A UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER WITH VOLTAGE SAG/SWELL COMPENSATION CAPABILITY

Maurício Aredes and Rodrigo M. Fernandes
UFRJ – Federal University of Rio de Janeiro COPPE – Electrical Engineering Program LEMT – Laboratory for Power Electronics and Medium Voltage Applications www.lemt.ufrj.br; aredes@ufrj.br; rodrigo@eneltec.com.br Abstract: Traditionally, Unified Power Quality Conditioners (UPQCs) are designed for simultaneous compensation of voltage and current harmonics and imbalances. Moreover, the shunt active filter of the UPQC behaves as a controlled current source to compensate the load current, whereas the series active filter behaves as a controlled voltage source to compensate the supply voltage. Here, a dual configuration of UPQC, denominated as the iUPQC, is presented. In contrast to the conventional UPQC, the shunt active filter of the iUPQC behaves as an ideal ac voltage source and the series one as an ideal ac current source. One negative aspect in the conventional approach of UPQC is the voltage and current PWM controls of the power converters. The PWM controls must deal with nonsinusoidal compensating voltage and current references, with aleatory frequency spectra. In this case, it is impossible to theoretically unsure zero steadystate error in all frequencies components. Contrarily, the iUPQC has a fundamental positive-sequence current reference for the series active filter and a fundamental positive-sequence voltage reference for the shunt active filter. Beside all those compensation characteristics of the UPQC, the iUPQC can also keep the load voltage constant, at the nominal value. In other words, it has voltage sag/swell compensation capability, with fast response, comparable to that of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed iUPQC controller. Keywords – active filters, p-q theory, power quality, unified power quality conditioners I. INTRODUCTION lanced current drained from the network. Usually, the series active filter of a UPQC is used for compensating the supply voltage, whereas the shunt one is used for compensating the load current [4]. Therefore, the series active filter behaves as a controlled voltage source and the shunt active filter behaves as a controlled current source, as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore, the conventional approach of * UPQC (Fig. 1) is controlled by nonsinusoidal voltage ( vC ) * and current ( iC ) references. The compensating voltage reference will comprises a fundamental component, if the UPQC controller is designed for compensating voltage sag/swell or voltage imbalances, as well as all harmonic components in the supply voltage vS within a given frequency range to be compensated. On the other hand, the compensating current reference comprises a fundamental component to compensate the power factor of the load and all harmonic currents of the nonlinear load. This aleatory multiple-frequency characteristic of the voltage and current references makes the design of the controls and converters of the active filters very difficult. Actually, in a practical implementation, the performance of the UPQC is degenerated by the limited capability of the PWM controls to track accurately their nonsinusoidal references. To overcome the above mentioned drawbacks of the conventional UPQC, this paper presents a dual approach, called here as iUPQC. The idea consists in having both the series and the shunt converter of the iUPQC being controlled as a sinusoidal current source and as a sinusoidal voltage source, respectively. This idea is not new. It was originally proposed by Moran, in 1989 [8]. In that work, a single-phase universal power conditioner based on current-sourced converters (CSC) was proposed. Later, three-phase voltage-sourced
vC iS iC vS
L
C Vdc vf vS iS
PWM voltage control

S

IMULTANEOUS active filtering of grid voltage and load current is becoming a real issue due to the actual tendencies to restrict standards and grid codes from the harmonic pollution point of view. On the other hand, the industry and other sectors are employing an increasing number of sensitive loads that requires high quality of electric power supply [1]. Voltage sags and voltage swells cause serious losses in the manufacture processes. The Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is a flexible approach for simultaneously active filtering the supply voltage and the load current [2] to [7]. In other words, the UPQC protects critical loads against voltage disturbance propagating through the power system, and compensates the current of these protected loads to ensure sinusoidal and ba-

iL

L

vL

vC*

iC*

PWM current control

if

UPQC controller

iL

Fig. 1. Conventional arrangement of a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC).

