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Purpose Main Language Functions Sub Language Functions (Possible) Teacher Talk

Initiating the instruction

Beginning the lesson


y Good morning (afternoon) class. y Good morning (morning) everyone. y Good morning (afternoon) students.


y Before we start, let s pray together. y Let s pray everyone. y Let s pray students, shall we? y Let s pray together. Budi, will you lead the prayer, please?

Checking students attendance

y Is everyone here? y Who is not here yet? y Who is absent today?

Inquiring students absence

y Why is she/he absent? y Why? y Is there any letter for his/her absence?

Inquiring students being late

y Why are you late? y Why are you late again?

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Checking students readiness
y Are you ready class? y Are you all ready students? y Let s start the lesson. Are you ready everyone?

Inquiring the previous lesson.

y Where were we last time? y What did we talk about last time? y Where did we stop last time? y Were we talking about (name of the topic)

Recalling/reviewing the previous lesson

y Let s have a quick review on our previous lesson. y Well, last time we discussed . y Our last discussion was about .. y We discussed . last time.

Delivering the instruction

Structuring the lesson

Stating the day s topic

y Today we re going to discuss/talk about/deal with . y Our today s discussion is y Students, today we will see . y Today we are going to do an experiment on .

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Limiting the scope of the topic
y The topic is broad. We will only a part of it, that is . . y We will focus our discussion on several topics. These are y Alright. Let s limit today s discussion on three points: y We shall divide our discussion into (three, .) parts. First, we will talk about . . Then. Will focus on .. Finally, we will touch on .

Setting goals and objectives

y At the end of this session, you will be able to .. y By the end of this session, you are expected to have been able to ..

Explaining the significance of the lesson

y This lesson will benefit you in several ways. These are . y There are several benefits from this lesson y The benefit of the lesson is that you will y There are several advantages you can gain from this lesson. First, .

Asking questions

Asking possibility

y What happens if we .. ? y If we . what will happen?

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Asking causes/effects
y What are the causes of .? y What are the effects of .? y Is there any relationship between . and . y What is the relation between . and .

Asking relationship


y Don t you think that . y Do you think that

Checking understanding

y Are you with me everyone? y Do you get the point? y Is there any question? y Do you have any question? y Is everything clear to you? y Are we clear?

Changing sub topics


y Let s discuss topic two. y Let s move onto the next part. y We have been talking about .. Now, turn our discussion to .. y Next, we will be talking about ..

Responding to students performance

Giving remarks

y y y y y y

Right. That s good. Excellent! Very good. Absolutely correct. Ok. Yes. Right.

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Motivating students
y Try it again, Jeni. I m sure you will make it. y If you have more practice, you will improve. I m sure. y Maybe you need some more practice, Jeni.

Expressing dissatisfaction

y Nope. y That does not answer the question yet, Dani.

Stating agreement


y y y y y y y

Why not? Of course. Okay? Go ahead! Agreed. Sure. Right.

Asking the students to do things


y Go right ahead. Ok? Then turn left. The scale in on the rack. y Come here, Boni. Look at the picture! y Look at the blackboard! y Come in front of the class, Moni.


y Do you mind cleaning the blackboard, Rita? y Sit over there, will you please Boy? y Would/could you please stand up everyone? y May I have your favor, Noni? Take this glass to


y How about v+ing (drawing the line here?)

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Requiring attention
y Everyone, may I have your attention please. y Everyone, please listen. y Your attention please. y Plug in the wire please to the LCD. y Please adjust the focus. y Project the pictures on the screen/wall please. y Sari, turn the power on/off, please. y Bring that extension cable please.

Using learning aids


Using the black/whiteboard

y Clean the board please. y Write your answer on the blackboard.

Using books/references

Distributing the books

y Please pass the books to the back, please. y Could you circulate the dictionary, please?

Getting the book out

y Gets your books out, please. y Have your exercise book ready everyone. y Take your physics book out please.

