hbhij uhg kjnguuuuuuuuuuh
mkbbbbb

© All Rights Reserved

4 views

hbhij uhg kjnguuuuuuuuuuh
mkbbbbb

© All Rights Reserved

- AE2402-QB
- COSMOS FloWorks [Introducing].pdf
- Computational Fluid Dynamics Dr.remia Iwatsu Cuttbus
- IntroducingCOSMOSFloWorks.pdf
- Unsteady Friction Models
- labyrinth
- CFD Analysis of Different Bluff Bodies-456 (1).pdf
- CFD for Newtonian Glucose Fluid Flow through Concentric Annuli with Centrebody Rotation
- Jae-Tack Jeong and H.K. Moffatt- Free-surface cusps associated with flow at low Reynolds number
- cfd fvm
- Rr212101 Mechanics of Fluids
- Individual Assignment 5
- Pressure drop.docx
- Hydro2005 NennemannVuFarhat Final
- CFDtutorial
- sdarticle1
- Classification of Fluid
- Achieving Hover Equilibrium in Free Flight With a Flexible Flapping Wing
- CFD
- 2. Abstract

You are on page 1of 14

MODERATE REYNOLDS NUMBER

Reyad Omari

Department of Mathematics, Al-Balqa Applied University,

Irbid University college, Irbid, Jordan

Abstract

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out for laminar

incompressible fluid flow in lid driven cavity (10 Re 1000). The ratio of the height to the

width of the cavity are ranged over H/L = 0.5 to 1.5. A commercial finite volume package

FLUENT was used to analyze and visualize the nature of the flow inside the cavity of

different aspect ratio. The simulation results are presented in terms of velocity profile,

pressure coefficient and stream contours. It was found that the pressure coefficient inside the

cavity is strongly governed by the aspect ratio as well as the Reynolds number. Velocity

profile for special case of a square cavity (AR = 1) was found to be in good agreement with

previous experimental results. The present study has established that commercially-available

software like FLUENT can provide a reasonable good solution of complicated flow structures

including flow inside cavities.

Keywords: CFD simulation, Laminar flow, Drag coefficient, Lid driven cavity

Introduction

The lid-driven cavity flow is the motion of a fluid inside a rectangular cavity created

by a constant translational velocity of one side while the other sides remain at rest. Fluid flow

behaviors inside lid driven cavities have been the subject of extensive computational and

experimental studies over the past years. Applications of lid driven cavities are in material

processing, dynamics of lakes, metal casting and galvanizing.

The macroscopic variables of interest in conventional numerical methods, such as

velocity and pressure are usually obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. Such

numerical methods for two dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are

often tested for code validation. The one sided lid-driven square cavity flow has been used as

22

a benchmark problem for many numerical methods due to its simple geometry and

complicated flow behaviors. It is usually very difficult to capture the flow phenomena near

the singular points at the corners of the cavity (Chen, 2009 and 2011. Migeon et al. (2003)

(N. A. C. Sidik and S. M. R. Attarzadeh, 2011) considered the cubic interpolated

pseudo particle method and validate their results with the shear driven flow in shallow

cavities. (Li et al., 2011) applied the new version of multiple relaxation time lattices

Boltzmann method to investigate the fluid flow in deep cavity.

There have been some works devoted to the issue of heat transfer in the shear driven

cavity. (Manca et al., 2003) presented a numerical analysis of laminar mixed convection in an

open cavity with a heated wall bounded by a horizontally insulated plate. Results were

reported for Reynolds numbers from 100 to 1000 and aspect ratio in the ranges from 0.1 to

1.5. They presented that the maximum decrease in temperature was occurred at higher

Reynolds. The effect of the ratio of channel height to the cavity height was found to be

played a significant role on streamlines and isotherm patterns for different heating

configurations. The investigation also indicates that opposing forced flow configuration has

the highest thermal performance, in terms of both maximum temperature and average Nusselt

number.

(Gau and Sharif, 2004) reported mixed convection in rectangular cavities at various

aspect ratios with moving isothermal side walls and constant flux heat source on the bottom

wall. Numerical simulation of unsteady mixed convection in a driven cavity using an

externally excited sliding lid is conducted by (Khanafer et al. 2007). They observed that, Re

and Gr would either enhance or retard the energy transport process and drag force behavior

depending on the conduct of the velocity cycle.

(Ch.-H. Bruneau and M. Saad, 2006, Batchelor, (1956), have pointed out that, driven

cavity flows exhibit almost all the phenomena that can possibly occur in incompressible

flows: eddies, secondary flows, complex three-dimensional patterns, chaotic particle motions,

instability, and turbulence. Thus, these broad spectra of features make the cavity flows

overwhelmingly attractive for examining the computational schemes.

