in the vicinity of the aircraft and passengers should await their belongings outside the aircraft operating areas, unless other operating procedures are in place to permit passengers to safely obtain their baggage. PASSENGERS AND RUNNING JET ENGINES/ PROPELLERS/ ROTORS DO NOT MIX

b.

c.

d.

e. f.

g.

h.

13.4. 13.4.1.

Safety and Survival Equipment During an accident that occurred to an aircraft on contract to a Company, two passengers spent some time inverted in the aircraft as it lay on it's side, simply because they were unable to release the seat-belt mechanism. This serves to illustrate that familiarity with such basic equipment cannot be assumed, and pre-flight briefing must be carried out on each occasion. The following items must be demonstrated either by cabin staff or crew, or by video briefing. 13.4.2.1. 13.4.2.2. 13.4.2.3. 13.4.2.4. Operation of normal and emergency exits. Operation of seat belts. Operation of emergency passengers oxygen masks where appropriate. Operation of smoke hoods when fitted.

13.4.2.

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13.4.2.5. 13.4.2.6. 13.4.2.7. 13.4.2.8.

Wearing and activation of individual life jackets. Location of first aid kits and fire extinguishers. Location, deployment and operation of inflatable life-rafts. Where appropriate (during operations over hostile environments) the location and contents of survival kits. Donning and use of immersion/survival suits or "Shuttle Jackets"

13.4.2.9. 13.5. 13.5.1. Discipline

The following rules apply: Smoking 13.5.1.1. Notwithstanding any concessions made by a Company to smoking in a work environment, it is strongly recommended that smoking be prohibited at all times in aircraft, as it represents an avoidable hazard, and, health reasons apart, may affect electronic equipment and hamper good aircraft husbandry. If it is felt that industrial relations problems dictate a compromise which allows smoking during certain periods of flight, then this may only be permitted under the aircraft's operating release. Wherever possible, it should be discouraged. Smoking should never be permitted during:a. b. c. d. e. Take-off and landing Turbulence In lavatories Periods other than when seated in a passenger seat Refuelling operations

13.5.1.2.

13.6. 13.6.1.

Alcohol Personnel under the influence of alcohol or drugs must not be allowed to board any aircraft. Authority of Crew It should be stressed to all passengers that, in matters concerning the operation of aircraft, control of embarked passengers, routing, serviceability, conduct of the flight, etc., the aircraft commander's decision is final, and in most countries this is supported by the law of the land. For reasons of flight safety, it is unacceptable for a commander's decision to be debated during a flight, and should any dispute arise, the matter should be referred to the contract holder or appropriate department head for resolution after the event. It is particularly important that instructions from the crew are immediately and strictly followed in the event of an emergency situation developing.

13.7. 13.7.1.

13.7.2.

13.7.3.

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13.8. 13.8.1.

Carriage of Passenger Operating Electronic Devices The use of small (laptop/notebook) portable computers by passengers in business aircraft is generally permitted with the following provisos:13.8.1.1. 13.8.1.2. The crew are advised and agree to their use. The equipment is switched off during take-off and landing (seatbelt signs would be the cue). When not in use, the equipment should be securely stowed.

13.8.1.3. 13.8.2.

Due to the confined space in helicopter cabins, their use is not recommended. Vibration levels in any case inhibit their use. Passenger operated devices specifically prohibited include any transmitting device which intentionally radiates radio frequency signals such as Citizen Band radios, cellular telephones and transmitters that remotely control devices such as toys. Dress In field areas, passengers should be dressed appropriately for the environment regardless of the duration of the flight. Over remote and inhospitable areas, passengers should wear clothing, in particular, tough footwear, appropriate to the terrain (marsh, jungle, desert, Arctic) being overflown Carriage of Freight with Passengers The carriage of freight in the cabin with passengers is permitted by the Civil Aviation Authorities / Federal Aviation Authority within certain rules defined in Crew Operating Manuals. The following additional constraints are recommended to enhance safety and comfort: 13.10.1.1. Urgent freight, including mail bags, shall normally be loaded in the freight/baggage compartment. In exceptional circumstances only, it may be carried in the cabin with passengers, but strictly subject to the following conditions: a. It must not obstruct main emergency exists or access routes available to the passengers. It must not obstruct secondary exit windows adjacent to occupied seats. It must be securely tied down to aircraft strong points or with a tensioned net acceptable to the aircraft commander. If seats are folded up, care must be taken to ensure that they are stowed in such away that they do not present a hazard to any passenger in an emergency.

13.8.3.

13.9. 13.9.1.

13.10. 13.10.1.

b.

c.

d.

13.10.1.2. Routine air freight should not be carried in the cabin when there are passengers on the flight.

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13.10.2.

The primary mode of transportation for freight offshore should be by sea, and it is expected that the authorisers will screen all air freight requests for genuine justification. The priorities for air freight are set by the individual Company depending on their particular circumstances, whilst remaining realistic and in line with the overall safety thrust of the Company. The setting of the level of the priorities should be agreed at an appropriately senior level within the Company. Use of Co-Pilot Seat for a Passenger When aircraft dual controls are fitted the co-pilot's station may only be used for passengers carrying in emergency situations and after careful briefing on the hazards of interfering with controls. When duel controls have been completely removed a passenger may be carried in the co-pilot's station subject to the following conditions: 13.11.2.1. A separate briefing covering any items which may differ from the standard passenger briefing has been given. In particular, the use of crew emergency exits should be covered, and attention drawn to any switches etc., vulnerable to interference. 13.11.2.2. That the aircraft commander is satisfied that no safety or security risk is involved.

13.11. 13.11.1.

13.11.2.

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CHAPTER 14 - HEALTH, SAFETY AND OCCURRENCE REPORTING.........................................14-3 14.1 HEALTH, SAFETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT.....................................................................14-3 Chief Executive ...............................................................................................................14-3 Line Supervision.............................................................................................................14-4 Employees.......................................................................................................................14-5 Implementation ...............................................................................................................14-5 14.2. HEALTH AND FITNESS .......................................................................................................14-6 Periodic Medical Checks ................................................................................................14-6 Drugs and Alcohol Policy...............................................................................................14-6 Alcohol ............................................................................................................................14-6 Drugs ...............................................................................................................................14-7 Smoking ..........................................................................................................................14-7 General Hygiene .............................................................................................................14-7 14.3. ACCIDENT/INCIDENT REPORTING AND ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION.............................14-8 Aircraft Accident .............................................................................................................14-8 Aircraft Incident ..............................................................................................................14-8 Reporting outside the Company system.......................................................................14-9 Accident Investigation....................................................................................................14-9 14.4. MEDIA RELATIONS.............................................................................................................14-9 14.5. REMOVAL OF DISABLED AIRCRAFT ............................................................................... 14-10 14.6. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES - MAN MADE MINERAL FIBRES ........................................ 14-10 Protection...................................................................................................................... 14-10

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HEALTH, SAFETY AND OCCURRENCE REPORTING
14.1. 14.1.1. Health, Safety and the Environment There should be absolutely no question of operational urgency or other pressures taking priority over safety. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that improved safety in operations goes hand in hand with greater efficiency, quality and cost effectiveness. Work should not start before it is confirmed that essential safety systems are in place and that staff are accountable for this requirement. It should be policy that if safety cannot be ensured, operations should be suspended and this applies equally to flying. The promotion of health and safety at work and protection of the environment is fundamental to Company operations and it is considered important that Contractor(s) adopt and implement the same philosophy and these should be reflected in the Contractor’s management system. Cross reference should be made to the E&P Forum HSE Management System Guidelines. Additionally although some companies have set up flight safety and quality assurance organisations, these are the exception rather than the rule and the matter is left to, at best, middle management. In consequence, the approach is often reactive, no more than the regulations specify. Threading through any organisation should be the understanding that responsibility for health, safety and protection of the environment lie directly and personally with line management from the Chief Executive through to every employee. Chief Executive 14.1.4.1. The Company's policy on health and safety at work and protection of the environment is normally undersigned by the Chief Executive. Such a policy should include the requirement for proactive flight safety and an effective company wide quality assurance organisation. Ideally this would mean compliance with IS0 9000. It is the responsibility of the management to ensure: a. The adoption and formulation of safe and environmentally sound working systems, practices and procedures . The development of plans and programmes for the promotion of health, safety and protection of the environment. The auditing of the plans and programmes to measure progress, to identify deficiencies and to close out all actions, ensuring lateral implementation across the company. The proper training of staff to enable them to work safely and to avoid damage to the environment. The selection of Contractors and sub-contractors who can meet the same standards and have the same commitment, and the monitoring of their work to ensure these standards are maintained. Ensuring that any deficiencies in equipment, standards, operating procedures and training facilities are corrected.

14.1.2.

14.1.3.

14.1.4.

14.1.4.2.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

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g.

Ensuring that all incidents involving injury to persons, damage to property or the environment, and those having potential for serious effect are thoroughly investigated. The aim is to identify immediate and basic causes and prevent recurrence, and ensure that effective follow-up action is initiated. The Company should not limit themselves simply to mandatory reporting requirements for external processing but all those that meet the foregoing definition. Establishing individual responsibilities, targets and accountabilities for health, safety and protection of the environment for subordinates . Setting a clear leadership example and promoting a high degree of safety and environmental awareness among all staff. Developing an environment which encourages staff to report unsafe acts/conditions and near misses. This is applicable to human error in normal and abnormal operations. Providing waste disposal systems which allow for environmentally sensitive material, fluids and chemicals to be removed safely in line with national, international and Company guidelines. Recording an analysis of days off sick per employee.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l. Line Supervision 14.1.4.3.

It is the responsibility of all line supervisors to ensure: a. That work under their control is conducted in a safe and environmentally sound manner by appropriately trained and competent staff. That subordinates are made aware of any health and safety hazards and of any activities that could cause environmental damage. That they are aware of the contents of National or departmental health, safety and environmental programmes and understand their role in implementing them. That subordinates carry out work in accordance with their statutory obligations, company standards and the departmental health, safety and environmental programmes. That subordinates are aware of their individual responsibilities, accountabilities and tasks and targets for health, safety and the protection of the environment and that they are assessed against these responsibilities. That management is informed immediately of unsafe or unsatisfactory plant and systems not being operated to the appropriate standard. That all incidents causing injury to persons, damage to property or the environment, and those having potential for serious effect are to be reported, recorded and properly investigated. That they set a clear leadership example by promoting a high degree of safety and environmental awareness amongst their subordinates.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

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i.

That through consultation they encourage the active participation of all subordinates in the improvement of health, safety and environmental standards. That all environmentally sensitive material is disposed of in the correct manner.

j.

Employees 14.1.4.4. It is the responsibility of all employee: a. To co-operate fully in implementing Company health, safety and environmental plans and programmes. To carry out their work in accordance with their statutory obligations, and Company health, safety and environmental standards and procedures. To take care of the health and safety of themselves and others. To familiarise themselves with the information on the safety and health hazards of their surroundings, equipment, material and working procedures in their area of employment. To bring to the immediate notice of the staff concerned or, if necessary their colleagues and supervisors any potential hazards to safety or the environment caused by the actions (voluntary or otherwise) of others.

b.

c. d.

e.

Implementation 14.1.4.5. There are several questions to be asked when conducting an audit: a. Does the operation have a clear policy and staff involvement along the lines of the above? Does the policy require the implementation of proactive safety and environmental plans and programmes? Does the operation have a properly organised and managed accident and incident investigation procedure? Are the lessons learned applied in a positive way to prevent a recurrence? Are regular safety meetings held involving senior management, line management and employees? Do they work on the cascade principle with feed back loops? Does the safety publicity take note of third party as well as own experience? Is a safety data base held?

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

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14.2. 14.2.1.

Health and Fitness The following medical guidance is given: Periodic Medical Checks 14.2.1.1. Regulations require that all personnel who fly aircraft be examined periodically by Government approved physicians. Pilots who hold Airline Transport Pilot's Licences (or equivalent) must be examined every six months and must hold a first-class medical certificate; details of the standards required are contained in most civil air regulations. Pilots who have been absent from duty due to illness for longer than three weeks are required to have a consultation or medical examination with their Company Medical Officer or Medical Adviser. Every pilot is responsible for keeping himself both physically and psychologically fit for duty. Any working conditions which seem to contribute to physical or psychological deterioration should be reported to the Chief Pilot for investigation. The operator should endeavour to remedy such situations but the employee must remember that his own misconduct or neglect is not the responsibility of his employer. Pilots are responsible for self-grounding whenever they sense that their physical condition might affect their flying. No such statutory requirement generally exists for engineers; however, Company's supervisors are expected to monitor routinely their staff's health, including hearing and visual acuity; a full medical at not less than 2 yearly intervals should be considered to be the minimum requirement.

14.2.1.2.

14.2.1.3.

14.2.1.4.

14.2.1.5.

Drugs and Alcohol Policy 14.2.1.6. Sole use Contractors should have a formally documented policy on Drugs & Alcohol consistent with that of the Company. Ad hoc Contractors are expected to provide similar direction and guidance. Requirements are outlined in the following paragraphs

Alcohol 14.2.1.7. Alcoholic drinks must NOT be consumed by Flying, Engineering or Operational Staff during duty or the eight hours prior to reporting for a rostered duty or commencing a standby duty period. If, in the event the local Company or regulatory policy is more restrictive then it should apply. Pilots should voluntarily disqualify themselves for duty if a non-scheduled flight assignment should arise during or immediately following a drinking period. Aircrew and engineers employed in connection with sole use aircraft operations must not consume alcoholic drinks in uniform when in public areas.

14.2.1.8.

14.2.1.9.

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Drugs 14.2.1.10. The E&P Forum Aviation Management Guide prescribes to the E&P Forum Substance Abuse Management Strategies Report 6.23/173, July 1991. This strategy includes random testing for substance abuse and applies to personnel in risk sensitive designated positions, which include aircraft pilots and aircraft maintenance engineers/mechanics. Substance abuse management includes random testing for personnel in designated risk sensitive positions. Any person using drugs of addiction is not fit to be a member of flight crew or maintenance staff. 14.2.1.11. Staff taking prescribed medication should advise their supervisor before carrying out a duty. 14.2.1.12. Sleeping pills should only be used if absolutely necessary and then only under close medical supervision. All sleeping pills tend to cause mental confusion, slow reaction time and cloud the mind on working after their use. Moreover, their effects cannot accurately be predicted in different individuals or at different times in the same individual. Combined with alcohol their effects can be very dangerous. 14.2.1.13. Anti-histamine drugs all tend to have a sedative side effect and can cause drowsiness. They are found in many different preparations for various illnesses such as hay fever, asthma, eczema and are often incorporated in various 'cold cure' preparations. 14.2.1.14. Sedatives and tranquillisers such as 'Valium', 'Librium' and 'Equaril' can sometimes cause dangerous confidence or drowsiness and should be avoided. 14.2.1.15. Anti-depressant drugs can cause side effects, including giddiness and blurred vision. 14.2.1.16. Appetite suppressant drugs are liable to cause a variety of side effects including drowsiness, giddiness, depression and other mental effects. 14.2.1.17. Streptomycin should be avoided as an antibiotic drug, as it can cause loss of balance and dizziness with permanent disability. It is recommended that all flying personnel advise their doctors of the risks of receiving treatment with this drug and request a substitute whenever the use of streptomycin is contemplated. 14.2.1.18. It is recommended that flying personnel do not become blood donors due to the temporary lowering of the oxygen carrying capacity the blood which follows a donation. Smoking 14.2.1.19. Guidance on smoking by passengers is given at 13.5. It is recommended that the flight crew should never smoke whilst manning an aircraft on a Company flight and that the contract be worded to that effect. General Hygiene 14.2.1.20 Whatever the operating location, all should be aware of the strict need for cleanliness and general hygiene, particularly in the areas of catering. Maintenance of toilet blocks and associated soakaways should be of a high order

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14.3. 14.3.1.

Accident/Incident Reporting and Accident Investigation A comprehensive and open incident reporting system is considered essential as a means of preventing both future incidents or even accidents. Unfortunately, many incidents go unreported, particularly those concerned with Human Error. This reluctance to report can be caused by a fear of blame, embarrassment or even laziness. It is important therefore that operators develop a blame free culture with people encouraged to report as a positive contribution to flight safety. Similarly, Companies in requiring such incident information, should also employ the blame free approach. Exceptions are, of course, where cases involving culpable negligence come to light, causing concern to both operator and Company. These will require deeper investigation and the Aviation Adviser should be approached for advice without delay. The following definitions apply: Aircraft Accident 14.3.3.1. An aircraft accident is an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which: a. Any person suffers death or serious injury as a result of being in or upon the aircraft or by direct contact with the aircraft or anything attached thereto, or b. The aircraft receives substantial damage.

14.3.2.

14.3.3.

Notes: 'Substantial damage' includes any damage or structural failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance of flight characteristics of the aircraft and which would normally require the major repair or replacement of the affected component and any accident with damages/costs of more than, say, pounds 10,000. 'Serious Injury' shall be defined as injury that requires hospital or medical treatment and results (or is expected to result) in suspension or substantial restrictions of normal activities for period of fifteen (15) days or more. Aircraft Incident 14.3.3.2. An aircraft incident is an occurrence other than an aircraft accident which either: a. b. Jeopardises - or could jeopardise - the safety of the aircraft. Involves an aircraft and causes injury or severe mental strain to any person, or Causes damage to property.

c.

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Reporting outside the Company system 14.3.3.3. Individual national requirements will have to be met: these will generally be known to and be the responsibility of the aircraft Contractor(s) (or group aviation department) and form part of the air legislation of the country concerned. Organisations which must be informed will invariably include: a. The Directorate of Civil Aviation or Civil Aviation Authority of the country in which the accident takes place. The Directorate of Civil Aviation or Civil Aviation Authority of the country of registration of the aircraft if this is different from (a). The Accident Investigation Branch or equivalent if it exists. The Police Provincial authorities

b.

c. d. e. 14.3.3.4.

Companies usually assist in reporting some or all of the above as the Contractor(s) will often be heavily engaged in Search and Rescue activities in the immediate aftermath of an accident.

Accident Investigation 14.3.3.5. National regulations normally exist. Under no circumstances should aircraft wreckage be disturbed or moved until clearance from the national authority has been given. Because of the specialist nature of knowledge required, Accident investigations are best carried out by aviation personnel with appropriate background and qualifications. Company safety departments can assist, when available, by carrying out the following: a. b. c. Interviews of passengers leading to written statements. Interviews of witnesses leading to written statements. Compilation of an accurate map of the accident area showing locations and disposition of wreckage and obstructions. Taking an accurate and complete photographic coverage of wreckage and the accident site. Ensure that arrangements are made for the crew to be medically examined immediately after any accidents and local instructions should also address a similar requirement for passengers involved.

14.3.3.6.

d.

e.

14.3.3.7.

On receipt of the initial accident advice, assess whether the nature of the accident warrants an immediate visit by an Aviation Adviser. Accidents involving death or serious injury to passengers or crew will invariably result in the despatch of an Aviation Adviser to the area concerned.

14.4. 14.4.1.

Media Relations It is essential that Heads of Aircraft Services and Aviation Focal Points familiarise themselves with their Operating Company's policy for dealing with the media in the event of an aviation related crisis.

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14.4.2.

Official "Position Statements" will need to be issued about the incident / accident by the Company and normally the Head of Aircraft Services / Aviation Focal Point contribute to the draft of the statement. Removal of Disabled Aircraft In the event of an aircraft accident and once rescue has proven successful a guard should be posted with the wreckage to prevent interference with evidence which may prove invaluable to accident investigators. Wherever possible, the wreckage should not be removed nor any parts touched until an on site investigation into the accident has been concluded. Hazardous Substances - Man Made Mineral Fibres 14.6.1.1. The hazards at a crash site that may be encountered on aircraft and helicopters which have components made from MMMF, fall into three main categories, and will depend on a number of factors such as the extent of post crash burning and the nature of the terrain and environment: a. Those associated with the fibres themselves; skin contact with damaged structure can cause needle-stick injuries and dermatitis. The organic products of a post-crash fire pose a vapour hazard, which can cause occupational asthma, and an injection hazard, via fibre shards, to unprotected skin. Certain exotic metals, such as beryllium and cadmium, which are to be found in small quantities in most aircraft types, are either poisonous in their own right or produce hazardous oxides when burnt.

14.5. 14.5.1.

14.6.

b.

c.

Protection 14.6.1.2. The aircraft manufacturer and sometimes the Company should be able to provide information on the use of MMMF or exotic metals. General guidelines when involved with a crash site are as follows: a. When there are no known toxic substances, special protective measures are not required although arms should be covered, and boots, gloves and a hard hat worn. Where there is a risk of non-toxic dust or other contaminants that might cause irritation to the skin or respiratory tract, a face mask should also be worn. Where there is a risk of toxic dust or other contaminants that may pose a serious risk to health, advice should be sought from the rescue services. As a minimum, it is anticipated that full PPE will be required: sabre mask or respirator, impermeable pvc/neoprene overall with hood, wellington boots and disposable latex gloves plus leather gauntlets.

b.

c.

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CHAPTER 15 AIRCRAFT AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT.............................................................15-3 15.1 PROTECTION OF PASSENGERS AND CREW....................................................................15-3 Seats and Seatbelts ........................................................................................................15-3 Immersion Suits..............................................................................................................15-3 Life Jackets .....................................................................................................................15-3 Inflatable Liferafts...........................................................................................................15-3 Underwater Location Beacons.......................................................................................15-4 Materials Used in Upholstery and Internal Trim ...........................................................15-4 Helicopter Flotation Gear ...............................................................................................15-4 Security of Cargo............................................................................................................15-5 Sideways Facing Seats...................................................................................................15-5 15.2. EQUIPMENT FITTED IN AIRCRAFT ....................................................................................15-5 Emergency Locator Transmitters ..................................................................................15-6 Cockpit Voice Recorders (CVR) .....................................................................................15-6 Flight Data Recorder (FDR) ............................................................................................15-6 High Intensity Strobe Lights (HISLs).............................................................................15-6 Ground Proximity Warning Systems (GPWS) ...............................................................15-7 First Aid Kits ...................................................................................................................15-7 Survival Equipment ........................................................................................................15-7 Radio Transmission Equipment ....................................................................................15-7

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AIRCRAFT AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT
15.1. 15.1.1. Protection of Passengers and Crew The following guidance should be followed: Seats and Seatbelts 15.1.1.1. No passenger or crew member should ever be carried in an aeroplane or helicopter other than in a seat of a type approved by the aircraft manufacturer and adequately secured to the aircraft floor. The passenger must be provided with a seat belt to a standard approved by the regulatory authority, which must be fastened at all times when required by regulation or crew instructions.

Immersion Suits 15.1.1.2. Survival after immersion in cold water has been the subject of extensive study. Policy on the wearing of survival suits by passengers and crew should be detailed in a Safety Publication or similar instruction. The policy on wearing of immersion suits by aircraft crews is less easy to resolve, due to the problems of reconciling comfort during long periods of wear (with its effect on fatigue, concentration etc. and consequently on flight safety), and effectiveness against the short and long term impact of cold water immersion. The policy for aircrew will rest with the aircraft operator the airworthiness authority and possible legal requirements in addition to any provisions considered necessary.

15.1.1.3.

Life Jackets 15.1.1.4. Helicopters. Life jackets approved for aircraft use should be worn by passengers and crew for all over water flights. Fixed Wing. Life jackets approved for aircraft use should be provided for crew and passengers on all overwater flights. Crew (fixed and rotary wing). Crew life jackets should be fitted with Search and Rescue Beacon Equipment (S.A.R.B.E.) transmitting on the appropriate international and/or national aeronautical distress frequencies in areas where suitable air and/or seaborne homing equipment is available to Search and Rescue Services. In areas where such services are non-existent, Company management should consider the provision of such homing equipment in contract aircraft. Such a decision should be taken in the context of the overall contingency planning and safety provisions of the company.

15.1.1.5.

15.1.1.6.

Inflatable Liferafts 15.1.1.7. Helicopters. Transport helicopters in the offshore support role should carry sufficient liferafts, approved by the airworthiness authority, such that in the event of loss or non operation of one liferaft, the remainder would have the capability, in the overload case, to accommodate all aircraft occupants. Helicopters having less than 9 seats and operating over water shall carry at least one life raft.

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15.1.1.8.

Fixed Wing. With multi-engined fixed wing aircraft the criteria used to determine the need for liferafts is the time/distance from land in the event of an engine failure. The local regulatory authority stipulates the life raft requirements for multi-engine fixed wing aircraft. Generally speaking, all aircraft operating over water for company charter purpose should carry life rafts.

Underwater Location Beacons 15.1.1.9. Most Civil Aviation Authorities have made it a mandatory requirement for underwater locating devices to be fitted to Flight Data Recorders on public transport aircraft. Examples of such requirements may be found in JAR29.1459 and US FAR-29.1459 covering rotorcraft and in JARs 23/25.1459 and US FAR 25-123.1459 covering fixed wing aircraft.

15.1.1.10. In the past, underwater locating devices were fitted to the airframe. With the introduction of combined Cockpit Voice Recorder/Flight Data Recorder units fitted with an underwater locating device, the airframe devices are being removed. Whilst the Company cannot recommend manufacturers of this type of equipment, the Dukane (DK 100) beacon, with a six year service life, is most commonly used by western operators. Once activated, the DK 100 will "ping" for a minimum of 28 days. It is important to ensure that the aircraft operator has access to locator receiver equipment. 15.1.1.11. In countries where underwater locating devices are not mandatory, Company contracted "sole use" aircraft engaged on overwater flights are to be fitted with an underwater locating beacon. Whilst it may not always prove practicable, aircraft contracted on an ad hoc basis should preferably be equipped with underwater locating beacons when operating over water. Materials Used in Upholstery and Internal Trim 15.1.1.12. A major concern in an aircraft accident is fire, but the toxic fumes and smoke produced by the fire are the major causes of death. The types of material used in the construction of aircraft systems and interiors are regulated in many but not all countries, and are subject to tightening controls. It is therefore important that aircraft offered to Companies are not modified merely to give an attractive appearance, but embody only approved materials in their construction. 15.1.1.13. Recent legislation in the United Kingdom and the United States of America requires the use of fire blocking materials in seat cushions of new construction aircraft, and where this is practicable, it should be considered as a contract condition in other operating areas. Helicopter Flotation Gear 15.1.1.14. If helicopters are to be operated over the water, they should be capable of alighting on the surface of the water, either by virtue of inherent design features, e.g. boat hull, fixed floats, etc. or with the aid of inflatable flotation gear.

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Security of Cargo 15.1.1.15. Whenever possible, cargo should be carried in a compartment which is separated by a strong bulkhead from the passenger cabin, and equipped with an independent fire and smoke monitoring and extinguishing system. This will not be possible in some of the smaller aeroplanes employed by Companies, or in all but the larger helicopters so a compromise solution must be sought. 15.1.1.16. Apart from the considerations for the handling of dangerous goods, which are dealt with in 16.3, it is essential that all cargo be securely tied down in the 3 aircraft. Light aeroplanes and helicopters are particularly sensitive to shifts of centre of gravity in a fore and aft sense and it is unfortunately this class of aircraft which is most often exposed to rapid turn-round of payload, when there is a temptation to cut corners by not securing cargo in a mistaken attempt to save time. This temptation must be resisted. 15.1.1.17. Each item of freight must be weighed and manifested accordingly, to enable the pilot to calculate his performance requirements correctly and thus ensure adequate safety margins in the event of engine or other system failure. 15.1.1.18. The positioning, securing and removal of cargo and baggage should only be accomplished by authorised aviation personnel. This is particularly important during times when the aeroplane or helicopter has engines/propellers/rotors running. 15.1.1.19. The carriage of cargo by external helicopter hook is considered in Chapter 17. Sideways Facing Seats 15.1.1.20. Current side-facing seat/restraint systems in fixed wing aircraft do not always provide the necessary restrain to protect the occupants from serious injury. Without a shoulder harness, side-facing seats provide very little restraint of an occupant's upper and lower torso, and legs. 15.2. 15.2.1. Equipment Fitted in Aircraft In addition to personal safety equipment that is required by law to be carried in aircraft for use by passengers and crew, there is a trend, which starts at the scheduled public transport end of the market, to require locating and data recording equipment for the assistance of investigators in the event of an accident or incident. Currently all large public transport aircraft registered in I.C.A.O. member states are required to carry the following equipment:-

15.2.2.

• • • •
15.2.3.

Emergency Locator Transmitter Underwater Sonar Location Device Cockpit Voice Recorder Flight Data Recorder

While regulatory authorities will not always require the carriage of these items of equipment in other types of aircraft, the following sections should apply to aircraft engaged on service contracts to companies.

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Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) 15.2.3.1. ELTs are to be carried on all aircraft, and in some areas, such as offshore UK, an automatic deployment capability (ADELT) is mandatory. Ideally, such ELTs should be located in an area where they can easily be deployed or alternatively best protected in the case of an accident, e.g. dinghy packs and crew lifejackets. Features should include crash switches, immersion switches, and the unit should be buoyant. If portable, it should have integral and self-deployable aerials. Desirable features in addition to the basic radio transmitters should include radar reflector, radar transponder, strobe light, and satellite (406 MHz) signal transmission which is widely available and will have world-wide coverage.

15.2.3.2.

15.2.3.3.

Cockpit Voice Recorders (CVR) 15.2.3.4. Support should be given to Airworthiness Authorities mandatory requirements for CVRs in all public transport operated aircraft including helicopters above 2730 kgs. Where possible, an underwater location device should be associated with the CVR.

15.2.3.5.

Flight Data Recorder (FDR) 15.2.3.6. Legislation is anticipated, which will require the provision of 30 channel FDRs in helicopters over 7,000 kg. maximum certificated take-off weight, and of 15 channel FDRs in helicopters of between 2,700 and 7,000 kg. A 4 channel CVR with the ability to record the 15 parameters will meet the requirements of the second case. Advice should be sought from the Aviation Adviser if there is any doubt on what is required in a contract aircraft.

High Intensity Strobe Lights (HISLs) 15.2.3.7. Conspicuity of aircraft can be increased significantly by the fitment and use of HISLs. These generally white strobe lights, as distinct from the routinely fitted red anti-collision beacons, provide particular benefit when operations take place under VFR in congested airspace. They are an added benefit when lookout has to be shared between general surveillance and a particular task. Because of their intensity, restrictions should be placed on their use on the ground. Whilst it would not be practical to insist on this equipment in remote areas, where visibility is almost unlimited and traffic is of low density, in busy uncontrolled airspace they are considered essential particularly in the lower levels where vertical separation and visibility is often reduced.

15.2.3.8.

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15.2.3.9.

Accordingly, it is an E & P Forum recommendation that HISLs should be fitted for flights within Europe and where low level VFR flying takes place in and around conurbation's. Areas of uncertainty should be referred to the Aviation Adviser.

Ground Proximity Warning Systems (GPWS) 15.2.3.10. Controlled flight into terrain is responsible for a large proportion of accidents and, as a preventive measure, GPWS is being fitted in an increasing number of scheduled airliners. Because of the weight and cost penalties, it would be impracticable to insist on its installation in all aircraft types, although it is likely to be a growing regulatory requirement for certain classes of aircraft e.g. turbine powered aeroplanes with 10 or more passenger seats (already a firm requirement in the United States unless an alternative means of determining excessive closure rates with the terrain is available). It is recommended GPWS fitted aircraft be contracted wherever practical for aircraft of 10 seats and above. For helicopters, a radar altimeter, preferably fitted with Automatic Voice Alerting, is an acceptable alternative 15.2.3.11. It is essential that clear instructions and procedural guidance for crews on their response to the various GPWS alerts laid down in Operations Manuals and/or Standing Operating Procedures. First Aid Kits 15.2.3.12. Suitable and comprehensive first aid kits are to be carried on all aircraft. These kits should be serviced as part of the aircraft role equipment, ideally every 6 months, but not exceeding one year. Use of the kit should be reported through the normal defect reporting systems so that used items can be replenished prior to the next flight. Survival Equipment 15.2.3.13. A survival kit, suitable for the area of operation, is to be carried on flights which are planned to overfly hostile terrain, including offshore operations. Radio Transmission Equipment 15.2.3.14. In some regions, intercom systems are rarely found in aeroplanes, and the use of hand-held microphones is widespread. This practice is not recommended even in the case of two-crew aircraft. It is also highly desirable that all single-pilot operated aircraft should be equipped with headsets and control column mounted transmission switches.

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CHAPTER 16 - OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES ............................................................................16-3 16.1. COMMUNICATIONS AND FLIGHT FOLLOWING PROCEDURES.......................................16-3 16.2. FUEL PLANNING..................................................................................................................16-4 Aeroplanes ......................................................................................................................16-4 Helicopters ......................................................................................................................16-4 16.3 CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS AND RESTRICTED ARTICLES BY AIR.................16-5 16.4. CARRIAGE OF FREIGHT WITH PASSENGERS ..................................................................16-7 16.5 SHUTDOWNS AWAY FROM BASE......................................................................................16-7 16.6. USE OF CO-PILOT SEAT FOR A PASSENGER ..................................................................16-8 16.7. INDEMNITIES FOR CARRIAGE OF NON-COMPANY PERSONNEL ...................................16-8 16.8. EMERGENCY FLIGHTS .......................................................................................................16-8 Fixed Wing Operations...................................................................................................16-9 Helicopter Operations ....................................................................................................16-9 Types of Emergency Flight .......................................................................................... 16-10 Evacuation from Work-Site/Onshore - Day ................................................................. 16-10 Evacuation from Work-Site/Onshore - Night............................................................... 16-10 Evacuation from Work-Site - from Base Camp to Medical Facility ............................ 16-11 Authority for Despatch ................................................................................................. 16-11 Search and Rescue....................................................................................................... 16-11 Other Aviation Emergencies ........................................................................................ 16-11 Typical Decision Making Team Organisation - Shore Based Aircraft (Day) .............. 16-12 Typical Decision Making Team Organisation - Shore Based Aircraft (Night) ........... 16-12 Typical Decision Making Team Organisation - Offshore Based Aircraft (Day and Night)............................................................................................................................. 16-12 16.9 ADVERSE WEATHER POLICY........................................................................................... 16-13

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16.1. 16.1.1. Communications and Flight Following Procedures Every aircraft operation carrying group personnel must be backed by an efficient rescue procedure. Any rescue procedure can only be efficient if it can be directed to the casualty without delay. Aircraft reporting and accurate plotting at base can increase the chances of survival of the occupants of aircraft significantly. When first considering the use of aircraft for the carriage of Company personnel, management should, with the Aviation Advisers advice, carefully assess the regulatory framework within which aviation is administered in the host country. The requirements of high flying aircraft transiting on international routes have ensured that most countries have at least a basic form of air traffic control or advisory service. Radio communication and flight monitoring presents no great problems from the usual en-route altitudes, as VHF propagation is excellent, and compulsory reporting points reasonably frequent. Aircraft support of oil company activity presents very different problems usually associated with short sectors at low altitudes, and the aviation infrastructure is often inadequate for flight safety purposes. The basic requirement is that, in the event of accident or incident occurring to an aircraft engaged in support of Company operations, a reasonably accurate position shall be known to a ground station monitoring the flight. For flight safety reasons it is essential that at all times the aircraft is in flight, the crew should be able to make good radio contact with a reliable ground station, and that 'handover' between these ground stations should be possible. This requirement should only be waived if sufficient and suitable compatible navigation equipment is available in the aircraft and on the ground, to ensure that an accurate aircraft position is being continuously monitored by a ground station, or the aircraft is on an IFR flight in tightly controlled airspace. Flights along designated airways with mandatory way point calls at not more than 30 minute intervals would fall within this category, or where the aircraft has filed IFR but is off airways. Otherwise, in order to reduce a possible search area or "circle of uncertainty" to manageable proportions, the crew should make "Operations Normal" calls at intervals of 10 minutes and do more than 15 minutes. These calls should be acknowledged and logged at the ground station. The calls should also include the aircraft's position and intentions if diversion from the planned route has occurred. On certain operations e.g. seismic, 'flight following' will require dedicated personnel and equipment. See “Flight Following and Chapter 7, Annex D. The state Air Traffic Control network in many countries is not capable of meeting the above requirements, and the Group Company (or preferably the aircraft operator) may be required to set up the system. On certain operations e.g. seismic, this will require dedicated personnel and equipment. VHF (AM air band of frequencies) propagation is preferred, due to clarity and speed of transmission and reception, but is limited to line of sight, and depending on terrain and surface attenuation only gives ranges in the order of 15-20 miles to an aircraft at 1000 ft a.g.l. from an aerial mounted at building roof height. Other solutions to the problem of VHF range have been to build appropriately sited antenna towers to extend VHF range, but HF radio is commonly used for ranges over ±50 miles. It is essential that a selection of HF frequencies be available, in order to cover diurnal variations in frequency propagation, and the airborne equipment should be of the synthesised (infinitely variable) frequency selection type if possible.

