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Nr 64

Prace Naukowe Instytutu Maszyn, Napdw i Pomiarw Elektrycznych


Politechniki Wrocawskiej
Nr 64

Studia i Materiay

Nr 30

2010

TermsFEM calculation, magnetic stress,


natural vibration, synchronous motor

Janusz BIALIK*, Jan ZAWILAK*

VIBRATION CALCULATIONS IN TWO-SPEED,


LARGE POWER, SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
This paper deals with finite element calculation of the vibrations of magnetic origin in two-speed,
large power, synchronous motor. Prediction of such vibrations are very important in understanding vibration phenomena of electrical machines. In configuration for lower rotational speed pole numbers of
magnetic field and numbers of excited poles of field-winding are not equal. Because of non symmetrical
armature and field windings the only one way of investigation is finite element (FE) modeling. Simulation are done for nominal load, for two different rotational rotor speeds: n = 500 rpm (2p = 12) and
n = 600 rpm (2p = 10), and corresponding nominal active powers: P = 600 kW and 1050 kW. The
target of application of discussed analysis is the vibration behavior of the machine.

1. INTRODUCTION
In term to precisely modeling of electromagnetic origin vibrations of rotating machines, information of loads and mechanical construction of the investigated object have
to be known. Electromagnetic forces (loads) can be calculated within time-stepping
modeling [3, 4, 7, 11]. Mechanical behavior of the construction can be obtained from
mechanical calculations or vibration measurements. In many cases measurements are not
possible or it is difficult to perform them (especially with big machines). Analytical
methods in most cases dont give results with good accuracy, especially when complex
structures are investigated [9]. Making modification of the modeled machines in design
stage and looking into impact of those modifications are main advantages of numerical
methods.
Two-speed synchronous motor are examples of no symmetrical machines
(asymmetric armature and field winding). Therefore investigation can be done only
with help of finite element modeling methods [3, 4]. Those motors were built up by
__________
* Politechnika Wrocawska, Instytut Maszyn, Napdw i Pomiarw Elektrycznych, ul. Smoluchowskiego 19, 50-372 Wrocaw, janusz.bialik@pwr.wroc.pl, jan.zawilak@pwr.wroc.pl.

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replacing stator and rotor winding with switchable windings. By switching the
windings, two different numbers of pairs of magnetic pole are obtained. Thus two
different speeds are obtained [1].
In this paper calculation results of the two-speed synchronous motor type
GAe1510/12p are presented. This motor has two different speeds: n = 500 rpm (2p = 12)
and n = 600 rpm (2p = 10) and corresponding nominal powers P = 600 kW and 1050 kW.
Determination of vibration of electromagnetic origin acting in mentioned motor is the
goal of this paper.
2. MAGNETIC STRESS CALCULATION
For investigation the motor type GAe 1510/12p is chosen, which construction is
based on convectional one-speed synchronous motor. Calculations are performed with
help of two dimensional field-circuit model of mentioned motor [3]. Rated data of the
modeled motor type GAe1510/12p is introduced in Table 1. This motor has double layer
stator winding placed in 108 slots, field winding and the damper circuit, allocated in
10 pole shoes. Field part of the model takes into account non-linear characteristics of the
magnetic part of the motor and the motion of the rotor. Circuit part takes into consideration the electrical parameters of the source, damper circuit and switchable armature and
field windings. In elaborated 2D model an assumption of constant parameters of the end
parts of all windings, which is of stator, rotor and damper circuit is done. Values of the
reactance and resistances of the end parts are calculated according to the well-known
equations [8, 10]. To change the circular flux of the armature and field windings, which
qualify speed variation of the rotating field, the direction of the stator and rotor currents
in right section of the windings must be changed [1] (Fig. 1).
Table 1. Rated parameters of the investigated motor
Nominal power
Nominal voltage
Phase connection
Nominal current
Field voltage
Field current
Nominal speed
Power factor
Efficiency

Pn
Un

In
Ufn
Ifn
nn
cosn

kW
V

A
V
A
rpm

600/1050
6000
Y/YY
86/121
51/70
175/240
500/600
0.8 lag/0.9 lead
80.0/94.2

Presented motor has unconventional circumferential distribution of phase groups of


armature winding (Fig. 1a). Different number of magnetic poles are obtained due to

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changes of the armature current P in all stator phases A, B, C. In all groups named NP
currents direction are unchanged, for both rotational rotor speed. Corresponding configuration of field winding is presented in Fig. 1b. With black color magnetic poles for
the higher rotational rotors speed are marked (convectional distribution of magnetic
poles) and with grey color for lower rotational rotor speed (unconventional distribution).