This paper aims to provide a CFD simulation study of incompressible viscous laminar

flow in cavity flow over arrange of aspect ratio (0.5 AR 1.5) by using commercial finite

volume package FLUENT. Another sub goal of the present study is to test whether FLUENT,

a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software package, is capable of

providing the solutions for the problem under consideration.

23

Theoretical Formulation

Governing equations

The fluid flow in open lid driven cavity can be simulated by a set of mass and

momentum conservation equations. The flow is assumed to be two-dimensional, laminar,

incompressible and Newtonian. The governing non-linear partial differential equations can be

written as follows:

continuity equation:

U V

+

=0

X Y

(1)

x-momentum equation:

U

U

U

P

1 2U 2U

+U

+V

=

+

+

X

Y

Y R e X 2 X 2

(2)

y-momentum equation:

V

V

V

P

1 2V 2V

+U

+V

=

+

+

X

Y

Y R e X 2 X 2

(3)

U=

u

;

U

V=

v

;

U

X =

x

;

L

Y=

y

;

L

Re =

U l

(4)

and

tU

;

L

P=

p

;

U

(5)

The L is the reference length dimension (width of the cavity along lower lid), while

U is the reference velocity dimension. The fluid property , refers to the kinematic viscosity.

The Reynolds number, Re, is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces, which influences the fluid

flow features within the cavity.

Boundary conditions

No-slip velocity boundary condition (u = v = 0) is applied on all the walls, except the

top lid. On the top lid (U= 1 and V = 0) is applied. The bottom boundary of the domain is

modeled as wall .The boundary conditions which describing the current simulated

computational domain as well as the surface boundary layer is depicted in Figure 1.

Numerical Methods

A finite volume method is employed using commercial software FLUENT 6.2 to

solve the governing equations subject to specified boundary conditions. Since the boundary

layer separation is intimately connected with the pressure and velocity distribution in the

24

boundary layer, accurate separation point predication are dependent on accurate resolution of

the boundary layer near the surface of the cavity. More cells are constructed near the surface

of the cavity to compensate the high velocity gradient in the boundary layer region of the

viscous flow. A commercial software GAMBIT is used for grid generation. The coupling

between the pressure and velocity fields is achieved using PISO. A second order upwind

scheme is used for the convection. Here in this study, following [10], we define the pressure

drag coefficient, C P as follows:

Cp =

2( p p )

U 2 A

(6)

p is the pressure of the stream, A is appropriate cavity surface area and U is lid velocity.

The grid independence is achieved by comparing the results of the different grid cell size. It

was found that 65000 cells are satisfactory, and any increase beyond this size would lead to

an insignificant change in the resulting solution.

Results and Discussion

Simulation results for incompressible laminar flow in square cavity (AR = 1) are

compared to experimental data to verify the validity of the CFD simulation solution. Fig. 2

and Fig. 3 show the U and V-velocity profiles along a vertical and horizontal line respectively

passing through the geometric centre of the square cavity for (AR = 1). As can be seen there

is an excellent agreement in the velocity profile between CFD simulations in this study and

the experimental measured by.

First, the influence of the cavity aspect ratio on the flow field in the cavity is shown in

Fig. 4 and 5 while the Reynolds number was fixed. Fig. 4 and 5 demonstrate the computed Uvelocity along a vertical line passing through the geometric centre of the different aspect ratio

cavity for Re = 1000 and 100 respectively. It is clear that the core of the vortices lay near the

vicinity of the corner of the cavity for large aspect ratio. In addition, one may notice that as

Reynolds number increases thin boundary layers are developed along the solid walls and the

core fluid moves as a solid body with a uniform vorticity, in the manner suggested by [3].

Fig. 6 and 7 demonstrate the computed V-velocity along a horizontal line passing through the

geometric centre of the square cavity for Re = 1000 and 100 respectively. They show a

gradually decreasing velocity near the centre and the development of narrow boundary layers

along the walls regardless the aspect ratio. For low Reynolds number a thicker boundary

layer is produced. It can be also noted that the boundary layer produced for low aspect ratio is

thinner along the walls. In both figures the changes in the velocity direction lead to vortex

development.