Finding the page

y Open page 25, please. y Open your book please. Page 25. y Open your book please on page 25.

Showing the position on a page

y The graph is at the bottom of page 33. y The formula is at the footnote on page 99.

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y Congratulation on your achievement. y Congrats, John.



y I m sorry for my coming late class. y Sorry for the inconvenience. y Please accept my apology for my faults. y Thanks. y Thank you very much. y Thanks a lot. y Thanks for cleaning the board. y Thanks for your patience. y Thank you for your attention.


y Don t forget to . y Next time, please don t come late. y Next time, please be on time.


y Everyone, please be informed that . y I want to tell/inform you that


Administering tests or exams

Preparing the test or exams

All books closed please. No dictionary please. Please use no calculator. Everyone, please spread your seats. y Please sit on every other chair.
y y y y


y Be quiet, please! y Work on your own please! y Silence please!

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Ending the exams
y Well, 5 more minutes. y 5 more minutes. y Time is up. Stop working. Collect your work please. y Time is over. Stop working and leave your work on the table. y Stop working please. Return the test paper please together with the answer sheet. y Has everyone submitted the test paper and the answer sheet?

Ending the lesson


Checking the student s learning

y What was the topic we discussed today? y What have we discussed so far? y What do we learn from the topics?

Summarizing the lesson

Asking the students to stop working

y In short, the lesson today was about y Let s summarize the lesson. It is obvious that . y In brief, we can say that . y It s nine thirty. It s time to stop the lesson. y Well, I think we must stop the lesson now. Time is up. y All right everyone. It s time to end the lesson now.

Assigning homework

y For home work, please do exercise 7 part 2. Hand in your work next week. y Could you please do task 6 as homework?

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y y y y y

See you. Bye. Bye-bye. See you next week. See you on Friday.

*With some addition and modifications by Gunadi HS (of materials for Classroom English, Developer Team of Self-Learning Materials of English for Science)


Berikut ini diberikan dalam bentuk bagan -bagan berbagai instruksi, petunjuk, serta larangan dalam bahasa Inggris untuk mengatur kegiatan pembelajaran yang seharusnya dilalui siswa agar tercipta pembelajaran yang effektif. Fungsi -fungsi yang tercantum di sini terkait dengan berbagai kegiatan, yaitu:
1. membuka pelajaran 2. mengecek kehadiran

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3. mengatur kondisi fisik kelas 4. mempersiapkan kelas 5. memasuki tahapan-tahapan pembelajaran 6. menggunakan alat Bantu 7. membentuk kelompok 8. mengatur cara kerja: kelompok, individu, berpasangan 9. mendisiplinkan siswa 10. menutup pelajaran atau mengakhiri tahapan pembelajaran. Agar terbiasa menggunakan classroom language yang tepat maka sebaiknya ungkapan ungkapan yang diberikan da pat secara aktif diterapkan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Jika guru selalu menggunakan ungkapan -ungkapan tersebut dalam proses pembelajaran maka siswa juga akan terbiasa untuk memahami, menanggapi, dan akhirnya menggunakan berbagai ungkapan tersebut.

Perlu dicatat bahwa tanggapan terhadap instruksi dan larangan adalah berupa tindakan. Namun dalam kegiatan komunikatif lisan, seringkali suatu tindakan didahului atau disertai tanggapan lisan, seperti: 


Yes, alright Yes, I will Me! No, alright Alright No, I¶ll do it Yes, of course Certainly, Mr. Ahmad This bit here? Here do you mean? Yes, OK No, OK

Siswa hendaknya dibiasakan untuk menerapkan ungkapan -ungkapan tersebut untuk menanggapi instruksi dan larangan guru. 1. Beginning the lesson Well, did you have a good weekend? Did you enjoy your holiday? Did anyone do anything interesting during the weekend? What did you do last night? What did we talk about last lesson?

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Etc. more about that? Can you tell me Could what the party the program was like? the football

each other ask OK, can you talk to your friend your neighbor about «.?

