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Department of Archaeology and Anthropology

Putusk Academy of Humanities

Third Interdisciplinary Conference:

Thinking Symbols

Putusk 30 June-2 July 2015

Abstracts of Papers

Edited by
Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska
Jadwiga Iwaszczuk

Edited by Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska, Jadwiga Iwaszczuk

Proofreading in English by Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska, Maria F. Szymaska
DTP by Jadwiga Iwaszczuk
Cover design by Jakub Affelski

All rights reserved

Copyright 2015
by Putusk Academy of Humanities

Putusk Academy of Humanities
ul. Daszyskiego 17, 06-100 Putusk
tel./fax (+48 23) 692 50 82

The Third Interdisciplinary Conference: Thinking Symbols will be held from
30th June to 2nd July, 2015 at the Pultusk Academy of Humanities in Pultusk
in Poland. The meeting is intended to be ascholarly discussion concerned with
various approaches to studies concerned with widely understood symbols in all
its aspects and forms, including papers of ancient as well as contemporary times.
We will welcome scholars of various specialities, archaeologists, historians,
cultural anthropologists, art historians and artists, philosophers, ethnographers,
linguists, philologists, sociologists, psychologist, cultural studies scholar,
political scientist, scholars studying the issue in its broad sense.
The conference is planned as the third in the series of interdisciplinary
conferences at the Putusk Academy of Humanities. The First Interdisciplinary
Conference: Seeking Origins and Manifestations of Religion took place in June
2010, the Second Interdisciplinary Conference: Disasters, Catastrophes and
the Ends of the World in Sources was held in June 2012.
This booklet is a collection of abstracts received for the Third Interdisciplinary
Conference: Thinking Symbols. The abstracts have been given limited editing
for grammar and spelling as well as consistency of format. In most cases it
proved impossible to consult the authors about the changes and the editors are
responsible for textual errors or omissions.
We are deeply indebted to Rector Magnificus, Professor Adam Koseski, for
rendering the Putusk Academy of Humanities accessible for the conference and
for his inestimable support.
We are especially grateful to the Academy Bursar, Ms. Agnieszka Bakiewicz
and the Administration Director, Mr. Bogdan Mroziewicz, for their support and
Moreover, we want to thank the Head of the Academy Hostel, Ms. Anna
Brzeziska and the heads and employees of the Academy bar as well as our
students for their inestimable help.

Scientific Committee
Maria Helena Trindade Lopes
Jos das Candeias Montes Sales
James Cogswell
Teresa Dobrzyska
Wadysaw Duczko
sds Egilsdttir
Eva Katarina Glazer
Jadwiga Iwaszczuk
Boena Jzefw-Czerwiska
Jolanta Karbowniczek
Dorota Kulczycka
Adam ukaszewicz
Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska
Ina Shved
Maria F. Szymaska

Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska
Boena Jzefw-Czerwiska
Wadysaw Duczko
Maria F. Szymaska
Jadwiga Iwaszczuk
Putusk, 15th June 2015

Third Interdisciplinary Conference:

Thinking Symbols
Putusk Academy of Humanities, Poland
Putusk, 30 June-2 July 2015

13.15-13.45 Maria F. Szymaska (Putusk/Cracow, Poland), Word the Storage

of Meanings in Building Communicative Thinking. Exemplary Pedagogical
13.45-15.15 Lunch break, Putusk Town Hall
15.15-15.40 Adam ukaszewicz (Warsaw, Poland), Christian Symbols in Pagan
Context: from the Milvian Bridge to the Tomb of Memnon (KV 9)
15.40- 16.05 Ronaldo G. Gurgel Pereira (Lisbon, Portugal/Brazil), Sounds Full
of Power or a Mere Noise of Words? The Importance of Speech in the Hermetic
Literature en face the Book of Thoth
16.05-16.30 Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska (Putusk, Poland), Federica
Manfredi (Rome, Italy), The Body of the Pharaoh in the Pyramid Texts as
16.30-16.55 Susana Moser (Trieste, Italy), Old Signs, New Hieroglyphs. How
Symbols Become a Language

Tuesday, 30th June 2015

Putusk Academy of Humanities

17, Daszynskiego st.
8.00-9.00 breakfast
8.00-9.00 registration
9.00 Conference Inauguration
His Magnificence Rector of the Putusk Academy of Humanities Professor dr.
Adam Koseski and dr. Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska, dr. Boena JzefwCzerwiska, professor dr. Wadysaw Duczko and dr. Maria F. Szymaska.

16.55-17.10 Coffee Break

17.10-17.35 sds Egilsdttir (Reykjavik, Iceland), Serpents and Dragons
17.35-18.00 Wadysaw Duczko (Putusk, Poland), Spirals the Most Ancient
and the Most Potent Symbols
18.00-18.25 Boena Jzefw-Czerwiska (Putusk, Poland), Symbol or
Metonimical-magical Connotations? Beliefs in Polish Traditional Culture
18.25-18.50 Jacek Jan Pawlik (Olsztyn, Poland) Turning into Symbol. Head of
State as a Political Icon during the Dictatorial Regime in Togo, 1967-2005

Opening Session
9.30-10.15 Maria Helena Trindade Lopes (Lisbon, Portugal), Ramesses II and
the Art of Narrating History
10.15-10.45 Jos das Candeias Montes Sales (Lisbon, Portugal), The Ritual
Scenes of Smiting the Enemies in the Pylons of the Egyptian Temples:
Symbolism and Functions
10.45-11.30 James Cogswell (Michigan, United States of America), Cosmogonic
Tattoos: Epistemic Limits and the Will to Adorn
11.30-12.00 Sebastian Szymaski (Poland) Music as a Symbol of

