51 views

Uploaded by Santiago Molina

vibration, electric motor

- Seal Failure
- Linkbelt Bearing Vibration Data
- Detecting Rolling Element Bearing Faults With Vibration Analysis
- Troubleshooting Rolling Element Bearing Problems
- Mechanalysis Vibration Severity Chart
- As 4024.3301-2009 Safety of Machinery Robots for Industrial Environments - Safety Requirements
- ISO-10816, 1st Edition, December 1995, Mechanical Vibration - Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-Rotating Parts
- Electric Motor Vibration
- A Review of Rolling Element Bearing Vibration Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis
- Bearing Vibration Analysis
- Rolling Element Bearing Defect
- An Overview on Vibration Analysis Techniques for the Diagnosis of Rolling Element Bearing Faults
- Vibration Monitoring for Defect Diagnosis of Rolling Element Bearings
- Vibration Theory
- Guide to Electric Motor Bearing Lubrication
- Spectrum Knowledge
- Electric Motor Vibration Diagnostic Chart
- Rolling Bearings in Electrical Motors & Generators
- Fault Identification and Monitoring in rolling element bearing
- Alignment - Rotating Equipment

You are on page 1of 14

Politechniki Wrocawskiej

Nr 64

Studia i Materiay

Nr 30

2010

natural vibration, synchronous motor

LARGE POWER, SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

This paper deals with finite element calculation of the vibrations of magnetic origin in two-speed,

large power, synchronous motor. Prediction of such vibrations are very important in understanding vibration phenomena of electrical machines. In configuration for lower rotational speed pole numbers of

magnetic field and numbers of excited poles of field-winding are not equal. Because of non symmetrical

armature and field windings the only one way of investigation is finite element (FE) modeling. Simulation are done for nominal load, for two different rotational rotor speeds: n = 500 rpm (2p = 12) and

n = 600 rpm (2p = 10), and corresponding nominal active powers: P = 600 kW and 1050 kW. The

target of application of discussed analysis is the vibration behavior of the machine.

1. INTRODUCTION

In term to precisely modeling of electromagnetic origin vibrations of rotating machines, information of loads and mechanical construction of the investigated object have

to be known. Electromagnetic forces (loads) can be calculated within time-stepping

modeling [3, 4, 7, 11]. Mechanical behavior of the construction can be obtained from

mechanical calculations or vibration measurements. In many cases measurements are not

possible or it is difficult to perform them (especially with big machines). Analytical

methods in most cases dont give results with good accuracy, especially when complex

structures are investigated [9]. Making modification of the modeled machines in design

stage and looking into impact of those modifications are main advantages of numerical

methods.

Two-speed synchronous motor are examples of no symmetrical machines

(asymmetric armature and field winding). Therefore investigation can be done only

with help of finite element modeling methods [3, 4]. Those motors were built up by

__________

* Politechnika Wrocawska, Instytut Maszyn, Napdw i Pomiarw Elektrycznych, ul. Smoluchowskiego 19, 50-372 Wrocaw, janusz.bialik@pwr.wroc.pl, jan.zawilak@pwr.wroc.pl.

83

replacing stator and rotor winding with switchable windings. By switching the

windings, two different numbers of pairs of magnetic pole are obtained. Thus two

different speeds are obtained [1].

In this paper calculation results of the two-speed synchronous motor type

GAe1510/12p are presented. This motor has two different speeds: n = 500 rpm (2p = 12)

and n = 600 rpm (2p = 10) and corresponding nominal powers P = 600 kW and 1050 kW.

Determination of vibration of electromagnetic origin acting in mentioned motor is the

goal of this paper.

