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I. Psychodynamic Perspectives
Psychodynamic perspectives see personality as being primarily and as
developing in . This perspective emphasizes how with parents are
important in sculpturing an individuals personality.
A. Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud believed that anything involves sex.

Freud developed what is known as , his approach to personality. He developed

this approach through his work with patients who suffered from , which is
described as having physical symptoms without any physical cause. Freud
believed that hysterical symptoms had many causes in the .
occur when someone says something they didnt mean to say. Freud
believed that they revealed thoughts.

1. Personalitys Structures
Freud believed that personality had three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego.
o The id is instincts and an individuals reservoir of psychic energy.
The id is unconscious and works on the principle, which
states that individuals seek pleasure and avoid pain.
o The ego deals with the demands of reality. It tries to bring an
individual pleasure within the norms of reality, a condition known as
the principle. It is partially conscious.
o The superego is the moral part of the personality. It is what people
refer to as their . It considers whether the ids impulses can be
satisfied in normal terms but does not consider reality.

Defense Mechanisms
o Defense mechanisms are strategies used to among the
demands for reality, the wishes of the id, and the constraints of the
superego. They reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

allows a person to direct unacceptable impulses at a less

threatening target.

is one of the more powerful defense mechanisms, because it

pushes unacceptable id impulses out of awareness and back into the
unconscious mind.

o Defense mechanisms are and, when used in moderation, are

not necessarily .
o When denial is used in a healthy manner it can help a person .
o A person uses when they transform undesirable impulses into
activities that benefit society.

3. The Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development

o The stage occurs from birth until 18 months of age. In this stage
the infants pleasure center is around the mouth. Chewing, sucking,
and biting are sources of pleasure.
o The stage occurs from 18 to 36 months of age. The childs
pleasure is then centered on the anus and urethra and the eliminative
functions associated with these areas.
o The stage occurs between three and six years of age. Pleasure in
this stage focuses on the genitals as the child discovers selfstimulation. The comes into play during this stage. It is
the intense desire for a boy to replace his father and enjoy the
affections of his mother. also occurs during this stage,
this being intense fear in a boy of being mutilated by his father.
o In Freuds view, girls were considered to men, because girls did
not have a penis.
o The period occurs between six years of age and puberty. After
the stressful time of the phallic stage, in this period the child represses
all interest in sexuality.
o The stage occurs between adolescence and adulthood. It is a
time of sexual reawakening. The source of sexual pleasure comes at
this stage from outside the family.
o Freud believed that an individual could become at any one of
these stages if they underindulged or overindulged in any one of the
B. Psychodynamic Critics and Revisionists
1. Sigmund Freuds Critics
Freud had many critics who believed that his thoughts on sexuality, early
experiences, social factors, and the unconscious mind were misguided.
Some of the chief criticisms of Freud were that is not the pervasive
force behind personality, the first five years of life are not as powerful as he
said in shaping adult personality, the ego and the thought processes
play dominant roles in the personality, and factors are more important
than Freud believed.

Karen Horneys Sociocultural Approach

o Horney argued that previous research about how women was
limited by the fact that those who had been describing women were
o She argued against , saying that both sexes envy the attributes
of the .
o She argued that the basic human need was for , not sex, and that this
need was the prime motive in human existence.

3. Carl Jungs Analytical Approach

o For Jung, the is the impersonal, deepest layer of the

unconscious mind.

are emotionally laden ideas and images that have a rich, symbolic
meaning for people. Two of the main archetypes are the , which is a
woman, and the , a man.

4. Alfred Adlers Individual Psychology

o According to Adler, individual psychology is whats operative when people
are motivated by and . It is , not pleasure that is the key
o Adler introduced the idea of compensation or striving to overcome or
inferiorities by individuals developing their own abilities.
o He believed that factors were more important than the sexual
motivation in shaping personality.
E. Evaluating the Psychodynamic Perspectives
o Some of the psychodynamic theories in place today still share some of the same
principles of Freud: Personality is still seen as being determined both by
experiences and those that came in life. Personality can be better
understood by looking at it . People mentally transform their experiences.
The mind is not all consciousness. An individuals inner world conflicts with the
outer demands of reality. Personality and judgment are rightful, important topics
of psychological inquiry.
o Some researchers have criticized the psychodynamic perspective, because they
claim it presents too and a view of people.
o Critics have also questioned the scientific basis of psychoanalysis, saying that it
is not a theory that can be through empirical research.
II. Humanistic Perspectives
The humanistic perspective stresses that a person has the capacity for personal
growth, freedom to his or her own destiny, and human qualities.
The humanistic psychologist believes that everyone has the ability to with
stress, control their lives, and achieve what they desire.
A. Abraham Maslows Approach
Maslow believed that humanistic psychology neither dealt with Freudian drives
nor with the stimulusresponse principles of behaviorism.