16.1.2.

16.1.3.

16.1.4.

16.1.5.

16.1.6.

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16.1.7.

Where traffic levels are moderate, sharing of frequencies and equipment by air and company operations requirements may be possible, but if there is danger of 10 minute flight watch calls being missed due to other operational R/T traffic, then a dedicated set, frequency, and operator should be provided in order to guarantee coverage. In any case, all radio calls to and from aircraft should be logged against time of transmission. Where use of aircraft by the company is restricted to regular routes on an established network, and it is possible for crews to maintain contact at all times, with an Air Traffic Control station, then there is no requirement for full-time radio coverage, but a company VHF frequency at base for the passing of operational messages in flight will be found useful. Fuel Planning Detailed fuel requirements are laid down by the regulatory authority. The following general rules however should apply to Company operations except when the requirements of the regulatory authority are more stringent: Aeroplanes 16.2.1.1. For flights in both IFR and VFR, an aeroplane at the pre-planning stage should be planned to arrive overhead a destination airfield with sufficient fuel to: a. b. c. d. Make an approach to land; and Carry out a missed approach; and Fly to an alternate airfield; and i. In the case of piston engined aircraft, hold for 45 minutes at the alternate aerodrome, and carry out an approach and landing; in the case of a turbine engined aircraft; hold for 30 minutes at 1,500 feet above the alternate airfield under standard temperature conditions, and carry out an approach and landing.

16.1.8.

16.2. 16.2.1.

ii.

16.2.1.2.

A reasonable percentage of the fuel to destination and thence to the alternate, should be provided for contingencies such as errors in forecast winds and temperatures, navigation errors and ATC restrictions on altitude and route. This allowance should be about 5%.(i.e. of a,b, and c above)

Helicopters 16.2.1.3. For flights in IMC, Offshore and Hostile Terrain the total fuel carried must be at least: a. Route fuel from departure point to destination; and fuel to carry out a missed approach; and, Fuel to an alternate; and, Contingency reserve of 10% of (a) and (b); and,

b. c.

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d.

Holding fuel at alternative of at least 30 minutes at loiter speed. Additional fuel may be required in areas where Air Traffic delays are likely to occur.

16.2.1.4.

For flights in VMC over hospitable terrain ( i.e. where a safe forced landing may be carried out with no consequent survival problem), total fuel must be at least: a. b. Route fuel from departure to destination; and, Holding fuel at destination of at least 20 minutes at loiter speed; and, Contingency reserve of 5% of route fuel

c

Note 1: Flights using VMC fuel formula must not enter IMC unless all the fuel requirements in 16.12.1.3. above are available at the time flight in IMC is commenced. Note 2: Loiter speed at a holding point is endurance speed. Fuel planned in flying the route and to an alternate is assumed to be at the best cruising speed for the height to be flown in accordance with the flight plan. 16.3. 16.3.1. Carriage Of Dangerous Goods And Restricted Articles By Air It is an E & P Forum recommendation to comply with the requirement of Annex 18 of the Chicago Convention and the associated 'Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air' (Doc 9284-AN/905 adopted by the council of ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) and published biennially by ICAO). Alternately, the IATA (International Airline Transport Association), Dangerous Good Regulations, published annually, may be used. The regulations and rules imposed by these bodies define such matters as: 16.3.2.1. 16.3.2.2. Type of goods considered dangerous. Type of aircraft allowed to carry certain goods, e.g. dedicated to freight, able to transport a mixture of passengers and freight, etc. The packing and labelling required for certain goods. The manifesting and air way bills required for certain goods. The type (and quantity) of goods a passenger is allowed to carry as personal baggage.

16.3.2.

16.3.2.3. 16.3.2.4. 16.3.2.5.

16.3.3.

The ICAO publications provide explicit instructions on the packaging and marking of dangerous goods where carriage of these items by air is permitted, but require specialist interpretation, and training in its application for personnel supervising the handling of aircraft cargo. The requirements for carriage of certain items may involve special packing and marking, carriage by cargo aircraft only, separation of various types of non-compatible materials, or total prohibition in the case of 'forbidden' items.

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16.3.4.

There is provision within the "Technical Instructions" for the regulatory authorities of member states to issue dispensations from the requirements of the document. However, it is recommended that whenever an alternative means of transport exists, albeit at inconvenience, the requirements of Document 9284 should not be compromised. It is recognised, in some operations, such as seismic support in remote areas, air transport of explosives, and other goods may be the only option available. Certain types of explosive may be carried under the terms of the ICAO Instructions, and these should be used whenever possible. The IATA 'Dangerous Goods Regulations' published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board constitutes the manual of industry carrier regulations, which fully recognises Annex 18 and ICAO as the sole legal and technical source for the transport of dangerous goods by air. It contains material that gives practical assistance to users and draws on its extensive experience to give special attention to the format and wording of the Regulations to make them readily understandable in an easy-to-use format. It is widely used, authoritative and practical document and Companies fully recognises its use by IATA members and in helicopter operations. Note: It is the responsibility of the consignor to declare the presence of the Dangerous Goods to the aircraft operator. Passengers, checking-in for flights should be shown the list of prohibited items. They should be asked to declare any prescription medicines they may be carrying and make a verbal statement to the effect that they are not knowingly carrying such articles in their baggage or on their person. Where appropriate conditions warrant, authorized security staff staff should then carry out a thorough search of personal baggage in the presence of the passenger, before moving it to the loading area. Where appropriate conditions warrant, body searches should be made when the flight is called for boarding and prior to the issue of immersion suits (offshore flights). List of items prohibited for carriage on aircraft or to offshore installations, which should be displayed at dispatch counters for passengers to view and read.

16.3.5.

16.3.6.

16.3.7.

16.3.8.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Adhesives Aerosols Alcohol of any kind (offshore flights) Canned drinks of any kind Cigarette lighters Drugs (save on prescription) See Note 1 Explosives, fireworks Firearms/Ammunition Flammable gas or liquid, Tear Gas, CS Gas Magnetic materials Matches of any kind (offshore flights) Oils and greases Paints and solvents Poisons, weedkillers, pesticides and insecticides Radio-active materials Radio, cassette and disc players, unless batteries are removed Weapons - including knives with a blade longer than 3" See Note 2 Wet Batteries Wet Fish

Note 1 Prescription drugs may have to be surrendered at check-in for safe-hand carriage, record and re-issue on installation; with a similar procedure for passengers returning onshore. Note 2 Knives which are tools of trade (e.g. chefs and divers) must be declared at check-in.

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16.3.9.

It is the responsibility of the consignor to declare the presence of the Dangerous Goods to the aircraft operator. Carriage of Freight with Passengers The carriage of freight in the cabin with passengers is permitted by Civil Aviation Authorities within certain rules defined in Crew Operating Manuals. Certain constraints should however be applied to enhance safety and comfort: The primary mode of transportation for freight offshore should be by sea, and authorisers should screen all air freight requests for genuine justification. The priorities for air freight should be set by the individual Companies depending on their particular circumstances, whilst remaining realistic and in line with the overall safety thrust of the Company. The setting of the level of the priorities should be agreed at an appropriately senior level within the Company. Priority freight including mail bags shall normally be loaded in the freight/baggage compartment. In exceptional circumstances only it may be carried in the cabin with passengers, but strictly subject to the following conditions: 16.4.2.1. It must not obstruct main emergency exits or access routes available to the passengers. It must not obstruct secondary exit windows adjacent to occupied seats. It must be securely tied down to aircraft strong points or with a tensioned net acceptable to the aircraft commander in such a manner that it cannot become an obstruction to escaping passengers after a ditching or crash landing, regardless of the final attitude of the aircraft. If seats are folded up, care must be taken to ensure that they are stowed in such away that they do not present a hazard to any passengers in an emergency.

16.4. 16.4.1.

16.4.2.

16.4.2.2. 16.4.2.3.

16.4.2.4.

16.5. 16.5.1.

Shutdowns Away from Base Statistically, aircraft component or system defects most commonly become apparent during the start-up and shut-down sequences, and there is therefore an argument for keeping an aircraft running for as long as practicable, once started. For reasons of safety, however, and in some contractual situations, for reasons of economy, it is often preferable to close down engines/propellers/rotors prior to embarking or disembarking passengers of handling cargo. In the case of fixed wing aircraft operating from established airfields, the problem may not be acute, as maintenance facilities may be immediately available, or can be flown in and the worst impact will be a delay to the schedule. In remote areas however, other considerations may come into play, such as the inability to clear a stationary aeroplane from a narrow strip with no parking bay in the event of unserviceability. In such cases, thought must be given to the method of inserting engineers and spare parts, should the airstrip be blocked, and it may be prudent to keep the engines running on the side of the aircraft away from the passenger door in use.

16.5.2.

16.5.3.

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16.5.4.

The case of helicopters operating from single machine helidecks offshore, or small clearings on-shore presents an even more acute problem. If the contractual arrangement is that flying hour charges accrue only between take-offs and landings, there is little commercial argument for shutting down at outstations, unless operationally required. In this case, careful consideration should be given to the location, and helicopters should only be shut down in landing areas where sufficient space exists for a second machine to carry out a safe landing and take-off with engineering back-up. In such cases, aircraft should also only be shut down if radio communications is available at the location, or is fitted in the aircraft and may be operated from the aircraft battery. Use of Co-Pilot Seat for a Passenger When aircraft dual controls are fitted the co-pilot's station may only be used for passenger carrying in emergency situations. When dual controls have been completely removed a passenger may be carried in the co-pilot's station subject to the following conditions: 16.6.2.1. A separate briefing covering any items which may differ from the standard passenger briefing has been given. In particular, the use of crew emergency exits should be covered, and attention drawn to any switches etc., vulnerable to interference. That the aircraft commander is satisfied that no safety or security risk is involved.

16.6. 16.6.1.

16.6.2.

16.6.2.2.

16.7. 16.7.1.

Indemnities for Carriage of Non-Company Personnel As a general principle, the carriage in company owned or chartered aircraft of personnel not on company business is strongly discouraged. However, in cases where it is politically or practically expedient to do so a form of words indemnifying the company in case of death, injury or damage to third party property etc. should be signed by the traveller. It is appreciated that the legal value of such waivers may not be great, however, it serves to remind people of the problem and may avoid frivolous claims. Companies may well not wish to ask "important" passengers to fill in such a form (particularly in view of its value). Also further consideration should be given to the contractual requirement for the Contractor to hold "liability" insurance for all "nominated" passengers. Emergency Flights Many group companies, more especially in E & P ventures will determine that their activities are covered by emergency procedures, probably contained in an "Emergency Procedure Guide" or equivalent. Such a guide, where fixed wing aeroplanes of helicopters are employed on an owned or contract basis in support of an operation, should include clear instructions on how to arrange emergency flights which, depending on circumstances may be made for medical or technical reasons. The ability to carry out emergency flights both by day and night will depend on a number of variables which would have to be assessed for each particular operation. These include:-

16.7.2.

16.7.3.

16.7.4.

16.8. 16.8.1.

16.8.2.

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Fixed Wing Operations 16.8.2.1. The Aeroplane - Most owned, contracted or chartered aircraft will carry full instrumentation for Instrument Flying in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Pilots will normally possess Commercial Pilots Licences (or better) with a rating which permits them to fly in IMC (this includes night flying). Thus, the aeroplane type and crew will not normally be a limiting factor. Airfields - Aeroplanes require runways to take off and land, therefore it is essential that airfields are available at the locations required which are open (or can be opened) with adequate facilities at the time the emergency flight is carried out. "Facilities" include lighting, Navigation aids, Radio, Air Traffic Control, Meteorological Information and Customs/Immigration where appropriate. Lack of suitable lighting at a remote airstrip would for example, effectively rule out a safe fixed wing flight. Aeroplane Performance - Clearly the performance of the aeroplane selected for the flight must be equal to the task in hand. For example, if a medical rescue has to be carried out from the same remote airstrip by day, the performance must be sufficient to ensure that the aeroplane can safely operate within the length of strip available, at the temperature envisaged, at the actual altitude, if necessary in nil wind conditions, at the operating weight. In all cases, the pilot will advise whether such a flight is possible by reference to the approved flight manual, which should be carried on board. Calculation of fuel requirements is the pilot's responsibility.

16.8.2.2.

16.8.2.3.

16.8.2.4.

Helicopter Operations 16.8.2.5. The Machine - Almost invariably, helicopters used by the group are twin engined. Depending on the nature of the operation, they can be fully instrumented (as in offshore operations) or equipped to a lesser standard of instrumentation where an abundance of avionics is not appropriate (as in helirig or seismic support). The former are crewed by pilots with Instrument Ratings and may thus be used day or night, weather, topography and Navigation Aids permitting. The latter group may be used only for day visual or short night flights with adequate visual reference in Visual Meteorological Conditions, irrespective of pilots qualifications. Two pilots must be carried at all times at night or in instrument flight conditions. In some states, often in association with security regulations, helicopters may not be permitted to fly at night. It is usually possible to obtain dispensations from the Directorate of Civil Aviation, or equivalent body, for night flights for medical reasons, and for the associated training requirements to ensure crews are proficient in night flying. In the very few locations where single engined helicopters are used, emergency flights may be conducted under day visual flight conditions only. Heliports - Helicopters are very often based in fixed wing airfields, where the same facilities must be available, although in general, less space is required to operate safely. Emergency flights to offshore locations are usually straightforward, requiring a return to a land airfield where medical facilities are conveniently to hand.

16.8.2.6.

16.8.2.7.

16.8.2.8.

16.8.2.9.

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16.8.2.10. Where helicopters are based at forward basic strips, or in jungle clearings of small dimensions, it is unusual to find facilities to aid night emergency flights, such as lighting. It is very important to avoid rushing in to carry out a medical rescue without sufficient thought, and this endangers the helicopter and crew. In these circumstances, it is often better, and indeed the only safe course, to await first light to set out on the emergency flight. 16.8.2.11. Under no circumstances should helicopter crews attempt to land in minimum sized seismic clearings at night, as failure of an engine is almost certain to cause a serious accident. 16.8.2.12. Helicopter Performance - The pilot is once again responsible for performance calculations. For genuine emergencies, weather limits are generally reduced to "captains discretion". Types of Emergency Flight 16.8.2.13. The following definitions are now accepted throughout the group: a. Search and Rescue (S.A.R.). An emergency mission to locate and rescue a person who is in an abnormal environment and whose life is threatened if not removed from that environment or if not provided with protection or assistance. Medrescue (Medical Rescue). Indicates a "life or limb" emergency and is a medical mission to rescue a person who is in a hostile environment. An evacuation or a Doctors visit is necessary to prevent death or serious damage to a persons health. c. Medevac (Medical Evacuation). Indicates a non-urgent medical situation requiring a seat in an aircraft at a time to be specified by MEDICAL. This terminology is necessary to alert those concerned to the degree-of-response facilities required. This has no priority other than seat allocation; priority shall be advised by the doctor. Evacuation from Work-site/Onshore - Day 16.8.2.14. There is no particular requirement for detailed crew unless winching is involved in which case the crew should be fully qualified for winch operation as set out above. 16.8.2.15. Medical staff should be carried at the discretion of the local management. 16.8.2.16. If no medical staff are carried as in (ii) above, then a loadmaster or other responsible person preferably medical trained or with first aid qualifications should accompany the flight. Evacuation from Work-site/Onshore - Night 16.8.2.17. It should be noted that such an evacuation at night is only considered possible from an airfield or helipad with full obstruction clearance on approach and overshoot, full and adequate landing for the runway and helipad and "alignment" lighting/"approach guidance" lighting and with the further assistance of a navigational facility.

b.

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16.8.2.18. In all cases of a night medical evacuation consideration should be given to transport by land to a more suitable facility if the above conditions cannot be met at the work site. 16.8.2.19. Only multi-engined fully instrumented and equipped aircraft with two crew should be used. Aircraft equipment must include dual controls, landing lights, full blind flying capability from either side, and technically assessed serviceable for night flying. 16.8.2.20. Consideration should be given to proper flight planning, information being passed to Area Air Traffic Control centre, the institution of a proper and realistic flight watch, and full radio communications with both ends of the route. 16.8.2.21. As always, but particularly important in these circumstances, the Captain's discretion is considered final. Evacuation from Work-site - from Base Camp to Medical Facility 16.8.2.22. It is recommended that management consider this requirement and consult with the Aviation Adviser as necessary to establish suitable air support. 16.8.2.23. In both the above cases it is important to note that the Captains discretion is always final. Authority for Despatch 16.8.2.24. To determine a safe and effective response to genuine S.A.R. situations and medical emergencies, it is vital that a prompt orderly authorisation process is undertaken prior to launch of rescue helicopters or other aircraft. A decision to launch must always be taken by the responsible Company manager after consideration of all the circumstances. This process, if planned and implemented meticulously, will prevent over-reaction to the type of uncomplicated medical situations which have led in the past to exposure to possible hazards and unnecessary risks in the air. 16.8.2.25. Precise details of the authorisation group will depend on the nature and location of the operation and whether shore or offshore based. Search and Rescue 16.8.2.26. The company Head of Aircraft Services, Head of Transport or Safety Department should draw-up Aviation Search and Rescue procedures (either separately or within the Emergency Procedure Guide) in close co-operation with the aircraft Contractor(s), other transport functions and the Medical Department. Other Aviation Emergencies 16.8.2.27. Depending on actual location, procedures may have to be drawn up for: a. b. c. d. Aircraft Crashes/Fires at base/away from base. Loss of Radio Contact. Aircraft in distress. Aircraft crashes in hostile terrain (e.g. jungle, mountains)

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Typical Decision Making Team Organisation - Shore Based Aircraft (Day) 16.8.2.28. Operations or Service Manager/Head of Aircraft Services (Marine Superintendent/Head, Scheduling) 16.8.2.29. Chief Pilot 16.8.2.30. Captain of Emergency Service Aircraft 16.8.2.31. Medical Adviser Typical Decision Making Team Organisation - Shore Based Aircraft (Night) 16.8.2.32. Duty Manager/Head of Aircraft Services (Marine Duty Office/Duty Scheduler) 16.8.2.33. Chief Pilot 16.8.2.34. Captain of Emergency Service Aircraft 16.8.2.35. Medical Adviser Typical Decision Making Team Organisation - Offshore Based Aircraft (Day and Night) 16.8.2.36. OIM/Flight Operations Controller/Marine Controller 16.8.2.37. Chief Pilot of Offshore Aviation Unit 16.8.2.38. Captain of Emergency Service Aircraft 16.8.2.39. Medical Adviser (Offshore or shore based) Note: The Chief Pilot should not be rostered for SAR duties, and can thus advise team on soundness of rescue strategies without personal involvement.

16.8.2.40. Typical Organisation Flow diagrams will be found at Appendix 8. Training of Rescue Team Personnel 16.8.2.41. Operations involving the transfer of personnel by winch should normally be carried out only under aircraft weight and performance conditions that ensure the ability to maintain a hover in the event of a single engine failure. 16.8.2.42. It is recognised, however, that nominated members of for example, the crash rescue team would benefit from a familiarisation winch lift as part of their training, and that the type of aircraft available may not be capable of the required performance in the ambient conditions experienced. 16.8.2.43. In this case the exposure to risk is justified on balance provided that: a. The helicopter crew and trainees are briefed on actions in the event of engine failure. The exercise is carried out on an airfield or airstrip.

b.

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c.

Training for personnel nominated is restricted familiarisation (say 2 lifts) and annual continuation.

to

initial

d.

Company management and the personnel involved are aware that the accepted levels of protection afforded by twin-engine aircraft are eroded in such operations.

16.9.

Adverse Weather Policy 16.9.0.1. Companies should have a safe system for utilising aircraft in adverse weather. Similarly, aircraft Contractors should also have their own adverse weather policy setting out limits of operation and this should be taken account by the Company’s policy in developing its own system. Adverse weather embraces those conditions which are detrimental to safety or the ability to achieve the task. These conditions include snow, ice, fog, hail, lightning, heavy rain, high winds, low cloud base, forward visibility, severe turbulence, the existence or potential for micro bursts or strong wind gradients near the surface, severe sea states and strong currents, low sea temperatures related to exposure time and SAR capability combined with personal protection. Night operations would also be a factor. Decisions should be made in good time, normally no later than an hour before aircraft departure, and should weigh the business need against the risk. Often, it will be a combination of factors that should influence a decision. Although the Contractor(s) will have some absolute limits applying to weather minima, e.g. minimum cloud base, minimum visibility, even being just within these limits, if seen in combination, can often present a totally unnecessary risk. Any policy should never be used to challenge a pilot's decision not to fly, rather it is to provide an overview to a manager at a sufficiently substantive level e.g. OIM, Ships Master, Operations or Transport Manager, and to flag up a situation whereby if more than routine risk is involved, then the need for the flight can be reviewed against that risk. Clearly, in order to make a judgement, the relevant information must be available to the Manager. In the offshore environment, the information can readily be ascertained from direct observation, through met reports and readings, and through the Contractor or airfield authority. Some Companies may find it convenient to develop a matrix and even a computer programme to alert them to increasingly marginal conditions. At the very least however, guidance should be developed in conjunction with the operator. This will have the advantage of alerting the operator to Company's needs and will also underline the fact that the operator is not expected to automatically operate down to the margins. It will also remove the frequent misconception of commercial pressure. In the onshore environment, the acquisition of information can be much harder with large distances, remote airfields and small fixed wing Contractors, and it may be that the judgement to go or not may have to be delegated down even as far as the senior passenger although such delegation would carry the risk of "pressonitus". It could also be that the financial return is important enough for an operator to play down the potential hazard on the grounds that the flight will be within minima. In such circumstances thought should be given to developing a rule of thumb for use by the Company manager who can influence the situation. At the very least it is important that users of aircraft keep a critical eye open for the situation and be ready to cancel unless the requirement to travel is critical.

16.9.0.2.

16.9.0.3.

16.9.0.4.

16.9.0.5.

16.9.0.6.

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16.9.0.7.

The Aviation Adviser is available to discuss these aspects and as each situation is different, this supervision of flying will be a subject for examination on review visits.

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CHAPTER 17 - AIR SUPPORT OF LAND SEISMIC OPERATIONS................................................17-3 17.1. HELICOPTER SUPPORT OF LAND SEISMIC OPERATIONS............................................17-3 Provision of Helicopter Support.....................................................................................17-4 Twin Engine Helicopter Performance Considerations ..................................................17-4 The Base Camp Helipad .................................................................................................17-5 The Helicopter Rejected Take Off at Base Camps.........................................................17-5 Line Helipads ..................................................................................................................17-6 17.2. SEISMIC BASE CAMP CONSIDERATIONS.......................................................................17-6 Location ..........................................................................................................................17-6 General Layout of the Base Camp .................................................................................17-7 Helicopter Parking Areas................................................................................................17-8 17.3. 17.4. CARGO AND PASSENGER HANDLING ............................................................................17-8 ACCOMMODATION (LIVING AND WORKING)..................................................................17-8 Flight Operations Office .................................................................................................17-9 Engineering Facilities .....................................................................................................17-9 Sleeping Quarters ......................................................................................................... 17-10 17.5. 17.6. 17.7. 17.8. 17.9. AVIATION FUEL............................................................................................................... 17-10 BASE CAMP HELIPAD LIGHTING................................................................................... 17-11 BASE CAMP LOCATION AIDS ........................................................................................ 17-11 BASE CAMP COMMUNICATIONS ................................................................................... 17-11 FOCAL POINT PERSONNEL ........................................................................................... 17-12 Company/Contractor Liaison ....................................................................................... 17-12 Base Camp Personnel .................................................................................................. 17-12 Air Operations Supervisor............................................................................................ 17-12 Pilots.............................................................................................................................. 17-13 3D Seismic Operations ................................................................................................. 17-13 Engineers ...................................................................................................................... 17-14 Refuellers ...................................................................................................................... 17-14 Loadmasters (also known as Hookmen, Marshallers) ................................................ 17-14 Radio Operators............................................................................................................ 17-14 Winch Operators ........................................................................................................... 17-15 Training ......................................................................................................................... 17-15 Explanatory Note on Pilots Qualifications and Training ............................................. 17-15 17.10. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT .................................................................. 17-15 17.11. HELICOPTER OPERATORS ............................................................................................ 17-16 Aircraft Scheduling ....................................................................................................... 17-16 Air Operations Safety Meetings ................................................................................... 17-16 Responsibilities of the Contractor ............................................................................... 17-16 Pilots remaining at the Controls of the Helicopter ...................................................... 17-17 Radio Communications ................................................................................................ 17-17 Flight Following ............................................................................................................ 17-17 Search and Rescue ....................................................................................................... 17-18 Helicopter Winches....................................................................................................... 17-18 Crash Rescue Boxes .................................................................................................... 17-18 Emergency Locator Transmitters, Aircraft Homing Devices and Survival Equipment ..................................................................................................................... 17-18

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Navigation Equipment .................................................................................................. 17-19 Lifting Equipment ......................................................................................................... 17-19 Helicopter Cargo Hooks ............................................................................................... 17-20 External Load Operations............................................................................................. 17-20 Carriage of Dangerous Goods (Restricted Articles).................................................... 17-21 Rotors Running Refuelling ........................................................................................... 17-22 Use of Helicopters and Facilities by Third Parties ...................................................... 17-23 17.12. LONG LINE SEISMIC SUPPORT ..................................................................................... 17-23 Basis for Requirement .................................................................................................. 17-23 Conventional Operations.............................................................................................. 17-24 Long Line Operations ................................................................................................... 17-24 Considerations.............................................................................................................. 17-24 Helicopter and Equipment Selection for Long Line Operations ................................. 17-25 Trace Baskets ............................................................................................................... 17-25 Dropping Zones (D.S.s) ................................................................................................ 17-25 Personnel - Pilots.......................................................................................................... 17-26 Personnel - Crewmen ................................................................................................... 17-26 Personnel - Hookman ................................................................................................... 17-26 17.13. SEISMIC LINE OPERATIONS .......................................................................................... 17-26 Landing Areas and Clearings ....................................................................................... 17-26 Line Helipads in Desert Areas (Special Considerations) ............................................ 17-27 Line Helipads in Mountainous Areas (Special Considerations) ................................. 17-27 Line Helipads in Jungle Areas (Special Considerations)............................................ 17-28 Ground to Air Communications ................................................................................... 17-29 Hazards.......................................................................................................................... 17-29 Aircraft Shutdown......................................................................................................... 17-30 Administration and Documentation ............................................................................. 17-30

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AIR SUPPORT OF LAND SEISMIC OPERATIONS 17.1. 17.1.1. Helicopter Support Of Land Seismic Operations The acquisition of gravimetric, topographical and seismic data presents logistic problems which, in many remote areas, can only be solved by the use of helicopters, or sometimes helicopters plus a feeder service by small fixed-wing aircraft. This section focuses on helicopter operations in support of seismic work in jungle or mountainous areas. Helicopter operations in this kind of environment, of necessity, must exhibit greater flexibility than, for example, operations in support of offshore oil and gas production. There are, however, operational, safety and basic financial controls that must be exercised to ensure an acceptable level of operational safety and cost effectiveness compatible with main exploration activities. The operation of aeroplanes and the physical characteristics associated with the development of a runway are dealt with in Chapter 6. Specialist seismic contractors are, to varying degrees, familiar with the use of helicopters and may well offer to tender on a turnkey basis; including the provision of the aircraft service. Experience has shown that familiarity, without a basic understanding of and training in aviation matters, can lead to an unacceptable exposure to aircraft related hazards. It is, therefore, strongly recommended that any requirement for air support in seismic operations be put out to tender as an independent exercise and advice be sought from the Aviation Adviser at the earliest possible stage, preferably during a scouting trip. The particular problems encountered during seismic data acquisition, such as striking the required balance between the provision of adequate support facilities and the extremely temporary and mobile nature of these facilities, are recognised. The E & P Forum recommendation on this subject is quoted as follows:"Only approved helicopter types operated by Contractors recommended by The Aviation Adviser, shall be used in support of seismic operations in jungle or mountainous areas". Due to the need for rapid progress through the seismic area, the majority of helicopter landing sites are required for only very temporary use. The time taken in construction and preparation of sites has a very significant impact on the cost of an operation. E & P Forum recommendations take into account the impracticalities of either cutting and clearing or constructing landing sites to full public transport standards and the requirement to maintain the operation within acceptable limits. Management should therefore be aware that helicopter operations into restricted line landing sites in support of seismic work in jungle or mountainous areas carry a higher risk than the risk associated with normal public transport operations. It is important to realise that there is a difference between Normal Public Transport Standards, which are recommended for the carriage of passengers, and the minimum standard accepted by the Company when operating helicopters into line helipads in support of seismic activities. In a public transport operating regime, the safety of an aircraft and occupants will, in the event of failure of one of the engines at any stage of the flight, be assured. With helicopter types suitable for use in seismic activity, whenever the minimum standards are applied for operations into line helipads, safety is only assured during the critical stages of flight when both engines continue to operate normally. In recognising the higher risk* involved in seismic operations, the Company should detemine that all possible precautions have been taken to minimise the effect of an aircraft accident. This may be achieved by enforcing the following: 17.1.8.1. 17.1.8.2. Each flight to be confirmed as operationally essential. All passengers to be briefed on helicopter safety disciplines before their first flight.

17.1.2.

17.1.3.

17.1.4.

17.1.5.

17.1.6.

17.1.7.

17.1.8.

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17.1.8.3. 17.1.8.4. 17.1.8.5.

The number of passengers travelling by helicopter to be strictly controlled. Load masters, marshallers and loading crews to be trained. At line sites as well as at base camp sites the movement of passengers around a helicopter to be supervised by trained and experienced staff. Every loading to be supervised to ensure emergency exits are not obstructed. All cargo to be correctly secured and the regulations relating to the carriage of Dangerous Goods By Air to be strictly observed. Passengers not to be carried in combination with external loads.

17.1.8.6. 17.1.8.7.

17.1.8.8. 17.1.9.

*The higher risk relates to an engine failure or significant technical malfunction occurring during critical exposure times, particularly on take-off and landing. The aircraft may well be extensively damaged and the passengers. Provision of Helicopter Support 17.1.9.1. Standards, quality and availability of air support, particularly helicopter support, vary widely between countries, and for this reason, it is considered essential that the Aviation Adviser be invited to comment on the local aviation situation at as early a stage as possible in the planning process. If a scouting trip is arranged, then this presents an ideal opportunity for such involvement. If a scouting trip is not possible then an assessment of the aviation situation in the prospect area should be sought from the Aviation Adviser before the Company enters into negotiation with government regulatory bodies or prospective contractors - including gravimetric survey contractors. Where local helicopter operators exist, there are obvious cost benefits in employing their services against mobilisation of a major international operator provided the local company is financially and operationally capable of performing to E & P Forum recommended standards and the management fully appreciates the requirements of an operation. In many areas of the world, however, a large-scale seismic campaign mounted by a Company would make demands that a small local operator would not be able to meet. Joint ventures, with more established operators, would need to be arranged, but this would require careful supervision to ensure that uniform and acceptable standards are met. Advice may be obtained from the Aviation Adviser. Similarly, the most cost-effective type of helicopter for seismic support may not be available in the prospect area. The impact on the company's operation through the use of a less than ideal type should not be under-estimated. Although in some cases government intervention may limit the choice, given sufficient lead time, it may be possible to arrange importation and registration (perhaps temporary) of the appropriate helicopter. Experience shows that although basic contracts for seismic work tend to be short-term, extensions and exercised options often justify early planning and commitment to secure the optimum helicopter for the task.

17.1.9.2.

17.1.9.3.

Twin Engine Helicopter Performance Considerations 17.1.9.4. Contrary to popular belief, helicopters cannot operate to the safest standards when flying from what is conventionally thought of as a 'heliport' - that is a cleared area just a little larger than the overall length of the helicopter. Most civil aviation authorities require and the E & P Forum recommends that helicopters operate from what is in effect a runway, the dimensions of which will depend on the performance of the specific type in use.

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17.1.9.5.

The weight at which a helicopter can take-off depends upon the altitude and temperature at the point of departure. Basically, the higher and hotter, the lighter the helicopter must be to achieve a given level of performance; in many cases this will lead to a reduction in allowable payload. The reason for the requirement to provide a cleared space is that, in the event of failure of one of the engines during the take off manoeuvre prior to a target speed and height known as the decision point, the pilot must reject the take off and land the helicopter. Should an engine failure occur after the decision point, the pilot must continue the take off for two reasons: firstly, the cleared area remaining ahead of the helicopter will not normally be long enough to accommodate a reject and secondly, from this point in the take off profile the pilot will be able to fly the helicopter away to circuit height before making an approach to land. Depending on the all-up weight of the helicopter, the pilot may be obliged to carry out a run-on landing similar to, but much slower than, a fixed wing aircraft. The cleared area at a base camp heliport must not only meet the minimum dimensions for a particular type of helicopter but the surface must be level, flat and clear of obstructions.

17.1.9.6.

17.1.9.7.

17.1.9.8.

The Base Camp Helipad 17.1.9.9. In areas where land acquisition is difficult or politically sensitive, the take-off space required for twin engine helicopters must, in order to maximise the payload/fuel uplift from the base camp without prejudicing the protection afforded by such aircraft, be considered. It must be borne in mind that although base camps may be considered as temporary, the helibase will function as the air hub in support of personnel working on the seismic lines. In complete contrast to the size restricted line helipads, with their associated risk and which may be used for as little as 10 helicopter support flights within as many days, a base camp helipad will need to accommodate at least 50 helicopter movements throughout each operational day for several months.

17.1.9.10. Take-offs and landings at base camps must be able to comply with public transport criteria. The Helicopter Rejected Take-off Area at Base Camps 17.1.9.11. The safe operations of helicopters to public transport standards requires consideration of aircraft performance during all stages of a flight. To achieve the required level of safety for take-off and landing, extensive clearance and careful preparation of sites is necessary. 17.1.9.12. For helicopter operations, the requirement is for a sufficient length (calculated from the performance section of the flight manual as a horizontal distance and appropriate to ambient conditions) of level, flat, ground clear of all obstructions and capable of bearing the helicopter for a running landing in the event of an engine failure. The minimum length required for a specific type of helicopter can be obtained from the helicopter’s flight manual. The minimum width of a helicopter rejected take-off area should be 2.5 times the length overall of the largest helicopter with its rotors turning.

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17.1.9.13. To cover the case of an engine failure after the critical point mentioned, when the take-off would be continued on the one remaining engine, the take-off flight path must be cleared to a gradient in accordance with the performance section of the flight manual. Advice may be obtained from either the aircraft operator or, alternatively, the Aviation Adviser. A slope of 1:20 for 1200m horizontally may be used but only as a guideline. Line Helipads 17.1.9.14. The minimum overall dimensions for a line helipad in a jungle environment, including maximum ground slopes, heights of obstructions and maximum angles of approach are clearly depicted in the "Jungle Helipad Check Form " which may be found at Annex C at the end of this Chapter. 17.1.9.15. All line helipads must be inspected by qualified and nominated personnel, namely the senior pilot, an engineer or the Air Operations Supervisor, before being declared operational for the carriage of passengers into or from the site. Any line helipad that has not been prepared to at least Company minimum specification must be rejected even if this entails the line opening crew walking back into the jungle to complete the clearing operation. Whilst at the outset it may appear extravagant to arrange some special flights for line helipad inspections, experience has shown that a line helipad left uninspected and later found to be below specification can hold up the seismic programme, incurring considerable expense in down time. 17.1.9.16. A "Jungle Helipad Check Form" must be completed and signed for each line helipad declared operational. 17.2. 17.2.1. Seismic Base Camp Considerations The standard of facilities provided at a seismic base camp will, to a degree, depend on the expected duration of work in the area. However, certain basic provisions are unavoidable for operational efficiency and the assurance of minimum flight safety standards. While local materials will be used to best advantage, essential accommodation, equipment and facilities detailed in the following sub-sections will need to be provided. Location 17.2.1.1. Where possible, the siting of a base camp should allow for the bulk delivery of large quantities of aviation fuel; sites located adjacent to arterial communications such as roads, or rivers navigable by flat-bottomed barges, are ideal. Base camps are often located in remote areas adjacent to small villages. While this is helpful for recruiting labour, the alignment of landing strips and aircraft operating areas must take account of the prevailing wind and the need to avoid overflying populated areas during take-off and approach to landing. Government or mission airstrips can be used to good effect; hopefully, the education of the available labour force will start from a basis of at least a little understanding of aviation. However, the particular hazards associated with the operation of helicopters requires special consideration. Local topography affects the aviation aspects of base camp selection and for this reason the following locations should be avoided:

17.2.1.2.