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vS

vL

iS
ϕ

iL

vC

iS iC

iL

vC iS iS vS iUPQC vL

iL

vS
if

L

C Vdc
PWM current control

L

vL
vf

iC

i+1 v +1
iUPQC controller

harmonic sensitive loads

PWM voltage control

vS

iL

vL

Fig. 3. Power circuit of the iUPQC.

Fig. 2. The dual principle of Unified Power Quality Conditioner: the iUPQC.

converters (VSC), in a similar configuration as the UPQC shown in Fig. 1, were applied in UPS systems, but also having the series converter as a controlled current source and the shunt converter as a controlled voltage source [9][10]. Fig. 2 shows the principles of the iUPQC. The shunt active filter generates a fundamental positive-sequence voltage at nominal value. Thus, the compensated load is supplied under regulated, sinusoidal and balanced voltage conditions (vL). On the other hand, the series active filter imposes a fundamental positive-sequence current (iS) to be drained from the network. In steady state, the series active filter drains a positive-sequence current in phase with the fundamental positive-sequence component of the supply voltage vS. The magnitude of iS correspond to the average active power demanded by the load, plus an active current component to compensate for losses inside the iUPQC. Since the shunt active filter of the iUPQC behaves as an ideal positive-sequence voltage source, it offers ideally null impedance for harmonic currents, whereas the series active filter offers ideally infinite impedance. Hence, all harmonic currents injected by the nonlinear load will be forced to flow into the shunt active filter of the iUPQC. In other words, the shunt converter of the iUPQC behaves also as an active filter (iC) for the load current. Additionally, the shunt active filter supplies also the reactive power of the load, since the series active filter drains only the corresponding active portion (iS) of the load current. All voltage disturbances that may propagate in the power system, including voltage sags or swells, harmonics and imbalances, which may affect the supply voltage vS will remain as a voltage drop across the terminals of the series active filter (vC = vL – vS), because the load voltage vL comprises only a fundamental positive-sequence component, imposed by the shunt active filter. II. POWER CIRCUIT OF THE iUPQC The power circuit of the iUPQC is the same of a conven-

tional UPQC. Fig. 3 shows the power circuit and the voltages and currents measurements that are needed as input signals in the iUPQC controller. The iUPQC is composed of two PWM converters connected back-to-back through a common dc link. Three single-phase transformers are employed to insert the series converter between the power system and the load. The convenience of using or not shunt transformer is more related to economical issues regarding voltage/current levels and power ratings of the system and power converters of the iUPQC. The main difference between the UPQC (Fig. 1) and the iUPQC (Fig. 3) consists in replacing the nonsinusoidal voltage PWM control by a sinusoidal current PWM control in the series converter, and replacing the nonsinusoidal current PWM control by a sinusoidal voltage PWM control in the shunt converter. If compared with the conventional UPQC (Fig. 1), the iUPQC (Fig. 3) has a simpler controller and reduced number of measurements. Only the system voltage, the dc-link voltage and the load current are necessary as inputs to the iUPQC controller. The other two measurements, the shuntconverter voltage (vf) and the series-converter current (if) are used in the minor feedback loops of the PWM controls. Since the series converter behaves as a controlled current source that drains a fundamental positive-sequence current (i+1) in phase with the supply voltage vS, it provides high impedance for the harmonic currents of the nonlinear load. The compensating voltage vC that appears across the series transformers corresponds to the difference between the load voltage vL, imposed by the shunt converter, and the supply voltage vS. Since vL corresponds to a fundamental positivesequence voltage reference v+1, all voltage imbalance, voltage sags or swells, as well as voltage harmonics that may appear in vS are compensated by vC. The shunt converter of the iUPQC provides low impedance for harmonic currents coming from the nonlinear load, and adjusts the magnitude of the load voltage vL, as well as supplies the fundamental reactive current of the load (power factor compensation). Note that the current reference i+1 of the series converter is in phase with the fundamental positive-sequence component V+1 of the supply voltage vS.