2. MAGNETIC STRESS CALCULATION

For investigation the motor type GAe 1510/12p is chosen, which construction is

based on convectional one-speed synchronous motor. Calculations are performed with

help of two dimensional field-circuit model of mentioned motor [3]. Rated data of the

modeled motor type GAe1510/12p is introduced in Table 1. This motor has double layer

stator winding placed in 108 slots, field winding and the damper circuit, allocated in

10 pole shoes. Field part of the model takes into account non-linear characteristics of the

magnetic part of the motor and the motion of the rotor. Circuit part takes into consideration the electrical parameters of the source, damper circuit and switchable armature and

field windings. In elaborated 2D model an assumption of constant parameters of the end

parts of all windings, which is of stator, rotor and damper circuit is done. Values of the

reactance and resistances of the end parts are calculated according to the well-known

equations [8, 10]. To change the circular flux of the armature and field windings, which

qualify speed variation of the rotating field, the direction of the stator and rotor currents

in right section of the windings must be changed [1] (Fig. 1).

Table 1. Rated parameters of the investigated motor

Nominal power

Nominal voltage

Phase connection

Nominal current

Field voltage

Field current

Nominal speed

Power factor

Efficiency

Pn

Un

In

Ufn

Ifn

nn

cosn

kW

V

A

V

A

rpm

600/1050

6000

Y/YY

86/121

51/70

175/240

500/600

0.8 lag/0.9 lead

80.0/94.2

armature winding (Fig. 1a). Different number of magnetic poles are obtained due to

84

changes of the armature current P in all stator phases A, B, C. In all groups named NP

currents direction are unchanged, for both rotational rotor speed. Corresponding configuration of field winding is presented in Fig. 1b. With black color magnetic poles for

the higher rotational rotors speed are marked (convectional distribution of magnetic

poles) and with grey color for lower rotational rotor speed (unconventional distribution).

and polarity of rotor (b) for both rotational speed of testing motor

model (field part) of investigated motor, together with cylindrical coordinate system

(situated in air-gap, 0.3 mm below stator inner surface), and part of finite element mesh

is shown. Second order approximation of the magnetic vector potential is used. In term

to calculate the magnetic stresses, the distribution of the radial (normal) and tangential

component of the flux density in the air-gap of the motor, are determined. The timestepping method is used, i.e. magnetic flux density for next 100 (for higher rotational

speed; 120 for lower rotational speed) time steps, for nominal load is determined. Magnetic field is sampled in 1024 equidistance points in air-gap. An example of such distribution, valid for one time moment, is presented in the Fig. 3.

For the picture clarity only space distribution for one time moment are show. Results

are valid for both rotational speeds. Finally, collecting all calculation results (for all time

steps), matrix of flux density B(m, n) is obtained, where M is a number of space samples,

and N time samples. By means of 2DFT, matrix B(m, n) can be converted into spectral

domain B(, ) [11]. In all further analysis the RMS value are taken on, both in space

and time.

85

1,2

600 rpm

500 rpm

Bn [T]

0,8

0,4

0

-0,4

-0,8

-1,2

0

60

120

180

240

Angle

300[deg]

360

in air-gap for both rotational speeds (for rated load)

Figures 4 and 5 shows time/space distribution and modal/frequency spectrum of radial component of flux density. Result are presented for both rotational speeds and for

field winding current If = 200 A.

86

(a)

(b)

time/space distribution (a) modal/frequency spectrum (centered) (b) nominal load

(a)

(b)

time/space distribution (a) modal/frequency spectrum (centered) (b) nominal load

Maxell stress tensor components in air-gap, in 2D calculations, in cylindrical coordinate system, can be calculated from the well know equations [11]:

87

1 2

T ( ) =

B ( ) B2 ( )

nn

2 n

0

1

T ( ) =

B ( )B ( )

n

n

0

(1)

where: Bn() radial component of the flux density [T], B () tangential component of

the flux density [T], Tnn() radial component of the magnetic stress [N/m2], Tn ()

tangential component of the magnetic stress [N/m2], 0 absolute permeability [H/m].

In the Fig. 6 instantaneous distribution of the radial and tangential component of

magnetic stress in the air-gap, valid for the rated load of the motor, are presented.