Just a minute

Rina, Budi, Ahmad,

you¶ve just said something. Yes, Fajar? let someone else have a turn. Go on, Tuti. you¶ve said a lot today.

Wait a second
Not you again

2. Checking attendance You¶ve been absent for 3 days, haven¶t you? You¶ve missed 6 lessons, haven¶t you? You were away yesterday, weren¶t you? You were absent on Friday, right?

What was the matter? Have you been ill?

Sorry to hear that. Oh? Oh, dear.

Tell me about it. Can you tell me about it? Please will you tell me about it?

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Expected responses:
Well, I had a bad cold. I had an accident.

catch up You¶ll have to
Well, Ali, ask your friends

won¶t you? to help you. to tell you what we¶ve done.

Come and see me after the lesson, OK? Stay behind after the lesson and I¶ll see you.

Late comers:

Hello, Hari, you¶re late today. Good morning, Rio. You¶re rather late again. Did you miss the bus or forget the time? Did you get up late or was the bus late? Did you get stuck in the traffic? Did you set out late?

today, Well,

never mind
it doesn¶t matter

just for once, this time,

but next time try to be on time.



done that. come so late.
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you shouldn¶t really

ought to Well, you should have

come on time, really. told me if you had to go to a doctor. asked someone to tell me. set out earlier

you¶d better try not to
you¶d better not Alright, but you mustn¶t could you please try not to forget(it) be late

again. next time. next lesson.

Sit down now please. Would you sit down, then, please. Go and sit down, then.

Right! Back to Let¶s get on with Let¶s get back to Right. we¶ll go on with 3. Physical conditions in the classroom It¶s rather hot in this room, isn¶t it? It¶s too stuffy in here, isn¶t it? It¶s very dark in here, isn¶t it? It¶s terribly untidy in here.

the register. the lesson. what we were doing. our work.

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It¶s much too noisy for you to hear me.

tidy up would you? settle down Please will you? be quiet could you? open the window would turn could Please can will someone put you switch the light those lights the fan on? off?

could you Please would you will you go and

ask fetch get

someone to fix somebody to mend Pak Hasan the window? the light?

Good. What a nice clean classroom we have now. Well done, thank you.

4. Getting organized

can Please,

you clean someone

the blackboard? the whiteboard?


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Would you mind cleaning the board, please?

half. Just clean this Leave that Don¶t clean bit. side. part. Thank you. section.

the top Could you clean the bottom


corner, please?


rub Please could you wipe off

the words on the sentences

the left at the right

the top? the bottom?

Rub Clean Leave this on

everything off
it all please.

Thanks. Thank you.

straightening the chairs moving up a bit Now, would you mind moving back a bit sitting in groups of 4 making a bigger space here


all Will two Would Could three you both

straighten your desks tidy your desks put all your books/papers/files straight please?

put that rubbish in the bin
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move your desk this way make a gangway through here

in up your chair(s) Could you move Would you table(s) I want you to desk(s) along back forward this way please?

that way
turn your chair round

3? arrange yourselves Could you possibly arrange your chairs to form in to make groups of 5? 6? 4?

Right! Now! you Alright! OK only just need your

Science books blue books

exercise books
notebooks and pencils workbook


Put all your other books and papers away. No others! That¶s all. You only need the sheets I told you to get out. Ready? Let¶s go on. You don¶t need the books. Not those. Ready? Now we can start. Not that book. The other one. The red one.

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papers to give out I have some new books to hand round worksheets today.

give these out, Susan? Please will you help Susan? Thanks.

back these papers Pass this work round along please.

Take one and pass them on. Hand these papers round, please.

They¶re for you to keep. You may have them to keep.

I¶m afraid you can¶t keep them. I want these back, please. I want them back at the end of the lesson. You must give them in again so please don¶t write on them. Alright? OK?

5. Introducing different stages of the lesson Right. Who can remember what we did last lesson? Can anyone tell me what we talked about last time? go over it again, Let¶s review it, do it once more, shall we?