Maslow considered that motivation was set up in a , at the top

of which was the need for -, the motivation to develop ones full
potential as a human being.
According to Maslow, people who have achieved self-actualization would be
of others, have a sense of humor, and be likely to pursue the

B. Carl Rogerss Approach


Rogerss studies led the way for contemporary studies of self-esteem, personal
growth, and self-determination.
He believed that most people have difficulty accepting their own true
feelings. He thought that all people are born with in them but as they grow
up the people around them them to move away from their genuine feelings.
Explaining Unhappiness
o is what Rogers referred to as the term for accepting,
valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of that
persons behavior.
o are the criteria Rogers says we must live up to in
order to be valued by others. He suggested that in order to others
and their love, we move away from our genuineness.
o A central theme in Rogerss theory was that of the -, an
individuals overall perceptions and assessments of his or her abilities,
behavior, and personality

Promoting Optimal Functioning

o Rogers believed that a person must reconnect with his or her true
and .
o Rogers claimed that in order to arrive at their true feelings and desires,
a person must have a relationship in which they can experience
, , and .
o Having empathy means being a listener and another
persons true feelings.
o Being genuine means being open with ones and dropping ones
and faades.

C. Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective

The humanistic psychologists brought to the way an individual
perceives himself or herself and the outside world, which is a key element in

Some psychologists believe the humanistic perspective to be too about

human nature, saying it overestimates the freedom and of humans.

III.Trait Theories
A trait is an personality characteristic that tends to lead certain
Trait theories state that the personality consists of broad, enduring
dispositions that tend to lead to characteristic .

People can be described in the way that they .

A. The Trait Theory of Gordon Allport

Allport believed that to understand healthy people, the focus must be on their
lives in the present, on their childhood experiences.

He believed that the study of personality should on healthy, welladjusted individuals.

In defining personality, Allport believed that it should stress the uniqueness of

all individuals and their capacity to to the environment.

He used a approach, which was based on the idea that if a trait was
important to an individual in real life, it ought to be represented in the natural
language individuals use to talk about each other.

B. The Five-Factor Model of Personality

The big five factors of personality used to describe individuals are ,
, , , and .

Neuroticism is the phenomenon of feeling emotion more often than


are more likely than others to engage in social activities.

is related to higher IQs, liberal values, open-mindedness, and tolerance.

is related to generosity.

is related to healthy behaviors and longevity.

C. Cross-Cultural and Animal Studies Done Using the Five-Factor Model

Research has found that some version of the five factors appear in people in
such areas as Canada, Finland, Poland, China, and Japan.
Evidence suggests that some of the five factors appear in domestic .
General personality traits seem to appear in orangutans, geese, lizards, and
The Hexaco Model, an alternative to the Big Five Factors, incorporates a sixth
factor, /.
D. Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Well-Being
Research shows a strong relationship between personality traits and wellbeing.
is related to higher levels of well-being, to lower levels. This
has also been seen in orangutans.
E. Traits, Mood, and Subjective Well-Being
- is the self-judgment of ones level of positive and
negative feelings and an assessment of ones life in general.
David Watson suggests that are the core trait of neuroticism,
positive emotions the core trait of extraversion.
1. Traits and States
o Traits are characteristics; are briefer occurrences.
o Strategies for enhancing a positive mood:
Spend more time with people you .

a positive mood so that it will last longer.

F. Evaluating the Trait Perspectives

Studying an individual according to his or her traits allows a person to
know that person better. Also, the traits individuals have influence their
, the way they think, their career choices, and their with

Critics argue that the trait approach is missing the importance of the
in personality and behavior.

IV. Personological and Life Story Perspectives

The personological and life story perspective stresses that the way to understand an
individual is to focus on his or her ; that is, the aspects that distinguish them
from others.
A. Henry Murrays Personological Approach
1. Murray came up with the term personology to refer to the study of the whole
person. He believed that in order to understand an individual, that individuals
had to be understood.
2. During World War II, Murray was asked to develop a psychological profile of
Adolf Hitler. This began the practice of what is currently used as .
3. Murray believed that an individuals motives are largely to that person.
B. The Life Story Approach and Identity
Dan McAdams developed what is known as the life story approach, which
says that all individuals have their life story that is full of ups and
downs. The stories represent that make the individual who he or she is.
The is the enduring concern for warm, positive interpersonal
imagery in the stories that people tell.
Personality psychologists attempt to apply a single theory to a persons life in
a .
Life stories provide an excellent opportunity for the researcher; however, they
are very time to follow up on and are to manage. Also, in order
for a life story study to be worthwhile, the story must tell more than what
could be found in a much way of gathering data.
V. Social Cognitive Perspectives
The social cognitive perspective emphasizes awareness, beliefs, , and
Social cognitive theorists are not interested in traits but instead investigate how more
specific factors such as relate to behavior and performance.
A. Albert Banduras Social Cognitive Approach

Where B. F. Skinner saw behavior as being caused by a situation, Albert Bandura

saw the individual as situations, and he argued that sometimes the
definition of the situation itself depended on the individuals about it.

Bandura believed that behavior, environment, and both and factors

are all important in understanding personality. He came up with the term
to describe the way all these factors interact to create personality.