17.2.1.3.

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a.

Valley and bowl locations which present obstacles on take-off and unacceptably steep approaches. Early morning mist is slow to clear from such sites in jungle areas and may, especially in mountainous areas, give rise to excessive turbulence. Ungrassed areas that are likely to give rise to excessive dust during dry periods. Sites close to population centres which cannot easily and economically be made secure. The local security situation should be fully assessed. While this aspect affects the entire seismic operation, aircraft and aircrew are particularly sensitive to threats such as sabotage and hijacking. Low lying areas susceptible to flooding which can affect aviation fuel storage, aviation fuel quality control and aircraft maintenance. Mosquito nuisance may affect evening and night maintenance. Power lines are a particular hazard, especially near the heavily utilised base camp helipad. Therefore and depending on the proximity of these cables, the position of the base camp helipad must be considered with regard to approach and departure routes. Where power lines are prevalent in any seismic area the following types of restrictions should be imposed: i. All power lines within 5000m of any helipad should be clearly marked with "coloured balls". All flying should cease when met conditions are worse than 1000m forward visibility and below 1500ft cloud ceiling (this may have to change depending on height of power lines above ground level). Care should always be taken with small lower, low tension telephone cables which are difficult to see. Every pilot joining an operation for the first time should be fully briefed and area airborne familiarisation checked on the position of overhead cables, with pilots' topographical maps marked accordingly. All maps should be checked for validity on subsequent periods of duty.

b.

c.

d.

e.

ii.

iii.

iv.

17.2.1.4.

The permanence or otherwise of base camps will clearly be affected by many factors but there are benefits from a flight safety point of view in establishing facilities for as long as possible. Permanence ensures the appropriate handling of maintenance and operational records, aircraft spares, refuelling equipment, etc. When the concession area is large and progress through the area rapid, then the establishment of small forward refuelling bases will reduce helicopter transit time.

General Layout of the Base Camp 17.2.1.5. A prime requirement is that pedestrian and vehicular traffic should be separated from helicopters when they are parked, being refuelled, manoeuvred or operated. Warning notices, advising personnel not to proceed beyond appropriate points should be prominently displayed and, if necessary, a traffic flow control system introduced to halt vehicles during helicopter arrivals and departures.

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17.2.1.6.

An area adjacent to the Party Chief or administrator's office should be allocated to a logistics office/radio room and materials loading bay and this area should have direct access for authorised personnel (e.g. load master) to the aircraft parking area. It has been found helpful to locate the pilots planning/rest room adjacent to the radio room. Aviation fuel should be stored as far away as possible from the base camp; preferably in a secure area on the opposite side of the helicopter landing pad to offices and accommodation. Aviation fuel must not be stored with any other types of fuel such as diesel or gasoline and it is essential that the aviation fuel areas is clearly marked "AVIATION FUEL", in large capital letters. This is clearly particularly important when bulk aviation fuel supplies are in the form of drum stock. Consideration should also be given to the need to duplicate signs in the local language if English is not understood or read by ALL.

17.2.1.7.

Helicopter Parking Areas 17.2.1.8. Ground handling of helicopters can be difficult on rough strips at seismic base camps and helicopters fitted with skids may prove impossible to move. Helicopter parking spots will be required. If a metalled or concrete surface is not an option then level areas may be constructed with hardwood planks; softwood is not suitable for use in tropical areas. It should be assumed that there will be a need for all helicopters to turn when hovering to position over their parking spots. Positioning of these spots requires careful consideration to avoid the possibility of main or tail rotor contact with an obstacle or adjacent helicopter whilst manoeuvring. Adequate clearance must be assured such that no part of one helicopter shall ever come closer than 1 rotor diameter to another helicopter or other obstacle.

17.2.1.9.

17.3. 17.3.1.

Cargo and Passenger Handling Depending on the contractual arrangement, aircraft hourly charges may well be calculated from the time of rotor engagement. It is, therefore, beneficial to the Company to ensure that passenger embarkation/disembarkation and cargo handling time be kept to a minimum. Loading bays allocated to individual line crews and the pre-selection of cargo are simple and effective controls; this is provided that only nominated personnel, familiar with the system, are employed in aircraft loading. Colour coding by means of tapes has, in areas where the labour force is largely illiterate, been found useful to ensure that cargo reaches its intended destination. In areas where the labour turnover is high, it is important that passengers are controlled during embarkation and disembarkation - the tendency to mill around a running helicopter is dangerous and slows down the loading process. Nominated, trained, load masters are essential on the ground and, in some cases, prove valuable as additional helicopter crew members. A well considered logistic organisation, albeit on a small scale, is the key to the safe and efficient utilisation of available helicopter payload in seismic operations.

17.3.2.

17.3.3.

17.4. 17.4.1.

Accommodation (Living And Working) The office accommodation provided for aviation personnel should be of a similar standard to that arranged for administrative personnel in the seismic party organisation should include desk space, ventilation, lighting etc. and be adequate for the planning of flights and the processing of paperwork in relative peace and quiet.

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17.4.2.

There may, however, be a case for air conditioning a small space for the storage of sensitive aircraft spares when stocks have to be held on site. Advice on this subject should be sought from the aircraft operator's engineering manager. Flight Operations Office 17.4.2.1. A flight planning/briefing area, with suitable wall space for the display of topographical charts, NOTAMs, meteorological information and current operational notices is essential. Desk space should be appropriate to the number of aircraft daily on line. Shelf space will be required for Operations and Flight Manuals and there should be easy access to the radio room. A quite rest area for aircrew, with reasonably comfortable seating, shall also be provided; when base camps are very temporary this facility is often combined with the operations area.

Engineering Facilities 17.4.2.2. Technical support facilities are essential. Maintenance at base camps will normally be restricted to line maintenance with major inspections carried out at the helicopter contractor's main base. The chief engineer of the aircraft Company(s) will be able to advise on line-support facility requirements at the time the contract is awarded. It will, however, be necessary to provide the following:a. A secure store for aircraft spare parts complete with rack and bin facilities appropriate to the numbers of aircraft on site. A secure area for the storage of special oils and fluids. A well ventilated battery charging bay; in the unlikely event of both lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries being serviced, then two separate areas will be required. A small basic workshop area; where mechanical drilling rigs and pumps are supported at the base camp, simple mechanical workshop facilities may, at the discretion of the Chief Aircraft Engineer, be shared with the seismic party mechanics An engineers' rest area with reasonably comfortable seating and, if overnight accommodation is distant or inconvenient, nearby washing facilities. This could be combined with an area for the completion and storage of technical records and maintenance manuals.

b. c.

d.

e.

17.4.2.3.

The guideline on hangarage is detailed in Chapter 9 but if this is not provided then it should be borne in mind that most aircraft line maintenance will be carried out after the return of the aircraft at the end of the day's flying. Generator power and mobile lighting will need to be provided and consideration will need to be given to the problems associated with insects. The costs associated with positioning flights for scheduled maintenance are generally shared equally between the contractor and the Company; the Company is normally allowed to make use of these flights. A maintenance schedule, for each aircraft operated should be made available to the Air Operations Supervisor who must closely monitor the number of flying hours available (remaining) per aircraft to its next major inspection. It is also an advantage to try to balance the fleet hours to ensure that two helicopter will not be away from the seismic operation at the same time. Provision for this monitoring has been built into the "Seismic Helicopter Operations - Daily Utilisation Report".

17.4.2.4.

17.4.2.5.

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Sleeping Quarters 17.4.2.6. Aviation personnel contracted to work on seismic operations will invariably work on a cycle of "time in/time out". This may be different from that worked by seismic party personnel and will vary according to the regulations of the country of operation. The system has the advantage that pilots will, on a regular basis, be able to work to the maximum daily and weekly Flight Time Limitations since longer term maxima will be balanced out during time off site. However, to comply with recognised Flight Time Limitation maxima and to avoid the safety hazard represented by short term fatigue, sleeping accommodation must be quiet and comfortable, furnished to a reasonable standard, well ventilated and with the facility to control levels of light and temperature. Whilst it is appreciated that senior staff beds are often at a premium in seismic operations, consideration for the avoidance of accumulative effects of fatigue leads to the normal expectation of a pilot for single accommodation; whenever possible, single accommodation shall be provided. Where rooms have to be shared it is strongly recommended not to mix seismic and aircraft operator crews. Engineering personnel will be required to work unusual hours and their accommodation shall, whenever possible, also be equally and suitably appointed and separate from other Companies.

17.4.2.7.

17.4.2.8.

17.4.2.9.

17.5. 17.5.1.

Aviation Fuel For logistic planning purposes, typical monthly fuel consumption of a twin-engine helicopter operating 120 flying hours, will be in the order of 10,000 gallons (45,000 litres) and 5,400 gallons (20,000 litres) for a single engine helicopter. The task of maintaining stocks of aviation fuel should not be underestimated. A suitable organisation for the transportation, storage, quality assurance and delivery of clean, dry, fuel to aircraft must be considered at the planning stage when setting up an air-supported seismic operation. Chapter 8 deals at length with Company standards in aviation fuel but it is stressed here that although the seismic task may be small in scale and of short duration, the quality assurance of fuel is as critically important as in larger scale operations. In fact, given the inhospitable nature of terrain typically found in prospect areas, the consequences of engine failure due to fuel contamination may be particularly dire. While steel bulk tanks are always to be preferred for fuel storage, the temporary nature of seismic base camps may make this impractical or uneconomic; collapsible tanks, suitably installed and protected from the elements, are an option. Drum fuel may, in some parts of the world, be the only option available but must be considered the least desirable for reasons of quality assurance and losses due to pilferage. When operating on seismic lines more than 15 minutes flying time away from the main base camp, helicopter refuelling on the line should be employed to avoid transits back to base. Collapsible, heli-transportable, approved seal-drums are strongly recommended. It has been found that seal-drums, although expensive at the outset, are more economical than using conventional 40 gallon steel drums and greatly reduce the likelihood of contamination. Information on lightweight heli-transportable refuelling pumps can be obtained from the Aviation Adviser.

17.5.2.

17.5.3.

17.5.4.

17.5.5.

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17.6. 17.6.1.

Base Camp Helipad Lighting The provision of helipad lighting will depend on the decision by Company's management on the requirement for a night evacuation capability from the base camp; normal flying operations will invariably take place only by day under Visual Flight Rules (DAY/VFR). Unless simultaneous drilling and seismic activities mean that a suitably equipped facility is already established and IFR equipped helicopters and qualified crews are available, then a night capability from a base camp will, in all probability, prove unrealistic. It is emphasised that a night capability should never be assumed in the seismic environment. Alternative contingencies should be sought in order to cover the eventuality of an accident or injury during the hours of darkness. General guidance on the provisions for heliports can be found in Volume II of Annex 14 to the I.C.A.O. Document - Heliport. These instructions however, require interpretation, and local civil aviation regulations may dictate minor differences. Advice should be sought from the Aviation Adviser especially in areas where such policy is not well developed and guidance is lacking. If the aircraft operator is well established and experienced to an International standard then the Operations Manager can also be considered competent to advise. Base Camp Location Aids The minimum requirement for daylight operations is a medium frequency non-directional beacon (NDB) tuned to a frequency in the aviation band which has been approved by the local regulatory authority. There are many different models available, some of which are reasonably portable, and power outputs vary widely. Radio propagation is effected by topography; jungle and mountainous areas present particular attenuation problems. Specialist advice should be sought and attention paid to aerial siting and tuning. Base camp equipment specification should require a usable range of at least 15nm for an aircraft at 1000ft above local ground level; ranges in excess of this are highly desirable as an aid to en-route navigation. The provision of low power NDB units should be considered for use by initial traverse and cutting crews at the first location on new lines; aircraft time wasted in searching virgin territory for a small clearing or helipad is expensive. Information on GPS may be found under the sub section "Navigation Equipment" Base Camp Communications The minimum requirement is for duplicated equipment to ensure that helicopters, when airborne, are never out of contact with either the base camp or the local Air Traffic Control network. In many areas of the world, where such a network is basic, if it exists at all, the onus will be on either the Company, the seismic party or the aircraft operator to provide appropriate coverage. Contractual agreements should clearly define this responsibility. For logistic and local advisory information VHF (AM, air band) base equipment is appropriate provided the area can be covered by line of sight propagation; the alternate set may also be VHF. If, however, continuous cover cannot be guaranteed then HF must be employed and suitable alternative equipment and an alternative power supply provided. The allocation by government bodies of suitable HF frequencies for use both by aircraft and by seismic crews has been found to be a protracted process in developing countries; this aspect is one that should be addressed at an early stage in the planning process. Selection of frequencies should take into account diurnal ionospheric variations, distances to be covered, and the need to separate the radio flight watch frequency from frequencies used for seismic party logistic and operational traffic.

17.6.2.

17.7. 17.7.1.

17.7.2.

17.8. 17.8.1.

17.8.2.

17.8.3.

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17.8.4.

There must, at all times, be a communications link between the seismic base camp and company headquarters and a means by which any available search and rescue facility can be contacted in the event of a helicopter being overdue or involved in an accident. While such a link may be as basic as HF voice equipment, it is recommended, for safety as well as operational reasons, that the use of more sophisticated satellite links capable of telex carriage etc. be investigated. It should be noted that even where night emergency flights from base camps are not considered practicable, a 24 hour communications link with all line crews in the field is vital for the transmission of medical advice and the organisation of a possible evacuation at first light. Focal Point Personnel Company/Contractor Liaison 17.9.0.1. For the timely resolution of problems, Company and Contractor focal points must be nominated. At contractual level, liaison will normally take place between the Head of Aircraft Services and the Operations Manager of the aircraft operator. In Companies that do not have an aviation representative then either the Materials/Transport Superintendent or the Senior Geophysicist will be the appropriate company representative.

17.8.5.

17.9.

Base Camp Personnel 17.9.0.2. At field base camp level, an Aircraft Operations Supervisor should be made responsible for day to day co-ordination of company and contractor requirements, including the monitoring of aircraft charge time against actual activity. It is essential that the aircraft operator nominate an on site senior representative, normally one of the senior pilots, through whom all communication with line pilots and engineers should be channelled; this ensures that co-ordination is maintained in spite of the work cycle of individuals. The Operations Manager of the aircraft contractor should ensure that the Company is kept informed of the pilots' and engineers' roster. Nominations for new pilots and engineers, who must meet E & P Forum recommended requirements in qualifications and levels of experience, must be submitted on the appropriate acceptance forms well in advance of the date the nominee is due on site. Contractor personnel should not be mobilised until Company acceptance is given. In the close living environment of a seismic camp, human factors, other than the ability to carry out the job, may adversely affect an individual pilot or engineer to such an extent that they are considered not suitable for the task given the environment in which they will be expected to work. The contract should address the Company's right to decline or require the withdrawal of an person considered unsuitable.

17.9.0.3.

Air Operations Supervisor 17.9.0.4. The appointment of an Air Operations Supervisor is recommended to oversee seismic helicopter operations in the field; experience has proven that employing a supervisor has not only led to improvements in safety but has led to massive savings due to the efficient utilisation of expensive helicopter flying time.

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17.9.0.5.

An Air Operations Supervisor would normally report either directly to the Head of Aircraft Services or indirectly to the Chief Geophysicist via the Operations Geophysicist. It is recommended that assistance be sought from the Aviation Adviser when reviewing the qualifications and level of experience of personnel being considered for the position of Air Operations Supervisor since the person selected should have a proven sound background in commercial aviation involving the operation of helicopters; an individual with a background in private flying is not considered to be appropriately qualified. It must be realised that helicopter seismic support in a jungle environment is exposed to a risk already higher than the risk associated with helicopter support to normal public transport standards. Seismic helicopter support needs to be professionally managed. The responsibilities of the Air Operations Supervisor must be clearly defined; a sample job description is at Annex A-1.

17.9.0.6.

Pilots 17.9.0.7. Flying in support of jungle seismic activity demands special skills not experienced by pilots accustomed to, for example, offshore operations. It is, therefore, important that attention be paid to the specific role experience as well as experience on helicopter type. Flight and Duty Time Limitations for pilots are detailed in Chapter 10 and these limits are to be used to establish the number of pilots required on site at any given time to meet the task. The maxima for scheduling purposes should be observed and whilst it is recognised that peak demands may result in individual pilots occasionally exceeding these scheduling limits this is not to be accepted as the "Norm". Flight crew fatigue is a complex matter with both long and short term effects; the subject has been well studied and in many cases regulated for. Pilots are responsible for keeping records of their own flight and duty times. During times of peak demand, Flight and Duty Time Limitations must be carefully considered by the Air Operations Supervisor and in no case should legal limits be exceeded. It has been found that daily flying should not exceed 7 hours, and where sling work is involved, this maximum should be reduced to 6 hours. Further advice from the Aviation Adviser should be sought regarding the requirement covering the maximum number of take offs/landings per day per pilot.

17.9.0.8.

3D Seismic Operations 17.9.0.9. With the close proximity of helipads required in some 3D operations, restrictions may have to be imposed to prevent fatigue of aircrew, particularly in tropical conditions. a. b. Planning the task should not exceed 25 landings per hour. When landings/take-offs exceed 15 per hour then the pilot should have a break from flying for AT LEAST 30 minutes, within any continuous period of 2 hours (This could be achieved at a refuelling stop). Flying under these conditions should be restricted to 5 hours per day.

c.

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Engineers 17.9.0.10. E & P Forum recommendations in technical qualifications and levels of experience for engineers are detailed on Chapter 11. The on site senior engineer should have field experience of seismic operations. It is recommended that the work cycle established for engineers be broadly similar to that of the pilots; whilst this is a contractor's responsibility, low morale due to poor employment conditions could have an adverse effect on maintenance standards. Moreover, consideration must be given to the need to cover the requirement for duplicate inspections. The Aviation Adviser can advise. Refuellers 17.9.0.11. The importance of aircraft fuel quality control procedures to ensure only clean, dry, fuel is delivered to an aircraft cannot be over emphasised. Staff, specifically nominated as aircraft refuellers, must be given proper training to ensure standards are to be complied with. An engineer normally supervises the refueller; it has been found that customer supervision is necessary especially in areas when the turnover of labour is high. 17.9.0.12. Aircraft refuelling procedures, equipment and examples of aviation fuel quality control forms may be found at Chapter 8. Loadmasters (also known as Hookmen, Marshallers) 17.9.0.13. These are key personnel in the smooth running of passenger and cargo transport and should be chosen from the least mobile section of the labour population. It is essential that they be properly trained in the use of hand signals for directing helicopters and in the basic loading and safety precautions associated with operations with helicopters. 17.9.0.14. Once the required training has been given they should be checked and formally authorised by the senior pilot as being proficient in the handling of internal and external cargo; load masters should be solely responsible for organising loads and signalling to the helicopter crew. Attempts by other personnel to assist inevitably results in confusion and loss of confidence. It is emphasised, however, that the pilot remains responsible for the security of internal loads. 17.9.0.15. Two load masters should be assigned to each seismic line crew and when handling external loads one must remain in clear view of the pilot whilst the other hooks up the load. At no time should personnel be allowed under a suspended load. Radio Operators 17.9.0.16. The individual appointed as the Radio Operator must be competent and reliable. In most countries, it will be necessary for the individual to hold the appropriate R/T licence which should be endorsed for communications with air traffic. It is preferable that aviation communication be carried out in the English language, but where this presents insurmountable problems and an alternative language is used then the absolute criterion is that the language chosen must be fluently spoken by all parties in the network. 17.9.0.17. It is essential that the aircraft operating frequency be continuously monitored whenever aircraft are airborne; position reports are communicated at intervals not exceeding ten minutes. Suitable arrangements must be made to cover the full work day which will call for more than one operator to man the radio set dedicated to aviation use.

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Winch Operators 17.9.0.18. In areas where government Search and Rescue capabilities are either limited or even non-existent, and management consider that rescue facilities (e.g. to cover eventualities such as an aircraft accident) should be provided in-house, then it is necessary to ensure that a helicopter, complete with a winch and an adequately trained crew, be made available. One member of such a crew, who may be a pilot, specialist air crewman or a suitably experienced engineer, must be trained as a winch operator; in some countries winch operators as well as the pilots require formal qualification for this role. It is recommended that Search and Rescue crewmen should have satisfactorily completed a formal course approved by the Aviation Adviser and have some previous experience, preferably with a military background. Training 17.9.0.19. When conducting operational and technical reviews prior to approval of an aircraft operator, the Aviation Adviser assesses the management's training philosophy, which should include provision for continuation training for pilots and engineers. The costs for such training will normally be included in fixed charges and the associated flying considered non-revenue. However, should the seismic base camp be considered too restricted as an operating area then it will be necessary to release an aircraft to a nearby airstrip to conduct some aspects of the check/training flight. Explanatory Note on Pilots Qualifications and Training 17.9.0.20. While most if not all governments nominate a department or directorate responsible for regulating civil aviation, the depth of knowledge exhibited and control exercised varies widely from an informed and professional approach to a complete laissez-faire approach. 17.9.0.21. It is strongly recommended that the applicable section(s) from the table on "Pilot Qualifications and Levels of Experience", in Chapter 10, be included as a standard condition of contract. Experience levels are, of necessity, detailed and specific since the demands made of a pilot in, for example, seismic operations differ greatly from those made on the same pilot, in the same aircraft type, but employed on offshore production support. Dispensations from recommended minima are rarely advised. 17.9.0.23. Role training is often overlooked. For this reason E & P Forum recommends minimum levels of continuation training; the aircraft operators stance on this requirement is taken into account during initial approval and renewal audit procedures. 17.10. 17.10.1. Protective Clothing and Equipment It is important that personnel such as load masters and refuellers are equipped with coveralls for protection against dust, sand and small objects disturbed by rotor wash and, to a degree, against flash burns in the event of incident. Colour selection of these coveralls also serves to identify personnel authorised to work in aircraft operating areas. The need to supply all personnel with safety helmets, boots etc. will depend on the seismic work local habits and conditions, but the following protective clothing and equipment should be supplied to all base camp personnel, other than passengers, who are directly involved in aircraft operations: Safety helmet - with chin strap fitted to the Ear defenders (or at least ear plugs)

17.10.2.

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Eye protection Coveralls Safety shoes. 17.11. Helicopter Operations Aircraft Scheduling 17.11.0.1. Given the high proportion of total costs that air support represents, it is important that decisions on aircraft loading and utilisation are taken at a sufficiently senior level in the company or seismic contractor organisation. The time spent flight planning the next day's helicopter flying requirements is time well spent. The flying programme should be prepared by the Party Chief with the Chief Pilot and Air Operations Supervisor in attendance; it is at this time that the day's flight safety and flight operations should be reviewed including the status of helipads and any other special requirements such as training etc.. The nature of seismic work calls for a certain amount of ad-hoc use of helicopters, but this can be minimised by careful calculation of labour food quotas, aircraft fuel requirements, camp and line moves. Examples of planning boards which will greatly assist in the flight programme planning may be found at Annex C. Air Operations Safety Meetings 17.11.0.2. Air operations safety meetings, involving at least the Party and Crew Chiefs, the senior pilot and senior engineer and Air Operations Supervisor, should be held monthly. These meetings have proven to be an excellent tool in improving an awareness to flight safety in the seismic environment and have led to improved efficiency in air operations. All meetings should have minutes, and copies distributed to focal point personnel for action. Minutes of safety meeting should be attached to the copy of the monthly report submitted to the Company. Responsibilities of the Contractor 17.11.0.3. Clearly the aircrew, and primarily the pilot, will be responsible for the conduct of each flight. The seismic contractor is more closely integrated into the seismic operations than is common in, for a example, a production oriented company. This brings about a better understanding of the requirements of the seismic crews but in this closeness exists a danger of over familiarity and of dilution of responsibility for matters of airmanship. 17.11.0.4. Ultimately, it is the aircraft commander's responsibility to determine that all activities and equipment in and around the aircraft are compatible with a safe operation. The pilot is responsible for ensuring that the aircraft is properly equipped with sufficient seats, seat belts and ear defenders and that all passengers, no matter how short their journey, are fully briefed on the operation of seat belts, the location of emergency exists and on emergency evacuation procedures. 17.11.0.5. The final decision on whether or not to accept a load is the pilot's although he will be guided by international regulations and the aircraft operators Operations Manual. 17.11.0.6. In most seismic operations, it will be convenient for load masters (including those selected for flying duties) to be sourced either from the seismic contractor or from the Company. However, the aircraft operator will be best qualified to maintain standards of training and performance.

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17.11.0.7. Straps, cargo nets, shackles and lifting equipment may be provided by the aircraft operator or by the Company. It is essential that a procedure exists for the regular rotation of these items through the base camp for checking. It remains the responsibility of the aircraft commander to determine that the particular sling, swivel or cargo net is in a suitable condition for the flight. 17.11.0.8. In a small or newly established seismic operation, the aircraft contractor will usually assume responsibility for aircraft refuelling and quality control on aviation fuel. Alternatively, this task may be carried out by the Company. Whatever, either the pilot or the aircraft engineer will still be expected to check, on each refuelling, the pre and post delivery fuel samples to confirm that only clean, dry fuel has been delivered to the aircraft. Pilots remaining at the Controls of the Helicopter 17.11.0.9. The controls of a helicopter must never be left unattended whilst either the engines are running or the rotors are turning. Furthermore, the practice of vacating helicopters before the rotors have stopped turning after the engines have shutdown is to be prohibited. Radio Communications 17.11.0.10. The safe and cost-effective utilisation of expensive aircraft time in often remote areas, depends to a great extent, on good communications; both air to ground and ground to ground. If the requirements for communications are considered at an early enough stage in the planning process, it should be possible to arrange suitable equipment and a selection of frequencies (allocated by the appropriate government authority) so as to guarantee communication at all times of the day and night. It is strongly recommended to separate aircraft R/T traffic from the seismic party requirement. 17.11.0.11. Helicopters engaged in seismic support should be equipped with 2 x VHF (AM) sets operating on the aeronautical band of frequencies and one HF single side-band set; it should be specified that the HF set be capable of frequency synthesised (infinite spacing) tuning. Flight Following 17.11.0.12. Flight following is a system by which the positions of helicopters (and fixed wing aircraft) are continually updated and recorded by a competent radio operator. It is essential that the radio operator be thoroughly briefed on all aspects of flight operations including the importance of the Emergency Contingency plan, its structure and his role in effecting the plan should it be put into effect. 17.11.0.13. For the purpose of flight following and to keep to a minimum the scene of search area (in the case of a helicopter becoming overdue) pilots must be instructed to report their position and intentions at intervals of not more than 10 minutes during a flight; "Operations Normal" calls may be agreed. Furthermore, it is essential that pilots make pre-landing calls, especially when landing at remote sites, and advise whenever transferring to another frequency or when the responsibility for the flight watch will be transferred. An example of a Radio Flight Watch log is at Annex B. 17.11.0.14. The requirement to pass aircraft movements and loading information between base camp and line crews will normally be satisfied by frequencies devoted to seismic operations. The requirement for hand held VHF sets for line crews is addressed under "Line Operations".

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Search and Rescue 17.11.0.15. Helicopter operations must cease at least on hour prior to official local sunset leaving enough daylight to mount a Search and Rescue (SAR) mission in the event of a missing or overdue helicopter. 17.11.0.16. The capabilities of the National SAR organisation (assuming such an organisation exists) should be established either during the scouting trip or when The Aviation Adviser carries out an audit of the helicopter contractor (in country) prior to the start up of the seismic campaign. 17.11.0.17. Maps are a basic requirement as an aid to locating a downed helicopter. In some parts of the world accurate topographical maps may not be available. Either grid superimposed survey maps on a scale of 1:100,000, clearly depicting prominent geographical sites, or, if available topographical maps on a scale of 1:250,000, must be made available to all parties who may be called upon to provide SAR cover. It is imperative that a procedure be set up to ensure that those parties holding maps have received any updated versions. Maps should be prominently displayed at the base camp and, as a minimum, copies should be held at the Company's head office, the operator's local office and with the SAR organisation. Helicopter Winches 17.11.0.18. In areas where winch fitted helicopters from Government or other sources are not available and the terrain is such that initial access to the site of an incident or accident is likely to be impracticable by any other means, an in-house winching capability is recommended; typically, this will be the case in jungle or swampy areas. It should be noted that SAR is a specialist task and advice should be sought from the Aviation Adviser. 17.11.0.19. If a winching requirement is foreseen, then this must be specified in the contract as certain fixed modifications will be required to the standard aircraft. Winches should not be permanently fitted, as this would not only be an impediment to the routine loading and unloading of seismic personnel and equipment and reduce the available payload but should the helicopter with winch fitted be lost then the operation is left without a winch which could be fitted to another back up helicopter. The winch must be stored in a suitable area to ensure that it remains in serviceable condition. Winch equipment, including cable and drum, is subject to routine planned maintenance as are other aircraft components. Crash Rescue Boxes 17.11.0.20. At least two crash rescue boxes, clearly marked in large red block letters "CRASH RESCUE" must be readily available at the seismic base camp. Each box must contain the following: Emergency Locator Transmitters, Aircraft Homing Devices and Survival Equipment 17.11.0.21. Helicopters engaged on seismic support must be fitted with an Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) which should be capable of both manual initiation and automatic operation by crash switches and transmit on 121.5 MHz and 406 MHz. The contractor should register this aircraft with the regional SARSAT/COPAS organization.

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17.11.0.22. In countries where the Companies are obliged to provide SAR cover during the seismic campaign, the most effective way of locating a downed helicopter is by way of a VHF homing device fitted to the search helicopter. It will be necessary to ensure that more than one helicopter is fitted out with fixed fittings, ready to receive the homer set which can be held in storage at the base camp. 17.11.0.23. A survival kit should also be carried in each helicopter; the contents should be selected for suitability to the environment. In many countries, guidance may be sought from the Aviation Authority but the aircraft operators Operations Manual should cover the subject. 17.11.0.24. Whilst individuals, both pilots and seismic crew personnel may elect to carry their own small survival packs in addition to the mandatory aircraft equipment, it is recommended that no firearms be allowed on the seismic camp unless circumstances dictate otherwise, i.e. Alaska and Canadian Northern operations. Experience has shown that firearms are a liability in some countries. 17.11.0.25. The sophisticated communications and navigation equipment required in helicopters approved for flight under Instrument Flight Rules will normally be incompatible with seismic support flying which is normally confined to flight in daylight, under Visual Flight Rules. 17.11.0.26. The minimum requirement is for helicopters to be equipped with at least one non-directional beacon receiver and for a beacon to be located at the base camp. 17.11.0.27. Modern light weight area navigation and global positioning systems (GPS satellite based) are widely available and provide the desired precision navigation in undeveloped areas against reasonable cost. Civil aviation authorities have not yet approved GPS as a primary navigation aid. Nevertheless, GPS should be specified for seismic support helicopters; any limitations in hours of coverage in the operating area should be established. 17.11.0.28. The provision of GPS will greatly assist the accuracy of navigation and may, other then pilot dead reckoning, relieve the need for any of the other unsophisticated aids. Lifting Equipment 17.11.0.29. When setting up the seismic operation, it will be most convenient to require the helicopter contractor, under the terms of the contract, to provide load restraint and external load equipment such as straps, nets, slings, swivels, and shackles. It is important to ensure that these items are provided in sufficient quantities, particularly cargo nets since a minimum of two nets should be assigned to each line crew for use during camp moves.

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17.11.0.30. It is absolutely essential that this lifting equipment be dedicated to helicopter use only (strops must not be used for towing vehicles etc.) and that it be rotated through base camp for checking at regular intervals. Batch colour coding of strops and advising all staff of the colour code that may be used over a defined period is one method of effecting control on the strops in use. As an example, all strops marked orange may only be used during the first six months of a seismic campaign changing over to strops marked blue during the next six months; the strops marked orange will be recovered for inspection at the base camp before being returned to service when the blue strops are returned for inspection. E & P Forum recommends that due to the nature of use in seismic operations, lifting equipment should be rejected after it has been in service for twelve months. Alternatively, but not recommended, a representative sample of the equipment may be returned to the manufacturer for testing to destruction. Nylon ropes should not be used for sling work. 17.11.0.31. All lifting equipment should have a breaking strain of not less than 4 times the weight of the load to be carried: due to the danger of chafing in flight, steel wire slings are preferable to nylon webbing. Compatible lifting points should be considered when specifying the materials and drawing up plans for special equipment such as the air transportable recording pod (doghouse/Labo). 17.11.0.32. As an additional duty, load masters may be made responsible for the inspection and maintenance of load restraint and external load equipment such as straps, nets, slings, shackles, etc. whilst in service. Helicopter Cargo Hooks 17.11.0.33. Although a cargo hook is an optional and removable item of helicopter equipment, it will normally remain fitted at all times during seismic support operations since external loads are so frequently required. The hook is subject to planned maintenance as a fitted aircraft component and must, therefore, be proof load tested in accordance with the manufacturers instructions; usually annually. Being fitted to the underside of the helicopter exposes the hook and releasing mechanism to contamination by dust and dirt. Therefore, in order to minimise the likelihood of inadvertent load release, all hard points, cables, wires, pins and connectors etc. should be checked on a daily basis. Functional checks on all electrical (primary) and manual (secondary) release systems should be carried out at the beginning of each working day. 17.11.0.34. In remote areas, where it is unlikely that weighing equipment will be available at all loading points, consideration should be given to specifying strain gauge (load cell) equipment with a suitable display to the pilot; this will prevent inadvertent overloading. External Load Operations 17.11.0.35. External load operations are most demanding on pilots and present specific hazards which should be carefully considered and drawn to the attention of all crews prior to start up of an operation and to new personnel on joining. 17.11.0.36. Thorough training of all ground personnel is essential for the safe conduct of external load operations. Each line crew should have two trained load masters who, alone, should carry out the hooking-up and marshalling of helicopters.

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17.11.0.37. Recurrent briefing programmes for load masters must be established. Briefings, normally covered by the senior pilot, must address normal and emergency operation of the cargo hook, safe movement under the helicopter when hooking up the load, procedure in the event of an engine failure when under the helicopter, the use of protective equipment and a general insight into the limitations of helicopters when load lifting. 17.11.0.38. Once load masters are appointed, seismic supervisors should resist the temptation to attempt to marshal helicopters themselves. However, should it become obvious that a hazardous situation is developing then supervisors should not hesitate to intervene to avert an accident; use can be made of, for example, an air band, hand-held, VHF set. 17.11.0.39. The vulnerability of seismic operations to the hazards of external load operations lies in the often rapid turnover of personnel and in hastily prepared sites and camp moves. At line sites, a flat area, free from snagging obstructions, must be prepared for the hook-up location. Loads should be planned in such a way that light items, such as bed rolls and tarpaulins, are combined with heavier items; this improves the "flying" qualities of the netted load. 17.11.0.40. It should be borne in mind that when transporting underslung loads, the inflight manoeuvrability of the helicopter will be reduced. Under no circumstances may passengers be carried during external load operations, and it should be pointed out to seismic party personnel that observers, birddogs etc. cannot be considered as crew for the purposes of avoiding this restriction. 17.11.0.41. When line crews do not have access to water it will be necessary to airlift water to the line. Collapsible water bladders, underslung in a net, are preferred to rigid water containers since the bladders, when empty, can be folded for transportation in the helicopter. This not only reduces the sling exposure time but also improves helipad turnaround times and since the bladder is carried inside the aircraft, passengers can be transported on an otherwise passenger prohibited sector. Carriage of Dangerous Goods (Restricted Articles) 17.11.0.42. Dangerous goods (as defined in I.C.A.O. document 9284-AN/905 "Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air") may be either prohibited or subjected to special conditions of quantity and packing. It is policy to strictly follow these instructions. On seismic operations, classified dangerous goods most commonly required are:a. b. c. d. e. Gasoline Explosives Detonators Batteries Kerosene Cooking Stoves

17.11.0.43. Dangerous goods, if prohibited by I.C.A.O./I.A.T.A. regulations may be carried as an external load but a check must be made to determine if any National variations apply. Whatever, explosives and detonators shall not be carried as a mixed load even though civil aviation authorities in some parts of the world may be prepared to issue dispensation to this effect.