Fig. 1. Circuit diagram of distribution group phase of armature winding (a)


and polarity of rotor (b) for both rotational speed of testing motor

In all simulation, elaborated 2D field-circuit model is used [3]. In Figure 2 numeric


model (field part) of investigated motor, together with cylindrical coordinate system
(situated in air-gap, 0.3 mm below stator inner surface), and part of finite element mesh
is shown. Second order approximation of the magnetic vector potential is used. In term
to calculate the magnetic stresses, the distribution of the radial (normal) and tangential
component of the flux density in the air-gap of the motor, are determined. The timestepping method is used, i.e. magnetic flux density for next 100 (for higher rotational
speed; 120 for lower rotational speed) time steps, for nominal load is determined. Magnetic field is sampled in 1024 equidistance points in air-gap. An example of such distribution, valid for one time moment, is presented in the Fig. 3.
For the picture clarity only space distribution for one time moment are show. Results
are valid for both rotational speeds. Finally, collecting all calculation results (for all time
steps), matrix of flux density B(m, n) is obtained, where M is a number of space samples,
and N time samples. By means of 2DFT, matrix B(m, n) can be converted into spectral
domain B(, ) [11]. In all further analysis the RMS value are taken on, both in space
and time.

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Fig. 2. Numeric model of investigated motor

1,2

600 rpm
500 rpm

Bn [T]

0,8
0,4
0
-0,4
-0,8
-1,2
0

60

120

180

240

Angle
300[deg]

360

Fig. 3. Instantaneous flux density distribution (radial component)


in air-gap for both rotational speeds (for rated load)

Figures 4 and 5 shows time/space distribution and modal/frequency spectrum of radial component of flux density. Result are presented for both rotational speeds and for
field winding current If = 200 A.

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(a)

(b)

Fig. 4. Radial component of flux density in air-gap for 600 rpm:


time/space distribution (a) modal/frequency spectrum (centered) (b) nominal load
(a)

(b)

Fig. 5. Radial component of flux density in air-gap for 500 rpm:


time/space distribution (a) modal/frequency spectrum (centered) (b) nominal load

Maxell stress tensor components in air-gap, in 2D calculations, in cylindrical coordinate system, can be calculated from the well know equations [11]:

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1 2
T ( ) =
B ( ) B2 ( )
nn

2 n
0
1
T ( ) =
B ( )B ( )
n

n
0

(1)

where: Bn() radial component of the flux density [T], B () tangential component of
the flux density [T], Tnn() radial component of the magnetic stress [N/m2], Tn ()
tangential component of the magnetic stress [N/m2], 0 absolute permeability [H/m].
In the Fig. 6 instantaneous distribution of the radial and tangential component of
magnetic stress in the air-gap, valid for the rated load of the motor, are presented.
800

600 rpm
500 rpm

Tnn [kPa]

600

400

200

0
0

400

60

120

180

240

Angle
300 [deg]

360
600 rpm

Tn [kPa]

500 rpm

200

-200

-400
0

60

120

180

240

Angle
300 [deg]

360

Fig. 6. Instantaneous distribution of magnetic stress components in the air-gap for both rotational speeds:
a) radial component at rated load, b) tangential component at rated load

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Collecting all calculation results (for all time steps), matrix of magnetic stress
Tx(m, n) is obtained, where M is a number of space samples, and N time samples
(Tx represents either Tnn or Tn). By means of 2DFT, matrix Tx(m, n) can be converted into spectral domain Tx(, ) [11]. In all further analysis the RMS value are
taken on, both in space and time. In the Fig. 7 an example for time/space distributions of the magnetic stress (normal component), valid for both rotational speed are
shown. In addition in Fig. 8 the modal/frequency spectrum is presented. All results
are valid for nominal load point of motor. Modal/frequency spectrum of magnetic
pressure should be limited only to lowest harmonic in space, because from
vibroacoustic point of view only longest waves are important [11]. In case of large
power, two-speed, silent pole, synchronous motors such approach can not be used.
For all rotational speeds in modal/frequency spectrums of magnetic stresses (radial
component), harmonics close to 1 kHz are observed. These harmonics are connected with numbers of stator slots (108) and numbers of pole pairs
(n = 500 rpm, p = 6 and n = 600 rpm, p = 5). For lower rotational rotor speed the
harmonics number are 102 and 114, and for higher speed harmonics number 103
and 113. Magnitudes of these harmonics are similar to harmonics amplitudes of
small order. In addition these harmonics are very close to natural frequencies of a
mechanical construction of two-speed synchronous motor. Therefore vibration of
such structure with big amplitudes can be expected.
(a)