25

Fig. 8, 9 and 10 demonstrate the computed U- velocity along a vertical line passing

through the geometric centre of the different aspect ratio cavity for Re = 1000, 500 and 100

respectively. As might be expected, near the lid the stream wise U-component displays a

steadily thinner boundary layer as Re increased regardless the aspect ratio. But at the bottom

wall, counterintuitively, the peak U decreases with Reynolds number although it does move

towards the wall as expected. For AR = 0.5 the effect of Rynolds number on the U-velocity

is insignificant and dominant for large aspect ratio.

The dimensionless pressure drop coefficient for the cavity is an important parameter

in the design of the cavity. In Fig. 11 the variation of the pressure drop coefficient along a

vertical line passing through the geometric centre of the different aspect ratio cavity is shown.

The pressure drop coefficient is a strong function of the position, aspect ratio and Reynolds

number. It can be noted that the pressure drop coefficient is higher for lower aspect ratio. The

pressure drop coefficient attains its maximum value within the above half cavity, whereas for

most cavity aspect ratio it gains the minimum value with the bottom half cavity.

In order to visualize the overall flow patterns, the streamline plots from the

computational data for different aspect ratio are at different Reynolds number is shown in

Fig. 11 and Fig.12. For smaller aspect ratio the center of the primary eddy moves right with

respect to right wall cavity. However, as the aspect ratio increases beyond a value of 1, the

center of the primary eddy remain constant below the top lid for Reynolds number 100. At

high value of Reynolds number, strong shear force drags the flow and causes the vortex to

break into two smaller vortices for AR= 0.5 and AR =1.5. For aspect ratio AR = 1.0 and high

Reynolds number the primary eddy shifted to the center of the cavity (see Fig.12).

Conclusion

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out for laminar

incompressible fluid flow in lid driven cavity fordifferent aspect ratio. The nature of the flow

inside lid driven cavity of different aspect ratio was visualized. It was found that the

dynamics and structure of primary vortex are strongly affected by the Reynolds number as

well as the aspect ratio of the cavity. It was noted that the pressure drop coefficient is a strong

function of the position, aspect ratio and Reynolds number. Comparison the simulation

results with the experimental data validate the commercially-available software FLUENT in

providing a reasonable good solution of complicated flow structures, including flow with

separation.

26

References:

(Chen S 2009) A large-eddy-based lattice Boltzmann model for turbulent flow simulation.

Applied Mathematics and Computation, 215, 591595.

N. A. C. Sidik and S. M. R. Attarzadeh, An accurate numerical prediction of solid particle

fluid flow in a lid-driven cavity. Intl. J. Mech. 2011, 5(3): 123-128.

S.L. Li, Y.C. Chen, and C.A. Lin. Multi relaxation time lattice Boltzmann simulations of

deep lid driven cavity flows at different aspect ratios. Comput. & Fluids, 2011, 45(1): 233240.

A.J. Chamkha, Hydromagnetic combined convection flow in a vertical lid-driven cavity with

internal heat generation or absorption, Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, vol. 41, pp.529-546,

2002.

K.M. Khanafer, A.M. Al-Amiri and I. Pop, Numerical simulation of unsteady mixed

convection in a driven cavity using an externally excited sliding lid, European J. Mechanics

B/Fluids, vol. 26, pp.669-687, 2007.

G.K. Batchelor. On Steady Laminar Flow with Closed Streamlines at Large Reynolds

Numbers. J. Fluid Mech. 1956; 1:177190.

O. Manca, S. Nardini, K. Khanafer and K. Vafai, Effect of Heated Wall Position on Mixed

Convection in a Channel with an Open Cavity, Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, vol. 43,

pp.259282, 2003.

G. Gau and M.A.R. Sharif, Mixed convection in rectangular cavities at various aspect ratios

with moving isothermal side walls and constant flux heat source on the bottom wall Int. J.

Therm. Sci., 43, pp. 465475, 2004.

C. Migeon, G. Pineau, and A. Texier, Three-dimensionality development inside standard

parallel pipe lid-driven cavities at Re = 1000. J. Fluids and Struc. 2003, 17 (1): 717738.

Ch.-H. Bruneau, M. Saad, The 2D lid-driven cavity problem revisited, Computers & Fluids35

(3), 2006.

27

Lid, velocity

H

Left -wall

Right-wall

Bottom

Figure 1: Computational mesh for the lid-driven square cavity, AR = 1 (65000 cells)

1

present study

0,9

Ghia at al.

0,8

0,7

0,6

0,5

Re = 1000

0,4

0,3

0,2

0,1

0

-0,4

-0,2

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

Figure 2: Comparison of U-velocity profiles along a vertical line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at X= 0.5)

28

0,5

present study

0,4

Ghia et al.