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17.11.0.44. In the case where transport by helicopter is the only practicable means of moving items such as explosives or detonators, then the following guidelines should be followed: a. Explosives should never be transported on the same flight as detonators and whenever possible, explosives and detonators should be carried as external cargo. Detonators should be carried as external cargo, securely packaged in a wood lined metal box, painted red and clearly marked "DETONATORS". Inert goods such as a water bladder may be combined with small quantities of detonators in order to comprise a stable load. Where member states permit the carriage of articles described as I.C.A.O. Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air as "Forbidden", these should be transported as in a and b above. Passengers shall not be carried on any flight transporting Dangerous Goods defined either as "forbidden" or as "suitable for carriage in cargo aircraft only".

b.

c.

d.

17.11.0.45. The carriage of explosives or detonators during thunderstorms or in squall lines must be avoided due to possible lightning discharge and, for reasons of possible induced static charge, flight in sandstorms should be avoided. 17.11.0.46. The I.C.A.O. document referred to requires specialist interpretation. In the absence of on-site aviation expertise, qualified staff at the Aviation Adviser will be pleased to advise. Note: In some countries, due to terrorist activities the transportation of explosives as external loads may not be advisable since in the event of inadvertent release of the load the authorities may make the Company responsible for the retrieval of each and every stick of explosive. Premature release of an external load during the cruise when transiting rain forest would probably render it impossible to locate all the explosives.

17.11.0.47. Lamps, stoves and chain saws must always be drained of any fuel before being loaded in the baggage compartment; carriage of this equipment in the passenger cabin is strictly prohibited. It may be possible to fit external baskets to the skids of the helicopter to transport batteries to the line; the helicopter contractor must be consulted. Rotors Running Refuelling 17.11.0.48. The practice of refuelling helicopters while engines and rotors are running carries an increased element of risk over and above refuelling while shutdown. If for sound operational reasons it is considered necessary, then the operator should ensure that there are written procedures and that all staff involved have undergone formal training.

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17.11.0.49. In the context of seismic operations, the need for rotors running refuelling at the base camp is unlikely; aircraft payload utilisation approaches the maximum and therefore refuelling and loading can be carried out simultaneously while the helicopter is shut down. However, at remote locations with pre-dumped fuel, there may be good reasons for not shutting down the aircraft; e.g. the inability to fly spare parts and/or engineers into a small clearing in the event of the helicopter becoming unserviceable on startup. 17.11.0.50. Again, written procedures are essential. The aircraft operator's Operations Manual and Instructions to Seismic Party Personnel should give clear guidance on rotors running refuelling in this case including the suitability of refuelling equipment. Note: The location of fuel tank caps relative to intakes and exhausts should be taken into account before rotors running refuelling is considered. Rotors running refuelling of some models is strongly discouraged due to the possible mixing of exhaust gases and fuel vapour during refuelling.

Use of Helicopters and Facilities by Third Parties 17.11.0.51. In developing countries where a company is operating helicopters in support of seismic data acquisition, these helicopters are likely to be the most sophisticated available in that country. Company management can anticipate occasional demands from local politicians and dignitaries for the use of a helicopter from time to time. 17.11.0.52. While it may be preferable to maintain operational control of the helicopter on sole-use contract by arranging a sub-charter to the third party, consideration should be given to the potential liability in the event of accident. It may be preferable to arrange to release the aircraft and crew back to the aircraft contractor for the purposes of such a third party flight, especially since prompt reimbursement by government bodies is not often a feature of such arrangements. 17.11.0.53. Consideration should also be given to allowing third party aircraft to operate to company ground facilities, particularly where unlicensed heliports, helipads and operating areas have been constructed by the Company. 17.11.0.54. Third party refuelling from a remote facility, even if sufficient stocks exist, should be carried out only in cases of genuine emergency such as providing support to a Search and Rescue mission. 17.12. Long Line Seismic Support Basis for Requirement 17.12.0.1. During the planning phase of a seismic campaign it may be that the concession area will include terrain and vegetation of such a particular severity that the speed of acquisition during the campaign will be reduced to an unacceptable level. Compounded by high labour costs, or even a shortage of labour, there may be a requirement to use helicopters to cost effectively carry out the campaign. The impact on the environment will need to be carefully considered. Where disturbance to, for example, rain forests is to be kept to a minimum and there is no alternative to using helicopters then the technique of long lining should be employed.

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Conventional Operations 17.12.0.2. Where helicopters are employed in conventional seismic support operations, and depending on the acquisition parameters, number of shots per kilometre etc., helipads are likely to be spaced 2-3 kms apart; the impact on a jungle environment can be enormous. The data acquisition unit (LABO) will be positioned on or near the helipad. As acquisition shots are made at the back of the line, the Observer will advise the personnel along the line when they are clear to disconnect and recover the spread of station boxes, cables and geophones. These are then carried to the nearest helipad for heli slinging to a helipad ahead of the acquisition unit in readiness for redistribution and reconnection. This seismic acquisition method is called "roll along". Long Line Operations 17.12.0.3. Long line operations are likely in jungle areas and where the terrain dictates. Helipads are spaced along the line at 5-6 km intervals which corresponds to approximately 1 day's production. Spaced out between the helipads are dropping zones (D.Z.s) into which baskets, containing station units, geophones and cables are lowered on a 50 to 60m wire cable. Front and back crews, working the line ahead of and behind the data acquisition unit (LABO), overnight at the helipads and walk into position at the start of the day. 17.12.0.4. After shooting, the back crew recovers the traces. Twelve traces are loaded into a heliliftable basket at the DZ at the back of the line and the basket is then helilifted from the back of the line to the front of the line. There, the front crew removes the traces from the basket and prepares the spread ready for shooting and data acquisition. 17.12.0.5. The weight of the basket, loaded with seismic acquisition equipment, together with the endurance and payload of the helicopter selected for the task will determine the spacing of the D.Z.s. If, as in this example, 12 traces are lifted then, with a typical trace spacing of 40m., the dropping zones will be 480m apart. Considerations 17.12.0.6. If long-line operations are considered economical and desirable by seismic planners, it must be remembered that weather conditions can play an important part in the operation. When long lining, helicopters need to transit higher to allow safe clearance for the suspended load. Accordingly, in order to maintain visual contact, the cloud base needs to be significantly higher than for normal sling operations. Similarly, dropping zones in the rain forest can be difficult to locate and as a consequence the horizontal visibility needs to be at least 5 kms. The impact of baskets not being moved due to low cloud and poor horizontal visibility needs to be evaluated.

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Helicopter and Equipment Selection for Long Line Operations 17.12.0.7. Twin engine helicopters are desirable for long line operations in harsh conditions. It is clear that this requirement cannot guarantee that an accident will not be occasioned by an engine failure at the most critical point. However, the safety factory for the overall case is greatly improved by the ability to immediately jettison a load in an emergency. With enough fuel to give an airborne endurance of at least 1½ hours, plus fuel reserves, the helicopter must be capable of lifting at least 500kgs. Consideration should be given as to whether or not the helicopter used for long lining will also be used for other tasks such as passenger transport. Advice should be sought from the Aviation Adviser. The long line cable should be multi stranded steel. In tropical rain forest areas the cable will need to be between 50 to 60 metres in length; it will weigh approximately 100 kgs. Running the length of the long line cable and normally sheathed in a reinforced protective plastic "hose" will be an electrical cable supplying power from the helicopter to the remote cargo hook at the lower extremity of the long line cable; the power supply enables the pilot to activate the release mechanism from the cockpit. It is important to ensure that the electrical cable is one complete length without any joints which could hold moisture/water leading to a short circuit and inadvertent release of the lower cargo hook in flight. 17.12.0.8. The long line assembly, complete with the remote cargo hook, is attached to the helicopter by means of a conventional cargo hook on the underside of the helicopters. This hook can be either electrically or manually operated by the pilot to jettison the long line complete with the load should the need arise; e.g. failure of one of the engines or the load snagging on a tree when load lifting out of a DZ. Trace Baskets 17.12.0.9. Trace baskets are normally manufactured from 1¼" steel angle iron for the frame, a 1/3" steel plate bottom and 1" wire mesh for the sides. 17.12.0.10. Dimensions for a typical basket, capable of holding 12 traces would be 110 cms x 100 cms x 70 cms (high). The empty weight of a steel basket is in the order of 100 kgs. Lighter alternative construction materials such as aluminium have proven successful reducing the weight of the basket by more than 50%; the available payload is normally used to increase the endurance of the helicopter through the uplift of the equivalent weight reduction in fuel. 17.12.0.11. Baskets should be complete with four welded "eyes" suitable for slinging with a 4 point 5 ft sling with thimbled eyes. A forged, weldless, ring should be used for hook attachment. Dropping Zones (D.Z.s) 17.12.0.12. The importance of clearly marking D.Z.s for identification from the air cannot be over emphasised. Each DZ. is given a number which corresponds to a trace number for the particular line. 17.12.0.13. In typical rain forest areas, D.Z.s should be cut to provide: a. b. a clear base area not less than 5m x 5m. a clear tree opening of not less than 30m x 30m at tree top level.

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17.12.0.14. The ground area should be flat and clear of debris and obstructions which could be a snag hazard. The cone area extending from ground level to tree top level should be clear of branches. The identification markings, painted white, should be a minimum of 1m high in plan view. An example of a DZ check sheet is at Annex C. Personnel - Pilots 17.12.0.15. It is important that pilots employed on this type of operation have adequate experience as defined by E & P Forum for the particular technique. However, a minimum of 200 hours actual sling work experience is likely to be required including formal training and recent practice. 17.12.0.16. Long line flying requires a particular proficiency and high level of pilot concentration to assure a safe and speedy operation. Because of the intense nature of the work a maximum of 5 hours long line flying per day, per pilot, is permissible. Personnel - Crewmen 17.12.0.17. A trained crewman, normally one of the engineers, will generally be carried on the helicopter to relay to the pilot the position of the helicopter in relation to the pick-up/ drop-off zones; with a 60 mtr long line, the helicopter will hover at least 190- 200 feet above ground level during pick up/drop-off. Whenever a crewman is carried, he must be equipped with an approved harness on transport helicopters. 17.12.0.18. Vertical reference flying is practised but this is generally confined to helicopters operated two crew (pilots) with reference through a bubble cockpit window; unlikely to be viable for jungle seismic. It is known that some work has been executed with a helicopter fitted with a central, vertical cockpit window, to allow single pilot vertical reference flying. Personnel - Hookman 17.12.0.19. After the baskets have been loaded by the rear crew, a trained hookman will walk along the line from DZ. to DZ. hooking up baskets. An advantage is for him to be equipped with a VHF FM radio allowing communication with the pilot operating the long line helicopter. 17.13. Seismic Line Operations Landing Areas and Clearings 17.13.0.1. The statement of policy at the introduction of this Section gives the background to the minimum dimensions quoted for helicopter landing areas. These dimensions will have the most relevance to operations in jungle areas where the cost and time impact of felling trees and clearing large tracts of vegetation is greatest. 17.13.0.2. In areas where the terrain is hospitable, an increase in the level of safety may be achievable at a reasonable cost by increasing the dimensions of the cleared area. Long line systems for the carriage of external loads may also prove beneficial by dramatically reducing the size of many clearings. However, full size clearings and landing pads will still be required for the movement of passengers and internal cargo. The intervals along lines at which helipads will be required will depend on such factors as the type of seismic recording equipment used and the expectations of the labour force.

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Line Helipads in Desert Areas (Special Considerations) 17.13.0.3. While the selection of a suitable landing area adjacent to the seismic line is unlikely to present great problems, precautions must be taken to prevent damage to helicopter engines and rotor blades due to sand erosion. Invariably, the helicopters will be specified with suitable sand reduction modifications. However, some preparation may be required at temporary landing sites; a simple remedy would be to suppress the sand with water. Line Helipads in Mountainous Areas (Special Considerations) 17.13.0.4. Seismic parties in areas of mountainous terrain will invariably require the support of helicopters. The performance specification of the helicopters must be such that it is suitable for mountain operations. Mountain flying, particularly at high altitudes, presents a pilot with special problems, demanding a close study of the aircraft limitations and performance graphs and interpretation of local wind and turbulence effects caused by topographical features. 17.13.0.5. When undulations in the terrain are relatively smooth, or where the wind velocity is low, a laminar air flow can be expected, giving a gentle up-draught on the windward slope of a hill or mountain and a corresponding downdraught on the leeward side. 17.13.0.6. Where the terrain contours are abrupt or jagged or the wind velocity high, the effects are less predictable, as a turbulent airflow will occur, both over and around the obstructions; whirls and eddies will produce local effect reversals of wind direction as well as vertical air currents. The behaviour of air currents in these conditions can be expected as shown in the following diagram, although variations may occur.
WIND

17.13.0.7. A phenomenon known as Standing Waves may occur when the wind direction is roughly perpendicular to a mountain range resulting in strong vertical air currents at intervals downwind of the range. To ensure the safety of transit flights, it may be necessary for the pilot to select a route and altitude that would not appear to be the most direct. 17.13.0.8. Disorientation and a feeling of vertigo is a potential hazard of mountain flying where the route involves flights over knife-edge ridges or approaches to pinnacles. Inexperienced pilots are prone to these effects which only serves to emphasise the need for selection of a suitably experienced operator.

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17.13.0.9. It should be anticipated that there will be occasions where the choice of the landing site will be dictated by topographical features and therefore not ideally located on the line. It is essential that the helicopter operator be involved in the selection of landing sites. 17.13.0.10. Hill-top and ridge locations may present obvious landing sites and are often selected. However, these locations present their own problems due to turbulence, wind shear effect and inaccessibility due to low cloud. Consideration should be given to the down-time due to these factors. 17.13.0.11. When operating to any landing site in mountainous terrain, the pilot will require, at all times during the approach and take-off phase, an escape route to be flown in the event of encountering, for example, down-draughting air. Time spent in planning the location of landing sites, preferably including an airborne survey, will rarely be wasted; locations can usually be found which fulfil the aviation safety requirements and involve the minimum of rock and vegetation clearance. Line Helipads in Jungle Areas (Special Considerations) 17.13.0.12. The work involved in clearing trees, primary or secondary jungle, even to 1m level is considerable and the removal of tree trunks is unlikely to be achieved with the resources of a helicopter supported seismic party. In order to achieve a flat area, clear of immediate obstructions allowing transition between the hover and forward flight, it will often be convenient, especially in areas prone to flooding, to construct a raised helipad. However, the rate of decay and destruction by insects of softwoods in tropical climates should not be underestimated. Whenever raised wooden helipads are used, the following procedure is recommended:Upon first construction Inspection and release to service by the senior pilot. (That will also include a check of the entire clearing for correct dimensions and freedom from obstructions). Inspection by a ground party who may be brought in by helicopter provided the pilot is briefed and able to keep the helicopter light on the undercarriage. Subject to findings during this check, the landing site may be released to service for a further month. Complete rebuild of elevated helicopter landing platform and prerelease inspection.

Two months from construction -

Three months from construction -

17.13.0.13. For more permanent landing sites consideration should be given to using hardwood planks; the structure, which will also be subject to a three month inspection interval, may be repaired on condition. Should the seismic campaign run into a drilling campaign, then all pads to be used by rig support aircraft should be constructed of hardwood. Used engine oil has been found effective as a hardwood preservative, and using this method, no deterioration was noticed after eight months. However, should oil be used as a preservative then due attention will have to be paid to ensure the environment is not contaminated during the application of the oil.

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17.13.0.14. When short sling loads are to be handled in standard clearings, it is essential that an area free of obstruction, of approximately 5 metres square and above the level of stumps/felled trees, be made available. Although the landing area may be used for this purpose, in order that loads may be pre-positioned without prejudicing the ability to land a helicopter with passenger or internal loads, it has been found convenient to prepare secondary pads, displaced at least 5 metres from the main landing area. 17.13.0.15. Fly camps should be set up well inside the tree line so as not to intrude into the cleared area. This serves to avoid the danger from falling trees which have been rendered unstable by the clearing process, to distance tarpaulins and other loose camp equipment from the rotor downwash which may lift items into blades or engine intakes with disastrous results and to protect personnel from the danger of flying debris in the event of a helicopter crash landing at the helipad. 17.13.0.16. It is also essential to brief personnel not to set up the fly camp in the area directly under the approach and overshoot flight path since in the event of an engine malfunction during sling operations the pilot will release the load to gain additional performance from the helicopter. Ground to Air Communications 17.13.0.17. It is recommended that all helicopter supported seismic teams be equipped with hand held VHF-AM airband transceivers to communicate with the helicopter pilots. These sets have a very short range and may, therefore, be operated on one frequency which should be the same as that at the base camp. It is, however, important to instil radio discipline, but such short range direct communication has proved highly useful to all crews and is considered essential for the recording crew who require frequent supply and equipment moves. 17.13.0.18. Licensing of small transceivers is restricted in many areas and lead times for approval may be lengthy; advance application is recommended. Hazards 17.13.0.19. While the control of passengers and loaded cargo is generally fairly easily maintained at base camp, there is often a tendency to ignore basic precautions when operating on the line. This is usually due to the belief that productivity will suffer if, for example, time is taken to correctly secure all cargo and passengers in the aircraft before take-off. 17.13.0.20. There have been several serious incidents involving helicopters engaged in seismic operations. Whilst the aircraft were extensively damaged, the occupants, thanks to the correct wearing of seat belts and correctly secured cargo, suffered little injury. Unsecured cargo such as boxes of tinned food, spades, bush knives etc., so easily become lethal missiles during an emergency situation; the load masters under the control of crew supervisors on the line must be made responsible for ensuring that all cargo is suitably restrained. Knives should be transported in the baggage compartment. 17.13.0.21. The pilot is ultimately responsible for the professional conduct of each flight but there have been instances, in the interests of speed, of undue pressure being brought to bear on pilots; this must be discouraged. The only occasion when cargo may be loaded without restraint is when it is contained in a specially designated compartment and separated from the passenger seating section by a bulkhead or webbing net capable of restraining the cargo. Heavier items, such as drill pipe and pumps, may require additional tiedowns.

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17.13.0.22. Kerosene-powered cooking stores present a particular hazard on camp moves since the fuel containers are often glass; they should therefore be emptied and cleaned before loading internally. It has, however, been found a practical solution to combine such items with tarpaulins, bed rolls etc., in the build up of netted external load. 17.13.0.23. Other hazards that regularly affect helicopter operation to line crews are as follows: a. Generators and gasoline tanks. These should only be carried in accordance with the guidelines on the carriage of dangerous goods, and they should be pre-positioned for loading no closer than 10m to helipads in active use. Litter and loose articles. In spite of the very temporary nature of line camps, housekeeping should keep helicopter operating areas free of litter, plastic bags, tarpaulins, recording paper and other articles easily lifted by the rotor down wash into the engines, rotors or even the eyes of ground personnel. Location of and access to the helipad relative to the camp area. i. A walkway from the camp area to the helicopter landing area is often required for safe access to the helicopter. The routing and relative locations should be carefully considered to avoid leading personnel to the rear of the helicopter. On sloping ground, the helicopter landing area should always be on a higher level than the camp area; this is to maintain the maximum possible clearance between the ground (and personnel) and rotor.

b.

c.

ii.

Aircraft Shutdown 17.13.0.24. Careful consideration should be given to shutting down helicopters when away from base, especially in small clearings. The majority of aircraft defects occur or are observed during start-up. Should a helicopter fail to start then it may be necessary to gain access to the site by means of another helicopter. It is, therefore, necessary to ensure that prior to shutdown the approach and landing space is adequate to accommodate a second helicopter. Administration and Documentation 17.13.0.25. Although aviation operations in support of seismic parties may appear generally to be on a small scale, the rate of accumulation of flying hours is often high. The costs of helicopter transport in support of a seismic campaign, in relation to total operating expenditure, justifies careful administration of all flights. 17.13.0.26. Documentary procedures should be set up and all flights details should be registered on a daily utilisation report. An Air Operations Monthly Report should be raised at the end of every month copied to the Exploration Manager, the Chief Geophysicist and the Head of Aircraft Services. An example of a Daily Report Form and an example of a Monthly Report Form can be found at Annex C.

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17.13.0.27. The aircraft contractor should nominate a focal point to deal with contractual arrangements and week by week administration of the task. Furthermore, a senior member of the aircraft operators field staff (usually senior or lead pilot) should be nominated as the focal point for day to day operational and technical matters. He will normally liaise with the field representative or seismic party chief, and will be responsible for such matters as inspecting and releasing to service new landing sites, approving unusual loads, and justifying to the representative the daily return of flying hours. An example of a Jungle Helipad Check Form can be found at Annex C. 17.13.0.28. The following documents should be set up to assist in monitoring the operation: Jungle Helipad Check Form Outline Job Description for Air Operations Supervisor Flight Planning Board Aircraft Flight Following and Radio Log DZ Check Sheet Daily Utilisation Report Monthly Utilisation Report Daily Programme Planning Board Helipad Status Board Water Supply Status Board Seismic Base Camp Aircraft Crash Rescue Procedure Pilots Daily Flight and Duty Limitations Annex C Annex A Annex C Annex B Annex C Annex C Annex C Annex C Annex C Annex C Annex C Chapter 10.3

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CHAPTER 18 - HELIRIG OPERATIONS .........................................................................................18-3 18.1 GENERAL ..........................................................................................................................18-3 Provision of Helicopter Support ..................................................................................18-3 Helicopter Contract ......................................................................................................18-4 HELICOPTERS...................................................................................................................18-4 BASE AIRPORT FACILITIES .............................................................................................18-5 Buildings.......................................................................................................................18-5 Hard-Standings and Aprons ........................................................................................18-5 Service and Ground Equipment...................................................................................18-5 Aviation Fuel.................................................................................................................18-6 Base Camp Facilities and Procedures.........................................................................18-7 Personnel......................................................................................................................18-7 Safety ............................................................................................................................18-7 Specific Items ...............................................................................................................18-8 Emergencies.................................................................................................................18-9 Standards and Practices ..............................................................................................18-9 Communications ..........................................................................................................18-9 Publications and Documentation ................................................................................18-9 Designed Documentation........................................................................................... 18-10 Accounting ................................................................................................................. 18-10 Flying Programme ...................................................................................................... 18-11 Manifests and Loadsheets ......................................................................................... 18-11 Refuelling Sheets ....................................................................................................... 18-11 Medical Evacuation .................................................................................................... 18-11 RIGSITE ........................................................................................................................... 18-11 Considerations ........................................................................................................... 18-11 Equipment................................................................................................................... 18-12 Fuel Storage and Consumption ................................................................................. 18-13 Jet A-1 Refuelling Units.............................................................................................. 18-14 JET A-1/DIESEL FUEL TRANSPORTATION - SEAL DRUMS.......................................... 18-14 Identification............................................................................................................... 18-15 HELIRIG ........................................................................................................................... 18-15 Pre-Rig Arrival ............................................................................................................ 18-15 Rig in Broken Down State .......................................................................................... 18-15 Rig Arrival ................................................................................................................... 18-16 Rig Mobilisation.......................................................................................................... 18-16 Rig Assembly.............................................................................................................. 18-16 Demobilisation/Rig Move ........................................................................................... 18-17 LOADMASTER................................................................................................................. 18-18 HELICREW EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................. 18-19 HELIRIG SLING EQUIPMENT .......................................................................................... 18-20

18.2. 18.3.

18.4.

18.5. 18.6.

18.7. 18.8. 18.9.

18.10. HELICOPTER LOADS........................................................................................................ 18-21 Casing......................................................................................................................... 18-21 Consumables, General............................................................................................... 18-21 Consumables, Mud Chemicals .................................................................................. 18-21 Consumables, Cement ............................................................................................... 18-21 Consumables, Barytes ............................................................................................... 18-21

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HELIRIG OPERATIONS
18.1. 18.1.1. General The use of helicopters to move an exploration rig into position is an expensive exercise. The overall cost is likely to be in excess of 25% of the total cost of rig, consumables and staff involved. This may be overlooked by personnel involved in the actual drilling of the well who will naturally concentrate towards the end result, finding hydrocarbons. With careful attention to detail however, and pre planning, these costs can be constrained It is highly recommended that the Aviation Adviser is involved in the engineering and design of the intended rig site in areas that affect helicopter operations. From experience it has been found that without an input from aviation personnel at the outset, much time and extra effort can be expended in altering helicopter pad sizes, load drop and pick up areas, and fly away dimensions and directions. Once the helicopter contract has been awarded the contractor's representative and/or senior pilot assigned for the helirig operation, should be available for a visit to the well-site during construction, in order to establish future operating and flying procedures. A helirig operation will have been deemed necessary because of the lack of water or land transport access. Even if a land or water move were possible, carriage by helicopter could still be considered worthwhile on cost because of the speed advantage and possible reduced rig time costs. This planning and the type of rig to be used will be a matter for the Exploration Manager but the appointment of a company aviation representative early in the planning will be of great assistance to the exploration team. The Operations Petroleum Engineer needs to liaise with the aviation representative on how to plan casing weights, grades and range, packaging of mud chemicals and lost circulation materials, where these aspects concern transport by helicopter. The aviation representative will need to discuss with the drilling contractor the preparation of the rig itself so that move-in may be executed speedily. He may assist in the planning of the rig site itself with relation to aviation activities. A helirig is a drilling rig designed in such a way that it can be dismantled and its component parts carried by helicopter in underslung loads to remote locations not readily accessible by road or river. It is usual for helirigs to break down into units of 4,000 lb each. Some helirigs break down into 6,000 lb units, necessitating the use of larger helicopters. A helirig operation is very expensive as large tonnage must be transported in small weights. Considerable flying time is involved and this may require contracting two or three helicopters, depending upon circumstances. Helicopters are expensive to hire and consume large quantities of fuel, which may have to be flown in. Because of the high costs, distances to be covered during such operations must be kept to minimum and the forward base or staging area should be located as close as possible to the drilling location. Crew changes, supplies and materials should be moved to the forward base by land, river, or fixed wing aircraft in order to minimise helicopter flying time. Operations will vary from area to area but the following paragraphs will serve as an aide memoire highlighting points for action when planning a helirig operation. Provision of Helicopter Support 18.1.8.1. 18.1.8.2. Is this available in the country of operations? Are the necessary types of helicopters available for the movement of the selected rig, provided by companies with the right amount of experience?

18.1.2.

18.1.3.

18.1.4.

18.1.5.

18.1.6.

18.1.7.

18.1.8.

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18.1.8.3. 18.1.8.4.

Could foreign registered helicopters be imported if this is not the case? The Aviation Adviser should be requested to carry out an official review of potential helicopter operators. Consultation will be necessary with local civil aviation authorities and possibly military aviation departments.

18.1.8.5.

Provision of Helicopter Support - Helicopter Contract 18.1.8.6. Draft contracts are available from the Aviation Adviser and these should be used as a basis for negotiation. Provision of equipment and personnel to support the aviation aspects of the operation have to be discussed, and the following subjects require consideration. a. b. c. d. e. Mobilisation and demobilisation costs. Fixed fees. Flying hours charges. Insurance liabilities for aircraft and third parties. Transportation costs of aircraft spares and contractor personnel to and from the operational area. Customs liabilities for import of equipment and re-exportation procedures. Standards and provision of ground equipment and facilities. Standards of accommodation, food and recreational facilities for personnel. Standards of training, proficiency Responsibility for aviation fuel quality. of pilots and engineers.

18.1.8.7.

f.

g. h.

i.

j.

Is there a night flying commitment? If so, then IFR fitted machines and qualified crews are necessary. Will there be a requirement for a winch fitted aircraft for emergency use?

18.2. 18.2.1.

Helicopters Aircraft for the carriage of the rig and support equipment will have been selected depending upon availability but it should be realised that there is also likely to be a requirement for helicopter support during site preparation. Perhaps one sling aircraft would be enough for this purpose rising to a greater number for the rig move itself where rig costs will require a fast operation. A smaller helicopter type (e.g. Bolkow 105) should be considered for general use or carriage of small loads and inspection personnel. This will save costs over under-utilising the more expensive helirig machines. For efficiency, helicopters should be utilised as close as possible to their maximum lifting capacities.

18.2.2.

18.2.3.

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18.2.4.

When the maximum weight which the helicopter can lift is known, loads should be assembled and accurately weighed. All calculated weights must include lifting tackle such as slings, shackles, cargo nets and pallets. When using a weighing apparatus the accuracy of the instrument must be checked against a known test-weight. All loads are likely to be clearly marked with their weight. Base Airport Facilities It is possible that some facilities will be inherited from a previous seismic campaign, but considerable expansion will be necessary, not least a considerable enlargement of fuel stocks. It is also likely that the Company will be required to provide most support equipment but in any event the following is a guide as to what will be required. It is possible that fixed wing facilities may be necessary in addition, in order to support crew changes and urgent freight requirements. Buildings 18.3.3.1. The following buildings are required: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. Some form of hangar or covered area for aircraft maintenance. Offices for personnel - aircrew and engineers. Workshop facilities. Air conditioned stores with suitable shelving. Petrol, oil and lubricants store. Toilet facilities. Battery charging room(s). (Nicad/lead acid) Generator house. Covered area for storage and preparation of sling equipment. Aircraft despatchers office. Passenger waiting area. Covered cargo preparation area. Visual control position for air radio operators.

18.2.5.

18.3. 18.3.1.

18.3.2.

18.3.3.

Hard-Standings and Aprons 18.3.3.2. The sophistication will vary depending on the length of the operation and aircraft types. However, the minimum should require concreted or solid parking spots. Weather conditions may dictate hard topped taxyways, aprons and runway (for fixed wing use).

Service and Ground Equipment 18.3.3.3. The following base airport service and ground equipment are required:

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a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

AC electric power. Fresh water supply near to helicopter parking area. Air compressor - mobile. Inspection lamps - mobile. Hoist preferably hand operated. Hangar roof/or floor bogie. Ground power unit. (AC and/or DC depending on helicopter) Non Directional Beacon. Radios ground/air: i. ii. iii. iv. v. HF SSB (with voltage stabiliser) VHF AM (with voltage stabiliser) HF SSB (battery operated) for s/by use. VHF FM to base camp if remote from airfield. HF SSB to locations.

i. j.

Rotor blade storage racks. Aircraft ground servicing and platforms complete with wheels and brakes. Creeper board for under aircraft servicing. Lead/acid battery charging facility. Freight and baggage handling trolley. First aid equipment. Aircraft crash box (containing equipment relevant to the area of operations for immediate carriage to an aircraft emergency position). Fire extinguishers. CO²/dry chemical foam making. Heavy duty weighing scales. (200 kgs) A/C cargo. Portable battery powered force transducer weighing instrument. Banding machine. Cargo labels - denoting distinction and weight.

k. l. m. n.

o. p. q. r. s. Aviation Fuel 18.3.3.4.

Some form of bulk storage will be necessary, the size will depend on the fuel usage requirement. Drummed fuel is extremely wasteful and difficult to control. Pumping equipment will be necessary with attendant filter monitor and separator systems, and tanks must be coated internally with the approved treatment, or be rubberised seal drums.

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18.3.3.5.

The standards and procedures to be used and followed are documented in Chapter 8 of this manual. Reference should be made to sub-sections of that Chapter for tankage, equipment, filtration, maintenance and procedures. Bulk deliveries could be by sea or land depending on the situation but considerable advance planning will be necessary with local suppliers, and most likely government agencies, to ensure supply when it is required. If aviation fuel is supplied by fuel barge it is fully recommended that the vessel is fitted with metering equipment, since dipping tanks can produce considerable inaccuracies depending on the trim of the vessel, which will make stock control difficult. Barges must have Jet A1 tanks coated internally with the recommended paint scheme and piping should be of stainless steel. Pumping equipment on board should be for the sole use of Jet A1 transfers.

18.3.3.6.

18.3.3.7.

Base Camp Facilities and Procedures 18.3.3.8. Since the base camp will be supporting a drilling activity it is likely to have more facilities than one for a seismic operation. Generally it will be expected to provide single accommodation for aircraft captains and senior engineers and loadmasters with air conditioning as appropriate. It will be necessary to provide transport to the airstrip if distance is sufficient from the base camp.

18.3.3.9.

Personnel 18.3.3.10. Pilots, engineers and loadmasters will be provided by the contractor. Marshallers and hookmen will be provided by the company, although numbers will depend on the operation, type of aircraft and so on. 18.3.3.11. The operational control of marshallers, hookmen and on site refuellers should be designated to the aircraft contractor's senior loadmaster, but their training and safety standards will be very much a Company responsibility. 18.3.3.12. At each end of a rig move there will be a requirement,, in addition to the loadmaster, for at least one marshaller, four hookmen and two refuellers. 18.3.3.13. The helicopter contractor may be able to advise on where to obtain experienced 18.3.3.14. Personnel will have to be acquired and probably trained in fuel quality control management, stock and record keeping (see section on documentation). Safety 18.3.3.15. It is usual that during periods of loading and unloading cargo from rotors turning helicopters the period will be considered as flying time. Hence it is important that the move is done speedily because of cost. Helicrews will know this, but enthusiasm for speed to the detriment of safety is not acceptable. 18.3.3.16. The following points should be considered in the particular operation. a. b. No smoking in aircraft by passengers. All internal cargo to be properly lashed. (0ften difficult to ensure in the field when so much may be moved in short distances.)

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c. d. e. f. g. Specific Items

Use of life jackets if over water. Carriage of life-raft equipment if over water. Carriage of survival equipment. Briefing of passengers. Use of floatation gear for over-water flights.

18.3.3.17. It is policy that items classified as Dangerous Goods be carried in accordance with I.C.A.O. Technical Instructions, which should be considered as the authoritative document. The following brief indications should not be considered contradictory to the I.C.A.O. document, and cases of doubt should be referred to The Aviation Adviser. Internal Cargo Kerosene/Diesel Petrol/High inflamms Acid Batteries (lead/acid) Yes in metal conts. No Yes in glass/metal conts Yes in protective boxes with lid, surrounded by absorbent material(sawdust) No Yes (taps open) Yes with properly approved containers Internal Cargo Fire arms Explosives Detonators No No No External Cargo Yes Yes Yes Yes

Gas Bottles Full Empty Radio active materials

Yes Yes Yes

External Cargo Yes Yes Yes in approved conts.

Note:

Explosives and detonators may not be carried together internally or externally in same net. No Yes in sealed bags Yes Yes

Magnetic equipment Cement/corrosive chemicals

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Emergencies 18.3.3.18. All helicopters when flying must be in two way radio communication. In the event of a loss of communication various lost aircraft procedures must be formulated. Aircraft emergency procedures must also be introduced and understood by aircrew and radio operators. Standards and Practices 18.3.3.19. Certain ground procedures the company representative should produce a complete set of instructions for contractor aircrew and engineers on certain ground and airborne procedures. For instance: a. b. c. d. e. f. Base airport arrival and departure procedures. Altimeter settings Heights to fly Taxying instructions Action in the event of aircraft fire or accident The pilot/engineer "to read" file should be signed for by each newly arriving person and on subsequent amendments of the documents.

Communications 18.3.3.20. It should be noted that all radio transceivers used will require a licence from the authorities, and frequencies used will have to be authorised and allocated. 18.3.3.21. Personnel using ground or air radio equipment will also have to be licenced. Publications and Documentation 18.3.3.22. The following publications should be obtained: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Aeronautical maps of various scales. Air Information Publications issued by the country concerned. Quality Control Manual. Guide for Contractor(s). Petroleum Industry Training Board Helicopter Refuelling Handbook. Micro biological Fuel Contamination and A/c Tank Corrosion (SIPC) CAP 168 Licencing of Aerodromes (U.K. C.A.A. Publication). I.C.A.O. Technical Instructions for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air. The Aircraft Contractor's Operations Manual. Air Law documentation of the Country concerned.

i. j.

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Designed Documentation 18.3.3.23. In order to maintain close and accurate recording of all aviation activities, the following types of documents will have to be utilised. 18.3.3.24. Staff will have to be employed and trained to collect and correlate statistics. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Radio Flight following log (G/A radio operator) Take-off and Landing Log (G/A radio operator) Daily helicopter refuelling sheets (Refuelling party) Fuel installation maintenance record sheets Daily fuel quality control check records Passenger/cargo manifests (Blocks of 5 self carboning) Flying programme forms Pilots flight sector load sheets Pilots flying hour record forms Pilots/engineers occurrence report forms Pilots/co-pilots/engineers record forms (details of licence/base check dates/total flying hours etc. in accordance with contract) Engineers Daily Report on aircraft availability. Transport request forms.

l. m.

18.3.3.25. Statistics sheets for recording monthly Jet A1 stock, flying hours by aircraft, flying hours by allocation to individual wells (if more than one site in use), aircraft fuel consumption records and fuel allocation to well accounts must be maintained. Records indicating A.O.G./maintenance time will also be necessary since "down time" may mean a reduction in standing monthly charges. Accounting 18.3.3.26. In order to cost flying hours and fuel used, procedures have to be enforced to allocate these costs. This is important if more than one well site in operation. 18.3.3.27. For instance, it may be that the helirig will be moved to a different location in the same concession area.