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Shunt active filter control

v+1α v+1β

+

v+1α vfab
abc → αβ

+ _ _ +

KV

+
αβ → abc Sinus PWM

v Sab v Sbc

vSα
abc → αβ

vS β

PLL circuit

′ vα
′ vβ
iS α

current reference
+ +

i+1α i+1β

vfbc

Synchronizing control

v+1β

+

S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12

KV

+

Series active filter control

iLa iLb

abc → αβ

iS β

p-q Theory
_ +

p

p

Low-pass filter

Fig. 5. Voltage PWM control for the shunt converter of the iUPQC.

v dc
dc-link voltage regulator

PI– Controller

ploss

Vdc Ref

Fig. 4. Basic control block diagram of the iUPQC controller.

III. THE iUPQC CONTROLLER The controller of the iUPQC is very simple. It is based on the p-q Theory [11]. A fundamental part of this controller is the synchronizing control circuit based on a Phase LockedLoop (PLL), which tracks accurately the frequency and phase angle of the fundamental positive-sequence component of the supply voltage vS. Fig. 4 shows the complete control block diagram of the iUPQC controller. Since the present approach of iUPQC is designed for application in three-phase three-wire systems (without neutral conductor), zero-sequence components are out of interest. Hence, simplified 2x2 matrixes of the Clarke Transformations [11], and a reduced numbers of measurements can be employed as input signals for the iUPQC controller, as shown in Fig. 4. In this case, two line-to-line voltages, vSab and vSbc, of the power supply and two line currents, iLa and iLb, of the load are used as inputs to the main part of the iUPQC controller. Additionally, the dc-link voltage is used as input in the dc-link voltage regulator of the iUPQC controller. The voltages and currents measurements in Fig. 4 are normalized, such that they have unity amplitudes at nominal conditions. The supply voltages vSab and vSbc are transformed to αβ-variables [11], and given as inputs to a well-known topology of PLL circuit, the q-PLL [12]. The two auxiliary ′ ′ control signals vα and vβ produced by the q-PLL are pure sinusoidal with constant unity amplitudes, and tracks continuously the frequency and phase angle of the fundamental positive-sequence component ( V+1 ) of the supply voltage vS. In terms of normalized values, these auxiliary signals correspond to the desired voltage that the shunt converter of the iUPQC has to generate to permanently supply the protected load under nominal voltage conditions. A gain k is used to properly adjust the amplitudes of the voltage references v+1α and v+1β with respect to the dc-link voltage reference VdcRef, such that they effectively produce the desired nominal voltage through the voltage PWM control of the shunt converter.

Fig. 5 shows the voltage PWM control used in the shunt converter of the iUPQC. Note that it has been implemented in terms of αβ-variables. This allows the use of only two feed-forward control loops, which minimizes the errors in the generated voltage vf at the secondary side of the shunt transformer. This feed-forward control utilizes just a gain KV to multiply the voltage error. Hence, this control structure cannot provide zero-error in steady state. It was preferred in this initial stage of development of the iUPQC due to its simplicity. In future developments, since the compensating voltage references v+1α and v+1β are sinusoidal at a known frequency, the feed-forward structure will be replaced by ProportionalResonant Controllers (PR-Controller) [13]. The current references i+1α and i+1β for the series converter are calculated from the average real power ( p ) of the load, the output signal ploss given by the dc-link voltage regulator, ′ ′ and from the auxiliary signals vα and vβ produced by the q-PLL. The Current Reference block in Fig. 4 realizes the following equation.

′ ⎡i+1α ⎤ ⎡( p + ploss ) vα ⎤ ⎢i ⎥ = ⎢ ′⎥ ⎣ +1β ⎦ ⎣( p + ploss ) vβ ⎦

(1)

When the iUPQC is compensating voltage sags or swells, the signal ploss is responsible for providing a circulating real (active) power through the dc-link of the iUPQC that is necessary to keep the load being supplied under nominal voltage. A simple example follows to better understand this feature. Assume that the supply voltage vS drops to 0.8 pu, and the load voltage vL is maintained at 1.0 pu by the shunt converter. For simplicity, assume that the load is draining 1.0 pu of current with unity power factor. Under these conditions, the PI-controller of the dc-link voltage regulator will adjust the signal ploss, such that (1) will provide a 1.25 pu of current reference (i+1) for the series converter, to provide energy balance inside the iUPQC. In other words, the signal ploss, forces the series active filter to drain from the power system the total energy delivered to the load. That is the unique condition to keep constant the dc-link voltage of the iUPQC. From (1), it is possible to see that the series active filter always drains only active current from the power system (unity power factor). Therefore, in steady state, the power drained from the network is equal to the power supplied to the load, that is, pS = pL . Note that pS = vSiS = 0.8x1.25 = 1 pu.

