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PROCEEDINGS OF THE XX INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS


OF HISTORY OF SCIENCE (Liege, 20-26 July 1997)
VOLUME

XVIII

ALCHEMY, CHEMISTRY
AND
PHARMACY
Edited by
Michel BOUGARD

BREPOLS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
Michel BOUGARD

Part one
ALCHEMY, CHEMISTRY AND PHARMACY BEFORE 1800

Christine de Pizan and the scientific culture of late medieval France :


the example of alchemy
Joan CADDEN
Alchemical view of the origin of metals and transmutation

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17

Vladimir KARPENKO

The four conflated Democriti and their fusion in early


seventeenth century alchemy and medicine
Christoph LUTHY

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The Liquor Alkahest in Helmontian medicine

51

Paulo ALVES PORTO

La tradition hermetique et la revolution scientifique :


vers une nouvelle revision de la these de Frances A. Yates
Victor VIZGUINE
La chimie contre Aristote La distillation du bois et la doctrine
des cinq elements au xvil e siecle en France

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67

Bernard JOLY

La Pratique de Chymie de Sebastien Matte La Faveur :


un episode meconnu des demonstrations publiques de chimie
au xvn e siecle
Michel BOUGARD
Au XVlle siecle Marie Meurdrac publie un traite de chimie.
Une premiere?
Lucia Tosi
The chemical research of Luigi Galvani: gases, machines and texts
Raffaella SELIGARDI

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99
105

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part two
CHEMISTRY AND PHARMACY IN THE CONTEMPORARY PERIOD
(AFTER 1800)

Considerations epistemologiques de revolution des techniques


et des instruments du laboratoire chimique
Maria de Lurdes PEREZ-GARRIDO and S. MAVEL
Brazil, 1833 : the discovery of photography revisited
Rosana HORIO MONTEIRO, Silvia FIGUEIROA, Lea VELHO
Towards a scientific biography of Peter Griess
Willem J. HORNIX and Elisabeth THUSEN-VlSSER
Peter Griess and the constitution of the substitution products
of benzene
Elisabeth THUSEN-VlSSER and Willem J. HORNIX
The delayed development of chemistry in Austria,
caused by political pressure
Robert W. ROSNER
Chemical science and education in the University of Coimbra
(Portugal) from the thirties to the fifties of the twentieth century

117
129
137

149

161

169

Antonio M. AMORIM DA COSTA

Structure, contingency and application : the early articulation


of chemical industry and academe in the United Kingdom
James F. DONNELLY
Chemical decision-makers : a profile of the leadership of the
principal British chemical institutions, 1900-1939

177

189

Gerrylynn K. ROBERTS

Technological change in the Spanish electrolytic chemical industry.


Solvay's mercury cell versus Siemens-Billiter's diaphragm cell
Angel TOCA
Architecture of new molecules in the 20th century a dynamic survey
Maria D A CONCEigAo BURGUETE
Die chinesischen Ubersetzungen des Sauerstoffs, Wasserstoffs und
Stickstoffs - die Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen der chinesischen
und europaischen Naturphilosophie

199

207

209

Hao CHANG

The history of chemistry : cultural methodology


for a new didactic model

217

Francesco CARDONE

El Laboratorio de quimica del " seminario cientffico-industrial


de Vergara" segiin sus inventarios (1852-1858)
Ines PELLON GONZALEZ

231

Contributors

247