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18.3.3.28. It may be important to be able to record passengers/cargo/sling loads taken to and from each well location. Each well location will have a different account code for each phase, site preparation, mobilisation, drilling, rig move, demobilisation. Calculation and recording can be based as follows. Flight From Base Well A Well B To Well A Well B Base Allocated To Well A Well B Well B

Flying Programme 18.3.3.29. Transport requests for helicopter transport should be required 24 hours in advance when of a routine nature. Flying programmes have to be written each evening to give maximum utilisation of aircraft in conjunction with other operational flying commitments. Manifests and Loadsheets 18.3.3.30. Manifests should be completed at the well location by the Radio Operator and Camp Boss. All helicopter loads, internal or external, should be recorded by the Loadmasters. This document indicates in detail items transported by helicopter with weight information, and should be submitted on completion of each day's flying. The information is invaluable for calculation of rig move statistics and for company staff to assess progress. Refuelling Sheets 18.3.3.31. Every uplift of fuel by helicopter or fixed wing aircraft must be recorded and signed for on the daily refuelling record. The information may be used for the calculation of fuel used in the period for an individual aircraft, when this can be related to flying hours allocated to the well concerned and subsequently costed. Medical Evacuation 18.3.3.32. Helicopter medevac plans must be produced and incorporated in the operation emergency plan. It is likely that in a remote area helicopter and fixed wing aircraft will have to be used to evacuate casualties for specialist medical treatment. 18.4. 18.4.1. Rigsite The design of the rigsite should include two helipads one to serve the camp and one the rig. It is useful to consider the prevailing winds so the site may be orientated correctly for the approach and departure of helicopters. Considerations 18.4.1.1. Standard pads would be 12m x 12m and the typical size of fly-aways 250m x 80m min. This length will depend on aircraft performance to clear a 50 ft obstacle at maximum weight in prevailing DA. Edges of helipads should be raised slightly and painted to warn passengers of the danger, particularly if the pads are above ground level. Pads should be marked with an 'H' and landing circle, with direction arrows to give disembarking passengers the exit route from the aircraft vicinity.

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18.4.1.2.

If the rig or location cannot be reached by vehicle or boat, the first people on site must either walk in or be winched down by helicopter. Usually there is a seismic line close by from which access to the location can be gained. Using hand-held power saws a clearing can be created and a helicopter landing area prepared to receive the generators, fuel, stores and equipment necessary to construct the camp. This activity may involve heli-lifting a bulldozer (D5 or D6) and other earth-moving equipment. These must be dismantled into acceptable loads for underslinging from helicopters and must be reassembled on site. When the maximum weight which the helicopter can lift is known, loads should be assembled and accurately weighed. All calculated weights must include lifting tackle such as slings, shackles, cargo nets and pallets. When using a weighing apparatus the accuracy of the instrument must be checked against a known test-weight. All loads are to be clearly marked with their weight. The decision to move a camp is usually taken when the rig is fully riggeddown and the emphasis is on the rigging-up at the next location. Generally, helirig camps comprise skid-mounted, lightweight caravans in the form of sleepers, kitchen, mess room, laundry, and shower and toilet units. The number of caravans required to make up a camp is agreed at the time of negotiating the contract and is dependent upon the number of people required for a particular venture. Before lifting caravans, the air-conditioners, refrigerators and heavy furniture inside the caravans may have to be removed to limit the overall weight. In areas of dense jungle, a saw-mill will also be flown in to cut felled trees into planks which can then be laid to form a level, hard standing for rig equipment and supplies. In swampy soil conditions, steel piles must first be driven into the ground by diesel hammer to support the platform on which the rig can operate.

18.4.1.3.

18.4.1.4.

18.4.1.5.

18.4.1.6.

18.4.1.7.

18.4.1.8.

18.4.1.9.

18.4.1.10. In other areas where the ground is less soft a reinforced concrete pad may be constructed to support the main part of the rig. 18.4.1.11. It is not possible to state the precise number of flights required for civil engineering construction activity, as this is obviously dependent upon criteria such as the amount of earth to be moved, the number of trees to be felled, timber availability, the number of bulldozers required, machinery, fuel, water pipes, etc. Flights are also required to transport in the workforce and food. 18.4.1.12. Approach and take-off paths must be cleared for safety reasons. The directions are determined by the prevailing winds and local topography. The dimensions of such paths will depend on the type of helicopter in use and advice may be sought from the helicopter Contractor. Equipment 18.4.1.13. The following will be required at the rigsite. a. VHF AM ground/air radio with operator, in addition to normal rig radio communications. VHF AM or FM ground/air hand-held radios for loadmasters (probably provided by the helicopter contractor).

b.

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c. d.

Easy flying access to pipe racks. Flare and diverter lines should not end in the approach path to be used by helicopters. Coloured flags to mark the derrick safety escape line. This is essential in bad light when the wire is difficult to see. The safety line should not be positioned in the approach path that helicopters will use for pads, pipe racks and drop zones. Notice boards should be positioned at the entrance to helipads giving warnings of no smoking and about items that cannot be carried in the aircraft. Similarly at this exit to helipads, instructions should be visible to disembarking passengers on where and to whom to report on arrival. A trained helipad man should always be in attendance at the helipad to ensure nobody is on the pad during take off and landing, and to act as the supervisor and link with the pilot. Passenger manifests should be written by the Radio Operator in conjunction with the Camp Boss. The Camp Boss, particularly, needs to know who he is catering for, so after obtaining clearance from the toolpusher, a departing individual reports to the Camp Boss and Radio Operator for inclusion on the manifest. Movement of passengers and cargo to and from the rigsite needs a good co-ordination between the company aviation representative and the drilling Contractor(s) staff at the Base Camp. This ensures advance programmes may be written and economical use of aircraft made. The drilling contractor at Base communications set up with the rig. Camp will have his own

e.

f.

g.

h.

Crew change transport planning must be excellent, there should not be mistakes since men who have been on a rig for 4 weeks do not like to be late off. This concept can be complex when personnel are travelling far with international connections so a great deal of time is needed on this aspect. i. Fire fighting equipment adjacent to the helipad. (CO² & Foam type extinguishers.) Helitransportable aircraft refuelling unit. Windsocks (8ft) to provide pilots with suitable landing direction. Martin Decker weighing scale for attachment to crane jib.

j. k. l.

Fuel Storage and Consumption 18.4.1.14. Considerable quantities of aviation turbine fuel (Jet A-1) are consumed by helicopters during the construction, supply and drilling phases, and this fuel must be transported to the forward base from which the flying of the equipment, supplies and rig commences. 18.4.1.15. Considerable quantities of diesel oil are also required by the rig and the mechanical handling equipment. Adequate storage must therefore be provided for both the storage of Jet A1 and diesel fuel.

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18.4.1.16. One of the main difficulties in transporting and storing large quantities of fuel is quality control. Quality control is paramount in ensuring a safe operation and must be maintained to a very high standard, whatever the conditions. Heavy rainfall, high humidity, large variations in temperatures, muddy underfoot conditions or wind-blown sand are some of the conditions which must be overcome. 18.4.1.17. It is possible to store fuel in river barges, steel tanks or nylon fabric bladders on land. If the barges or tanks are not already in use for carrying/storing aviation fuel, they must first be sand blasted and painted with an epoxy resin. All piping should preferably be stainless steel and must be flushed through before use. 18.4.1.18. This is an area which can quite easily be overlooked and where considerable savings can be made simply by selecting the correct equipment. Jet A-1 Refuelling Units 18.4.1.19. Units are manufactured by a number of companies. Each one must be self contained with engine, pump, filter monitor and water separator plus associated hosing and delivery nozzle. 18.4.1.20. They must be helitransportable i.e. contained in a steel frame with lifting eyes for helicopter slinging. 18.4.1.21. The distances involved in the rig-move will decide whether a unit is required at each end of the move. 18.4.1.22. It may well be advisable to have at least two units in case of unserviceability. A mechanic should be dedicated to the maintenance of all helicopter refuelling equipment. 18.4.1.23. Settling tanks have been used in the past but if collapsible seal-drums are used these are not necessary. 18.4.1.24. Pump delivery rates must be as high as practicable to reduce rotors running refuelling time. 18.5. 18.5.1. Jet A-1/Diesel Fuel Transportation - Seal-Drums Portable collapsible rubber seal-drums are recommended for the transportation of fuel. The use of rigid metal drums for all fuel, and particularly Jet A-1, is open to abuse. Metal drums are easily damaged in transportation and if so have to be rejected if containing Jet A-1. Seals have to be intact and each drum has to be tested, with fuel being lost in sampling, and approx. 15 litres is rejected at the end of the drum in case of water pick-up. Furthermore, contents can only be assumed to be 200 litres, often it will be less, and once a drum has been used it may not be utilised for Jet A-1 again unless cleaned, and checked and sealed by an authorised agent. Collapsible seal drums will ensure no losses and their use will reduce the concern of company personnel on whether fuel is in good condition or not. Drums collapse to 15% of their normal size and although a 500 US Gallon drum is cumbersome to handle in the empty state it can be lifted by four men. Drums come in 500/250/55 US gallon sizes, and UniRoyal type have been successful in the past, being made of thick elastomeric tyre cord and less prone to damage by bad handling and severe environmental conditions than other makes.

18.5.2.

18.5.3.

18.5.4.

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18.5.5.

Drums may be suspended one under the other for sling loads but cargo nets have also been used which probably allows faster flying speeds. UniRoyal seal drums have built-in swivels and an internal cable to prevent over filling. 2" male thread/male adapter check valves are used on the drums and it is recommended that metal protective caps are purchased. Single drums may be underslung using 2 point, 3ft slings attached to a forged weldless ring, with eye ends to 5/8" shackles for securing to the drum attachment points. Repair kits should be available on site. Identification 18.5.6.1. It is imperative that the contents of drums are easily identified, so no errors may occur. Pilots also need to have easy recognition so they know where to drop the particular drum. Established colour marking is: a. b. c. Jet A1 - yellow Diesel - red Water - white

18.5.6.

18.5.6.2.

18.6. 18.6.1.

Helirig The following conditions apply Pre-Rig Arrival 18.6.1.1. Prior to the arrival of the rig it is very opportune to stock the rigsite with full rig and camp diesel bladders. Collapsible seal-drums are ideal transport for this purpose, and a small Gorman-Rupp type pump can be used for the transfers. Similarly initial stock piling in the mud warehouse is desirable and non-contractor items, which are likely to be casing and tubing, can be flown-in in advance. It should be remembered that casing on the pipe racks must be positioned with the box ends at the correct end of the pipe rack or problems will occur later when they are dispensed to the derrick.

18.6.1.2.

Rig in Broken Down State 18.6.1.3. It is strongly recommended that in order to save considerable expensive delays after rig mobilisation there is lengthy pre-planning and discussion between the drilling contractor and the company aviation representative on the rig break-down. Depending on distances to be flown, aircraft endurance and payload considerations will decide the weight of each underslung load. Component parts should be made to reflect this payload and certain items may be carried together. A load plan will be made and all items should be weighed with the weight marked on in bold numbers. Certain items, for example rectangular mud tanks, fly slowly although not of great weight so aircraft endurance must be considered.

18.6.1.4.

18.6.1.5.

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18.6.1.6.

Loading onto barges for instance should be done in a set sequence since the order that items are taken to the rig site is important. The camp and domestic equipment always go first and the sub-base will be the first units of the actual rig to go. Sub-Contractor(s) equipment, Halliburton, Corelab and Schlumberger will go towards the end of a mobilisation. All items should be prepared with welded lifting tabs and it is suggested items should be pre-slung. It should be remembered that cables used in pre-slinging should not have fibre cores if transit is necessary on a long sea passage. These points are to emphasise the importance of establishing a lifting plan. It the company representative is not over familiar with rig items it may be suggested an experienced loadmaster be employed by the company or drilling contractor to assist in the loading plan.

18.6.1.7.

18.6.1.8.

Rig Arrival 18.6.1.9. On arrival the broken down rig will be closely packed onto barges or land transport. No attempt should be made to lift by helicopter directly from the transport.

18.6.1.10. It will be found that loads should be repositioned by crane onto a lift area. Manpower safety will result, in that hookmen can more easily clear the area as the load is lifted. Pilots may also have a better ground cushion effect and hovering times may be reduced. Rig Mobilisation 18.6.1.11. The inexperienced are often surprised at the speed of mobilisation of a rig by helicopter, particularly using an aircraft lifting around 5400 lbs each load. 18.6.1.12. It will be found that after the initial two days one helicopter may be enough to supply items. The assembly crews can only work at a certain rate and the rig platform can become very cluttered very quickly. In addition, rigging-up crews do not require the continuous interruptions of arriving helicopters. So one helicopter producing about 14 loads a day may well be enough after the initial build-up. The other spare helicopter on contract may be used for crew changes or supply of fresh food etc. from the base area. Basically, one may be pressed into thinking that three helicopters are required for a rig move. Distance to be flown will be a factor but it is likely that two aircraft will be enough for a single well situation. 18.6.1.13. The number of loads will vary for a particular rig size and helicopter payloads but the rig, Corelab, Halliburton and Schlumberger total will be in the order of 600 mts. Rig Assembly 18.6.1.14. It has been found from experience that positioning of equipment by helicopter for actual assembly in the hover is an expensive exercise as the method is slow, even if the equipment is well prepared. A preferred method is to drop items onto the designated dropping zones on the rig platform and reposition by mobile crane. A common type of crane in use nowadays is a hydraulic driven track mounted rotating crane with telescopic boom which can be heli flown in 7 lifts with a Puma type helicopter. 18.6.1.15. The use of this crane, type name Sherpa, will help to save valuable time and expensive hovering time using helicopter assembly methods.

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Demobilisation/Rig Move 18.6.1.16. Before mobilising the rig, and before any rig-move, a meeting must be held between the involved parties to discuss the operation, set targets, establish responsibilities, determine requirements and pre-plan the move step-by-step. This will involve representatives from Transport and Air operations, Drilling, Materials, civil engineering and the drilling and aircraft Contractor(s). 18.6.1.17. Such meetings should determine that all participating parties are fully briefed and aware of their individual responsibilities for the forthcoming move. The participants must then brief the staff reporting to them who will be involved in the rig-move. 18.6.1.18. All items for mobilisation and demobilisation must be arranged in pre-slung loads as close as possible to the maximum underslung weight which the helicopter can carry. 18.6.1.19. To move any rig economically from one location to another, it must be transported in the correct sequence for assembly at the next location. 18.6.1.20. The following is a simplified rigging down (dismantling) sequence: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Note: Move advance loads Rig released. Mast laid down. Dismantle mast. Disconnect drawworks and remove from sub-base. Disconnect engines and remove from sub-base. Remove 'A' frame from sub-base. Remove rotary table from sub-base. Remove rotary table beams from sub-base. Dismantle sub-base. The above items must be transported and rigged up in reverse order.

18.6.1.21. This is extremely important when moving a helirig because of the large number of loads (approximately 300). It is necessary to dismantle the complete rig in order to remove the substructure bases which are the first loads required at the next location. To lift out the sub-bases requires considerable working space, and it is therefore necessary to move as many advance loads as possible to the next location 18.6.1.22. The same applies to smaller pieces of equipment. On a normal land-rig move, a truck would transport a bulldozer as one unit; but for a bulldozer to be carried by helicopter it would have to be broken down into some 12 individual loads. If the 12 loads were not dispatched to the next location in the correct sequence, the bulldozer could not be assembled quickly.

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18.6.1.23. A day to day plan only for demobilisation is necessary and items are flown out as they become available. Discussions with the Operations Petroleum Engineer will indicate costs involved but Schlumberger, Corelab and Otis test equipment's are likely to be demobilised first: a. to clear the area quickly for rig-down and b. on rental cost

18.6.1.24. A company aviation representative should be on site to ensure the drilling contractor demobilises as quickly as possible, particularly if the rig is not immediately scheduled elsewhere. 18.6.1.25. If the rig is to be moved and re-assembled at another site it may be considered that the operation will be slow since the sub-base, for instance, will be the last item out of the first site but required first for re-assembly. Again the planning of the rig move may be carried out on a daily basis in conjunction with the drilling contractor's toolpusher. Experience has shown no long term plan ever works and is considered necessary. As loads become available they may be flown and deposited at the new site for repositioning by mobile crane. 18.6.1.26. During times that rig items are unavailable for transfer, excess chemicals, barytes, casing etc. can be transferred. 18.6.1.27. It should be noted that a crane will be essential at either end for rig down and rig up. 18.6.1.28. The camp move and transfer of frozen foodstuffs will have to be done with some precision and will depend on when the majority of personnel may be released from rig down duties to be employed on rig up activities. 18.7. 18.7.1. Loadmaster A loadmaster is required to co-ordinate activities between the ground and the helicopter pilot and to ensure that only safe practices are used. It is often preferable that the person appointed should be an employee of the helicopter company. The loadmaster should ensure that ground staff use their protective clothing, e.g. safety goggles (safety glasses should not be worn), ear protectors (plugs or mufflers), hard hat (chin strap must be worn), safety footwear and work gloves, and that no one is wearing loose flapping clothes or carrying any long object above shoulder height. The loadmaster should also log times and maintain records of the loads transported by each aircraft. The responsibilities of a loadmaster include: 18.7.4.1. Accurate pre-weighing of the loads to ensure they are within the capabilities of the helicopter. checking that all gear is in a safe and sound condition. Use of the correct lifting gear for each individual lift and ensuring that the lifting gear is properly secured to the load. Ensuring loads are placed free of obstructions before lifting.

18.7.2.

18.7.3.

18.7.4.

18.7.4.2. 18.7.4.3.

18.7.4.4.

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18.7.4.5. 18.7.4.6. 18.7.4.7. 18.7.4.8.

Supervising the hook-up of the lifting slings to the helicopter hook. Despatching loads in the correct sequence. Giving directions to the pilot by radio and/or hand signals. Ensuring pick-up area is free from loose articles which may be ingested into helicopter engines or rotor systems.

18.8. 18.8.1.

Helicrew Equipment It is desirable that all helicrew should be identifiable from other personnel by the wearing of particular clothing. This gives instant recognition, particularly to pilots, of the personnel concerned with aviation activities in any location. Each crew should be issued with the following to be worn at all times during helicopter operations and when on the active rig site.

18.8.2.

• • • • • •

Safety helmet with chin strap. Safety goggles for eye protection (during sling operations). Gloves - polka dot. Safety boots with steel toe caps. Ear plugs or ear defenders. Coloured shirts: Marshallers Hookmen/helipadmen Refuellers red yellow green

18.8.3.

All helmets should be of a uniform colour, say white for added recognition.

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18.9. 18.9.1.

Helirig Sling Equipment The drilling contractor may be required to provide slings for the rig equipment at their cost but the following will be required to be provided by the company or helicopter contractor. Numbers may vary depending on the size of the rig and the operation itself.

100 30 20

Shackle Crosby Type C Dia. 5/8 inch pin screw dia 3/4 inch. Shackle Crosby Type C Dia. 3/4 inch pin screw dia 7/8 inch. Shackle Crosby Type C Dia. 5/8 inch pin screw dia 3/4 inch with split pin (All shackles with swl number) 30 Swivels double Sakuren BS103 3T Eye and Eye 20 Pipe hooks Crosby eye opening 1 3/8 inch throat opening top 2 13/16 inch swl 2t bottom 1 1/4 inch swl 7.5t. For casing and tubing/H beams 20 Two (2) point sling each cable 29 foot long. Each point with mechanical spliced eye thimbled to take 5/8 inch Crosby shackle type C. Other ends thimbled on to forged weldless ring, stock dia 7/8 inch ring five (5) inch inside diameter. For rig engines. 20 Two point sling each cable 6 foot long. All cable steel wire 5/8 inch dia, 6 strand 19 wire steel core min. breaking strain of cable 30,000 lbs before eyes spliced. For extension and single point lifts. 50 Strops 3 foot 5/8 inch cable as above with thimbled eye at both ends for Crosby 5/8 inch type C shackles. For timber slings and general purposes use, baskets, etc. 10 Four (4) point sling each cable 20 foot long 10 Four (4) point sling each cable 6 foot long 10 Four (4) point sling each cable 8 foot long 10 Four (4) point sling each cable 10 foot long rest as above. (All coire should have test certificates for at least a sample) Cargo nets 3/4 inch dia. nylon rope 6 inch mesh. Outside edge 1 inch dia. nylon rope with 4 foot length at each corner-single rope, 1 inch, with spliced eye. For mud chemicals 10 12 ft x 12 ft For pallets/helilift boxes 10 18 ft x 18 ft For small helicopters 10 6 ft x 6 ft Cargo baskets 2 sets of each sizes in metres. 1.50 x 1.00 x 0.80 1.75 x 1.20 x 0.80 2.00 x 1.30 x 0.90 2.25 x 1.40 x 1.00 2.50 x 1.50 x 1.20 Constructed of 1/8 inch plate steel bottom and metal screen sides no 8, eyelet's welded at each corner for sling attachment. Baskets may be loaded inside each other for storage or empty sling load return.

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Helirig Operations

18.10. 18.10.1.

Helicopter Loads The following should be considered: Casing 18.10.1.1. The drilling department now prefers for a variety of reasons 12 metre length casing, so called range 3, rather than 9 metre lengths. Running time is less and the likely threat of thread damage reduced since there are less in a particular string, moreover, the longer lengths are slightly cheaper by the metre. 18.10.1.2. Because weight is at a premium in a helicopter operation, in order to obtain the required strength, quality can be increased and weight reduced. 18.10.1.3. For flexibility it is important to reduce variations in grade and weight. 18.10.1.4. All these factors must be considered when helicopter transport is also a factor. Consumables, General 18.10.1.5. Planning on the packaging of consumables must take into account the aircraft payload in conjunction with the best way to store mud chemicals and lost circulation materials. 18.10.1.6. Long sea passages, storage for long periods on rig locations and supply barges, for example, in hot humid conditions has to be considered. Consumables, Mud Chemicals 18.10.1.7. Experience shows that boxes are often made of a poor quality product which may become water logged and heavy to fly. 18.10.1.8. It is suggested expensive mud chemicals and those with a low consumption rate be obtained in boxes made up to a suitable weight for the operation, and cheap high usage chemicals arrive in palletised form 'jungle' wrapped. Consumables, Cement 18.10.1.9. Palletised (standard pallet is 28 sacks of 94 lbs each sack). Do not be seduced into thinking of pallet bars and sophisticated customised baskets. In all cases a cargo net (18 ft x 18 ft) is the best method of slinging. A box or a pallet can go into a net easily and safely. Consumables, Barytes 18.10.1.10. This can be obtained in any size of packaging from suppliers. 18.10.1.11. For ease of operation "Big Bags" of a suitable weight for the helicopter operation have been successful. They can be supplied in double wrapped form and suspended directly from the helicopter cargo hook.

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CHAPTER 19 - OFFSHORE EXPLORATION..................................................................................19-3 19.1 19.2. 19.3. 19.4. 19.5. 19.6. 19.7. 19.8. 19.9. GENERAL ..........................................................................................................................19-3 POLICY ON OVERWATER FLIGHTS .................................................................................19-3 ADVERSE WEATHER POLICY ..........................................................................................19-3 OFFSHORE ALTERNATES................................................................................................19-3 TWIN ENGINED HELICOPTER PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS..............................19-4 PASSENGER HANDLING FACILITIES ..............................................................................19-5 MAINTENANCE FACILITIES..............................................................................................19-6 AIRFIELD REQUIREMENTS ..............................................................................................19-7 OFFSHORE HELIDECKS ...................................................................................................19-7 Design and Construction................................................................................................19-7 Maintenance and Inspection ..........................................................................................19-8 Fire Fighting and Crash Rescue Equipment..................................................................19-8 Passenger Facilities........................................................................................................19-9 19.10. EMERGENCY GAS RELEASE ON OFFSHORE PLATFORMS ..........................................19-9 19.11. EMERGENCY GAS RELEASE ON OFFSHORE PLATFORMS - NORMALLY UNATTENDED INSTALLATIONS (NNMP) ....................................................................... 19-10 19.13. SHUTTING DOWN A HELICOPTER ON A REMOTE INSTALLATION ............................. 19-10 19.14. HELICOPTER OPERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION TESTING .................................... 19-11 19.15. SAFETY AND SURVIVAL................................................................................................. 19-11 19.16. HELICOPTERS BASED OFFSHORE ............................................................................... 19-12 19.17. SAFETY UNDER THE ROTOR DISC ON OFFSHORE HELIDECKS ................................ 19-12 19.18. HEIGHT OF ROTOR DISC................................................................................................ 19-12 19.19. ROTOR SPEED ................................................................................................................ 19-13 19.20. EFFECT OF WIND AND MOVEMENT OF HELIDECK...................................................... 19-13 19.21. SIZE OF HELIDECKS AND POSITION OF ACCESS POINTS.......................................... 19-13 19.22. NUMBER OF AIRCREW AND ACTIVITY.......................................................................... 19-13 Heli-Admin..................................................................................................................... 19-13 Helicopter Operators .................................................................................................... 19-13 HLO................................................................................................................................ 19-14 Passengers.................................................................................................................... 19-15 Cranes ........................................................................................................................... 19-16 19.23. HELICOPTER UNDERWATER ESCAPE TRAINING (HUET) ........................................... 19-16 19.24. MEDICAL EVACUATION (MEDEVAC) FROM OFFSHORE.............................................. 19-16

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19.25. HELICOPTER ROTORBRAKE - THE REQUIREMENT FOR FLIGHTS OFFSHORE ........ 19-17 19.26. MOTION LIMITS FOR LANDING ON MOVING DECKS.................................................... 19-17

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OFFSHORE EXPLORATION
19.1. 19.1.1. General Aviation support of offshore exploration activities has long been established and most Companies will be familiar with the concept. In many countries helicopter operations to offshore destinations and in-field or inter-field in producing oil fields are highly organised and subject to stringent regulations imposed by the Civil Aviation Authorities of the states concerned. This chapter sets out some general requirements for operations and the facilities needed to support them and further advice is available from the Aviation Adviser. The chapter also needs to be read in conjunction with Chapters 6 and 7 on Airfields and Onshore Heliports, Chapter 8 on Refuelling and Chapter 9 on Fire/Crash Facilities. Policy on Overwater Flights E & P Forum recommends the following particularly for operations in hostile waters: 19.2.1.1. 19.2.1.2. 19.2.1.3. 19.2.1.4. 19.2.1.5. 19.2.1.6. Selection of a helicopter of an approved type. Full instrumentation for compliance with the Instrument Flight Rules. Properly qualified and experienced pilots. Engineers meeting certain qualification and experience requirements. Wearing of lifejackets at all times. Wearing of immersion suits where appropriate, such as harsh climates or cold water. Installation of flotation gear or fixed floats if the helicopter is not amphibious. Specific modifications and fitments including EXIS lighting, Emergency Location Transmitters (ELT), Pop-out Windows and a Health and Usage Monitoring System. Advice on standard of fit should invariably be sought from the Aviation Adviser

19.1.2.

19.2. 19.2.1.

19.2.1.7. 19.2.1.8.

19.3. 19.3.1. 19.4. 19.4.1.

Adverse Weather Policy See Chapter 16.9 Offshore Alternates The benefits of an offshore alternate are recognised, but several considerations make such a policy generally unacceptable. The first consideration is that a conventional alternate is generally accepted to be an airfield with sufficient space for an aircraft without full systems or control to manoeuvre for an emergency landing and which would also be served by a full range of emergency services. This is not the case with an offshore platform; indeed it is questionable whether it is acceptable to attempt to land an aircraft in such a condition on a rig, other than in the case of single engine failure to an aircraft with good single-engine performance, when the alternative is a long overwater flight to a shore airfield.

19.4.2.

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19.4.3.

Secondly, weather has traditionally been a major causal factor in the requirement for an alternate and a "significantly" different weather pattern or factor was always stipulated. At present weather reporting from offshore locations is generally of a low order and any forecasting is done on an "area" basis by remotely located forecasts using data which is not always of prime quality. Additionally, "alternates" are sometimes nominated which are no greater than two miles across open sea. The final consideration is the non-availability of a nominated diversion helideck due to either operators traffic or oil related closure of the helideck, e.g.: hazard status. The co-ordination required between oil companies and aircraft operators to assure availability is not yet a practical proposition. It follows that reliance on offshore alternates is only acceptable in certain specific cases when the alternative is equally unacceptable. All cases should be referred to senior management for consideration. The above is a planning consideration and should not, of course, be taken to prohibit a single-engined landing offshore by an aircraft of adequate performance at the discretion of the captain under the emergency conditions pertaining. The foregoing policy means that aircraft proceeding to an offshore destination must always carry sufficient fuel to return to a land base (not always the airfield of departure) to cater for the chance that it is not possible for any reason (such as poor weather or a rig emergency) to land at that offshore destination. Twin Engined Helicopter Performance Considerations Contrary to popular belief, helicopters cannot operate to the safest standards when flying from what is conventionally thought of as a 'heliport' - or a helideck that is an area about the same size as the helicopter. Onshore most civil authorities require that helicopters operate from what is in effect a runway, the dimensions of which will depend on the performance of the specific type in use. The reason for this is to ensure that, in the event of failure of a single engine on take-off prior to a known decision point, the helicopter must re-land and have a place to do it. After the decision point should a failure occur, the helicopter will be able to continue, maintaining height to complete a circuit prior to re-landing. The return also requires, in most cases, sufficient space for the helicopter to carry out a run-on landing similar to but much slower than a fixed wing aircraft. The weight at which a helicopter can take-off depends upon the altitude and temperature at the point of departure. Basically, the higher and hotter, the lighter the helicopter must be to perform at a given level of performance. In many cases this will lead to a reduction in allowable payload, leading to the apparently anomalous situation in which the helicopter departs with empty seats while some passengers may well have been left behind! In flight, this weight reduction will ensure that, when after the take-off and into cruise flight an engine failure occurs, the helicopter will be able to climb at a minimum rate of 150 feet per minute whilst using maximum continuous power on the remaining engine. All twin engined helicopters in common offshore use can operate thus: in future, with new design aircraft, it should be possible for full Performance Class 1 parameters to be met, namely that in the event of an engine failure right from the first hover after take-off and throughout the flight to a final landing, safe operation will be ensured by the power developed by the remaining engine, or engines in the case of a helicopter with three power units. While this future planning is desirable, it is relevant to point out that in all the years of helicopter operation in the North Sea where it is generally acknowledged the greatest advances have taken place, there have been no accidents attributable to performance deficiencies where the operating rules have been properly applied.

19.4.4.

19.4.5.

19.4.6.

19.5. 19.5.1.

19.5.2.

19.5.3.

19.5.4.

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19.5.5.

To enable safe operation with existing types, aircraft performance data is scheduled in the Flight Manual to enable the operator to comply with the principal performance requirement that, in the event of a power unit failure, the safety of the aircraft and its occupants remains assured in the ambient conditions. This means, in general terms, that following an engine failure the aircraft can either re-land at the take-off point, continue with landing at the intended landing point, or fly to a place where a safe landing can be made. In conjunction with the Flight Manual, the Operations Manual should provide guidance to ensure that helicopters are operated in a way which minimises exposure of the aircraft and its occupants during the short critical period following a power unit failure during the initial stage of take-off, or final stage of landing. For any given helicopter size, weight ambient temperature and pressure altitude, the length of the exposure period mentioned in 19.5.6 will vary according to the operating technique, effective wind speed component, size of deck, and the flight path obstructions above and below deck level (including the sea surface). In many circumstances the period will be zero. It should be noted that, following a power unit failure, it will frequently be necessary for the helicopter to descend below deck level to gain sufficient speed to subsequently fly away, or in rare circumstances, to land on the water. It therefore follows that with obstructed environments, unfavourable winds, or with undersized or cluttered decks and those close to the unfavourable winds, or with undersized or cluttered decks and those close to the water, exposure periods can become unacceptably long. In these circumstances reducing helicopter weight (and therefore payload) may be required to reduce the risk to an acceptable level or it may be necessary to suspend flying operations. When considering helicopter performance it is useful to note that ICAO have introduced classifications to denote performance requirements. These should not be confused with Categories A and B which denote the build standard of the aircraft out of which a performance capability is derived (i.e. A Category A aircraft has a Performance Class 1 capability). Refer section 7.1. Performance classes are: 19.5.8.1. Performance Class 1 Helicopters. A helicopter with performance such that in case of critical power unit failure, it is able to land on the rejected take-off area or safely continue the flight to an appropriate landing area. Performance Class 2 Helicopters. A helicopter with performance such that in case of critical power unit failure, it is able to safely continue the flight except when failure occurs prior to a defined point after take-off or after a defined point before landing, in which as, a forced landing may be required. Performance Class 3 Helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that in case of a power unit failure at any point in the flight profile, a forced landing must be performed.

19.5.6.

19.5.7.

19.5.8.

19.5.8.2.

19.5.8.3.

19.6. 19.6.1.

Passenger Handling Facilities On outward flights, passengers will require to undergo the following. 19.6.1.1. 19.6.1.2. 19.6.1.3. 19.6.1.4. 19.6.1.5. Check in Security check Issue of immersion suit - for cold temperature operations. Customs/immigration formalities Video or audio visual safety briefing

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19.6.2.

It is at the passenger check-in that the ideal opportunity occurs to check if the passengers are carrying (even inadvertently) any dangerous or restricted articles. While the list of prohibited items is quite extensive, experience in the North Sea has shown that the following items are commonly presented for carriage or found on offshore passengers:

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Adhesives Aerosols Alcohol of any kind Canned drinks of any kind Cigarette lighters Drugs (save on prescription) See Note 1 Explosives, fireworks Firearms/Ammunition Flammable gas or liquid, Tear Gas, CS Gas Magnetic materials Matches of any kind Oils and greases Paints and solvents Poisons, weed killers, pesticides and insecticides Radio-active materials Radio, cassette and disc players, unless batteries are removed Weapons - including knives and a blade longer than 3" See Note 2 Wet Batteries Wet Fish

Note 1: Prescription drugs may have to be surrendered at check-in for safe-hand carriage, record and re-issue on installation; with a similar procedure for passenger returning onshore. Note 2: Knives which are tools of trade (e.g. chefs and divers) must be declared at check-in. 19.7. 19.7.1. Maintenance Facilities Helicopters require some or all of the following maintenance support facilities: 19.7.1.1. 19.7.1.2. Hangarage (for the more important inspections). Workshops (general, engine, hydraulic, 'clean', sheet metal, instrument/electrical, radio, NDT). Technical Records Office. Sundry offices for Chief and other engineers. Battery charging rooms (2). Air compressors. Hydraulic rigs. AC/DC generators and mains supply. Tractors and towbars.

19.7.1.3. 19.7.1.4. 19.7.1.5. 19.7.1.6. 19.7.1.7. 19.7.1.8. 19.7.1.9.

19.7.1.10. Ground equipment (stands, etc.). 19.7.1.11. Oxygen/nitrogen.

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19.7.1.12. Stores (general, lifed item, air conditioned). 19.7.1.13. Oil, grease and paint compound. 19.7.1.14. Mobile hand held fire fighting equipment. 19.7.1.15. First aid. 19.7.1.16. Safety equipment store. 19.7.1.17. Ground training office. 19.7.2. In third world countries, depending on the scale of helicopter support required, and length of programme anticipated, the Company may be obliged to provide these facilities. Airfield Requirements In addition to the above, the following must be available: 19.8.1.1. 19.8.1.2. 19.8.1.3. 19.8.2. An airfield or ample sized heliport Air traffic control including flight following Fire Services

19.8. 19.8.1.

Depending on the level of supervision exercised by the local Civil Aviation Authority, the state may dictate the establishment of Air Traffic Control staff and level of fire fighting equipment. This will to some extent depend on whether the airfield/heliport is used by other operators, particularly so those operating full or restricted public transport services. Offshore Helidecks The provision of helidecks on offshore platforms, mobile drilling rigs, vessels and barges is a very complex subject, and there is a number of reference works available some of which are issued by government departments, within a legal framework. Management of Companies should, however, be aware that there are very significant differences in standards in different parts of the world, and that some of these differences have a direct impact on Flight Safety. Design and Construction 19.9.1.1. It is recommended that the following documents are referred to as appropriate for the construction of offshore helicopter facilities: a. ICAO Annex 14 and equivalent publications such as U.K. CAA CAP 437. b. American Petroleum “Helidecks”. Institute API Recommended Practice 2.L.,

19.9. 19.9.1.

c. Department of Transportation and Development – State of Louisiana, USA, Offshore Heliport Design Guide. d. International Chamber of Shipping Guide to Helicopter - Ship Operations. Offshore helicopter landing areas, physical characteristics are described in Part 5, Annex F, of this manual.