800

600 rpm

500 rpm

Tnn [kPa]

600

400

200

0

0

400

60

120

180

240

Angle

300 [deg]

360

600 rpm

Tn [kPa]

500 rpm

200

-200

-400

0

60

120

180

240

Angle

300 [deg]

360

Fig. 6. Instantaneous distribution of magnetic stress components in the air-gap for both rotational speeds:

a) radial component at rated load, b) tangential component at rated load

88

Collecting all calculation results (for all time steps), matrix of magnetic stress

Tx(m, n) is obtained, where M is a number of space samples, and N time samples

(Tx represents either Tnn or Tn). By means of 2DFT, matrix Tx(m, n) can be converted into spectral domain Tx(, ) [11]. In all further analysis the RMS value are

taken on, both in space and time. In the Fig. 7 an example for time/space distributions of the magnetic stress (normal component), valid for both rotational speed are

shown. In addition in Fig. 8 the modal/frequency spectrum is presented. All results

are valid for nominal load point of motor. Modal/frequency spectrum of magnetic

pressure should be limited only to lowest harmonic in space, because from

vibroacoustic point of view only longest waves are important [11]. In case of large

power, two-speed, silent pole, synchronous motors such approach can not be used.

For all rotational speeds in modal/frequency spectrums of magnetic stresses (radial

component), harmonics close to 1 kHz are observed. These harmonics are connected with numbers of stator slots (108) and numbers of pole pairs

(n = 500 rpm, p = 6 and n = 600 rpm, p = 5). For lower rotational rotor speed the

harmonics number are 102 and 114, and for higher speed harmonics number 103

and 113. Magnitudes of these harmonics are similar to harmonics amplitudes of

small order. In addition these harmonics are very close to natural frequencies of a

mechanical construction of two-speed synchronous motor. Therefore vibration of

such structure with big amplitudes can be expected.

(a)

(b)

600 rpm (a) and 500 rpm (b)

89

Natural frequency analysis is done using 2D and 3D models, which are mutually

combined [6]:

The real slotting geometry of the stator iron is analyzed within 2D mechanical

model. Results of such model are the base for determination equivalent cylindrical

structure of the stator core.

That equivalent structure is introduced later into 3D model together with the geometry of the housing.

The two dimensional model of stator (Fig. 9) takes into account the mechanical properties of the stator iron, armature winding and wedges. Impact of end-parts of armature

winding is considered with additional mass added to the nodes of FE mesh. Results of

the 2D model are the input data for the equivalent 3D stator core structure. Such approach is forced by the computer facilities and very complicated motors structure. The

2D model has about 70000 DOFs, what is equivalent to the few hours of computation

time. In 3D this numbers of the DOFs of stator core will exceed value 1000000 (450 mm

axial length of the stator iron). Adding about 500000 DOFs of the stator housing one will

give numbers of equation which will be solved more that 24 hours.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 9. 2D model of the synchronous motor: a) outlook; b) part of the model with the mesh

Second reason of modeling within 2D and 3D is that too many details inside FE

model result with very dense natural mode spectrum, which is out of practical interest.

The criterion of the equivalent cylinder to the real stator core model is the identity of

the natural frequency of such structures.

90

Table 2. Main properties of two 2D mechanical models of the synchronous motor

Outer diameter

Yoke height

Young modulus

Poisson ratio

Density

mm

mm

Pa

kg/m3

Full model

Simplified model

1450

150

2.1 1011

0.29

7850

1450

64.4

1.7 1011

0.29

12125

The cylindrical model allows reducing numbers of equation in 3D space more that 50

times. Table 2 shows parameters of the full 2D and simplified 2D model and Table 3

shows the results of both models.

Table 3. Results of the two mechanical models

Frequency

Full model

Simplified model

1488

1487

1529

1527

1644

1640

1775

1759

f [Hz]

1897

1909

2069

2062

2295

2257

2419

2347

Comparisons between the space natural forms of both models are shown in Fig. 10

and Fig. 11. The simplified model has about 2000 DOFs.

The full 3D finite element model of a two-speed synchronous motor is made of solid

elements and the total numerical size of the model is about 1 000 000 DOFs. The Fig. 12

shows the outer view of the model and of finite element mesh. The longitudinal ribs,

screws etc. cause a very rich spectrum of natural frequencies of a presented structure. In

the range up to 3.5 kHz, 500 natural modes can be observed.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 10. Example of a natural space mode for full 2D model (a) for r = 6 (b) for r = 12

91

(a)

(b)

Fig. 11. Example of a natural space mode for simplified 2 D model: (a) for r=6, (b) for r=12

Boundary

conditions

(Uxyz = 0)

Terminal board

(modeled with

additional masses)

This shows how the structure of the motor is weak. Examples of natural modes of examined motor are shown in the Fig. 13 and 14.