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220

Since the voltage on the series active filter is vC = vL – vS = 0.2 pu, and the current passing through the series transformers is 1.25 pu, the series converter is injecting 0.25 pu of active power into the system (pseries = vCiS). On the other hand, the shunt converter drains a current iC = iS – iL = 0.25 pu, which means that shunt converter drains 0.25 pu of active power into the dc link (pshunt = vLiC), providing energy balancing inside the iUPQC. As conclusion, the a circulating power from (to) the shunt converter to (from) the series converter of the iUPQC appears during voltage sags or swells compensation. Fig. 6 shows the implemented current PWM control for the series converter of the iUPQC. The current references i+1α and i+1β determined by the iUPQC controller (Fig. 4) are the principal inputs of the current PWM control of the series converter. Two feedback minor loops are implemented by measuring the shunt converter current if, as shown in Fig. 3. To improve the performance of the Proportional-Integral controller (PI-controller) in Fig. 6, the estimated compensating voltages vCα and vCβ of the series active filter is provided as "disturbances" in the PWM control system, in a similar way as usually implemented in several applications of shunt active filters [11]. Note that these compensating voltages are estimated from the measured supply voltages and the voltage references for the shunt converter, already available in the iUPQC controller, as shown in Fig. 4. Finally, it should be highlighted that the PI-controller in the current PWM control cannot guarantee zero-error in steady state, because the PWM control is implemented in the stationary αβ-reference frames and the compensating current references i+1α and i+1β have sinusoidal waveforms at the fundamental frequency. Again, this control strategy should be replaced by PR-Controllers, as presented in [13], in a future stage of development of the iUPQC. IV. COMPLETE DIGITAL MODEL OF THE iUPQC For the purpose of fast developing the program code of the digital controller of the iUPQC prototype that is based on a fixed-point DSP (TMS320F2812), a user-defined library in
v+1α
_+

the PSCAD/EMTDC electromagnetic transient program was developed. It allows writing and testing the program code – already written in fixed-point arithmetic – together with the digital modeling of the power circuit of the iUPQC and the experimental test setup that will be used in the laboratory, altogether, in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment. This procedure has saved much time and permitted to eliminate a laborious task after simulations, that is the translation of the control system from the continuous-time domain to the discretetime domain (digital control system). Further, it reduced the risks of damages in the experimental stage of development. Basically, the extra user-defined blocks consist of interface blocks that serves as I/O interface between the PSCAD electrical system and control variables and the variables in the digital controller of the iUPQC. An additional user-defined block was created containing a header and a footnote to provide alias between PSCAD/EMTDC parameters/variables and the program code parameters/variables of the iUPQC digital controller. In the core of this user-defined block the complete fixed-point program code is written and tested. When finished, this core of program code can be transferred directly to the DSP of the iUPQC experimental prototype. The laboratorial test setup including the iUPQC prototype was constructed for a power rating of 220 V, line-to-line voltage, and 14 A, line current. The measured voltages and currents are normalized by their amplitude values, instead of their rms values. Thus, 311 V and 20 A are used as basis for the normalized measurements. The dc reference value, VdcRef, for the dc-link voltage is 450 V. The complete digital model of the laboratorial test setup that was implemented in the PSCAD/EMTDC program consists in three major blocks: the source, the iUPQC and the non-linear load, as shown in Fig. 7. The three-phase voltage source block consists of three ideal voltage sources composed of a fundamental positive-sequence component that is imbalanced with a fundamental negative-sequence component and is distorted by a 7th-harmonic component, behind an equivalent source impedance composed of a resistance of 50 mΩ in series with an inductance of 0.5 mH. A threephase diode rectifier with an RL dc load of 20 Ω and 10 mH was used as the non-linear load. Three commutation inductances of 0.5 mH were used in this rectifier. Initially, The development of the experimental test setup of the iUPQC was more useful for proving control concepts than for optimizing system parameters. In other words, not all parameters of the down-scaled iUPQC experimental proVa Three-phase Vb Voltage Source with unbalance Vc
& 7th harmonic In A In B In C