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doing it again quickly?

How about
What about

reviewing it? having another practice? going over it again?

OK? Alright?

First Then Later(on) In a few minutes Half way through the lesson Near the end of the lesson At the end of the lesson When we¶ve finished this Now, Right now we¶re going to I want you to perhaps we¶ll if there¶s time we¶ll if you¶ve been good, we¶ll practice this. learn something new. listen to a lecture. do some reading. do some note taking. have a break for a minute or two. do a simple experiment.

6. Using teaching aids

overhead projector? the go and fetch Could Would Will you bring me someone find somebody get out some thermometer? these beaker? a sticks? that folders of cards? box of ...?

Please could you OK, I¶ll

put it fix them stick up here. Is that

alright? straight? high enough?

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worksheets these cue cards boxes out please?

One Two Three

each per pair. between two.

Could you

hand pass

the jar. Take a good look at Have the picture. the plants.


Where How

do you think «?

on the left on the right the people Look at the buildings Tell me about the scenery What about the surroundings in the middle in the center of the poster. of the picture.

at the top
at the bottom in the top right -hand corner. in the bottom left corner.

Now let¶s I¶m going to

rub the picture off. take it down.

Would someone I¶m going to

it take them down now and put them it

on my desk. away. back in the drawer. away?

collect the pictures
put the laboratory equipments

Could anyone

back in the cupboard?

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7. Dividing the class up

I want you in We¶re going to work in Can you get into

pairs groups


In twos, with your neighbor. In fours. In groups of four.

Turn round and Move forward Can you face

face look at

your neighbor. the person next to you. behind you? the people in front of you?

Look, you Why don¶t you

move up and make a three. turn round and join in with them.

Look, you Why don¶t you

move up and make a three. turn round and join in with them.

What about How about Would you mind

joining in with them? going to sit there, next to him? moving along a bit and working with them.

In your

pairs groups

I¶d like you to would you you¶re going to

discuss the problems. fill in the table based on the results of the experiment. do the exercises.

a group of 4. I¶d like you to make a group of 3. a group of 5.

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That was good. OK. Stop now. Not bad. Well done.

Silence! Quiet please! That¶s enough. Let¶s hear

what some of you have done. this group. how have you been getting on.

In chorus:

all of you you all I want everybody I¶d like the whole class to this half that half one of you just one person discuss the effects of global warming. solve the problems. read the instruction carefully. correct my statement. fill in the table.

Accompanying expression:

Don¶t put your hands up. Altogether. Everybody! Listen! Ready? Everyone can try. Come on. Yes, you as well. very clear. No! That wasn¶t Oh dear! altogether. very good. Shall we try it Let¶s do it again. Ready?

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Now one at a time. Not all together. Listen before you answer. Hands up before you answer. Could you put your hands up before you answer, please?

Yes, good answer. But a bit louder, please. Again?

Now this time, don¶t put your hands up. I¶ll point. Everybody can try, but one at a time. I¶ll ask one of you. Don¶t shout out. Ready? Quiet. Listening?

You can take turns. You can all have a go. You can have a turn, but one after the other. One by one. Right?

Turn taking:

their first, your It¶s his her turn third, go second,

then, it¶s your

go and so on. turn

Rini It¶s you

first. Now next.

you. Quickly! Budi.

That¶s it. Good.



was it?

Not yours.

Come one.

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turn is it? It¶s hers. Be quick.

It¶s his.
Come one! wasn¶t it Wake up! isn¶t it Hey!


go? turn?


Have you all Good.

a go had a turn

now? yet?

Who hasn¶t
Has anybody not

For this, Now,

I¶m going to I¶ll

divide you down the middle. divide you in half.

Ok. Now

wait listen

while I explain

how to do this experiment. what we¶re going to do.

answer first? Which group can do it best? present the experiment results

8. Control and discipline

Don¶t do that! No, don¶t!

That¶s silly. Settle down.