92

(a)

(b)

Fig. 13. Examples of natural modes: (a) f = 92.3 Hz, (b) f = 111.8 Hz

(for the picture clarity part of the model is removed)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 14. Examples of natural modes: (a) f = 240.6 Hz, (b) f = 1354 Hz

(for the picture clarity part of the model is removed)

Results show that dominant natural modes below 1500 Hz are: axial mode n = 1 and

circumferential mode r = 2.

93

In this chapter vibration calculations, caused by electromagnetic forces which act

in investigated motor, are presented. Details of electromagnetic forces calculations

are described in [7]. For the linear structures the following equation can be written

[2, 9]:

M + Cu + Ku = F

(2)

vector, u velocity vector, u displacement vector, F load vector.

Solving the equation (2) displacement values in node of FEM model are obtained.

The following assumptions are taken in the vibration analysis:

displacement of the housing lugs is set to zero,

zero displacement as the initial calculations condition.

In all calculations the damping matrix is neglected.

In Figures 15 and 16 the vibrations velocity (the RMS value) is presented (harmonic spectrum). Results are valid for both rotational speeds, for nominal load and

for the field current 200 A. The casing vibration of the investigated motor are determined.

V [mm/s]

5.35

4

3

2

f [Hz]

1

0

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Fig. 15. Harmonic spectrum of the RMS vibrations velocity of the motor

at nominal load for n = 600 rpm

Energy of the vibrations is concentrated in two ranges. First is the range of 0300 Hz,

where the dominant are 200 Hz, where the investigated motor works with the higher

94

speed (n = 600 rpm) and the 16,7 Hz, 50 Hz and 100 Hz where the motor works with

lower rotational speed (n = 500 rpm). Harmonics 100 Hz is connected with the fundamental wave of the magnetic field inside the motor. Harmonics 16,7 Hz and 50 Hz are

connected with the sub-harmonics. Second range of the harmonic spectrum is the range

11001500 Hz, where the dominant are the 1st order of the slot harmonics. Big amplitudes are the results of the resonance phenomena. In the range 10001500 Hz are almost

50 natural frequencies [5, 6]. Vibration amplitudes at lower speed are almost 4 times

bigger that the vibrations at higher rotational speed.

V [mm/s]

25

20

15

10

5

f [Hz]

0

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Fig. 16. Harmonic spectrum of the RMS vibrations velocity of the motor

at nominal load for n = 500 rpm

5. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper results of vibrations of the magnetic origin in two-speed, large power,

silent pole, synchronous motors are presented. Elaborated and described model of the

two speed synchronous motor type GAe1510-12p allows to determine the static and the

transient characteristic as well. Presented model is useful to analyses the mechanical

phenomenon in two speed synchronous, silent pole motors. Results of a natural vibration

analysis shows, that the structure of stator frame of examined motor is very sensitive to

the stator iron core vibration below 1 kHz can be found more that 50 natural modes.

According to presented results more dense vibration spectrum on lower rotational speed

n = 500 rpm can be observed.

95

REFERENCES

[1] ANTAL L., ZAWILAK J., ZAWILAK T., Testing of a Two-speed Synchronous Motor, XVI International Conference on Electrical Machines ICEM 2004, Krakw 2004, pp. 793799.

[2] ANSYS Help, www.ansys.com, 2008.

[3] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., ANTAL L., Field-circuit model of the two-speed synchronous motor,

Scientific Papers of the Institute of Electrical Machines, Drives and Metrology of the Wroclaw University of Technology, No. 56, Wrocaw 2004, pp. 4354 (in Polish).

[4] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., Vibrations and electromagnetic forces in two speed, large power synchronous motor, Proceedings of XLI International Symposium on Electrical Machines SME 2005,

Jarnotwek 2005, pp. 5564 (in Polish).