0,3

0,2

0,1

0

-0,1

-0,2

Re = 1000

-0,3

-0,4

-0,5

-0,6

0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

Figure 3: Comparison of V-velocity profiles along a horizontal line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at Y= 0.5)

1

0,9

0,8

0,7

0,6

Re = 1000

0,5

0,4

0,3

AR = 0.5

AR = 1.0

0,2

AR = 1.5

0,1

Ghia et al.

0

-0,4

-0,2

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

Figure 4: Computed of U-velocity profiles along a vertical line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at X= 0.5) at various aspect ratios, Re = 1000.

29

1

0,9

0,8

0,7

0,6

Re = 100

0,5

0,4

0,3

AR = 0.5

0,2

AR = 1

AR = 1.5

0,1

0

-0,4

-0,2

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,2

Figure 5: Computed of U-velocity profiles along a vertical line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at X= 0.5) at various aspect ratios, Re = 100.

0,6

AR = 0.5

AR = 1.0

0,4

AR = 1.5

Ghia et al.

0,2

0

-0,2

Re = 1000

-0,4

-0,6

-0,8

0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

Figure 6: Computed of V-velocity profiles along a horizontal line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at Y= 0.5) at various aspect ratios, Re = 1000.

30

0,3

AR = 0.5

0,2

AR = 1.0

AR = 1.5

0,1

0

-0,1

Re = 100

-0,2

-0,3

-0,4

0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

Figure 7: Computed of V-velocity profiles along a horizontal line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at Y= 0.5) at various aspect ratios, Re = 100.

1

0,9

0,8

0,7

0,6

0,5

AR = 1

0,4

0,3

Re = 100

0,2

Re = 500

0,1

Re = 1000

0

-0,6

-0,4

-0,2

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,2

Figure 8: Computed of U-velocity profiles along a vertical line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at X= 0.5) at various Reynolds number, AR = 1.

31

1

0,9

0,8

0,7

0,6

AR = 1.5

0,5

0,4

0,3

Re = 100

0,2

Re = 500

0,1

Re = 1000

0

-0,4

-0,2

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,2

Figure 9: Computed of U-velocity profiles along a vertical line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at X= 0.5) at various Reynolds number, AR = 1.5.

1

0,9

0,8

0,7

0,6

0,5

AR = 0.5

0,4

0,3

Re = 100

0,2

Re = 500

0,1

Re = 1000

0

-0,4

-0,2

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,2

Figure 10: Computed of U-velocity profiles along a vertical line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at X= 0.5) at various Reynolds number, AR = 0.5.

32

0,05

AR = 0.5

AR = 1.0

AR = 1.5

Cp

-0,05

-0,1

Re = 100

-0,15

-0,2

0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

Figure 11: Computed of pressure coefficient along a vertical line passing through the geometric centre of the

cavity (at X= 0.5) at various aspect ratios, Re = 100.

AR = 0.5

AR = 1.0

AR =1.5

33

Figure 12: Contours of stream function at different aspect ratio for Re = 100.

AR = 0.5

AR = 1.0

AR = 1.5

34

Figure 13: Contours of stream function at different aspect ratio for Re = 1000.

Nomenclature

L

[m]

[m]

AR

[-]

Cp

[-]

[N/m2]

pressure

Re

[-]

Reynolds number

[m/s]

lid velocity

[m/s]

x-component velocity

[m/s]

y-component velocity

Greek Symbols

[Pa.s]

[kg/m3]

fluid density

35

- AE2402-QBUploaded byHeather Smith
- COSMOS FloWorks [Introducing].pdfUploaded byIngelit Sac
- Computational Fluid Dynamics Dr.remia Iwatsu CuttbusUploaded byMohamed Ali
- IntroducingCOSMOSFloWorks.pdfUploaded byAndoni Garcia Matxain
- Unsteady Friction ModelsUploaded byWalter F Silva
- labyrinthUploaded bymohsin931
- CFD Analysis of Different Bluff Bodies-456 (1).pdfUploaded byArup Das
- CFD for Newtonian Glucose Fluid Flow through Concentric Annuli with Centrebody RotationUploaded byDr. Engr. Md Mamunur Rashid
- Jae-Tack Jeong and H.K. Moffatt- Free-surface cusps associated with flow at low Reynolds numberUploaded byVortices3443
- cfd fvmUploaded byjahid
- Rr212101 Mechanics of FluidsUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Individual Assignment 5Uploaded bySirak Masresha
- Pressure drop.docxUploaded byAmr Tarek
- Hydro2005 NennemannVuFarhat FinalUploaded byMituu Toyo
- CFDtutorialUploaded byvish4wish
- sdarticle1Uploaded bydiwanpankaj2002
- Classification of FluidUploaded byAbdul Rehman
- Achieving Hover Equilibrium in Free Flight With a Flexible Flapping WingUploaded byiwe1234
- CFDUploaded byManoj Kumar
- 2. AbstractUploaded byjprakash_vin
- Weymouth 2005Uploaded byhossam
- 2004 POF Xu MartinUploaded byKhan AB
- Fluent-Intro_16.0_AL2_Transient.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 8209ZT
- What is CFDUploaded bypatiltushar79
- CFD QBUploaded byAnish Alfred Joe
- AE2402-QBUploaded byT Hari Prasad
- CFD IMPUploaded bysivak1575
- 2015-3Uploaded byfaster
- Timmermans-Lister_jfm2002.pdfUploaded byAnonymous GYl4dpXo
- Chapter VIUploaded byLouie Shaolin Lungao