1. Observational Learning
Through observational learning, individuals form about the behavior of others and
then may adopt this behavior for themselves.
2. Personal Control
o An individual can and his or her own behavior, despite a
changing environment.
The of control is behavioral control
from inside the person.
The of control is behavioral control
from outside the person.
3. Self-Efficacy
o Self-efficacy is the belief that an individual can a situation and
produce positive outcomes. It determines whether people
to develop healthy habits, how much effort they expend in coping
with stress, how long they persist in the face of obstacles, and how much
pain and stress they experience.
B. Walter Mischels Contributions
1. Consistency and the Person-Situation Debate
o Mischel examined the research on trait prediction of behavior and found
something missing. He concluded that there was evidence for
cross-situational in behavior.
o He believed that personality often changes according to a given
situation. His view, often called , suggests that personality and
behavior often vary considerably from one context to another.
o Research shows that the and more a trait is, the more likely
it is that it will predict behavior. Research also indicates that some
people are on some traits, others on different traits, and
personality traits exert a stronger influence on an individuals behavior
when situational influences are powerful.
2. Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) Theory
o Cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) theory says that an
individuals thoughts and emotions about and the affect
their interactions with the environment and become linked together in
ways that matter to behavior.

o The CAPS approach is consistent with how personality , not what

it .
o CAPS theory focuses on the way people behave in situations and
uniquely interpret situational features.
C. Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspectives
Critics of this approach argue that the social cognitive approach is too concerned
with and influences on personality. They argue that this approach
ignores the role that plays in personality. They also argue against its
attempts to incorporate both the situation and the person in its view of personality.
This approach tends to lead to a very prediction for individual in any
given situation.
VI. The Biological Perspective
Hippocrates suggested that man is born with one of basic personalities,
based on the bodily fluids.
Personality psychologists recognize that personality involves both the brain and
biological processes.
Freuds psychosexual stages show a connection.
Gordon Allport defined traits as .
Henry Murray declared, No brain, no personality.
A. Personality and the Brain
An extraverted persons left frontal cortex was found to be more responsive to
stimuli and neurotic peoples more responsive to stimuli.
An extraverts amygdala is more responsive to seeing faces than is that of
B. Hans Eysencks Reticular Activation System (RAS) Theory
The reticular activation system of extraverts and introverts differs with the level
of baseline arousal. Extraverts wake up being under- aroused and introverts
overaroused. patterns aim to regulate baseline arousal.
C. Jeffrey Grays Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory
Reinforcement sensitivity theory is based on animal research. There are two
systems: the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition
system (BIS). These base systems are the characteristics of the personality.
The BAS is sensitive to in the environment, predisposing one to feelings of
positive emotion and thus promoting the trait of extraversion.
The BIS is sensitive to and avoidance learning. It predisposes the person
toward feelings of fear and underlies the trait of neuroticism.
Gray proposed the idea that are in charge of the manifestation
of the BAS and BIS. The amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated
cortex seem to serve as a system for affective style and thus offer some evidence
of the BAS and BIS.
1. The Role of Neurotransmitters


is a factor in the BAS and extraversion.

is a factor in the BIS and neuroticism. It is also implicated in
aggressive behavior.

D. Personality and Behavior Genetics

Behavioral genetics refers to the underlying component of behavioral
Studies with twins show that factors can explain observable differences in
each of the big five factors in personality.
Heritability estimates are about 50 percent for the big five factors.
1. Behavioral Genetics
o Childhood memories are influenced by genetics. Twins raised by
different families tend to remember family experiences.
o Heritability for family cohesion is approximately 40 to 60 percent.
E. Evaluating the biological perspective
Biology can be the effect of personality traits, not their cause.
Personality itself may play a role in the brains structure and functions.
VII. Personality Assessment
A. Self-Report Tests
A self-report test, also called a subjective test, directly asks individuals with specific items
describing their personality trait.
1. Assessments of the Big Five Factors
o The Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory
Revised is a self-report test geared at assessing the five factor model. It
also examines six subdimensions that make up the five factors. These
items have , meaning that on the surface they seem to fit
the trait in question.
o An test presents a host of questionnaire items to groups of
people who are already known to be different in some central way.
2. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
o The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most
such assessment. The most recent version of the test, the
MMPI-2, assesses personality and predicts outcomes.
B. Projective Tests
o A projective test is one that presents individuals with an and then
asks them to describe it or tell a story about it. They are thereby their
meaning onto the stimulus.
o The test is such a projective test. It uses an individuals perception
of an inkblot to determine their personality.

o The Test (TAT) is designed to elicit stories that reveal something

about an individuals personality. It consists of a series of pictures, about which
the person taking the test is asked to tell a story.
C. Other Assessment Methods
o Behavioral assessment is based on an individuals behavior directly. It
assumes that the behavior cannot be evaluated outside the individuals
o The strategy in using cognitive assessment in personality evaluation is to
discover what underlie a friends or peers behavior.
o When direct observation is not possible, the psychologist may ask an individual
to make his or her assessment of behavior.