[5] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., Free vibration analysis of the two speed synchronous motor, Proceedings

of Exploitation of Electrical Machines and Drives PEMINE Industrial Research and Development

Center for electrical Machines KOMEL, Rytro, Mai 2008 (in Polish).

[6] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., Vibration modeling of the two-speed, large Power, synchronous motor,

6th IEEE International Symposium on Diagnostic for Electric Machines, Power Electronics and

Drives, Krakw, September 68, 2007, pp. 173177.

[7] BIALIK J., ZAWILAK J., Magnetic forces calculation in two-speed, large power, silent pole, synchronous motor, XLIV International Symposium on Electrical Machines, SME 2008, Szklarska

Porba, June 1720, 2008.

[8] DUBICKI B., Electrical machines, part III, PWN, Warszawa 1964 (in Polish).

[9] GIERAS J. F., WANG CH., CHO LAI J., Noise of polyphase electric machines, CRS Press Taylor

& Francis Group, USA, 2006.

[10] SERGEEV P.S., VINOGRADOV N.V., GORJANOV F.A., Projektirovanie Elektrieskich Main,

Energija, Moskva 1969 (in Russian).

[11] WITCZAK P., WAWRZYNIAK B., Modal-frequency analysis of magnetic vibration forces in

permanent magnet machines, Proceedings of XLI International Symposium on Electrical Machines

SME 2005, Jarnotwek 2005, pp. 214219 (in Polish).

- Seal FailureUploaded bynik2610
- Linkbelt Bearing Vibration DataUploaded byEyo Etim
- Detecting Rolling Element Bearing Faults With Vibration AnalysisUploaded bycatraio
- Troubleshooting Rolling Element Bearing ProblemsUploaded bynekoNcen
- Mechanalysis Vibration Severity ChartUploaded byhelloyvn
- As 4024.3301-2009 Safety of Machinery Robots for Industrial Environments - Safety RequirementsUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- ISO-10816, 1st Edition, December 1995, Mechanical Vibration - Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-Rotating PartsUploaded bydidiekilham
- Electric Motor VibrationUploaded byPawan Chaturvedi
- A Review of Rolling Element Bearing Vibration Detection, Diagnosis and PrognosisUploaded byVirgilio
- Bearing Vibration AnalysisUploaded byAnh Tuan Phan
- Rolling Element Bearing DefectUploaded byEndang Subarna
- An Overview on Vibration Analysis Techniques for the Diagnosis of Rolling Element Bearing FaultsUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Vibration Monitoring for Defect Diagnosis of Rolling Element BearingsUploaded bydshalev8694
- Vibration TheoryUploaded byThulasi Doss
- Guide to Electric Motor Bearing LubricationUploaded byUber_Konstruktor
- Spectrum KnowledgeUploaded byYug Shilpi
- Electric Motor Vibration Diagnostic ChartUploaded byfazzlie
- Rolling Bearings in Electrical Motors & GeneratorsUploaded byJurun_Bidanshi
- Fault Identification and Monitoring in rolling element bearingUploaded byRushikesh Dandagwhal
- Alignment - Rotating EquipmentUploaded bye103050_1
- AlignmentUploaded byriz333
- Electric Motor Signature AnalysisUploaded byMarco Bertoldi
- Analysis of Rolling Element Bearings - Wan Changsen and Zhang Zhaoying - 0852987455Uploaded byscrappydappyboo
- Beginning Vibration AnalysisUploaded bywaldo_astudillo
- Review of Vibration Based Fault Diagnosis in Rolling Element Bearing and Vibration Analysis TechniquesUploaded byijsret
- welfare failureUploaded byZerohedge
- Machine Vibration ( a Beginners Guide)Uploaded bymavric444
- Ariel JGH-JGE-JGK-JGT Operating Manual Rev Mar 2011Uploaded byOrlando Rafael Arévalo Ropaín