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19.9.2.

Other factors to be considered during the design and construction of offshore helidecks, not specifically addressed in the above publications include the siting of diesel and turbine exhausts, and gas vent stacks in relation to the helideck. Exhaust and hydrocarbon gases have an adverse effect on the performance of helicopter turbine engines, as do local increases in air temperature due to radiant or convective heating and although research into these effects has been limited, it is clearly prudent to ensure that exhausts and vents are situated as far as possible from the helideck and down the prevailing wind. Offshore rigs and platforms should be constructed with helidecks which should be capable of receiving the largest helicopters likely to be used. The principal dimension (diameter or length/width if a square) should be a minimum size of dimension 'D' which is the overall length of the largest helicopter likely to be used taken from the foremost point of the main rotor disc when turning to the rearmost point of the tail rotor in the same situation. Offshore helidecks require: 19.9.4.1. 19.9.4.2. 19.9.4.3. 19.9.4.4. Appropriate markings. Lighting. Perimeter Safety netting. A landing net or other means of preventing the helicopter from sliding on the deck. Fire fighting facilities/rescue equipment. Refuelling facilities (depending on location). Starting power (depending on location). Two way radio communication with helicopter (on manned rigs). Facilities for securing the helicopter to the helideck.

19.9.3.

19.9.4.

19.9.4.5. 19.9.4.6. 19.9.4.7. 19.9.4.8. 19.9.4.9.

Maintenance and Inspection 19.9.4.10. It is recommended that design plans for helidecks be routed through the Air Operations Supervisor prior to approval and if he is a non-specialist he should seek advice from The Aviation Adviser. The deck should be inspected prior to commissioning, to ensure that obstruction-free sector, non-skid paint surfaces and helideck markings etc. all meet requirements. 19.9.4.11. It is particularly important that helidecks and associated equipment receive regular maintenance and although this is generally not difficult on manned installations, unmanned platforms in tropical climates suffer from rapid deterioration of the paint surface, which if not dealt with may flake off, and present a hazard to personnel and to helicopter engines. If wood planking is used in the deck construction, it should be regularly inspected for signs of decay or excessive warping and the possible fire hazard should be considered, including the effect of fuel seeping through the deck. Fire Fighting and Crash Rescue Equipment 19.9.4.12. The relevant requirements are laid down in this manual Chapter 9 and, for example, CAP 437 Chapter 5, which, among other points, list the necessary equipment to be located on unmanned platforms.

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19.9.4.13. For unmanned helidecks, the following equipment should be available on the installation. 19.9.4.14. A dry powder fire extinguisher having a capacity of not less than 45kgs; and a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher with engine applicator having a capacity of not less than 22.5kgs. 19.9.4.15. Serious consideration should be given to the provision of a portable foam unit. Such a unit should be self contained, with a minimum capacity of 90 litres and should be fitted with an aspirated branch. Every effort should be made to select equipment which will require minimum maintenance. 19.9.4.16. Two sets of the following items of fireman's equipment: a. A protective outfit, including gloves, boots, a face mask or hood and a helmet. A self-contained breather apparatus. A portable battery-operated safety lamp capable of functioning efficiently for a period of not less than three hours. A fireman's axe, a safety harness and a lifeline

b. c.

d.

Passenger Facilities 19.9.4.17. It is recommended that a Helicopter Landing Officer (HLO) be appointed at each manned platform and his duties are detailed in the Helicopter Landing Officer Handbook published by the Offshore Petroleum Industry Board as a supporting publication to U.K. CAP 437. 19.9.4.18. On large installations with a high throughput of passengers, a suitable area should be identified for waiting passengers, which may also serve as a viewing room for safety equipment, aircraft evacuation and survival briefings conducted by video or audio-visual means. An area should also be provided for changing into/from survival suits if worn, in order to minimise turnround times. Scales should be provided for the weighing of passengers and freight. 19.10. 19.10.1. Emergency Gas Release on Offshore Platforms On the majority of platforms the requirement for emergency discharge presents little risk to helicopters running on their decks, as: 19.10.1.1. Although in some cases the emergency discharge system is automatic, the sequence from General Alarm, following conformation of fire or product release in the process area, to release takes some 6 to 9 minutes from initiation to valve opening, giving adequate time for helicopters to clear the area; 19.10.1.2. On gas production platforms the majority of product is dissipated into pipelines and the block valves closed, leaving only the residue to be discharged at normal operating pressure through the emergency vent. Where compressors are used to increase flow-line pressure, only the volume of gas in the compressor casing is discharged at high pressure.

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19.10.2.

However, on some oil production and "collector" platforms, operating pressures are such that the emergency discharge systems must sequence rapidly, releasing large volumes of product into the atmosphere. In these cases the risk to helicopters in certain wind conditions is real and should be addressed in the individual platform safety case. Advice on restrictions to flying should also be sought from the local Authority and The Aviation Adviser. On production platforms where "hot" venting (flaring) takes place, large releases of gas cause a rapid increase in the flame size, temperature and footprint. Even if the wind direction is such that the discharge blows over the helideck, there is little danger to a helicopter positioned there as the hot efflux naturally rises. The only problem caused is a degradation of take-off performance due to the increase in air temperature caused by radiated heat. On decks where this is likely to cause an ambient temperature increase of greater then 2 degrees Centigrade the helicopter operator should be advised. Possible dangers from all venting processes form part of individual platform safety cases. Emergency Gas Release on Offshore Platforms - Normally Unattended Installations The majority of Normally Unattended Installations have manual emergency release systems controlled by the nodal platform. Those having automatic release usually operate at standard, uniform pressure with sequenced actuation, giving helicopters adequate time to clear the area. In the North Sea, as elsewhere, conventional status lights are installed on platforms to warn of gas release or other malfunctions and the output and integrity of the platform is of course always monitored by the controlling facility by telemetric link. The UK CAA has directed that in addition to the normal status lights, "wave off" lights should also be installed on the helideck, although they have yet to specify the type, colour and meaning. Procedures for manning these installations are contained in platform SOPs and are available to the contracted helicopter operator. The minimum number of personnel required to secure and operate a platform, and their qualifications, are outlined in the UKOOA Guidelines For Helicopter Operations To Normally Unattended Installations, the essence of which is shown below and is considered sound guidance for general use: Manning procedure includes a fly-round to allow the designated Offshore Installation Manager (OIM) to visually check all is in order before effecting a landing, after which he and Helicopter Landing Officer (HLO) disembark the helicopter. The OIM goes below to assure the integrity of the installation and it's systems, and to establish communications with the controlling platform/terminal. Meanwhile, the HLO secures the aircraft for immediate departure should there be a gas alarm. When cleared by the OIM, the remainder of the crew rapidly disembark under the supervision of the HLO. The helicopter will either return to shore if there are aircraft able to provide emergency cover for the platform during their normal in-field operations, otherwise it will shut down on the controlling platform. When operating to remote installations, (i.e. those greater than 40nm from the nearest manned installation or airfield/helipad) the helicopter may shut down, provided the requirements set out in the UKOOA guide are satisfied. If an emergency evacuation is necessary due to massive discharge or fire, all personnel will abandon the platform using the TEMPSC, or other means as defined in the platform safety case, leaving the helicopter on deck. Shutting Down a Helicopter on a Remote Installation The following criteria must be met if a helicopter is required to shut-down on a remote unmanned installation:

19.10.3.

19.11. 19.11.1.

19.11.2.

19.11.3.

19.11.4.

19.11.5.

19.11.6.

19.13. 19.13.1.

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19.13.1.1. *Helideck of sufficient size to allow a second helicopter to land or deposit personnel using special procedures for operations to obstructed helidecks, as set down in the helicopter operators Operations Manual. 19.13.1.2. Equipment capable of relaying (to the control facility) windspeed and direction, outside air temperature, QFE and QNH. 19.13.1.3. Lights to indicate the status of the platform. 19.13.1.4. External power source for starting the helicopter. 19.13.1.5. Radio communication with the controlling facility must be assured. 19.13.2. Weather minima for helicopter operations should be as set out in the platform safety case, or the helicopter operator's limitations for operating to unmanned installations, whichever are the most stringent. Note: *Helicopter operator's Operations Manuals should be checked to ensure they contain the above information.

19.14. 19.14.1.

Helicopter Operations During Production Testing From time to time the Production Department in Company(s) may require advice on whether it is possible to continue to operate helicopters to offshore rigs on which production tests are taking place. These tests normally require that oil or gas produced is burned-off at one of two booms placed on opposite sides of the rig parallel with the sea surface. For obvious reasons, the flaring is carried out on the boom downwind of the rig structure. Assuming that prior warning has been given by Production, helicopter operations may take place subject to the following: 19.14.1.1. Helicopter operations should not commence until the production test is in a steady burning state (i.e. avoiding period of start-up). 19.14.1.2. The helideck must be clear of smoke and any other products of combustion. This is particularly important when the wind is light and variable. 19.14.1.3. The helideck should normally be upwind or well crosswind of the test site. 19.14.1.4. If there is a likelihood of increased temperatures on the helideck due to radiant heat from testing, the observed ambient temperature should be radioed to the pilot prior to the helicopter's arrival at the rig. 19.14.1.5. The pilot has at all times discretion to make the final decision regarding the safety or otherwise of helicopter operations in the conditions prevailing.

19.15. 19.15.1.

Safety and Survival Modern offshore helicopters generally carry the following safety and survival equipment: 19.15.1.1. Two life-rafts (each of which can carry the entire number of crew and passengers when in an overload state). 19.15.1.2. *Life jackets: (the crew life jackets should have two-way radio operating on the emergency VHF frequency). 19.15.1.3. Radio Homing Beacons (at least one deploying automatically). 19.15.1.4. Sonar transponder.

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19.15.1.5. Flotation gear (or fixed floats). 19.15.1.6. High visibility paint (on underside). 19.15.1.7. Emergency Exit Illumination System. * Life jackets of modern design now incorporate a light whistle, spray hood, manual top up valve, radar reflective patch.

19.16. 19.16.1.

Helicopters Based Offshore This concept is also well established, and broadly speaking the maintenance facilities required are similar to those needed onshore as listed above, although helicopters are flown to a land base for major maintenance. Advantages of having offshore based aircraft include: 19.16.2.1. The ability to start delivery of staff to their workplaces early in the day. 19.16.2.2. An instantly available Search and Rescue service, which may be used throughout the 24 hours depending on the type of helicopter used.

19.16.2.

19.16.3.

Disadvantages of having offshore based aircraft include: 19.16.3.1. Increased staffing levels offshore. 19.16.3.2. Increased requirement for fuel facility and throughput.

19.17. 19.17.1.

Safety Under the Rotor Disc on Offshore Helidecks The movement of passengers to and from a helicopter whilst its rotors are turning may be considered a normal activity. However, some tragic occurrences have demonstrated there is no room for complacency, and that procedures and guidelines must be followed stringently by all concerned if accidents and injuries are to be prevented. The degree of risk is dependent on many factors, including: 19.17.2.1. The height of the rotor disc 19.17.2.2. The wind 19.17.2.3. The stability of the vessel on which the helicopter has landed 19.17.2.4. The size of the helideck 19.17.2.5. The position of access points 19.17.2.6. Whether the helicopter is being operated by one or two pilots 19.17.2.7. The activity taking place

19.17.2.

19.18. 19.18.1.

Height of Rotor Disc The height of the rotor disc varies from type to type but in all cases the tip path plane is lowest at the front of the aircraft. On some helicopters, such as the S76, the disc is so low at the front that even under normal conditions it can only be safely entered at right angles to the fuselage.

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19.19. 19.19.1.

Rotor Speed When accelerating or decelerating the main rotor below normal flight idle speed, severe blade sailing can occur; in the extreme case blade tips can dip to near ground level. Personnel must, therefore, NEVER enter the rotor disc area whenever the pilot is starting up or stopping the rotor. Effect of Wind and Movement of Helideck Gusting winds can cause the disc height clearance at the front of any helicopter to be decreased to unsafe levels. Pitch and roll movements of the helideck, where the aircraft has landed on a mobile installation, can compound the problem, Where these conditions exist, aircraft should be approached at right angles to the fuselage. It can be seen that confusion could exist as to which type of helicopter is on deck and to whether its rotors are particularly affected by the wind or not. Accordingly, all helicopters, regardless of type, should be approached at right angles to the fuselage at all times, unless specific contrary instructions are issued by the pilot or HLO. Size of Helidecks and Position of Access Points The area of deck outside the rotor disc on Not Normally Manned Platforms is greatly reduced as helidecks tend to be of minimum size. On larger helidecks, where the pilot has not been able to land the helicopter with the passenger door adjacent to a helideck access due to cross wind limitations, the passengers can walk outside the disc area until they reach the safe entry point before boarding the aircraft. On small helidecks this may not always be possible and, other than emergencies, the landing should be abandoned. Wind limitation factors, together with the proximity of tail rotors to access points normally form part of individual platform safety cases. Number of Aircrew and Activity On helicopters operated by two crew, one pilot can continually monitor the flight controls, whilst the other attends to paperwork, refuelling or other activities. Where helicopters are operated by only one pilot, it is possible for his attention to be sufficiently distracted by paperwork, conversations on the radio or other factors, to the extent that flight controls are no longer fully monitored, and may even be inadvertently displaced. Adherence to the following guidelines and procedures will reduce the risk to personnel operating under the rotor disc of helicopters: Heli Admin 19.22.2.1. Pass details of return or transfer payloads to the pilot(s) in good time. 19.22.2.2. Do not offer last minute load changes to the pilot(s) during a period five minutes before the expected time of arrival to landing at the platform. 19.22.2.3. Whenever a helicopter is rotors running communications with the pilot(s) to a minimum. Helicopter Operators 19.22.2.4. Companies should liaise with helicopter operators to ensure pilots are aware of the guidelines and that the following procedures are in place within the company. a. Pilots on the helideck, keep

19.20. 19.20.1.

19.20.2.

19.21. 19.21.1.

19.22. 19.22.1.

19.22.2.

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i.

Should not process paperwork unless in the cruise or on a helideck. Should, after landing:

ii.

• •

disengage the AFCS and make no attempt to "fly" the disc. switch off the anti-collision lights, signal the HLO when ready to disembark passengers and throughout the whole period on deck continue to hold the flight controls, whilst monitoring the attitude of the disc and observing the movements of personnel whenever they are under the rotor disc.

iii.

If it is necessary to process paperwork, switch on the anti collision lights, signal the HLO and ensure all personnel are clear of the disc before beginning to write. Continue to hold the cyclic control and monitor the attitude of the disc. After the paperwork is complete, switch off the anti collision lights, signal the HLO when ready to embark passengers, hold the controls, monitor the disc attitude and observe the movement of personnel throughout the loading operation. After boarding passengers hand any documentation to the HLO and continue to hold the controls, monitoring the disc attitude until he is clear. Switch on the anti-collision lights and brief the passengers for departure.

iv.

v.

vi.

Note:

The controls should be held, the disc maintained in a level attitude and movements observed whenever personnel are underneath the rotor disc. The only exception is when the HLO is "close in" for the exchange of paperwork or to show fuel samples. Rotor RPM should remain stable at flight idle whenever personnel are moving underneath the rotor disc, and control checks never be conducted unless all personnel are clear.

HLO 19.22.2.5. HLOs should ensure that personnel should only enter or exit the rotor disc area of any helicopter from a position at right angles to the fuselage, either the 3 or 9 o'clock positions, dependant on the location of the passenger door. a. After the helicopter has landed and the anti-collision lights have been switched off, and the pilot signals you to do so, regardless of aircraft type, enter the rotor disc from right angles to the fuselage, unless the pilot directs otherwise, stooping slightly as you do so. Take the inbound manifest and other paperwork from the pilot and hand him any return documentation. Disembark passengers, reminding them to stoop slightly, and use your HDAs to ensure they exit in the rotor disc area in the correct direction, and the helideck by the correct stairwell.

b.

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c.

If the aircraft does not require fuel, check whether the pilot needs to process paperwork and if so, either remain "close in", standing adjacent to the pilot's window or leave the rotor disc area while he writes. If the aircraft requires fuel, follow the refuelling procedures in Chapter 8 and ensure your HDAs enter and leave the disc at the correct place when carrying out their duties. After refuelling, show the pilot the after fuelling sample and remain "close in" whilst waiting for his signature and any documentation. When the pilot signals he is ready to board passengers, position your HDAs to ensure they enter the disc in the correct direction and they stoop slightly when doing so. After boarding is complete and the doors are secure, move clear of the rotor disc.

d.

e.

f.

g.

Passengers Note: Passengers should be briefed and supervised along the following lines. Personnel should only enter or exit the rotor disc area of any helicopter from a position at right angles to the fuselage, either the 3 or 9 o'clock positions, dependant on the location of the passenger door. This procedure may be changed from time to time as local conditions dictate, therefore, always follow the instructions of the helideck crew. Personnel must NEVER go to the rear of the aircraft towards the tail-rotor.

19.22.2.6. Do not wear headgear when on the helideck; hard-hats are permissible provided the chin strap is worn. Do not carry newspapers or anything that may be blown into the engine intakes. The use of plastic bags, bin liners etc., to carry freight or personal effects is strictly forbidden. a. If you have to walk round the helicopter to the safe boarding position, always ensure you stay outside the rotor disc when doing so. When entering the disc, stoop slightly as blades can suddenly flap up and DOWN. Having entered the disc, walk briskly and in a straight line to the cargo bay and leave your baggage on the deck (on the larger manned platforms or flotels your baggage will be carried onto the deck and loaded for you) and, remaining as close as possible to the fuselage, move to the passenger door and board the helicopter. When arriving on a helideck, once the "seat belt" signs have been switched off, disembark via the passenger door, move to the baggage bay keeping as close as possible to the fuselage and pick up your baggage. Look to the helideck staff for guidance on the direction in which you should leave the rotor disc area, stooping slightly, walk briskly in a straight line until clear of the disc. Once clear, look to the helideck crew for guidance on the appropriate exit from the deck and go to it, keeping clear of the rotor disc at all times.

b.

c.

d.

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Cranes 19.22.2.7. Platform/installation cranes should be static during helicopter operations in order to avoid any risk of collision or distraction of the pilots attention during landing/take-off. 19.22.2.8. It is the installations manager's responsibility to determine procedures exist and are documented in the Installation Operations Manual stating that all cranes are immobilised (not necessarily run down) during helicopter operations and are parked in a position agreed with the contracted helicopter operator. 19.22.2.9. It is the HLOs responsibility to determine that the procedures are implemented before each helicopter operation, or to advise the OIM on occasions where this cannot be achieved, breakdown, bunkering, mid-lift or supplies or 'divers down' for example. The OIM will advise the helicopter commander making him aware of the out of position crane, leaving him to judge whether aircraft operations may continue without detriment to safety. 19.22.2.10. Aviation Focal Points should ensure such procedures are in place and are reflected in pilots en-route guides, and in HLO and Installation Operations Manuals. 19.23. 19.23.1. Helicopter Underwater Escape Training (HUET) Every Company or Contractor personnel travelling regularly on company chartered or owned helicopters offshore should have attended a HUET course (minimum one day for initial course). This course, if conducted in an approved facility to North Sea standard, can be accepted regardless of which helicopter models or emergency exits they represent. Frequency of continuation training may vary according to the operation, exposure and identified threats, but 3 years should be the goal. If a flight over water is contemplated in "temperate climate-daytime only", then an overseas type HUET facility, purpose made for regional requirements, is acceptable, but the selected facility must have a current approval. Temperate climate HUET facilities should have the correct emergency exit mechanism installed for the less frequent flyer to familiarise himself in the wet environment. Frequency of training is 2 years. For example, the quality of the training given in the North Sea environment is to a high standard, permitting less frequent retraining than the less comprehensive training provided elsewhere. All trained and tested passengers should hold a training record, similar to a licence, which should be carried on all flights offshore. Alternatively, some Companies have replaced the training record with an offshore approval procedure linked into a computerised tracking system which flags up or prevents travel for personnel who have not completed suitable training. Medical Evacuation (Medevac) from Offshore The evacuation of injured or critically ill personnel from isolated or hostile environments has always been an emotive issue, resulting in occasions where pilots have flown their machines and themselves to the very limits, and sometimes, sadly, beyond. Aviation focal points must ensure there are systems and procedures in place within their Companies to assure emotion does not drive an inappropriate response and the benefits of returning a casualty to a base facility are not outweighed by the risk to aircraft, crews and property.

19.23.2.

19.23.3.

19.23.4.

19.24. 19.24.1.

19.24.2.

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19.24.3.

There should be a safety check in each stage of a procedure, where an action or the reason for an action is challenged or verified by an impartial expert in that field or a manager able to present a detached view. For example, if during the night a member of a platform crew has suffered serious injury or displays symptoms of severe illness, it would be perfectly understandable for the OIM to call for a medevac flight. If Company procedures left that decision entirely with the OIM, one can see there is an immediate risk to the patient, as the OIM cannot have the medical expertise to assess whether the man is stable enough to travel by helicopter or not. In the worst case the journey could prove fatal. To build in a safety loop into this decision making process, Companies should establish a procedure whereby a doctor is always available to discuss the case with the platform medic and ultimately make a decision on whether it would be beneficial for the patient to be returned to shore and whether he is indeed stable enough to survive the journey. In some cases the doctor may have to travel with the helicopter to stabilise the patient before evacuation. If the doctor does not travel in the helicopter, the platform medic will invariably have to accompany the patient to hospital, thus denuding the platform of medical cover. Therefore, where helicopters are on sole use contract and a cabin attendant normally forms part of the aircrew, Companies should consider having them trained to the same standard as platform medics. Having decided to evacuate the patient, the next logical step is to call out the duty helicopter crew, for what in most cases would be a fairly routine flight. However, there will be occasions where weather conditions or other factors are outside normal operating parameters and there is a risk of good sense being clouded by the not unnatural desire to help someone whose life may be in jeopardy. Once again a control loop must be built into the procedure and Companies should ensure that the helicopter operator's emergency call-out procedure includes an independent assessment of the feasibility of the task by the Company duty manager. Where a medevac cannot be completed without greater risk than benefit, the duty manager should liaise with the duty doctor, the senior pilot and the Company's Incident Response Team to advise on the earliest time the flight may take off and to assess alternatives. The final decision to carry out a task in inaugural conditions should rest with the Company Duty Manager. Helicopter Rotorbrake - The Requirement for Flights Offshore Helicopter offshore operations require the availability of a serviceable rotorbrake capable of being utilised by the crew. There is a need to be able to slow the rotor quickly when shutting down offshore in high winds; moreover, even if the flight is scheduled for a return flight without shutting down, this can not be guaranteed. A serviceable rotorbrake is therefore considered essential, and is not an acceptable deferred defect, except for flights back to base for rectification. There have been instances where on certain helicopter types, the use of the rotorbrake has been restricted for safety or technical reasons. In such cases The Aviation Adviser will consider the location, type of operation and aircraft available on a case by case basis, granting approvals only where appropriate. Motion Limits for Landing on Moving Decks Aircraft operators should specify roll and pitch motion limits for their different types of helicopter and vessels should have the means and procedures for passing roll and pitch motion to the pilot before landing and take off. Propriety equipment is available for the measurement of movement and The Aviation Adviser can provide further advice if required. Advice on rate of roll and pitch is also important. As a guide the UK Standards are as follows:

19.24.4.

19.24.5.

19.24.6.

19.24.7.

19.25. 19.25.1.

19.25.2.

19.26. 19.26.1.

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PITCH, ROLL AND HEAVE LIMITATIONS The pitch and roll figures are half amplitude related to the vertical. Heave is in meters, Acceptable parameters are up to and including the limits given below. Experience may dictate that minor changes be made to the limits for a particular vessel within a category. S61/AS3 32 Semi-Subs (which includes semi-sub crane and lay barges) Pitch and Roll/Heave DAY & NIGHT 3°/5M Large Ships (e.g. Drill ships, converted oil tankers, non semi-sub crane and lay barges) + Jack-ups on the move Pitch & Roll/Heave 2.5°/4M DAY & NIGHT Small Ships a. Bow Decks Pitch & Roll/Heave DAY 2°/3M NIGHT 1°/1.5M b. Stern Deck & Amid Ship Pitch & Roll/Heave DAY 2.5°/3M NIGHT 1.5°/1.5M Oil Tanker Mooring Buoys Pitch & Roll DAY 2° NIGHT 1° 4°/5M 4°/5M 4°/5M 4°/5M 4°/5M 5°/5M 5°/5M B214ST B212 CAT1-2 S76A/C CAT 3 365N /N2 356C Bo105

4°/5M

4°/5M

4°/5M

4°/5M

4°/5M

5°/5M

5°/5M

3°/3M 1.5°/1.5M

3°/3M 1.5°/1.5M

3°/3M 1.5°/1.5M

2°/3M 1°/1.5M

3°/3M 1.5°/1.5M

4°/3M 2°/1.5M

5°/3M 2.5°/1.5M

3°/3M 1.5°/1.5M

3°/3M 1.5°/1.5M

3°/3M 1.5°/1.5M

2.5°/3M 1.5°/1.5M

3°/3M 1.5°/1.5M

4°/3M 2°/1.5M

5°/3M 2.5°/1.5M

2° 1°

2° 1°

2° 1°

2° 1°

2° 1°

2° 1°

3° 1.5°

Definitions CAT 1 CAT 2 CAT 3

Helideck with 'D' value of 22.2M or greater Helideck with 'D' value of 18.70 to 22.19M Helideck with 'D' value of 16.00 to 18.69M

e.g. cleared for S61N e.g. cleared for AS332L/Bell 214ST NOTE: S76 'D' value is 16.00M

19.26.2.

The roll and pitch limits for each type may differ by day and by night and may vary depending on the type of vessel being considered, e.g., semi-sub, large ship, small ship, oil tanker mooring buoy, and indeed the location of the helideck, e.g. on small ships the bow deck, stern deck and amidships. The appropriate limits should be made available to the vessel operator who needs to be aware of the operating margins, one of the determinant in any decision or advice by him to suspend flying in adverse weather conditions. The vessel operation and aircraft operator should also be aware that if an 'across the deck' landing is required because of wind direction, the vessels pitch may become the aircraft's roll and vice versa. The operator should also provide advice on heave, albeit recognising that this is more difficult to measure. The ability of the vessel to measure heave is most useful, although high costs may deter any fitment of the necessary equipment. Wherever possible, a judgement should be made on heave and passed to the pilot.

19.26.3.

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CHAPTER 20 - OTHER SPECIALISED OPERATIONS ............................................................... 20-3 20.1. 20.2. 20.3. AERIAL TOP SPRAYING ................................................................................................ 20-3 OIL DISPERSANT SPRAYING........................................................................................ 20-4 WINCH OPERATIONS .................................................................................................... 20-4 Emergency Winch Capability ...................................................................................... 20-4 Winch Equipment ........................................................................................................ 20-5 Empty Winch Hooks .................................................................................................... 20-5 20.4. HELICOPTER EXTERNAL LOAD OPERATIONS........................................................... 20-5 Specialist Personnel.................................................................................................... 20-6 Pilots........................................................................................................................ 20-6 Aircrewmen ............................................................................................................. 20-6 Loadmasters ........................................................................................................... 20-6 Lifting Equipment ........................................................................................................ 20-6 Personal Protective Equipment .................................................................................. 20-7 20.5. 20.6. 20.7. SAR PROCEDURES ....................................................................................................... 20-7 DESERT OPERATIONS.................................................................................................. 20-8 COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS.................................................................................... 20-8

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OTHER SPECIALISED OPERATIONS
20.1. 20.1.1. Aerial Top Spraying A requirement sometimes exists in forestry companies for the dressing of plantations to be undertaken from the air. It is an unfortunate fact that the only aircraft available for this purpose are single engined. Therefore, taking note of the fact that such operations are recognised throughout aviation as being high risk, involving not only single engine aircraft but ones that are robustly manoeuvred very close to the ground, circumspection is required before using this method of application as opposed to dressing from the ground. Analysis shows that past accidents can be attributed to: 20.1.2.1. Striking obstacles caused by misjudged height and clearances, poor decision making and inadequate preparation and planning. Landing and take-off accidents, often caused by unsuitable landing and takeoff areas. Engine failure or power loss, usually to piston-engined aircraft.

20.1.2.

20.1.2.2.

20.1.2.3. 20.1.3.

The last two can be countered to a large extent by the provision of sound all-weather, properly designed air strips of adequate length and width and with prepared over-runs, under-runs and shoulders, with approach and take-off gradients sensibly clear of obstacles, and the use of the much more reliable turbine powered aircraft, be they fixed wing or helicopter.. Birds can be difficult to avoid at low level but the risk can be reduced by sensible routing and heights during transit flying, and where practical avoiding the use of airstrips in known high areas of bird concentration. The first can be countered by carefully selected and experienced pilots and the insistence on proper preparation planning and supervision. Aircraft are robust, simple and are designed for VMC flying only with the most rudimentary instrument panel. Rarely are pilots instrument rated, dual equipped aircraft are not normally available for conversion or recurrent training, the pilot is often self-supervising and rules and procedures are rarely embraced in an Operations Manual. Furthermore, this is an activity in which the regulatory authority will often take no more than a passing interest. The foregoing points to the need for scrutiny of both operator and proposed operation. It will also be necessary to have an active focal point within the Company to oversee the operation from the planning stage through to completion. Not only will he need to scrutinise the operation on site but also, for instance the method of transit, where the propensity for the pilot to fly close to the ground, even unnecessarily, has led to numerous bird strikes and collision with objects such as unmarked or unplotted overhead wires. The focal point will need to concern himself with procedures and control but also the suitability of the operating sites in terms of size, quality and adequacy of support facilities. He will need to pay particular attention to the spraying area to agree with the pilot on the method of positioning for each swathe and the briefing, training and supervision of support personnel including markers if employed. All obstructions will need to be plotted and the method of their avoidance agreed. A list of items for consideration is found in Part 5, Annex G, of this manual.

20.1.4.

20.1.5.

20.1.6.

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20.2. 20.2.1.

Oil Dispersant Spraying Oil dispersant spraying is not a public transport activity and the increased risks posed by manoeuvring an often large aircraft close to the sea in conditions of sometimes poor visibility/no horizon must be fully recognised. The increased risks can be abated by using multi engine aircraft; where a single engine aircraft must be used, it should be turbine powered since turbine engines are very much more reliable than their piston engine equivalent. It is also imperative that the operations be closely controlled in operations terms. This includes the provision of adequate airstrips, properly authorised routings, and transit and spraying altitudes, well trained and experienced personnel operating within the confines of a comprehensive Operations Manual, and suitably equipped aircraft. The aircraft should always carry two instrument rated pilots, each with full blind flying panels, Radalt with audio, auto-pilot and an accurate and rapid fixing aid such as GPS. Good visibility from the cockpit is a requirement. A rapid dispersant dump facility is also necessary. Oil spraying operations require good organisation, accurate flying discipline and effective co-ordination of resources. In this last regard more than one aircraft may be employed on the operation and a spotter aircraft is an almost invariable requirement. In most cases of spillage in open areas, spraying effectiveness will be much enhanced by the expert use of side scan radar and or infra-red surveillance equipment in the spotter aircraft. The complex and risky nature of these operations means that the Aviation Adviser should be consulted early on in the planning stage and should carry out a subsequent audit of the proposed operator. Ad hoc operations would be highly risky and should be avoided. Winch Operations Winching activities and the equipment utilised are not to full public air standards and the risk of accident and injury to personnel is therefore higher normally acceptable for air operations. It is therefore imperative that operations, including training, are only undertaken when judged operationally and, then, strictly in accordance with the specified procedures. transport than that winching essential

20.2.2.

20.2.3.

20.2.4.

20.2.5.

20.3. 20.3.1.

20.3.2.

Twin-engined helicopters shall always be used for winch operations and shall have a single-engined Out of Ground Effect (OGE) hover capability at all stages of the operation other than for actual emergency use. Marine support operations e.g., ship pilot transfer should routinely be conducted in accordance with the recommendation of the International Chamber of Shipping guide. It should be noted that training should always be carried out with full single-engined hover capabilities at the operator designated heights ASL/AGL. Emergency Winch Capability 20.3.4.1. After due consideration and regular reassessment of the task and emergency response environment, recommendations may be made for Companies to have "a winch capability". In this case a formal initial/recurrent training programme must be instituted by the aircraft Contractor and it is equitable that the Companies should support this contractually.

20.3.3.

20.3.4.

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20.3.4.2.

Should the Companies have a day only flying operation and it is required to extend this winch capability to night flying, assuming the aircraft is suitably equipped, then formal training programmes must cover this aspect as well. Where this capability has been requested and is established it is recommended that exercises should be held regularly to assess speed of response including the winch fitting. An assessment should also be made of whether there is any realistic availability of SAR capable helicopters from government or other sources, if not, and the need is confirmed then it is prudent that two winches should be available on site.

20.3.4.3.

Winch Equipment 20.3.4.4. Where certified winch equipment is available and is not used on the aircraft on a regular basis, routine maintenance of the winch and equipment must be covered under the operator's maintenance schedule. This must include testing of the winch on the aircraft at regular intervals not to exceed a period of two months.

Empty Winch Hooks 20.3.4.5. Several incidents have occurred where empty winch hooks have been snagged on vessels with the resultant loss of the helicopter. To minimise the risk of such an occurrence, a double lift procedure should be adopted whenever aircraft performance or ambient conditions permit. In any case, as an extra precaution bolt croppers should be immediately available on deck and the aircraft cable cutter must be armed throughout the manoeuvre.

20.4. 20.4.1.

Helicopter External Load Operations The unique ability of the helicopter to carry payload externally by means of cargo hook(s), slings and nets makes it a particularly useful vehicle in support of oil exploration and production operations, and in some regions, the underslung movement of drilling rig structure and consumables may be the only viable means of transport. The ability to make up netted loads in advance of the helicopter arrival at a pick-up point also reduces wasted time (often at high hourly flying charge rates) and thus may assist in minimising operating costs. The potential advantages of external loads operations are to a degree offset by additional safety hazards presented by the need for precision manoeuvring of the helicopter in hovering flight close to ground handling personnel. The high power settings required to hover and transition to and from forward flight with an underslung load generate heavy rotor downwash in the hook-up and drop zones, and marshalling and cargo handling personnel must therefore be suitably protected. Structures, buildings and equipment in these areas must also be sufficiently robust and well secured to prevent movement. These and other hazards should be considered, and brought to the attention of all personnel prior to starting operations and to all new personnel. Detailed guidance is available in a small publication CAP426 "Helicopter External Load Operations" issued by the U.K. Civil Aviation Authority or U.S. FAA FAR-133 - External Load Operations. Thorough training of all ground crew is essential for the safe conduct of these operations, and only nominated personnel should carry out marshalling and hooking up duties.

20.4.2.

20.4.3.

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Specialist Personnel - Pilots 20.4.3.1. Only experienced pilots should be employed on external load operations, and in some areas, such as Australia, a specific rating must be obtained by a pilot before he may carry out this type of work as aircraft commander on a revenue basis. Where sling load work is infrequent, some continuation training may be required from time to time. Continuous external load operations are recognised as more fatiguing than conventional flying, and where the regulatory body does not impose more stringent limitations, then the recommendations in Section 4.1 Note 3 should be followed.

20.4.3.2.

Specialist Personnel - Aircrewmen 20.4.3.3. Non-pilot crew members are known by various names, but in some types of aircraft, where the pilot is seated some distance from the cargo hook, or a system of rear-view mirrors for sighting the hook assembly is not adequate, they form an essential part of the crew. Although the ground marshaller is able to signal coarse directional indications to the pilot, a crewman on a despatcher harness and on the aircraft intercom system is best placed to con the pilot over the load to be picked up, or over the drop zone. The crewman may also be usefully employed in the recording of statistics. If the decision is taken to employ aircrewmen, they must be appropriately trained as full members of the crew.

20.4.3.4.

Specialist Personnel - Loadmasters 20.4.3.5. These personnel may also be known as cargomasters, loaders, marshallers, hookmen etc. but the basic requirement is that on each occasion when a helicopter is required to pick up a sling load, one appropriately trained person must be positioned ahead (and usually to starboard) of the aircraft, in full view of the pilot where he directs the aircraft over the load by hand signals. In addition, one hookman attends the load, to place the shackle or hard eye of the sling, over the cargo hook. When dropping a load, only the marshaller is required, and all other personnel should be well clear. Loadmasters should be readily recognisable from other personnel by means of coloured overalls and/or surcoats.