vSα i+1α ifa ifb
abc → αβ

v Cα
+

+ _
PI

+
αβ → abc Sinus PWM

_

i+1β

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6

+

PI

vSβ

_ +

+

+

vCβ

iUPQC

Out A Out B

A B LOAD C

v+1β

Out C

Fig. 6. Current PWM control for the series converter of the iUPQC.

Fig. 7. Major blocks of the complete digital model of the experimental test setup involving the iUPQC prototype.

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221

K1 A B C K2 InA InB InC A B C
*

K2 A B C OutA OutB OutC 20 [Ω] 20 [Ω] 20 [Ω]

K4

RL3

1 [mH] 1 [mH] 1 [mH] 4 [uF] 4 [uF] 4 [uF]

Leg 1 PWM1 Leg 2 Leg 3 Vcc+

PWM2

PWM3

PWM4

PWM5

PWM6 Leg 4 Leg 5 Leg 6

750 [μ H] 750 [μ H] 750 [μH] 20 [μF] 20 [μF]

C

1e12 [Ω]

PWM1 PWM2 PWM3 PWM4 PWM5 PWM6

C

A

B

*

A

B

ware that will be uploaded in the DSP of the iUPQC prototype. This library was named as DSPSim/PSCAD Library. Fig. 9 shows the control block structure that was build up inside the DSP TMS320F2812 symbol shown in Fig. 8. The fixed-point arithmetic based program code is inserted in the Interruption Routine Block of Fig. 9. Several simulation cases were carried out to tune the RC filters and adjust the gains of the control system. The following figures show the final results, in steady-state conditions. Fig. 10 shows the three-phase voltage generated by the shunt converter of the iUPQC that supplies the non-linear load. Fig. 11 shows the three-phase current generated by the series converter of the iUPQC (source current) that is drained from the power grid. As expected, the shunt converter of the
References Measures

THREE-PHASE BACK-TO-BACK

V_cc VccPWM7 PWM8 PWM9 PWM10 PWM11 PWM12

3.9 [Ω]

3.9 [Ω]

5 [Ω]

5 [Ω]

5 [Ω]

PWM7 PWM8 PWM9 PWM10 PWM11 PWM12

iUPQC Power Circuit iUPQC Control

1e12 [Ω]
PWM1 PWM3 PWM5 PWM2 PWM4 PWM6
PWM1 PWM3 PWM5 PWM2 PWM4 PWM6 Din_01 AD_01 AD_02 Din_02 AD_03 AD_04 AD_05 AD_06 AD_07 AD_08 AD_09 AD_10 AD_11 AD_12 AD_13 AD_14 AD_15

1e12 [Ω]

Acquisition & Conditioning
Ias Ibs Vabs Vbcs Iaf Ibf Vabf Vbcf Iap Ibp Ibl V_cc Vabl Vbcl Ial 0.0 Gain 41,322314 41,322314 2.45098 2.45098 41,322314 41,322314 2.45098 2.45098 41,322314 41,322314 41,322314 2.94118 2.45098 2.45098 41,322314 0 MA1_AD1 MA2_AD2 MV1_AD3 MV2_AD4 MA3_AD5 MA4_AD6 MV3_AD7 MV4_AD8 MA5_AD9 MA6_AD10 MA8_AD11 MV5_AD12 MV6_AD13 MV7_AD14 MA7_AD15 OFFSET Offset 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 notused notused notused K2 K4 RL3 erro serie shunt bypass link

DSP TMS320F2812

Din_03 Din_04 Din_05 Din_06 Din_07 Din_08 Dout_01 Dout_02 Dout_03 Dout_04 Dout_05 Dout_06

Inputs from command buttons

0 K1

3.9 [Ω]
erro link bypass serie shunt H1 H2 H3 H4 H5

Dout_07 PWM10 PWM12 Dout_08 AD_16 PWM8 PWM9 PWM11 PWM7

PWM7 PWM9 PWM11 PWM8 PWM10 PWM12

Fig. 8. Digital model of the experimental test setup involving the iUPQC prototype.