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Stop that! Stop doing that! That¶s enough. You mustn¶t do that. Be quiet. Come on, let¶s get on. Now listen. Now get on with your work. Let¶s start again.

Now then,

behave in class. that¶s not the way to do the exercise. do it.

No. Fitri,

playing around! chatting! No No more Stop Please will you stop Without You should be making a noise! Get on, being silly! Calm down, shouting! Listen, disturbing the others! Be quiet, behaving like that! Settle down, whispering! speaking Bahasa Indonesia! copying! do it on your own! please.

talking No writing while

I¶m talking. I¶m writing on the board.

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I¶m explaining this. Don¶t talk we¶re doing this. the others are still working.


I tell you to. talk Don¶t You mustn¶t You¶d better not You needn¶t start answer write it down until unless I¶ve finished. I let you. you¶ve understood. I ask you to. I¶ve said it all. everyone¶s ready. everyone¶s finished.

read it

this book. that page. Wait a minute! Not this one. No, not the dialogue. that way. This book. That one. That page. This way. This one. Here. Look. Like this.

do it

the way the exercise

I told you? I asked you?

Could you

read write

be careful, be quiet, You¶d better

listen next time,
try harder, watch out,

hadn¶t you?

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pay attention, it¶ll go in one ear and out the other! If you don¶t listen properly concentrate

If you

do that again forget it again don¶t do your homework once more don¶t work harder keep on wasting time

I¶ll I¶ll have to I¶ll definitely I¶ll simply

send you to Mr. Hasan. set you extra work. tell the Headmaster. write to your parents. punish you. tell your parents.

9. Ending the lesson or a stage in the lesson

I think Right!

we¶ll stop

there. doing this now. now.

You¶ve done enough that. You¶ve had enough practice at that. We¶ll have a short break and a rest. It¶s time you had a change now. finished that now.

You¶ve done that quite well. Well done. Most of you have done that very nicely. But you could perhaps still do better.

oral work. begin So let¶s go on to writing. some reading.

At home, Tonight,

not now,


the work we¶ve done in class.

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learn write practice read revise the exercise on page 9. the next topic.

Write it

in your notebooks out neatly on paper


give it in I¶ll go over it

tomorrow morning. next lesson.

For homework At home Before next lesson

I want you to

finish this piece of work. continue with these exercises, up to 8. do exercises 2 to 5, including 5. go over what we¶ve just learnt. read pages 67 to 74 and answer the questions.

It must be done by Can you give it in I¶ll test you on it

next lesson. next time I see you. tomorrow morning at 8.30. some time this week. Tuesday, latest.

Good. Well done. Pack your books up. Put them away.

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Collect the work, please. Give back my papers. Are your desks tidy? Right. You may go. Goodbye.

homework collect work your take in papers books now please.

I want I¶d like


Make sure your names are on your work, won¶t you?

give it/them in? pass it/them up to collect it/them the end of the row?

Please will you

the front?

Give it in now, please. Pass your work up, now please. Put your work on my desk as you leave. Pile your book up here. Make 3 piles. Thank you, everyone. Well done.

Could you

collect the books we¶ve been using,



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Will you see all the library books are returned, put everything back in its right place, Rosa, everyone,

the desks are straight. make sure could you those books are put away. you¶ve not forgotten anything. the board is clean. all the library books are there.

Before you all leave,

see that would you check that

Lisa, Ahmad,

it¶s your job today to isn¶t it your turn to

clean the board. make sure it¶s all tidy for the next class.

something to tell you I have some announcements to make

before you go. Could you listen, please?

to bring the money for «next lesson.

Will you please remember Don¶t forget

there¶s a club meeting on «.

practiced « So today we have read about « and you¶ve learnt how to «.

Next lesson we¶ll

go on to « revise «

« and do«

It¶s time

for us to


now, OK?

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for you to to

have a break
clear up

Well, I hope you all have a good weekend. I hope you enjoy yourselves. Goodbye, everyone, see you all tomorrow.

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