20.4.3.6.

Lifting Equipment 20.4.3.7. The size, safe working load, length etc. of slings, hooks, nets shackles and 'D' rings will clearly vary with the capability of the helicopter employed, and the type of load. It is essential however, that these items be clearly identified for aircraft use only (e.g. by colour coding) and stored separately from general purpose slinging and other equipment. Adequate records should always be maintained to ensure that all items are within life or a test date. Some basic safety points: a. A swivel must always be inserted between the fixed hook assembly of the helicopter, and the external load. A shackle or hard eye must form the direct connection between the cargo hook and sling. Soft eyes, and particularly rope may bind on the cargo hook and prevent release when normally selected, or, more dangerously, in case of emergency.

20.4.3.8.

b.

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c.

All items in the load chain must have a breaking strain of at least 4 times the weight of the largest load to be carried. Steel wire slings should be used in preference to nylon webbing, which may chafe very rapidly in flight if badly rigged. Electrical and emergency mechanical mechanisms should be tested daily. cargo hook release

d.

e.

20.4.3.9.

Winch, shackles, line slings, hoist, controls etc. are all part of same system and should be controlled in the same manner to ensure that all the components are subjected to the same overall maintenance testing programme.

20.4.3.10. The aircraft hook assembly and operating systems are subject to the same planned maintenance requirements as other aircraft components. Personal Protective Equipment 20.4.3.11. All personnel working around running aircraft should be provided with coveralls for protection against dust, sand and small objects disturbed by rotor or propeller wash, and to a degree against flash burns in the event of accident. 20.4.3.12. Loadmasters in particular must be supplied with the following, which should be worn at all times when engaged in external load work. a. b. c. d. e. 20.5. 20.5.1. SAR Procedures It is imperative that the SAR Section of the Operations Manual is explicit in terms of the following: 20.5.1.1. 20.5.1.2. 20.5.1.3. 20.5.1.4. 20.5.1.5. Aircrew and SAR team duties and responsibilities. Hoist operation and limitations. Hoist installation, removal and inspection requirements. Training limitations - including height and positioning for live loads. Standard operating procedures - to include winching circuit, standard calls, hand signals, single lift, double lift, crew co-operation. Aircraft and hoist emergencies procedures - to include cable runway, single or double engine failure, discharge of static electricity, control of swing. Safety helmet - with chinstrap Ear defenders (or at least ear plug type) Eye protection Coveralls Safety shoes

20.5.1.6.

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Other Specialised Operations

20.6. 20.6.1.

Desert Operations In a desert location, it is impossible, irrespective of the area, to operate helicopters or aeroplanes in a substantially sand free environment during the take-off and landing phases. Desert winds are such that any cleared area is rapidly covered with sand and irrespective of the efforts to do so, they cannot be maintained in a completely sand free condition. The onus must be placed on the Contractor(s) to provide such sand filtration systems as are necessary to protect the engines and to adopt, especially where helicopters are used, such maintenance procedures as will protect the bearings of rotating assemblies. Operations should be closely monitored to ensure that dust clouds generated by take-offs and landings do not make these operations unsafe. Some form of binding agent such as oil or bitumen can be used in the immediate vicinity of helipads to lessen the effect of helicopters landing and taking off and the use of a raised helipad (see Chapter 7 for fuller details) can significantly decrease the amount of sand disturbed. Cold Weather Operations Cold weather operations require careful planning in terms of the operation of the airfield, the protection of personnel, the provision of adequate aircraft support equipment and the preparation and operation of the aircraft. In some locations, cold weather operations are the norm and sound established procedures are in place. Elsewhere, severe weather may be seasonal or occasional and adequate preparations need to be made, if only as a contingency. Some aspects fall under the heading of "airmanship" but nevertheless, one would expect an Operator to ensure the subject is covered comprehensively in the Flight Manual for the aircraft operated and in both the Operations Manual and the Engineering Procedures Manual. The Operator would also be expected to train and equip his personnel to be effective in such conditions. Thorough preparation is required; the factors considered in Part 5 Annex H at the end of this manual, highlight some of the considerations for both fixed wing and helicopter operations.

20.6.2.

20.6.3.

20.6.4.

20.7. 20.7.1.

20.7.2.

Aircraft Management Guide CHAPTER 20

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 20-8

Part 5 - Annexes

PART 5 - ANNEX REFERENCES ANNEX A OUTLINE JOB DESCRIPTION FOR AIR OPERATIONS SUPERVISOR (SEISMIC SUPPORT) AIRCRAFT FLIGHT FOLLOWING AND RADIO LOG SEISMIC OPERATIONS E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9 ANNEX D ANNEX E ANNEX F Jungle Heliports Helipad Status Board Daily Program Planning Board Flight Planning Board Dz Check List Water Supply Status Board Daily Utilization Report Monthly Utilization Report Aircraft Crash Rescue Procedural Chart

ANNEX B ANNEX C

OFFSHORE HELICOPTER LANDING AREAS - PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AERIAL APPLICATIONS - CONSIDERATIONS FACTORS TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT IN COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS

Aircraft Management Guide Annex References

Issue Date: February 1998

Page i

Part 5 - Annexes

Intentionally Blank

Page ii

ANNEX A

OUTLINE JOB DESCRIPTION FOR AIR OPERATIONS SUPERVISOR

The Air Operations Supervisor normally reports directly to the Head of Aircraft Services or indirectly to the Chief Geophysicist via the Operations Geophysicist. It is recommended that assistance be sought from The Aviation Adviser when reviewing the qualifications and level of experience of personnel being considered for the position of Air Operations Supervisor; an individual with a background in private flying is not considered to be appropriately qualified. It must be realised that helicopter seismic support in a jungle environment is exposed to a risk already higher than the risk associated with helicopter support to normal public transport standards. Seismic helicopter support needs to be professionally managed. The responsibilities of the Air Operations Supervisor must be clearly defined and include the following:To:

• • • •

make the most efficient and economical use of helicopters assigned to the operation and to plan all aircraft flying. determine that helicopters are operated with complete regard to all aspects of flight safety and are maintained in accordance with contractual obligations and industry norms. keep scheduled maintenance records updated daily and advise when scheduled maintenance falls due resulting in loss of availability to the Company. determine that quality control procedures for the delivery of clean, dry fuel to the helicopter are in place and quality control records are kept. If bulk fuel is the Company concern he will also be responsible for the ordering and timely delivery of sufficient supplies to meet requirements and for the condition and maintenance of the refuelling equipment. confirm all pilots and engineers assigned to the task meet E & P Forum recommendations in qualifications and levels of experience. confirm that the accommodation provided for pilots and engineers is acceptable. confirm pilots keep daily records of duty times and hours flown and that the The Company limits are not exceeded. confirm helicopters are safely and correctly loaded with either cargo or passengers. confirm all helipads are inspected by him prior to being declared operational ensuring the landing point, reject areas, fly-aways and markings are up to specification and dropping zones are cut to the correct size and correctly marked. Similarly airstrips for the use of fixed wing aircraft involved in the operation are his responsibility. immediately report all accidents/incidents to the Company and to ensure that in the event of an accident, aircraft are not removed from the scene of the accident until the Aviation Authorities and The Aviation Adviser have completed their investigations. confirm that all helicopter role equipment is maintained in a serviceable condition, i.e. slings, strops, cargo nets, baskets, long lines and cargo hooks. All lifting equipment should be colour coded, registered on site, and valid test certificates should be readily available at the helicopter operators main base facility. confirm that all staff assigned to the seismic campaign who have not previously worked with helicopters, be shown (prior to their first flight) around a helicopter (when shut down) and be thoroughly briefed in embarking/disembarking and emergency procedures on escape from and behaviour in and around a helicopter; all passengers are to receive regular briefings. maintain complete records of all flying carried out with hours flown in the different roles for line opening, recording, drilling, gravimetric, surveying, detonators, dynamite, long lining, transit and recce and record the total cargo and passengers carried specific to each role. confirm dangerous goods transported by air are carried in accordance with ICAO / IATA regulations, paying due consideration to any variation that may be applicable to the country in which operations are being carried out or through which the dangerous goods may transit. submit Aviation weekly and monthly reports to the Head of Aircraft Services and the Chief Geophysicist covering helicopter operations, engineering, personnel and safety as appropriate.

• • • • •

• •

• • •

Aircraft Management Guide Annex A

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 1 of 2

ANNEX A

• •

organise monthly aviation safety meetings with aviation personnel including line opening supervisors and seismic party chiefs. All meetings should be minuted, minutes of meetings circulated for comment and, where necessary, for follow-up action. liaise closely with Company Field Seismic and Survey Supervisors in matters concerning aircraft operations. Similarly, to maintain a close liaison with the assigned aviation contractor's Chief Pilot to ensure that all aviation matters are directed through the Air Operations Supervisor and not through the seismic contractor. confirm all personnel directly involved with aircraft operations e.g. hookmen and aircraft loaders, are properly trained and utilise the approved safety equipment, i.e. boots, helmets, gloves and clothing. maintain company Notices to Pilots / Engineers files and ensure they are read and signed by aviation personnel; this file should contain anything specific to the seismic aviation activities e.g. last landing times, approach paths to specific helipads, transit heights, etc." prepare an area map with crash grid overlay for emergency purposes and establish a complete contingency plan to cover events of an aircraft accident or forced landing. Similarly a contingency plan should be available for medevac, casevac and ground search where this involves the use of helicopters and possibly fixed wing. brief all concerned on the emergency contingency plans, their responsibilities and the use of SAR maps and equipment. arrange, at quarterly intervals, a practice of the emergency contingency plan. maintain and supervise a satisfactory radio flight following system with a radio operator logging all take-offs and landings and maintaining a continuous two-way communication with aircraft when airborne. be responsible for the disposition of serviceable fire fighting equipment in and around aircraft operating areas as appropriate and the disposition of flight safety notices to ground personnel in and around aircraft operating areas and passenger waiting positions. confirm that all aircraft "unavailable" time is recorded and, where this exceeds the contractor's allowance in accordance with the service agreement, advise on the reduction to the invoiced charges. All flight charge documents submitted by the aircraft contractor which will subsequently be used for invoicing should be vetted and signed by him.

• • •

• • • • •

Aircraft Management Guide Annex A

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 2 of 2

ANNEX B

AIRCRAFT FLIGHT FOLLOWING AND RADIO LOG
The purpose of this section is to give guidance on flight following to aircraft operators or field units, when operating in regions where no service is provided by the National Air Traffic organisation, or when aircraft are operating beyond the normal coverage of an Air Traffic Control network. In such cases, having cleared the local airfield/camp/rig frequency on departure, aircraft remain out of contact with a ground facility until "checking in" with their destination or making a landing/landed call. They often operate over unpopulated and inhospitable areas for long distances (the reason for their use) and, should they suffer an emergency or be forced to land, some considerable time may pass before the receiving station initiates overdue procedures. Rescue services would be faced with sweeping a large area in their search for the missing aircraft. It is, therefore, essential for ground stations and aircraft to maintain radio contact not only at take-off and landing but throughout the whole flight; both to alert watch-keepers to a possible emergency and to focus the search and rescue operation. It is preferable to develop a system of reporting based on either time, normally ten minute intervals or known check points, or a combination of both, rather than attempting to maintain constant radio contact, which invariably proves too onerous for both parties. Having decided which system is most suited to the particular operation or route, all position/operations normal reports, together with the expected time of the next check call, should be logged. Procedures on the action to be taken if an aircraft fails to make a position report should be developed, set down and practised. Note: The Aviation Adviser can assist in both selecting a suitable position reporting system and in writing overdue procedures pertinent to the theatre of operations.

An example of a typical procedure is given below:

UNCERTAINTY PHASE
The aircraft fails to transmit a position report at the given lapsed time or at a check-point.

ACTION
ENTER ALL ACTIONS IN THE AIRCRAFT FLIGHT WATCH AND MOVEMENT LOG. 1. 2. Call the aircraft yourself; if no reply repeat this twice, also on any secondary frequency. If near its ETA, contact the destination to check if the aircraft has landed without making a radio call. If it has not landed, check your radio with another station (preferably an airborne one). If your radio is serviceable and the other station is also unable to establish contact with the aircraft, continue calling for up to 30 minutes from the time the check call/position report should have been made, then continue with ALERT PHASE. If your radio is unserviceable, contact a nearby radio facility by other means; ask them to call the aircraft. If this proves successful transfer the flight watch to that station, giving them full details of the flight, otherwise continue with the ALERT PHASE.

3.

4.

ALERT PHASE
All attempts to establish contact with the aircraft have failed.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex B

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 1 of 4

ANNEX B

ACTIONS
1. If possible, alert other aircraft and surface facilities to start searching along the track of the lost aircraft. Contact the rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC) or other agency.

2.

ALERT MESSAGE
1. 2. Location and telephone number I have lost contact with: a. Aircraft callsign b. Aircraft registration c. Aircraft operating company 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. En route from/last known position To Departure or reporting time Last ETA given by aircraft Number of persons onboard Fuel endurance I have already alerted (if applicable) Aircraft: callsign ............................... position ............................... VHF-frequency ............................... 10. Weather conditions, including sea state (Where applicable) Any additional information Vessel or location: name/callsign position marine VHF ............................................................... ............................................................... ............................................................... ...............................................................

...................................................... ......................................................
............................................................... ............................................................... ...............................................................

............................... ............................... ...............................

..............................................................

11.

......................................................

Aircraft Management Guide Annex B

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 2 of 4

ANNEX B

DISTRESS PHASE The aircraft has or is about to make a forced landing. ACTION 1. 2. If possible, alert another aircraft or surface vessel to proceed to the last known position. Contact the Rescue Co-ordination Centre and pass the following message (preferably by telephone): Distress Message a. b. Location name and telephone number I have received a message from ............................................. (source of information) That an aircraft has made/is about to make a forced landing at or en route to ................................................................................................................. Position .................................................................................................... (platform/rig name, lat/long. or bearing and distance from. 3. Continue with your company altering procedure.

c.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex B

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 3 of 4

AIRCRAFT RADIO LOG BOOK STATION:
WEATHER PASSED TO AIRCRAFT OPERATOR
TIME

AIRCRAFT OPERATOR:
WIND DIRECTION SPEED VISIBILITY CLOUD COVER BASE TEMPERATURE QNH

QFE

TIME

FROM

TO

MESSAGE

ARRIVAL DETAILS Locat
TIME PAX FREIGHT

DEPARTURE MESSAGE
TIME ALTITUDE/FL DESTINATION

ARRIVAL DETAILS Locat
TIME PAX FREIGHT

DEPARTURE MESSAGE
TIME ALTITUDE/FL

DESTINATION

ARRIVAL DETAILS Locat
TIME PAX FREIGHT

DEPARTURE MESSAGE
TIME ALTITUDE/FL

DESTINATION

ARRIVAL DETAILS Locat
TIME PAX FREIGHT

DEPARTURE MESSAGE
TIME ALTITUDE/FL

DESTINATION

SUPERVISOR SIGNATURE:

Aircraft Management Guide Annex B

Issue Date: February 1998

Aircraft Management Guide

Issue Date: February 1998

SEISMIC HELICOPTER OPERATIONS HELIPAD STATUS BOARD

DATE

LOCATION

OPEN

CLOSED

DUE RE-NSPECTION

APPROVED BY

CHE

1 METRE

Aircraft Management Guide Annex C-2

Issue Date: February 1998

SEISMIC HELICOPTER OPERATIONS

DAILY PROGRAM PLANNING BOARD
DATE CREWS LABO FRONT CREW BACK CREW TOPO 1 TOPO 2 GRAVI. SAT. DRILL. 1 DRILL. 2 DRILL 3 FROM TO TIME REQ'D CREWS 1 2 3 4 5 6 H.P. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOC LINE OPENING SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS

2 METRES

Aircraft Management Guide ANNEX C-3

Issue Date: February 1998

ANNEX C-4

SEISMIC HELICOPTER OPERATIONS

FLIGHT PLANNING BOARD

REMARKS DATE FLT. No. A/C REG. CREW T.O. TIME HELIPAD CHECK PILOT HRS

FLIGHT DETAILS

NOTES

LOCATION OF EQUIPMENT PUMP FUEL LONG LINE -

2M

HAZARDS

2 METRES

Aircraft Management Guide Annex C-4

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 1 of 1

ANNEX C-5

DZ CHECK LIST

DZ No ...................................... Trace ....................................... Profil ........................................

Crew:

Crew Chief:

The DZ is 5mx at ground level The clearing is 30m x 30m at height No protruding branches Numerals not smaller than 1m Numerals are in white All debris has been cleared

..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... .....................
5m 30 m

30 m

5m

Aircraft Management Guide Annex C-5

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 1 of 1

ANNEX C-6

SEISMIC HELICOPTER OPERATIONS

WATER SUPPLY STATUS BOARD
DATE PAD STATUS REMARKS

80 cm

40 cm STATUS: RED = EMPTY TANK - COLLECT/REPLENISH GREEN = FULL TANK BLACK = ½ FULL TANK

Aircraft Management Guide Annex C-6

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 1 of 1

SEISMIC HELICOPTER OPERATIONS DAILY UTILISATION REPORT
DEPT LINE OPENING
PAX FLT. TIME

DRILLERS
PAX FLT TIME FRT

GRAVI.
PAX FLT TIME FRT

TOPO.
PAX FLT TIME FRT

LABO
PAX FLT TIME FRT

SATELLITE CREW
PAX FLT TIME FRT

DYN
PAX FLT TIME FRT

DETOS
PAX FLT TIME FRT

L.L.
PAX FLT TIME FRT

A/C REG.

FRT

FL TI

DAILY TOTALS
MAJOR INSP DUE AT HRS

A/C REG

START

FINISH

TOTAL DAILY HRS

CUM.

CUM. REV.

SECTORS

SLINGS

HOURS

HOURS

DAILY

CUM

DAILY

CUM

FROM

TO

FLEET TOTALS REMARKS

Aircraft Management Guide Annex C-7

Issue Date: February 1998

ANNEX C-8

SEISMIC HELICOPTER OPERATIONS MONTHLY UTILISATION REPORT
MONTH
TOTAL FLEET FLYING HOURS TOTAL PASSENGERS CARRIED TOTAL FREIGHT (inc. BASKETS) CARRIED

CREW

LOCATION
KMS. SHOT TOTAL SECTORS TOTAL SLINGS TOTAL BASKETS

HELICOPTER OPERATOR
HRS/KM

FLIGHT BY DEPARTMENTS
DEPT. L.OPENING DRILLING GRAVI. SURVEY LABO SATELLITE DYN. DETOS. LONG LINE CREW CHANGE RECCE. 1/2 REVENUE A/C REG. A/C REG.

HELICOPTER UTILISATION
A/C TYPE FLY HRS SECTOR S SLINGS

TOTAL

DOWTIME
DATE TIME DOWN REASON PENALT Y

TOTAL INVOICE STATEMENTS
A/C REG. AND TYPE TOTAL COST PENALTIES SUB TOTAL

TOTAL

TOTAL HELICOPTER COST
Aircraft Management Guide Annex C-8 Issue Date: February 1998 Page 1 of 1

TYPICAL SEISMIC BASE CAMP AIRCRAFT CRASH RESCUE PROCED
MAYDAY CALL FLIGHT OVERDUE

1.

Log time and demand position. 2. Log all calls - note times

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Log all calls - note times Call overdue a/c on VHF and HF Ask other a/c to try all frequencies Call ground station at last departure point Call destination ground station.

1. 3.

Lo 2. Can 4. I

When a/c is 30 mins OVERDUE

A. Obtain runners - PC, Safety Officer Chief Pilot B. Establish position by Dead Reckoning on map. C. Establish P.O.B.

ACTIVATE SAR

ALL PILOTS AIRBORNE

SAFETY OFFICER

RADIO OPERATOR

PARTY CHIEF

1. On receiving alert, monitor all radios HF VHF 121.5 2. Minimise R/T traffic

1. Muster crash team 2. Load crash boxes KEY 3. Board, with handheld VHF

1. ATTEND RADIOS VHF HF Note: Radio fits vary per type

1. Co-ordinate from base 2. Organise ground rescue party 3. Inform , D.C.A. of Callsign Type Time last contact Last known position 4. Large map 5. ?fixed wing

Aircraft Management Guide

Issue Date: February 1998

Intentionally Blank

Aircraft Management Guide

ANNEX D

OFFSHORE HELICOPTER LANDING AREAS - PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. 1.1. General This Annex provides guidance on the physical characteristics of helidecks on offshore installations. It should be noted that where a Certificate of Fitness is required, it should state for each helicopter landing area the maximum size of helicopter in terms of D-value for which that area is approved by the Civil Aviation Authority with regard to strength, size and arrangement, in accordance with these requirements. The D value given on the Certificate of Fitness should be qualified by one of the following statements as necessary for 'single main rotor helicopters' or 'tandem main rotor helicopters'. Where these criteria cannot be met in full for a particular size of helicopter the Aviation Adviser should be consulted to determine if another type should be selected or if any operational restrictions to compensate for minor shortfalls from these criteria may be acceptable. The criteria which follow are based on helicopter size and weight. These are summarised in the table below: Figure 1: 'D' Value and Helicopter Type Criteria
Type D value (metres) 11.81 13.00 13.05 13.68 16.00 17.46 Rotor height (metres)* 3.80 3.84 3.30 4.01 4.41 4.80 Rotor diameter (metres) 9.90 11.00 11.00 11.93 13.40 14.63 Max weight (kg) 2300 3200 2600 4250 5307 5080 Landing net size Not required† Not required† Small Small Medium Not required†4

1.2.

Bolkow Bo 105D Bolkow 117 Agusta A109 Dauphin SA 365N2 Sikorsky S76B and C Bell 212

Super Puma AS332L 18.70 4.92 15.00 8599 Medium Bell 214ST 18.95 4.68 15.85 7936 Medium Super Puma AS332L2 19.50 4.92 16.20 9150 Medium Sikorsky S61N 22.20 5.64 18.90 9298 Large EH101 22.80 6.65 18.60 14290 Large * With skid fitted helicopters, the maximum height may be increased when ground handling wheels are fitted. † Where skid fitted helicopters are used routinely landing nets are not recommended.

2. 2.1.

Location The location of a specific landing area is often a compromise given the competing requirements for space. It should be situated so that: 2.1.1. It is located on the installation with respect to prevailing wind conditions, in such a position that any structure induced airflow and temperature effects are minimised. Ready access to and from the accommodation area is provided without the need to pass through working areas. The clear approach and take-off sector recommended in para 4 is available, with due regard to prevailing winds; Air turbulence due to adjacent structures and temperature gradients due to such items as gas turbine exhausts, are minimised and remain acceptable for all wind directions (see para 3). If these conditions cannot be met it may be necessary to impose restrictions on helicopter operations. In extreme cases these may be particularly severe, in which case consideration should be given to providing a second landing area at the opposite side of the installation to cater for wind directions unfavourable to the primary site.

2.1.2.

2.1.3.

2.1.4.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 1 of 14

ANNEX D

2.1.5.

It is at or above the highest point of the main structure. This is a desirable feature but it should be appreciated that if this entails a landing area much in excess of 60 metres above sea level, the regularity of helicopter operations may be adversely affected in low cloud base conditions. From the helicopter pilot's point of view, the preferred approach and take-off path for the helicopter would be in such a direction(s) that the Captain in the right hand seat has the best view of the obstacle environment. Taking into account and allowing for all the points above, on balance the bi-sector of the obstacle free sector should be positioned facing into the prevailing wind.

2.1.6.

2.1.7.

3. 3.1.

Air Turbulence and Temperature Gradient Turbulent airflows across the landing area can be caused by wind flow around adjacent structures and by exhausts such as from gas turbines, which can also cause temperature gradients. These effects can seriously influence helicopter handling or performance characteristics. Landing areas situated directly on top of deep slab-sided structures such as accommodation modules, have been known to suffer from excess vertical airflow components unless there is sufficient separation to allow airflow beneath the helideck. For this reason the combined effects of airflow direction and turbulence, prevailing wind and installation prime mover exhaust emissions, should be determined for each installation. As a general rule, the vertical component of airflows resulting from wind velocities up to 25 metres per second should not exceed ± 0.9 metres per second over the landing area at main rotor height. Ideally, where gas turbines are installed and the exhaust gases may affect helicopter operations, some form of exhaust plume indication should be provided for use during helicopter operations, for example, by the production of coloured smoke. Unless it is obvious that the air temperature in the vicinity of the flight paths to and from the helideck will not be affected by the exhaust plume, a survey of ambient temperatures should be conducted during periods when the wind is blowing directly past the turbine exhaust duct towards the landing area. Where ambient temperature, in the vicinity of the flight paths and over the landing area, is increased by more than 2°C the helicopter operator should be informed. Size and Obstacle-Free Environment For any particular type of single main rotor helicopter, the landing area should be sufficiently large to contain a landing area circle of diameter D equal to the largest dimension of the helicopter when the rotors are turning. This landing area circle should be totally unobstructed. In considering deck size, Companies will need to take account of possible use by military SAR aircraft and even, perhaps, tandem on side by side rotor helicopters. Such twin rotored helicopters require much larger decks and introduce the concept of the square or rectangular decks. From any point on the periphery the above mentioned landing area circles, an obstaclefree approach and take-off sector should be provided which totally encloses the landing area circle or rectangle and which extends over an arc of at least 210 degrees. Within this sector, and out to a distance of 1000 metres from the periphery of the landing area, only the following items may exceed the height of the landing area, but should not do so by more than 0.25 metres: 4.3.1. The guttering or slightly raised kerb for drainage

3.2.

3.3.

3.4.

4. 4.1.

4.2.

4.3.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 2 of 14

ANNEX D

4.3.2.

Landing area lighting.

Figure 2 Obstacle Free Areas for Single Main Rotor Helicopters

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 3 of 14

ANNEX D

Figure 3: Obstacle Free Areas - Below Landing Area Level (For all types of helicopters)

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 4 of 14

ANNEX D

4.4. 4.5. 4.6.

The outboard edge of the safety net. The foam monitors. Those handrails and other items associated with the landing area which are incapable of complete retraction or lowering for helicopter operations.

Note: As a general rule, at helidecks where obstacle free sectors are infringed by installations or vessels which are positioned within 1000 metres of the point of origin of the sector, it may be necessary to impose helicopter operating restrictions. 4.7. The bisector of the 210 degrees obstacle free section should normally pass through the centre of the landing circle or rectangle. The sector may be 'swung' by up to 15 degrees (Figure 2) in the case of landing area circles. Within the remaining 150° arc (limited obstacle sector) out to a distance of 0.62 D measured from the centre of the helideck, objects shall not exceed a height of 0.05 D above helideck level. Beyond that arc out to an overall distance of 0.83 D the limited obstacle surface rises at a gradient of 1:2 (Figure 2). On the 150° limited obstacle sector side of the helideck, where the perimeter marking and associated lighting encompass an area greater than the D-value, the obstacle clearances referred to in para. 4.10 above and shown in Figure 2 should be measured from the perimeter marking/lighting. Whilst application of the previous criteria will ensure that no unacceptable obstructions exist above the helicopter landing area level over the whole 210 degrees sector, it is necessary to consider the possibility of helicopter loss of height during the later stages of the approach or early stages of take-off. Accordingly, a clear zone should be provided below landing area level on all fixed and mobile installations. This clear zone should be provided over at least 180 degrees, with an origin at the centre of the declared landing area, and with a falling gradient of 5 in 1 from the edges of the landing area within the 180 degrees sector (Figure 3).

4.8.

4.9.

4.10.

Note: For practical purposes the falling obstacle limitation surface can be assumed to be defined from points on the outboard edge of the helideck perimeter safety meeting supports. Minor infringements of the surface by foam monitor platforms or access/escape routes may be accepted only if they are essential to the safe operation of the helideck. 4.11. It is recognised that when support installations, such as 'flotels' are operating close to the main installation, it will not always be possible to meet the horizontal and vertical obstacle protected surface requirements. In these circumstances, installation operators should attempt to meet the above criteria as closely as possible when planning the siting of a combination of installations or an installation and a vessel. Consultation with the helicopter operator in the early planning stages can help to optimise support installation location for helicopter operations. It is accepted that, at times, short term infringement to obstacle protected surfaces cannot be avoided when supply/support vessels work close to an installation. Again, it is essential that suitable arrangements are made between the installation and helicopter operator to cover any period when infringements to obstacle protected surfaces occurs. Surface etc. The landing area should have an overall coating of non-slip material and all markings on the surface of the landing area should be made with non-skid materials. Alternatively, extruded section aluminium decks should incorporate adequate non-slip profiles in their design.

4.12.

5. 5.1.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 5 of 14

ANNEX D

5.2.

Every landing area should have a drainage system which will contain any rainwater and fuel spills within its boundary and conduct them to a safe place. The deflection of the helideck surface on any installation due to loads from a helicopter at rest should not modify the landing area drainage system to the extent of allowing spilled fuel to remain on the deck. A system of guttering or a slightly raised kerb should be provided around the perimeter to prevent spilled fuel from falling on to other parts of the installation and to conduct the spillage to a proper drainage system. the capacity of the drainage system should be sufficient to accept a maximum spillage of fuel on the deck. the calculation of the amount of spillage to be contained should be based on an analysis of helicopter type, type capacity, typical fuels loads and uplifts. Tautly-stretched rope netting should be provided to aid the landing of helicopters with wheeled undercarriages for adverse weather conditions. The intersections should be knotted or otherwise secured to prevent distortion of the mesh. It is preferable that the rope be 20 mm diameter sisal, with a maximum mesh size of 200mm. The rope should be secured every 1.5 metres round the landing area perimeter and tensioned to at least 2225N. Netting made of material other than sisal will be considered but netting should not be constructed of polypropylene type material which is known to rapidly deteriorate and flake when exposed to weather. Tensioning to a specific value may be impractical offshore. As a rule of thumb, it should not be possible to raise any part of the net by more than approximately 250 mm above the helideck when applying a vigorous vertical pull by hand. There are three sizes of netting as listed below in Figure 4. The minimum size depends upon the type of helicopter for which the landing area is to be used as indicated in Figure 4. Small Medium Large 6 metres by 6 metres 12 metres by 12 metres 15 metres by 15 metres

5.3.

5.4.

Figure 4: Helicopter Deck Netting 5.5. For normally manned installations where no significant movement due to environmental conditions occurs, e.g. concrete gravity and steel jacket structures, provided the helideck can be shown to achieve an average surface friction value of not less than 0.65 determined by an approved test method, the helideck landing net may be removed. The installation operator should ensure thereafter that the helideck is kept free from oil, grease, ice, snow or any other contaminant that could degrade surface friction. Following removal of the netting, the helideck should be re-tested at regular intervals. Figure 5 indicates typical frequencies for given ranges of friction value. Average surface friction value 0.7 and above 0.65 to 0.69 Less than 0.65 Maximum period between tests 12 months 6 months Net to be retained

Figure 5 Friction Requirements for Landing Area Net Removal

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 6 of 14

ANNEX D

6. 6.1.

Helicopter Tie-Down Points Sufficient flush fitting (when not in use) tie-down points should be provided for securing the helicopter types for which the landing area is designed. They should be so located and be of such strength and construction so as to secure the helicopter when subjected to weather conditions pertinent to the installation design considerations. They should also take into account, where significant, the inertial forces resulting form the movement of floating units. Tie down rings should be compatible with the dimensions of tie-down strop attachments. Advice on recommended safe working load requirements for stop/ring arrangements for specific helicopter types can be obtained from the helicopter operator. An example of a suitable tie down configuration is shown at Figure 6.

6.2.

6.3.

Figure 6 Example of Suitable Tie-Down Configurations Note 1: Note 2: 7. 7.1. The tie-down configuration should be based on the centre of the touch down marking. Additional tie-downs will be required in a parking area. Safety Net Safety nets for personnel protection should be installed around the landing area except where adequate structural protection against falls exists. The netting used should be of a flexible nature, with the inboard edge fastened level with, or just below, the edge of the helicopter landing deck. The net itself should extend 1.5 metres in the horizontal plane and be arranged so that the outboard edge is slightly above the level of the landing area but by not more than 0.25 metres so that it has an upward and outward slope of at least 10°. The net should be strong enough to withstand and contain without damage, a 75kg weight being dropped from a height of 1 metre.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 7 of 14

ANNEX D

7.2.

A safety net designed to meet these criteria should not act as a trampoline giving a 'bounce' effect. Where lateral or longitudinal centre bars are provided to strengthen the net structure they should be arranged to avoid causing serious injury to persons falling on to them. The ideal design should produce a 'hammock' effect which should securely contain a body falling, rolling or jumping into it, without serious injury. Access points Many helicopters have passenger access on one side only and helicopter landing orientation in relation to landing area access points is important because it is necessary to ensure that embarking and disembarking passengers are not required to pass around the helicopter tail rotor, or under the main rotor of those helicopters with a low profile rotor, when a 'rotors-running turn-round' is conducted. There should be a minimum of two access/egress routes to the helideck ideally located equal distance around the perimeter. The arrangements should be optimised to ensure that, in the event of an accident or incident on the helideck, personnel will be able to escape upwind of the landing area. Adequacy of the emergency escape arrangements from the helideck should be included in any evacuation, escape and rescue analysis for the installation and may require a third escape route to be provided. The need to preserve, in so far as possible, an unobstructed falling 5:1 gradient over the 180° sector of the helideck and the provision of up to three helideck access/escape routes, with associated platforms, may present a conflict of requirements. A compromise may therefore be required between the size of the platform commensurate with its effectiveness and the need to retain the protection of an unobstructed falling 5:1 gradient. In practice, the 5:1 gradient is taken from the outboard edge of the helideck perimeter safety net supports. Emergency access points which extend outboard from the perimeter safety net constitute a compromise in relation to an unobstructed falling 5:1 gradient which may lead, in some instances, to the imposition of helicopter operating restrictions. It is therefore important to construct access point platforms in such a manner as to infringe the falling 5:1 gradient by the smallest possible amount but preferably not at all. Suitable positioning of two major access points clear of the requirements of the protection of the falling 5:1 gradient should always be possible. However, the third access referred to in the previous paragraph will probably lie within the 180° sector and where this is the case it should be constructed within the dimensions of the helideck perimeter safety net supports (i.e. contained within 1.5 metres of the edge of the landing area). Where foam monitors are co-located with access points care should be taken where possible to ensure that no monitor is so close to an access point as to cause injury to escaping personnel by operation of the monitor in an emergency situation. Where handrails associated with helideck access/escape points exceed the height limitations given at para 4, they should be retractable, collapsible or removable. Procedures should be in place to remove, retract, or collapse them prior to helicopter arrival. Once the helicopter has landed, and the crew have indicated that passenger movement may commence, the handrails may be raised and locked in position. The handrails must be collapsed or removed prior to the helicopter taking off. Satellite Installations It should be noted that for any installation, normally manned or otherwise, for which helicopters are a normal mode of transport for personnel, a helicopter landing area should be provided. Winching should not be adopted as a normal method of transfer. However, where winching operations are required, they should be conducted in accordance with procedures agreed by the Regulatory Authority and contained within the Helicopter Operator's Operations Manual.

8. 8.1.

8.2.

8.3.

8.4.

8.5.

9. 9.1.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 8 of 14

ANNEX D

10. 10.1.

Installation Markings - General The registered name or designation of the installation should be clearly displayed in such a position on the installation that it can be readily identified from the air. The installation identification should be marked on the helideck surface between the origin of the obstacle-free sector and the touchdown marking in symbols not less than 1.2 metres high and in a colour which contrasts with the background. The name should not be covered by the deck netting. Helideck marking and lighting serves to identify the limits of the safe landing area and dominant obstructions thereby facilitating the safe use of the helideck both for day and night operation. Where reference is made to the 'safe landing area' this means the area equal to or greater than the 'D' value of the helideck, the outer limit of which is defined by the perimeter marking and lighting. The obstacle protected surfaces outside the safe landing area should ensure that any helicopter, the 'D' value of which is no greater than the 'D' value of the helideck, can land within the safe landing area with no risk of collision. The touch down marking (circle) is the aiming point for normal landings and is so designed that the pilot's seat can be placed directly above it an any direction with assured tail rotor clearance. A wind direction indicator (windsock) should be provided and located so as to indicate the wind conditions over the helideck. It should be illuminated for night operations. Helicopter Landing Area - Markings The colour of the helideck should be dark green, dark grey or yellow. The perimeter of the safe landing area should be clearly marked with a contrasting colour painted line 0.3 metes wide. Aluminium helidecks are in use throughout the offshore industry. Some of these are a natural light grey colour and often very difficult to paint. The natural colour is usually acceptable provided where, necessary, additional measures are taken to increase the conspicuity of helideck markings. The origin of the 210 degrees obstacle-free sector for approach and take-off should be marked on the helideck by a black chevron, each leg being 0.79 metres long and 0.1 metres wide forming the angle in the manner shown in Figure 7. Where the obstacle-free sector is swung in accordance with the provision of para. 4 above this should be reflected in the alignment of chevron. The actual D value of the helideck (as quoted on the Certificate of fitness) should be painted on the helideck inboard of the chevron in alphanumeric symbols of 0.1 metres high. Where a helideck has been accepted which does not meet the normal obstacle-free sector requirements of 210°, the black chevron should represent the angle which has been accepted and this value should be marked on the helideck in a similar manner to the certificated D value. The helideck D value should also be marked around the perimeter of the helideck in the manner shown in Figure 7 in a colour contrasting with the helideck surface. The D value should be to the nearest whole number with 0.5 rounded down e.g. 18.5 marked as 18.