20 [μF]

CONVERTER

1 0.5 0

totype were optimized in this stage. For instance, an already existing large capacitance in the dc link, C = 9400 μF, was left unchanged. The power converters of the iUPQC were mounted using 1200 V, 200 A, IGBTs. The switching frequency of the power converters is 10 kHz, whereas the sampling frequency of the A/D converters is 20 kHz. Fig. 8 shows some details of the digital model of the iUPQC that was implemented in the PSCAD/EMTDC program. No shunt transformer was used and two circuitbreakers switch on and off a resistor of 20 Ω for pre-charging the dc-link capacitor. The shunt converter has L = 750 μH as commutation inductance, and 3.9 Ω and 20.0 μF as RC filter. The series transformers have 1:1 turn ratios with a nominal power of 5 kVA. The commutation inductance of the series converter has 1.0 mH, and the RC filter has 5.0 Ω and 4.0 μF, respectively. In the lower part of Fig. 8 are two major blocks that contain all user-defined components of the library that was developed specially for directly testing of the embedded soft8-in & 8-out digital I/O 12 PWM outputs
Measurements & Conditioning

Voltage (pu)

-0.5 -1 8.4833

8.4875

8.4917 Time (s)

8.4958

8.5

Fig. 10. Three-phase voltage generated by the shunt converter of the iUPQC that supplies the non-linear load.
References Measures

1.5 1 Current (pu) 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 8.4833 8.4875 8.4917 Time (s) 8.4958 8.5

Fig. 11. Three-phase current generated by the series converter of the iUPQC (source current).
1 Shunt Source Load

DSP
Level #0

16 analog inputs

0.5 Current (pu)

A/D conversion

0

PWM signals

interruption clock

interruption routine

-0.5

Reference signals

Legend: Page Module
-1 4.4833 4.4875 4.4917 Time (s) 4.4958 4.5

Level #1

triangular carrier

Sinus-PWM

Fortran Block

Fig. 9. The DSPSim/PSCAD User Library.

Fig. 12. a-phase currents of the load, the iUPQC shunt converter, and the source current.

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V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS After simulations, the program code was extracted from the PSCAD environmental and uploaded in the DSP of the iUPQC prototype. Fig. 13 shows an outlook of the mounted iUPQC prototype. The following experimental results confirm that the digital model of the iUPQC that was implemented in the PSCAD/EMTDC represented with sufficient accuracy the real iUPQC prototype. The following results were obtained with the iUPQC being supplied by vS = 220 V (line-to-line voltage), compensating a three-phase diode rectifier of 15 A (dc current). The normalized scales (pu values) is 127x(2)1/2 V for voltages and 15 A for currents. With the iUPQC already in operation, Fig. 14 shows the instant (t ≈ 1 ms) when the load is connected. This figure shows the line voltage vLab delivered to the load, the load current iLb, the shunt converter current iCb, and the series converter current iSb. Ideally, the current iSb should be 150º lagging the supply voltage vSab (not shown in this figure). The active filtering characteristic of the shunt converter of the iUPQC is confirmed in this figure. The iUPQC prototype was tested under unregulated and imbalanced supply voltage conditions. Fig. 15 shows the phase voltages vSa, vSb, and vSc that are being supplied by the grid, whereas Fig. 16 shows the compensated voltages that

voltage (pu) and current (pu)

iUPQC behaves as a shunt active filter and supplies the reactive power of the non-linear load, as shown in Fig. 12.

vLab iLb

iSb

iCb
time (s)

Fig. 14. Experimental results from the iUPQC prototype: connection of the nonlinear load.
vSc

vSa

vSb

voltage (pu)

time (s)