- Conversion TableUploaded bymevansmetreel
- IAD_LayupUploaded bySantiago Molina
- FIA_Formula e Championship - Technical Regulations-2016Uploaded bySantiago Molina
- shot peningUploaded bySantiago Molina
- Equivalencias de ACEROS.pdfUploaded bySantiago Molina
- Morini Lorenzo Tesis Thermal Management PhevUploaded bySantiago Molina
- ASTM D149 _Dielectrical Strength.pdfUploaded bySantiago Molina
- drawingUploaded bySantiago Molina
- ball jointUploaded bySantiago Molina
- Mat Law25 RadiossUploaded bySantiago Molina
- EN 10624/DIN 7991Uploaded byDasdasd Sadasd
- aluminium-7075-t6-7075-t651.pdfUploaded bymenosoft
- Atcx Cfd Altair LaUploaded bySantiago Molina
- MYLAR_PROPIEDADES ELECTRICASUploaded bytiztiz2
- Part List_studebaker Champion 169 Cubic Inches_4 DoorUploaded bySantiago Molina
- Bolt Clamp Load ChartUploaded byphatmat
- Soldadura de aluminioUploaded byapi-118986524
- roscaUploaded bySantiago Molina
- Mangueras AC.pdfUploaded bySantiago Molina
- CATALOGO SCHRODER.pdfUploaded byMatías Fernández Velasco
- 745_caUploaded byalexisfagnolad
- waterUploaded bySantiago Molina
- Bolt Load.pdfUploaded byHarshal Jadhav
- BendsUploaded byvijay410
- Sheetmetal K FactorUploaded bySantiago Molina
- Aleaciones de Aluminio y Sus PropiedadesUploaded bySantiago Molina
- Tornillos NAS - MS Entre OtrosUploaded bySantiago Molina
- DIN 17100Uploaded byKhoirulAnwar
- FIA_Anexo JUploaded bySantiago Molina
- DT124-MatrixTDS-03 Jan 17Uploaded bySantiago Molina

- Shoreline Stability.pdfUploaded bynikif
- A Study on Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for Effective Harnessing of Wind Energy in Satara RegionUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- AHS2011_HECC_Design_Final[1].pdfUploaded byKarl Glorstad
- AS1100.501Uploaded byAnonymous lbsbqbs3
- Civil Complete SYLLABUSUploaded bybharani
- John Stillwell - Yearning for the Impossible: the Surprising Truths of MathematicsUploaded byNúñez
- Compositional Characteristics and Industrial Potential of the Lateritic Clay Deposit in Ara Ijero Ekiti Areas Southwestern NigeriaUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- chem 162 lab 2Uploaded byapi-245391028
- 9780470049631_TOC.pdfUploaded byHariharan
- Storage Da1Uploaded byYash Pawar
- MoebiusUploaded byGustavo Ríos
- ATC 58 50percentDraftUploaded byKader Newaj Sakib
- Acid Base TheoryUploaded bySourabh Dhavala
- Mechanics of Solids 2 Marks (All Units)Uploaded byrajapraty
- 2012 Hilti HIT HY 150 MAX Post Installed RebarsUploaded byDifa Liu
- Fault Analysis of Induction MotorUploaded byAhcene Bouzida
- Filament Wound Composite Pressure Vessel Analysis with Abaqus 2005Uploaded bySIMULIACorp
- Measuring the Elastic Properties of Anisotropic Materials by Indentation ExperimentsUploaded byArun Kumar
- Elastic and plastic centroid.pdfUploaded byJohn Dakota
- PREN 15129 Anti-seismic DevicesUploaded byKobra Man
- Calculus Lecture 4Uploaded bySuneth Kelum
- Medieval.islamic.arch.Quasi.penrose.girih.tiles.r.tennantUploaded byluknok
- DeltaVStandardBoilerSolutionFlyer_v3Uploaded byabhijitsarma
- Microwave ExperimentUploaded bysufiyan ali
- Yechout_TableOfContentsUploaded byparsa90p
- Die materials and technique of fabricationUploaded bydranupamsingh
- Direct Torque Control for Three-Level Neutral PointUploaded byrakheep123
- Multi-Actuator Switch-Mode Hydraulic SystemUploaded bySiddu Rh
- Boiler Powerpoint 2003Uploaded bySahil Mishra
- remote sensing&gisUploaded bymani