10.2.

10.3.

10.4.

10.5.

11. 11.1.

11.2.

11.3.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 9 of 14

ANNEX D

Figure 7. 11.4. A maximum allowable weight marking should be marked on the helideck in a position which is readable from the preferred final approach direction i.e. towards the obstacle-free sector origin. The marking should consist of a two digit number followed by the letter 't' to indicate the allowable helicopter weight in tonnes (1,000kg). The height of the figures should be 0.9 metres with a line width of approximately 0.12 metres and be in a colour which contrasts with the helideck surface. Where possible the weight marking should be separated from the installation identification marking in order to avoid possible confusion on recognition.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 10 of 14

ANNEX D

11.5.

Touchdown markings (aiming circles) should be provided as follows: (see Figure 8).

Figure 8: 11.5.1. The marking should be a yellow circle with an inner diameter of 0.5 of the certificated D value of the helideck and a line width of 1 metre. Its centre should be located 0.1 D from the centre of the landing area towards the outboard edge of the helideck on the bisector of the obstacle-free sector. 11.5.2. A white H should be marked co-located with the touchdown marking with the bar of the H lying along the bisector of the obstacle-free sector. Its dimensions are as shown in Figure 9. 11.5.3. Where the obstacle-free sector has been swung in accordance with para. 4.4 the positioning of the touchdown marking and H should comply with the normal unswung criteria. The H should however, be orientated so that the bar is parallel to the bisector of the swung sector.

Figure 9:

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 11 of 14

ANNEX D

11.6.

Prohibited landing heading sectors should be marked where it is necessary to protect the helicopter from landing or manoeuvring in close proximity to limiting obstructions which, for example, infringe the 150° limited obstacle sector protected surface. The prohibited sector(s) are shown by white and red hatching of the touchdown reference circle with the hatching extending out to the edge of the safe landing areas as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: 11.7. When positioning over the touchdown area helicopters should be manoeuvred so as to keep the aircraft nose clear of the hatched prohibited sector(s) at all times. For certain operational or technical reasons an installation may have to prohibit helicopter operations. In such circumstances, where the helideck cannot be used, the 'closed' state of the helideck will be indicated by use of the signal shown in Figure 11. This signal is the standard 'landing prohibited' signal given in the Rules of the Air and Air Traffic control Regulations, except that it has been altered in size to just cover the letter 'H' inside the aiming circles.

11.8.

Figure 11:

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 12 of 14

ANNEX D

12. 12.1.

Helicopter Landing Area - Lighting The safe landing area should be delineated by all yellow lights visible omni-directionally above the landing area level. These lights should not be below the level of the deck and should not exceed the height limitations in para. 4.3. Alternate yellow and blue lights may be accepted on existing installations but should be replaced with the all yellow configuration at the earliest opportunity. The lights should be equally spaced at intervals of not more than 3 metres around the perimeter of the safe landing area, coincident with the white line. The yellow lights should be of at least 25 candelas intensity and the blue lights of at least 5 candelas intensity. Higher intensity lighting can be of assistance in conditions of poor visibility in daylight, but where such lighting is fitted it should incorporate a brilliance control to reduce the intensity to the values quoted for night use. Where the declared D value of the helideck is less than the physical helideck size, the perimeter lights should delineate the limit of the safe landing area so that the helicopter could land by reference to the perimeter lights on the limited obstacle section (150°) side of the helideck without risk of main rotor collision with obstructions in this sector. By applying the limited obstacle sector clearances from the perimeter marking, which are given at para. 4.5, adequate main rotor to obstruction separation should be achieved. If this cannot be met then unsafe sectors must be delineated with red lights of 25 candelas and advice on the adequacy of the arrangements agreed with the Aviation Adviser. The landing area should also be floodlit if intended for night use. The floodlighting should be so arranged as not to dazzle the pilot and, if elevated and located off the landing areas, the system should not present a hazard to helicopters landing or taking off and should be clear of the limited obstacle sector (150°). Such floodlights should be capable of being switched off at pilots request. Where linear dual function perimeter/floodlighting fixtures are fitted, the average illuminance should be 10 lux with a uniformity ratio (average to minimum) of not more than 8 to 1. It may be necessary to enhance the lighting to improve depth perception, possibly by using discrete floodlighting of the main structure. It is particularly important to confine the illumination to the landing area since any light overspill could cause reflections from the sea. The floodlighting should be controlled from the radio room or Helicopter Landing Officer's office or be easily accessible by them. The quoted intensity values for lights apply to the intensity of the light emitted form the unit when fitted with all necessary filters and shades. If a condition can exist on a not-normally-manned installation which may be hazardous for the helicopter or its occupants a visual warning system should be installed. The system should be a flashing red light which is visible to the pilot from any direction of approach and on any landing heading. The system should be automatically initiated at the appropriate hazard level and be visible out to a range in excess of the distance at which the helicopter may be endangered. Dual lamp/filament type fittings should be installed to allow for single failures where problems of access occur for the replacement of unserviceable light fittings. The emergency power supply for helidecks should, where possible, include the landing area floodlighting. Obstacles - Marking and Lighting Fixed obstacles which present a hazard to helicopters should be readily visible from the air. If a paint scheme is necessary to enhance identification by day, alternate black and white, black and yellow, or red and white bands are recommended, not less than 0.5 metres nor more than 6 metres wide. The colour should be chosen to contrast with the background to the maximum extent.

12.2.

12.3.

12.4.

12.5.

12.6.

12.7.

12.8.

13. 13.1.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 13 of 14

ANNEX D

13.2.

Obstacles to be marked in these contrasting colours including any lattice tower structures and crane booms which are close to the helideck or the 150 degree sector boundary. Similarly, parts of the leg or legs of jack-up units adjacent to the landing area which extend, or can extend, above it should also be marked in the same manner. Omni-directional red lights of at least 10 candelas intensity should be fitted at suitable locations to provide the helicopter pilot with visual information on the proximity and height of objects which are higher than the landing area and which are close to it or to the 150 degree sector boundary. This should apply, in particular, to all crane booms on the installation. Objects which are more than 15 metres higher than the landing area should be fitted with intermediate red lights of the same intensity spaced at 10 metre intervals down to the level of the landing area (except where such lights would be obscured by other objects). It is often preferable for some structures such as flare booms and towers to be illuminated by floodlights as an alternative to fitting the intermediate red lights, provided that the lights are arranged such that it will not dazzle the helicopter pilot. An omni-directional red light of intensity 25 to 200 candelas should be fitted to the highest point of the installation unless it is less than 15 metres above the level of the landing area. Where this is not practicable (e.g. on top of flare towers) the light should be fitted as near to the extremity as possible. In the particular case of jack-up units, it is recommended that when the tops of the legs are the highest points on the installation, they should be fitted with omni-directional red lights of intensity 25 to 200 candelas. In addition the leg or legs adjacent to the helideck should be fitted with intermediate red lights of at least 10 candelas at 10 metre intervals down to the level of the landing area. Sufficient lights should be fitted to provide omni-directional visibility. As an alternative the legs may be floodlit providing the helicopter pilot is not dazzled. Any ancillary structure within 1 kilometre of the landing area, and which is significantly higher than it, should be similarly fitted with red lights. These red lights should be arranged such that the location of the objects which they delineate are visible from all directions above the landing area. Helicopter Landing Areas on Vessels The International Chamber of Shipping Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations should be used as the definitive reference.

13.3.

13.4.

13.5.

13.6.

13.7.

14. 14.1.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex D

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 14 of 14

ANNEX E

AERIAL APPLICATION - CONSIDERATIONS

1. 2. 3.

Is the aircraft turbine powered? Is the operator Company approved? Do the pilots meet E & P Forum or Company recommendations for qualifications and experience Has a Company focal point been nominated with the time to supervise the operation effectively BEFORE operations begin as well as once they are underway ? Have all logistics aspects been considered, i.e. location of landing strip(s), flight clearances, supply of fuel, chemicals, flight information and personnel? Has the site(s) and associated routes been surveyed for obstacles, bird activity and prohibited areas? Have arrangements been made for the construction and maintenance of the airstrip(s)? Have base facilities commensurate with the task been planned e.g. provision of wind-sock, wind and weather information, refuelling, fire- fighting equipment, chemical storage, supply and protection, transportation, first-aid, protection from the weather, and air/ground radio? Have instructions been formulated for the control of the airstrip, safe approach to the aircraft, safe refuelling and loading of the aircraft, inspection of the airfield, control of operations, provision of first aid, fire fighting and manning and use of the radio? Has the task been fully analysed and the method of delivery including height of dispersal, size of swathe, and means of accurate track keeping been established and organised? Have marker personnel, if appropriate, been selected, fully briefed and trained and arrangements been made for the issue of operating instructions and supervision? Has an emergency plan been issued detailing arrangements in the event of an aircraft or personnel accident? Have adequate steps been taken to prevent chemical environmental damage to neighbouring property and health hazards to all personnel including markers?

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex E

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 1 of 1

Intentionally Blank

Aircraft Management Guide

ANNEX F

FACTORS TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT IN COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS
The Airfield

The following questions should be asked:

• • • • • • •

Does the airfield authority have an adequate plan for snow clearance?. Are inspection arrangements satisfactory? Is there an effective management and supervision chain to ensure operations are effective? Are arrangements made to ensure that aircrew are given timely and comprehensive advice on the suitability of the airfield? Is the appropriate snow/ice clearing equipment available and is its serviceability assured by routine maintenance? Are procedures written for the use of snow/ice clearing equipment, including the need for effective operation without detriment to airfield surfaces and installations such as lighting? Is there a contingency plan, including provision for the airfield being cut off for considerable periods? If preventative or surface de-icing fluids are to be used on the airfield, have HSE factors been fully taken into account? Salt or calcium chloride products should never be used. Do personnel have a clear understanding of the plan and the need to ensure that snow clearance does not in itself hazard operations, for instance by leaving snow banks at the side of the runway, or by clearing snow under certain circumstances and creating ice in its place? Are manoeuvring areas left large enough taking account of high winds and icing conditions? Is a Mu meter available to check the braking efficiency of the runway and are people familiar with its operation? Are frangible markers available for runways, taxiways and aircraft manoeuvring areas? adequate? Is lighting

• • • • • •

Are the runway thresholds adequately marked, bearing in mind, snow cover? Consider the use of red or orange coloured dyed water not less than 60 ft x 300 ft across threshold applied by spray after snow showers and renewed as necessary. This is particularly useful for a packed snow airstrip. Is the airfield equipped with appropriate communications, lighting (including temporary snow hazards), meteorological, navigation and approach aids? Is the fire fighting equipment suitable and prepared for use? Is it protected from freezing up, not least its contents, if water based? Is there an adequate flight following system?

Protection of Personnel

The following precautions must be taken:

• • • • •

For ground staff and passengers, consideration should be given to the wearing of high quality winter parkas, scarves, mitts, boots, balaclavas. Minimal amount of skin must be exposed. Clothing should be kept dry and clean, worn loose and in layers, and sufficient for warmth without overheating. Flight crews should have available to wear insulated coveralls or flight suits, fleece lined flying boots or military snow boots. Logistics should be planned to minimise external exposure. Personnel should keep out of the wind wherever possible. All ground operations should be conducted using 2 people in a buddy system. "Work outside for 15 minutes, warm up and inspect each other for frost bite, work another short period, warm up and inspect".

Aircraft Management Guide Annex F

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 1 of 7

ANNEX F

• • •

Sufficient rest and high calorie intake are very important. Avoid dehydration. Wear UV sun-glasses on bright days. If necessary, precautions, e.g. defence sprays, guns, should be taken against the possibility of unwelcome intruders such as wolves and polar bears.

Aircraft Equipment

The following should be considered:

• • • • • • •

Aircraft compass and navigation systems should be capable of operation in the climatic and geographic conditions of the area of operations. Aircraft should be equipped with independent navigation systems such as VLF-Omega with GPS/Satellite sensors or INS. If aircraft has a potable water system, measures should be taken to ensure it does not freeze, or system should be drained and not used. Lavatory must have glycol anti-freeze added every time the lavatory is serviced. Batteries should have battery blankets installed. These must be compatible with the local electrical supply system. Alternatively, the batteries can be removed at the end of the day, stored in a warm area, and reinstalled just before flight. A spare ELT and or battery could be worthwhile. Aircraft should carry a good supply of spare filters for fluids, O ring seals and packings. Supply of spare light bulbs in the cockpit should be doubled. Spare oils and fluids should be carried as deemed necessary. The aircraft should have the appropriate oil for the temperature - oil for grease where appropriate in sleeve bearings.

Aircraft Support Equipment

Carriage of the following support equipment would be appropriate for flights in Arctic regions:

• • •

Arctic and, if appropriate, sea survival packs. Sample contents of a basic Arctic survival pack are at Annex B Page 8. Engine covers and/or blankets, canopy covers, wing and tail covers if practical, and pitot head covers, and undercarriage wheel covers. Space blankets and/or sleeping bags.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex F

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 2 of 7

ANNEX F

CONTENTS OF BASIC ARCTIC SURVIVAL PACK

Compiled from Alaskan and Northern Canada requirements :
APPROXIMATE WEIGHT : 12lbs (5.4kgs) APPROXIMATE SIZE : 8" x 14" x 15" (excluding sleeping bags)

ITEM

QTY

DESCRIPTION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

30 ea 1 ea 4 ea 2 ea 1 ea 1 ea 1 ea 1 ea 1 ea 1 ea 2 ea 1 ea 1 ea 2 ea 1 ea 1 ea 4 ea 4 ea 4 pcs 1 ea 1 ea 2 ea 1 ea 1 ea

Dried soup Survival manual Space blankets - 56" x 84"/ compressed sleeping bags Box of matches Compass Water purifier kit Mirror / Lanyard assembly Flare kit Knife, positive lock Ration Insect repellent Fishing kit Flashlight Chapstick Rope - 12ft, 1000lbs, test nylon First aid kit Long burning candles assy. Cans Sterno Aluminium foil Aluminium pan Survival saw Head nets Gill net Inner & outer case, vinyl covered, international orange, snap fastened inside & out with handle.
2-man / 5 days

Maximum use/Duration =

Aircraft Management Guide Annex F

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 3 of 7

ANNEX F

• • • • • • •

Soft bristle broom with collapsible long extension handle for sweeping snow of wing and tail surfaces. De-icer fluid and means of application e.g. garden spray can. Spare flashlights and lots of spare batteries. Electric car warmers with internal circulating fan, 850 watt, one per engine. 500 -1500 watt thermostatically controlled heater with internal fan, to place in cockpit entrance. Electric extension cords, compatible with local supply. To avoid tripping, two separate sources may be required. Spare wheel assemblies with tyres (inflated +5 to + 10 psi above manufacturers recommendations) , tools, jack and jack pads and a suitable source of inflation should be carried if possible.

Ground Support for extended remote locations

The following should be considered.

• • • • • • •

Access to heated hangar if possible. Portable ground support heaters and blower units, fuel (e.g. kerosene) or electric. Specialist vehicles are sometimes available with flexible hot air ducts for both cabin and engine heating. Work tents or wind breaks, heavy duty and easily erected. Heavy duty portable lighting. Portable fuel powered generators. In the dry environment usually found in extreme cold weather zones, static electricity levels are high and sparks easily produced. During aircraft fuelling from either bowsers or drums, particular attention must be paid to bonding in order to prevent potential static electricity discharges. The movement of cold soaked fuel should also include additional precautions against the potential for damage to the filters and pumps. Diaphragm hand pumps are particularly unsuitable as they are prone to the flexible diaphragm failing after only a few strokes of the pump. Fuel bowsers usually pre heat the fuel to a limited level, but care must be taken to always protect the skin which will freeze on to any metallic parts such as the fuelling nozzle. If other than bowser fuelling is required, portable motor driven pumps should be used. All normal refuelling standards still apply and are covered in the refuelling section of this manual. Toboggans or sleds for moving equipment. Towbars (and chains for towing vehicles). Ropes, mooring cables and anchor points/snow pegs capable of securing the aircraft in very high wind conditions. All support equipment should be easy and simple to use (e.g. Cam locks on hoses). Equipment requiring a high degree of manual dexterity is not compatible with cold weather operations. A local acclimatisation flight before an operation could be useful to establish modus operandi and use of equipment.

• • • • • •

Aircrew Operations

To supplement any information contained in the flight manual, the following are some of the more general points that apply to cold weather operations:

Aircraft Management Guide Annex F

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 4 of 7

ANNEX F

Before Flight

• • • •

Do not skimp checks because its cold and wet. Do not fly with a cold or under medication. As well as the effect on the ear and sinuses, it can lead to disorientation, more dangerous in Arctic conditions. Ensure the aircraft is free of deposits of frost, ice, snow, and any "ice and de-icer gel", including control surfaces and hinges. If de-icing fluid used, there should be no significant delay before take-off. Be aware of the procedures on de-icing and hold-over times. Co-operate closely with the ground crew. CRM should be exploited fully to express any crew concerns on the icing state. Ensure that the aircraft icing condition is confirmed by an immediate pre-flight inspection. Ensure the ground crew have carried out the required procedure. DO NOT ASSUME IT WILL BE ALL RIGHT - CHECK!. Check undercarriage bays, tyres and micro-switches. Also intakes, upper surfaces of rotor blades control runs and bearings, pitot heads, static vents and drain holes. Ensure canopies clean and frost free with no de-icing fluid on them. Check pitot head heaters and anti-icing systems are working before taxying. Check all plugs and covers have been removed. Note minimum temperatures for starting/ rotors running; need for pre-heating (e.g. Herman Nelson Heater) Have a procedure in event of spillage; it will not drain away.

• • • • • •

Taxying

• • •

Taxi forward some distance before turning; it is easy to peel cold "square" tyres off their rims. Do not blast snow and ice over other aircraft, ground crew or ground equipment. Keep your distance from other aircraft and relate taxi speed to conditions. Avoid puddles and slush. Rotor downwash may restrict visibility due to blowing snow.

Take-off

Consider retarding effect of snow and slush on take off. As a general rule, if depth of slush exceeds 1/2 inch or dry snow 2 1/2 inches then take off should not be attempted unless allowed by the Flight Manual. Use driest section of runway, normally the middle. Also bear in mind of the possibility of abort stopping distances and any subsequent need to return to the airfield for a landing. If take off is surrounded by a vast expanse of unbroken snow, beware disorientation. Helicopters - from snow covered surface or near loose snow, make a maximum performance take off and prepare to go onto instruments. If possible leave your undercarriage down a little longer to blow off water, slush or snow to avoid subsequent freezing up of the undercarriage. Make frequent use of controls and trims during the climb and avoid areas of heavy weather if possible. Switch on anti-icing devices for both airframe and engine early. Be aware of possible slush build-up in helicopter engine intakes while ground running in falling snow. Check for Flight Manual entry. Extended hover checks are not compatible with max. performance take off.

• • • • • •

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Issue Date: February 1998

Page 5 of 7

ANNEX F

In-flight

• • • • • • •

Avoid flight in icing or wet snow conditions whenever possible. Know the conditions for engine and airframe icing and the remedial action. With helicopters, ice and snow can quickly accumulate on the exposed rotor head, control rods and airframe. These accumulations can then shed and may go into the tail rotor, causing tail rotor vibration or control problems. Where visual navigation is employed, be aware of the cloaking of ground features and dramatic changes caused by floods. Be aware of optical illusions e.g. false horizons created by unusual forms of aurora boriaylis. Frequently cross check position because of the risk of magnetic anomalies. Be familiar with icing let down procedures and the effect of icing on aircraft controllability and performance. When slinging in snow conditions, the helicopter can create blowing snow in the hover. Therefore it is difficult to see signals from the ground men. Use the radio and extra caution.

Approach and Landing.

• • •

Stand off or divert if conditions are not satisfactory for a safe approach and landing. Visual perception can be affected by snow, mist and rain: use PAPIs and VASIs and do not rely on just one method of monitoring the glide path. In helicopters, to avoid `white-out`, the approach and landing should be planned with little or no hover, to minimise the effect of rotor down-wash on the snow. After touchdown, slowly reduce the collective until the aircraft is firmly on the ground. A slight rotation of the cyclic, whilst decreasing the collective, will help `seat` the wheels or skids. When landing on sloping ground, beware of the helicopter sliding down slope. If unhappy, don't trust to luck but move to another area of more suitable ground. Do not continue an approach below Decision Height or Minimum Descent Height, unless the criteria for a visual landing has been fully satisfied. Be prepared to go round again or divert. When runways are slippery, land positively without drift on the centre line. Beware of aquaplaning and understand its cause, formulae and characteristics. Notify Air Traffic Control/Operations if actual weather was different or worse than forecast. A log helipad may be required for use on snow or ice. Shell Aircraft is available to provide the necessary advice.

• • • • •

Groundcrew Operations General

• • • • •

Ensure groundcrew are adequately trained and supervised for cold weather operations. Manning should take account of the more difficult operating conditions. Do not skimp checks because it is cold and wet. Keep the hangar door closed to keep heat in. Parked aircraft should, where practical, be chocked with the brakes off to avoid freezing on (unless specified otherwise in the Flight Manual). Take care when climbing ladders and standing on the aircraft. Use wing mats. Some Russian aircraft have the ability to secure spanwise cables to which ground crew can strap themselves.

Aircraft Management Guide Annex F

Issue Date: February 1998

Page 6 of 7

ANNEX F

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Do not handle cold metal with bare hands or place items e.g. pip pins, in the mouth. Be aware that prolonged cold reduces efficiency - TAKE CARE. Use extra care when handling or towing ground equipment. Keep a lookout for ice, dirt, grit and sand. Clean downlocks. exposed portions of hydraulic jacks and microswitches properly, but beware of over-lubrication. Hydraulic leaks are more likely after a sudden drop in temperature. Ensure wing and tail surfaces are free of all ice and snow. Correctly position helicopter wheel mats. Position ground heater units downwind of aircraft entrances to avoid exhaust contamination. Soak the felt edges of blanks and control locks with de-icing fluid if frost is forecast. Fit covers as soon as snow starts, but ensure canopies are clean and dry before fitting them. If possible, move the aircraft into a heated hangar long enough to ensure all surfaces, control hinges, etc., are dry. Avoid moving aircraft out of hangar if snow is falling; it will melt on contact with the aircraft skin and then form ice as metal cools. De-icing would then be necessary. Apply approved de-icing fluids in accordance with the rules laid down. If sweeping is employed, the aircraft must be earthed and rubber soled boots must be worn. Aircraft parked outside should be fitted with blade covers.

De-icing Fluid

• •

Ensure de-icing equipment heaters are switched on each evening whenever adverse conditions are forecast. It is vital to comply with the instructions for use with the equipment and particular de-icing fluid used. Holdover times, i.e. the period after de-icing before build up recommences, varies with the anti-icing code of the type of deicing fluid and the prevailing conditions. Do not de-ice too early before take off as the aircraft may freeze up again. Do not use fluid near hot surfaces or near any type of engine exhaust. Avoid canopy areas and ensure fluid does not get into cabin conditioning system Spray from the front of the aircraft and NEVER CHIP ICE OFF AN AIRCRAFT SURFACE

• • •

Ground Running

• • •

Do not blast snow or ice into other aircraft, equipment, or people. Beware of movement on icy surfaces, even when chocks are fitted. Use guards where appropriate, but beware of ice accumulation on the guard mesh..

Marshalling

• • •

Give more room to turn and allow a greater stopping distance. Wear high visibility clothing. Beware helicopters weathercocking and over responding to yaw input when operating from packed snow.

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Aircraft Management Guide

Part 6 - Glossary

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

The following terms and abbreviations are provided for the general reference of readers whose main area of experience is not in the aviation field, and where they appear in other documents for example, in regulator publications, may have a more detailed and specific definition. ADELT ADF Aeroplane Air Taxiway Aircraft AM APS Weight ASDA ATC Auto-hover facilities Automatically Deployable Emergency Locator Transmitter. Automatic Direction Finder (used in conjunction with NDB - Non Directional Beacon) Fixed wing aircraft. A defined path on the surface established for the air transiting of helicopters. Any flying machine - includes both aeroplanes and helicopters. Amplitude Modulated. Aircraft prepared for service weight: fully equipped operational aircraft but empty, i.e. without crew, fuel or payload. Accelerate Stop Distance Available. Air Traffic Control A sophisticated electronic flight control system which enables a helicopter to transition to and from, and maintain a hover without outside visual reference. Without such a system, approved by the relevant aviation authority, night search and rescue or winching operations over water are not practicable. A general term covering the range of fuel required by piston reciprocating aero engines. See Chapter 6 an arrangement of regular automatic booking of a number of seats on an airline schedule. The average flight time between two locations - this method is often used when quoting prices. The quantity of e.g. fuel held in reserve or for use between bulk deliveries. Civil Aviation Authority. The national regulatory authority. Sometimes called the CAD (Civil Aviation Department). A term sometimes used to refer to the pumping and filtration units at a small refuelling station. The slinging point, beneath the belly of a helicopter, for the attachment of external cargo by means of a sling/swivel. An emergency evacuation by air or a person who has sustained an injury requiring medical treatment not available at the current position of the casualty.

AVGAS Balanced Field Block booking Block time Buffer stocks CAA Cabinet Dispenser Cargo hook Casevac

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Part 6 - Glossary

CDP

Critical Decision Point - a notional point in a helicopter takeoff profile before which the aircraft must land back immediately, and after which it should continue and establish safe single-engine flight in the event of failure of one power unit. Extension to runway as described in Chapter 6. An element within the filter/water separator that causes any water present in the fuel to gather together and separate out. Used to describe an aircraft with a dual passenger/freight capability, utilising a divided cabin e.g. Boeing 747 Combi. These are tests which are used to determine whether a fuel has become corrosive through poor handling procedures. The Copper Strip Test applies to all aviation fuels whereas the Silver Strip Test applies to JET A-1 only. Those tests should be carried out in a laboratory. Cockpit Voice Recorder A factor used in determining the safe life of an aircraft component, e.g., an engine cycle will include on start-up, a period of running and one shutdown. An equipment altitude, used in aircraft performance calculations, which takes into account the pressure altitude and air temperature. Distance Measuring Equipment A term used to describe the arrangement when an operator leases an aircraft but provides his own crew and maintenance support. Dropping Zone A heliport located on a raised structure on land. Emergency Locator Transmitter. Estimated Time of Arrival. Estimated Time of Departure. The formation of gum is a rare occurrence and is usually caused by presence of high boiling point contaminants such as lubricating oil and anti-corrosion inhibitors. Tests for existent gum are carried out by a laboratory. Federal Aviation Authority - the USA Civil Aviation Authority. Final approach and take-off area. A defined area over which the final phase of the approach manoeuvre to hover or landing is completed and, where the FATO is to be used by Performance Class 1 helicopters, includes the rejected take-off area available Flight Data Recorder. A device, usually based on a micro filter which is arranged to stop fuel flow if excessive water and/or dirt is present in the fuel. A vessel containing special elements which provide filtration and cause any water to coalesce and be separated from the fuel. Usually used to describe the limitations on an aircraft, in terms of maximum and minimum speeds at altitudes under various conditions.

Clearway Coalescer Combi. Copper Strip Corrosion Silver Strip Corrosion

CVR Cycle

Density Altitude DME Dry Lease DZ Elevated heliport ELT ETA ETD Existent Gum

FAA FATO

FDR Filter Monitor Filter Separator Water Separator Flight Envelope

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Part 6 - Glossary

Flight Watch Fly Way FM GPWS Gross Performance

The radio reporting and monitoring procedure set up to ensure that an aircraft's flight progress is continuously tracked at a ground station. The area beyond the landing and transition areas which has been cleared to allow take-off and approach at a remote helicopter site. Frequency Modulated. Ground Proximity Warning System. The measured performance of a test aeroplane adjusted so as to be representative of the type and reflecting either a fleet mean or minimum guaranteed engine power. A defined area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected and/or prepared as a suitable area over which a Performance Class 1 helicopter may accelerate and achieve a specific speed and height. A ground taxiway for use by helicopters only. An aircraft stand which provides for parking a helicopter and, where air taxying operations are contemplated, the helicopter touchdown and liftoff area. An aerodrome or a defined area on a structure intended to be used wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of helicopters. A drilling rig which can be dismantled into small components and carried as underslung loads by helicopters to remote locations which are not readily accessible by road or river. High Frequency High Intensity Strobe Light A weave gauze filter used in handling aviation gasoline. An agreement for the sole use charter of an aircraft specified by hull or serial number or registration number. International Air Transport Association International Civil Aviation Organisation Instrument Flight Rules. Internationally agreed rules governing the conduct of flight without visual reference and to ensure separation from ground obstacles and other aircraft. Instrument Meteorological conditions. Weather minima below which flight must be conducted under IFR. International Standard Atmosphere Invitation to Tender An often referred to Aeronautical Information Publication providing airfield and airspace information. The most widely-used and generally recommended fuel for consumption by gas turbine aero engines (e.g. turbine-powered helicopters, turboprop and pure jets).

Helicopter Clearway

Helicopter Ground Taxiway Helicopter Stand

Heliport

Helirig

HF HISL Hollander Weave Filter Hull Charter IATA ICAO IFR

IMC ISA ITT Jeppesons Jet A-1

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Part 6 - Glossary

LDA LDAH

Landing Distance Available (Chapter 6) Landing distance available. The length of the final approach and takeoff area plus any additional area declared available and suitable for helicopters to complete the landing manoeuvred from a defined height. In the fuel context, the slow absorption into the fuel or impurities from the containing material. The ratio of aircraft payload fulfilled to payload available, expressed as a percentage. A document signed by a member of the crew which lists the passengers, baggage and freight carried on an aircraft. Copies are: i. ii. iii. filed at the point of departure carried on the aircraft to in-flight reference, and left at the destination.

Leaching Load Factor Manifest (aviation)

Medevac

A non-urgent medical situation requiring a seat in an aircraft at a time to be specified by the medical department. This term gives no indication of priority, which should be advised by the doctor. See also medrescue. A 'life and limb' emergency in which an aircraft flight is necessary for an evacuation or doctor's visit in order to prevent death or serious damage to a person's health. Mandatory Occurrence Report Non Directional Beacon The gross performance of an aircraft adjusted downwards to account for reasonable errors in operational variables and flying techniques. The period between half and hour after sunset and half an hour before sunrise at ground level. National Fire Protection Agency Notice to Airman issued by the Regulatory Authority. Nautical Mile Maintenance of components without a fixed overhaul interval. Continued use dependent on periodic inspection, up to ultimate retirement life. By common usage taken to mean refuelling through open filter cap rather than sealed pressure connection. A rigid platform which supports goods during storage and transport, usually allowing entry below for the tines of a forklift truck or other lifting device. In aircraft operations a pallet may be used to spread the deck loading Precision Approach Path Indicator. Aircraft carrying capacity in terms of weight for passengers and payload. This will decrease with any increase in fuel. The capability, measured by various parameters such as rate of climb, take-off distance etc., of an aircraft under various condition of weight, altitude and temperature.

Medrescue

MOR NDB Net Performance Night NFPA NOTAM NM On Condition Maintenance Overwing Refuelling Pallet

PAPI Payload Performance

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Part 6 - Glossary

Podmed Field Power Settling PPE Progressive Maintenance Public Transport

Described in Chapter 6 A dangerous condition that can be encountered by helicopters in vertical or near vertical descent - see vortex ring state. Personal Protective Equipment Aircraft maintenance schedule that is not based on inspection and major maintenance at fixed hourly intervals, but on continuous attention in order to reduce the length of unavailable periods. An aircraft is deemed to be flying for public transport if hire or reward is given or promised for the carriage of passengers or cargo. There are other minor qualifications

RMI Road Bridger RPT RTODAH

Radio Magnetic Indicator A vehicle used for the bulk transport of fuel by road. Regular Public Transport. A term used by some regulatory bodies for scheduled services. Rejected take-off distance available. The length of the final approach and take-off area declared available and suitable for Performance Class 1 helicopters to complete a rejected take-off Regulated Take-off Weight. The maximum weight for take-off, governed by performance requirements at specified weight, altitude and temperature. A defined area on a heliport surrounding the FATO which is free of obstacles, other than those required for air navigation purposes, and intended to reduce the risk of damage to helicopters accidentally diverging from the FATO. Search and Rescue. Government or independently resourced. Search and Rescue Beacon Equipment Satellite Communications A collapsible rubber tank suitable for transporting aviation fuel by underslinging from an helicopter. Statistical term also used for costing purposes e.g. the cost/seat-mile = cost of moving one passenger one mile. The distance or time between one take-off and the subsequent landing. An agreement for the charter on a sole or part-use basis of the services of an aircraft. The type and specification will be agreed, but not an individual aircraft, so it may be drawn from a pool. Standard Instrument Departure Standard Operating Procedure See section 6.1.7 Standard Terminal Arrival Route. Short take-off landing - used to describe a short field capable aircraft e.g. the Twin Otter. Extension to runway described in Chapter 6.

RTOW

Safety Area.

SAR SARBE SATCOM Seal Drums Seat-mile Sector Service Agreement

SID SOP Standing Waves STAR STOL Stopway

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Part 6 - Glossary

Surface Level Heliport Thief Pump TLOF TODA TODAH

A heliport located on the ground or on the water. A pump used for taking samples from various levels in the tank. Touchdown and lift-off area. A load bearing area on which a helicopter may touch down or lift off. Take-off Distance Available (Chapter 6) Take-off distance available. The length of the final approach and takeoff area plus the length of the helicopter clearway (if provided) declared available and suitable for helicopters to complete the take-off.. Take-off Distance Required (Chapter 6) Take-off Run Available (Chapter 6) The additional lift, resulting in reduced power demand, experienced by a helicopter as it transitions from the hover to forward flight. The effect reaches its maximum at 25-30 kts. Decision point used on take-off. Below this speed the take-off run can be aborted safely. Above this speed take-off should be continued. Take-off safety speed. Visual Approach Slope Indicator; a system of coloured light beam arranged to define a safe approach angle to an airfield. Visual Flight Rules. Rules requiring aircraft to remain at specified distances from cloud, and in specified flight visibility in order not to have to comply with the Instrument Flight Rules. In essence, see and be seen. Very High Frequency. Visual Meteorological Conditions. The weather conditions required to pertain for flight under VFR. VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range A dangerous state that can be experienced by helicopters in vertical or near vertical descent with power on, which, if allowed to develop may result in a uncontrollable sink rate. Normally proficient handling will prevent this condition occurring. Speed at which the aircraft is rotated on take-off. See Filter Separator. An arrangement under which an operator bases in an aircraft complete with crew and usually, maintenance personnel. The maximum zero fuel weight is the weight of an aeroplane above which all weight must consist of fuel. It is a structural loading limitation normally applying to aircraft in the corporate/executive size range and upwards.

TODR TORA Translational Lift

V1 V2 VASI VFR

VHF VMC VOR Vortex Ring State

VR Water Separator Wet Lease Zero Fuel Weight

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What is OGP?
The International Association of Oil & Gas Producers represents the world’s oil and gas industry. Our members include private and state-owned oil and gas companies, national associations and petroleum institutes.

What do we do?
Our purpose is to: • provide information about the oil and gas exploration and production industry; • represent our members’ interests at global and regional regulatory bodies; and • develop operating guidelines.

What are our aims?
We aim to: • increase understanding of the industry; • work with international regulators to develop workable proposals which take full account of industry views; • contribute to continuous improvements in industry operating standards; • be a visible and approachable organisation to which governments and others refer on matters relating to the industry; • maintain a large, diverse and active membership; and • communicate issues affecting members to international bodies and the public.

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