Fig. 15. Experimental results from the iUPQC prototype: imbalanced supply voltages (phase-to-neutral voltages).
vLc

vLa

vLb

voltage (pu)

time (s)

Fig. 16. Experimental results from the iUPQC prototype: compensated load voltages (phase-to-neutral voltages).

are being delivered to the non-linear load. It shows that the iUPQC provides regulated and balanced voltages to the load. VI. CONCLUSIONS An alternative approach of Unified Power Quality Conditioner – the iUPQC – was developed. A user-defined library – the DSPSim/PSCAD User Library – was developed to allow writing and testing the fixed-point arithmetic based program code that serves as the embedded software in the DSP of the controller of the iUPQC prototype. This procedure saved time and reduced risks of damage in the experimental

Fig. 13. Outlook of the iUPQC prototype.

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stage of development. A great advantage of the proposed iUPQC approach when compared with previous proposal of UPQCs like those presented in [3], [4] and [11] is the fact that both PWM control of the series and the shunt converters of the iUPQC deals compensating reference signals that are pure sinusoidal at the fundamental frequency. The proposed iUPQC controller has a simpler structure if compared with a similar approach that was used in a lineinteractive UPS system introduced in [10]. Further development is being carried out to improve the dynamic response of the iUPQC controller, especially during voltage sags compensation, which will allow cost reduction in the energy storage capability in the dc link of the iUPQC. REFERENCES [1] H. Rudnick, J. Dixon, L. Moran, "Delivering clean and pure power," IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 32- 40, Sep-Oct 2003. [2] B. Han, B. Bae, H. Kim, S. Baek, "Combined operation of unified power-quality conditioner with distributed generation," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 330- 338, Jan. 2006. [3] H. Fujita and H. Akagi, "The Unified Power Quality Conditioner: The Integration of Series- and ShuntActive Filters," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 315-322, March 1998. [4] M. Aredes, K. Heumann, E. H. Watanabe, "An universal active power line conditioner," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 545-551, Apr 1998. [5] P. Rodriguez, L. Sainz, J. Bergas, "Synchronous double reference frame PLL applied to a unified power quality conditioner," in proc. of 10th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, vol. 2, pp. 614619, 6-9 Oct. 2002.

[6] V. Khadkikar, P. Agarwal, A. Chandra, A. O. Barry, T. D. Nguyen, "A simple new control technique for unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)," in proc. of 11th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, pp. 289- 293, 12-15 Sept. 2004. [7] B. Singh, V. Verma, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, "Hybrid filters for power quality improvement," IEE Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 365- 378, May 2005. [8] Steven Moran, " A Line Voltage Regulator/Conditioner For Harmonic-Sensitive Load Isolation," in proc. of the 1989 IEEE Industry Applications Soc. Ann. Meeting, pp. 947-951, Oct 1989. [9] Farrukh Kamran and Thomas G. Habetler, "A Novel OnLine UPS with Universal Filtering Capabilities," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 410-418, May 1998. [10] S. A. O. Silva, P. F. Donoso-Garcia, P. C. Cortizo, "A Three-Phase Line-Interactive UPS System Implementation With Series-Parallel Active Power-Line Conditioning Capabilities," IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1581-1590, Nov/Dec 2002. [11] H. Akagi, E. H. Watanabe, M. Aredes, Instantaneous Power Theory and Applications to Power Conditioning, New Jersey: IEEE Press/Wiley-Interscience, 2007, ISBN: 978-0-470-10761-4. [12] L. G. B. Rolim, D. R. Costa Jr., M. Aredes, "Analysis and Software Implementation of a Robust Synchronizing PLL Circuit Based on the pq Theory," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1919 1926, Dec. 2006. [13] A. Ortiz, M. Aredes, L. G. B. Rolim, E. Bueno, P. Rodriguez, “A New Current Control For The STATCOM Based On Secondary Order Generalized Integrators,” in Proc. of the PESC 2008 - 39th IEEE Ann. Power Electronics Specialists Conf., Rhodes, Greece, ISBN 9781424416684, pp. 1378-1383, 15-19 June 2008.

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