(b)

Fig. 7. Radial component of magnetic stress in air-gap (time/space distribution) for:


600 rpm (a) and 500 rpm (b)

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3. FREE VIBRATIONS CALCULATION


Natural frequency analysis is done using 2D and 3D models, which are mutually
combined [6]:
The real slotting geometry of the stator iron is analyzed within 2D mechanical
model. Results of such model are the base for determination equivalent cylindrical
structure of the stator core.
That equivalent structure is introduced later into 3D model together with the geometry of the housing.
The two dimensional model of stator (Fig. 9) takes into account the mechanical properties of the stator iron, armature winding and wedges. Impact of end-parts of armature
winding is considered with additional mass added to the nodes of FE mesh. Results of
the 2D model are the input data for the equivalent 3D stator core structure. Such approach is forced by the computer facilities and very complicated motors structure. The
2D model has about 70000 DOFs, what is equivalent to the few hours of computation
time. In 3D this numbers of the DOFs of stator core will exceed value 1000000 (450 mm
axial length of the stator iron). Adding about 500000 DOFs of the stator housing one will
give numbers of equation which will be solved more that 24 hours.
(a)

(b)

Fig. 9. 2D model of the synchronous motor: a) outlook; b) part of the model with the mesh

Second reason of modeling within 2D and 3D is that too many details inside FE
model result with very dense natural mode spectrum, which is out of practical interest.
The criterion of the equivalent cylinder to the real stator core model is the identity of
the natural frequency of such structures.

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Table 2. Main properties of two 2D mechanical models of the synchronous motor

Outer diameter
Yoke height
Young modulus
Poisson ratio
Density

mm
mm
Pa
kg/m3

Full model

Simplified model

1450
150
2.1 1011
0.29
7850

1450
64.4
1.7 1011
0.29
12125

The cylindrical model allows reducing numbers of equation in 3D space more that 50
times. Table 2 shows parameters of the full 2D and simplified 2D model and Table 3
shows the results of both models.
Table 3. Results of the two mechanical models
Frequency
Full model
Simplified model

1488
1487

1529
1527

1644
1640

1775
1759

f [Hz]
1897
1909

2069
2062

2295
2257

2419
2347

Comparisons between the space natural forms of both models are shown in Fig. 10
and Fig. 11. The simplified model has about 2000 DOFs.
The full 3D finite element model of a two-speed synchronous motor is made of solid
elements and the total numerical size of the model is about 1 000 000 DOFs. The Fig. 12
shows the outer view of the model and of finite element mesh. The longitudinal ribs,
screws etc. cause a very rich spectrum of natural frequencies of a presented structure. In
the range up to 3.5 kHz, 500 natural modes can be observed.
(a)

(b)

Fig. 10. Example of a natural space mode for full 2D model (a) for r = 6 (b) for r = 12

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(a)

(b)

Fig. 11. Example of a natural space mode for simplified 2 D model: (a) for r=6, (b) for r=12

Boundary
conditions
(Uxyz = 0)

Terminal board
(modeled with
additional masses)

Fig. 12. Mesh of the full 3D model of synchronous motor

This shows how the structure of the motor is weak. Examples of natural modes of examined motor are shown in the Fig. 13 and 14.

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(a)

(b)

Fig. 13. Examples of natural modes: (a) f = 92.3 Hz, (b) f = 111.8 Hz
(for the picture clarity part of the model is removed)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 14. Examples of natural modes: (a) f = 240.6 Hz, (b) f = 1354 Hz
(for the picture clarity part of the model is removed)

Results show that dominant natural modes below 1500 Hz are: axial mode n = 1 and
circumferential mode r = 2.