- Fig0Uploaded byhassan
- Santra 2008Uploaded byhassan
- 2009 HeatUploaded byhassan
- 2014haeatUploaded byhassan
- Journal of Modeling in Engineering-V11n33p57-EnUploaded byhassan
- 10.1016@S0017-93100100102-8Uploaded byhassan
- 2015 Mass NanoUploaded byhassan
- Exam-1-201-1Uploaded byhassan
- Massa Rotti 1998Uploaded byhassan
- Conjugate Heat Transfer in an Enclosure Containing a Polygon Object(1)Uploaded byhassan
- الواجهاتUploaded byhassan
- العنوان انكلشUploaded byhassan
- ReferencesUploaded byhassan
- NomenclatureUploaded byhassan
- List of TablesUploaded byhassan
- List of FiguresUploaded byhassan
- Examination Committee CertificationUploaded byhassan
- ContentsUploaded byhassan
- Chapter TwoUploaded byhassan
- Chapter ThreeUploaded byhassan
- Chapter OneUploaded byhassan
- Chapter FiveUploaded byhassan
- AbstractUploaded byhassan
- Theory of FlywheelUploaded byAmit Jha
- mc9Uploaded byhassan
- Thin & Thick CylindersUploaded byhassan
- Thick Cylinder Design 1 ExpermintalUploaded byhassan
- Moment of InertiaUploaded byramchandargct
- nejad2014.pdfUploaded byhassan

- ME3122E - Tutorial Solution 4Uploaded byLinShaodun
- Energy Physics PptUploaded byThevakaran Arunasalam
- Physics PreU IGCSEUploaded byfajarsalami
- HKPO08_Sol.pdfUploaded bylagostinha
- Wp Axis Thermal Cameras en 37661 0912 LoUploaded byNorhariri Bin Abdullah Omar
- ppt on fdtdUploaded byAlok Bakolia
- radar.docxUploaded byShaikh Hassan Atik
- Fifth Order Wave TheoryUploaded byJuan Gabriel
- AF84C8 Excel Template Prelim Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Design Us UnitsUploaded bys111_sunil
- sound study guideUploaded byapi-297580036
- Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental testUploaded byEmanuele Pascucci
- 2012 January mUploaded byDileep Naraharasetty
- 4 Radio Propagation - FadingUploaded byMohammed Benlamlih
- Flow Field Characterisation Within a Rectangular CavityUploaded byAstekMadden
- Heat Transfer in Turbulent FlowUploaded byanil chejara
- Rotating Orbits of a Parametrically-excited PendulumUploaded bypeter_control
- Added Mass PosterUploaded byPhil Bishop
- Coherent RadiationUploaded bySubhash Dhungel
- Long Problem FinalUploaded bySaman Aravinda
- TAR FinalUploaded byKiran Kumar
- 1988-Jackson-Studies of Mixed Convection in Vertical TubesUploaded bySouadHadjadj
- 161_1_Midterm_2_2006Uploaded bygraywolf123
- Unit 6Uploaded bybillingsley
- Black HolesUploaded bydtnw27
- 2.8 Gravitational Force.doc physics form 4 chapter 2 forceUploaded byEzra Loganathan Muniandi
- - Essay Writing for English TestsUploaded byMostfa Seham
- AdvancedElectromagnetism-Part5Uploaded bySaikat Ch Bakshi
- DiscussionUploaded byMercedita Gascon
- IR_CameraUploaded bypmnits
- 6. Gerak Rotasi Terhadap Sumbu TetapUploaded byNiken