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4. FORCE VIBRATION CALCULATION


In this chapter vibration calculations, caused by electromagnetic forces which act
in investigated motor, are presented. Details of electromagnetic forces calculations
are described in [7]. For the linear structures the following equation can be written
[2, 9]:
M + Cu + Ku = F

(2)

where: M mass matrix, C damping matrix, K stiffness matrix, acceleration


vector, u velocity vector, u displacement vector, F load vector.
Solving the equation (2) displacement values in node of FEM model are obtained.
The following assumptions are taken in the vibration analysis:
displacement of the housing lugs is set to zero,
zero displacement as the initial calculations condition.
In all calculations the damping matrix is neglected.
In Figures 15 and 16 the vibrations velocity (the RMS value) is presented (harmonic spectrum). Results are valid for both rotational speeds, for nominal load and
for the field current 200 A. The casing vibration of the investigated motor are determined.

V [mm/s]

5.35
4
3
2
f [Hz]
1
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Fig. 15. Harmonic spectrum of the RMS vibrations velocity of the motor
at nominal load for n = 600 rpm

Energy of the vibrations is concentrated in two ranges. First is the range of 0300 Hz,
where the dominant are 200 Hz, where the investigated motor works with the higher

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speed (n = 600 rpm) and the 16,7 Hz, 50 Hz and 100 Hz where the motor works with
lower rotational speed (n = 500 rpm). Harmonics 100 Hz is connected with the fundamental wave of the magnetic field inside the motor. Harmonics 16,7 Hz and 50 Hz are
connected with the sub-harmonics. Second range of the harmonic spectrum is the range
11001500 Hz, where the dominant are the 1st order of the slot harmonics. Big amplitudes are the results of the resonance phenomena. In the range 10001500 Hz are almost
50 natural frequencies [5, 6]. Vibration amplitudes at lower speed are almost 4 times
bigger that the vibrations at higher rotational speed.

V [mm/s]

25
20
15
10
5

f [Hz]

0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Fig. 16. Harmonic spectrum of the RMS vibrations velocity of the motor
at nominal load for n = 500 rpm

5. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper results of vibrations of the magnetic origin in two-speed, large power,
silent pole, synchronous motors are presented. Elaborated and described model of the
two speed synchronous motor type GAe1510-12p allows to determine the static and the
transient characteristic as well. Presented model is useful to analyses the mechanical
phenomenon in two speed synchronous, silent pole motors. Results of a natural vibration
analysis shows, that the structure of stator frame of examined motor is very sensitive to
the stator iron core vibration below 1 kHz can be found more that 50 natural modes.
According to presented results more dense vibration spectrum on lower rotational speed
n = 500 rpm can be observed.

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REFERENCES
[1] ANTAL L., ZAWILAK J., ZAWILAK T., Testing of a Two-speed Synchronous Motor, XVI International Conference on Electrical Machines ICEM 2004, Krakw 2004, pp. 793799.
[2] ANSYS Help, www.ansys.com, 2008.
[3] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., ANTAL L., Field-circuit model of the two-speed synchronous motor,
Scientific Papers of the Institute of Electrical Machines, Drives and Metrology of the Wroclaw University of Technology, No. 56, Wrocaw 2004, pp. 4354 (in Polish).
[4] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., Vibrations and electromagnetic forces in two speed, large power synchronous motor, Proceedings of XLI International Symposium on Electrical Machines SME 2005,
Jarnotwek 2005, pp. 5564 (in Polish).
[5] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., Free vibration analysis of the two speed synchronous motor, Proceedings
of Exploitation of Electrical Machines and Drives PEMINE Industrial Research and Development
Center for electrical Machines KOMEL, Rytro, Mai 2008 (in Polish).
[6] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., Vibration modeling of the two-speed, large Power, synchronous motor,
6th IEEE International Symposium on Diagnostic for Electric Machines, Power Electronics and
Drives, Krakw, September 68, 2007, pp. 173177.
[7] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., Magnetic forces calculation in two-speed, large power, silent pole, synchronous motor, XLIV International Symposium on Electrical Machines, SME 2008, Szklarska
Porba, June 1720, 2008.
[8] DUBICKI B., Electrical machines, part III, PWN, Warszawa 1964 (in Polish).
[9] GIERAS J. F., WANG CH., CHO LAI J., Noise of polyphase electric machines, CRS Press Taylor
& Francis Group, USA, 2006.
[10] SERGEEV P.S., VINOGRADOV N.V., GORJANOV F.A., Projektirovanie Elektrieskich Main,
Energija, Moskva 1969 (in Russian).
[11] WITCZAK P., WAWRZYNIAK B., Modal-frequency analysis of magnetic vibration forces in
permanent magnet machines, Proceedings of XLI International Symposium on Electrical Machines
SME 2005, Jarnotwek 2005, pp. 214219 (in Polish).