19.00 Reception Caf, Putusk Academy of Humanities, 17, Daszyskiego st.

21.00 Party, Polonia House. Karolina Ambroziak sings Portugalskie tango
Gondola ride

12.00-12.15 Coffee Break

Opening Session (continuation)
12.15-12.45 Ina Shved (Brest, Belarus), The Symbolism of Loaf in the
Belarusian Wedding Ceremony
12.45-13.15 Jolanta Karbowniczek (Cracow, Poland), The Stimulation and
Multi-intelligent Principle of Students Functioning in the Educational Process
Exemplification in Practice

Wednesday, 1st July 2015

16.20-16.45 Pantelis Komninos (Thessaloniki, Greece), Symbols and Landscape

Iconography on Aegean LBA Mural Depictions
16.45-17.10 Spyridon Bakas (Athens, Greece), Psychological Warfare in Greek
Bronze Age. Mycenaean Panoplies and Weapons as Symbols of Power and
17.10-17.35 Christy Emilio Ioannidou (Athens, Greece) Negative Verbal
Symbols in Ancient Greek Warfare

Putusk Academy of Humanities

17, Daszynskiego st.
8.00-9.00 breakfast

Section A, Auditorium Maximum

9.00-9.25 Guilherme Borges Pires (Lisbon, Portugal), Aquatic Symbolism in
Ancient Egypt: a Complex Issue
9.25-9.50 Brbara Botelho Rodrigues (Lisbon, Portugal), Osiris

One Deity,
Many Symbols
9.50-10.15 Marcus Vinicius Carvalho Pinto (Lisbon, Portugal/Brazil), Seeing
the Unseen: The Matter of Union in Middle Kingdom
10.15-10.40 Ana Alexandra Fraga Vieira Fraga (Lisbon, Portugal), For All
Eternity: Existence in the sx.t-jArw (Field of Rushes)
10.40-11.05 Jessica Alexandra Monteiro Santos (Lisbon, Portugal), Amulets
and Apotropaic Objects: Childrens Protection Symbols in Ancient Egypt
11.05-11.30 Piotr Czerkwiski (Warsaw, Poland), Symbolic Burials from the
Temple of Thutmose IIIs in Deir el-Bahari. But Are They Really Symbolic?

Section B, Green Chamber

15.30-15.55 Teresa Dobrzyska (Warsaw, Poland), Lutes on the Willows, Harps
on the Poplars. The Dilemmas Involved in Translation of Psalm 137 (read by
15.55-16.20 Adriana Teodorescu (Trgu-Mure Romania), Representations of
Symbolic Immortality in The Book Thief Novel
16.20-16.45 Aleksandra Rycka (Lublin, Poland), The Visualisation of
Suffering in Polish Gothic Painting
16.45-17.10 Ivan Badanjak (Zagreb, Croatia), Codex Gigas as a Symbol of the
17.10-17.35 Olga Konstantinova (Putusk, Poland/Ukraine), Stanisaw Lems
Pseudoterms Translated into Russian: A Comparative Analysis of Connotations

Section B, Green Chamber

9.00-9.25 Tomasz Gralak (Wrocaw, Poland), Symbols or visualisations.
Genesis of Scythian Animal Style
9.25-9.50 Pawe F. Nowakowski (Cracow, Poland), The Symbols of the
Spiritual Warfare in the Writings of the Hussite Thinkers
9.50-10.15 Eithan Orkibi (Samaria, Israel), Abusing the Emblems of the
Republic: Jamming National Symbols in French Political Dissent
10.15-10.40 Tomasz Szajewski (Warsaw/Putusk, Poland), Symbolism of
Commanding Attributes in Polish Army at 17th

18th Centuries

17.35-17.50 Coffee break

Section A, Auditorium Maximum
17.50-18.15 Marta Fitua (Noto, Italy), Occhio e Malocchio. Eye Symbol from
the Neolithic Material Culture to the Modern Magical Practice in Sicily
18.15-18.40 Hanna Rubinkowska-Anio (Warsaw, Poland), Imperial Clothes as
a Symbol of Change the Case of Haile Sillasie I and 20th-century Ethiopia
18.40-19.05 Edyta ubiska (Cracow, Poland), Symbolism of African Funeral
Rituals (Case of the Mbomou Zande People from the Central African Republic)

11.30-11.50 coffee break

Section B, Green Hall

17.50-18.15 Dorota Kulczycka (Zielona Gra, Poland), Archetypes and symbols
in the Films of M. Night Shyalaman
18.15-18.40 Magorzata Okupnik (Pozna, Poland), Symbols of Death, Dying
and Mourning in the Polish Art Cinema
18.40-19.05 Lidia Ambroziak (Putusk, Poland), Mind Maps as a Symbol of
Mmodern Education Methods
19.05-19.30 Anna Hamling (New Brunswick, Canada), An Introduction to the
Historical and Artistic Significance of Two Religious Icons

11.50-14.15 Sightseeing
14.30-15.30 lunch break
Section A, Auditorium Maximum
15.30-15.55 Eva Katarina Glazer (Zagreb, Croatia), Betyls Symbols of Gods
and Deities in the Ancient Near East
15.55-16.20 Richard Vallance Janke (Ottawa, Canada), The Role of
Supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B

Thursday, 2nd July 2015

16.45-17.10 Anna Garczewska (Toru, Poland), Symbols of law in pop culture

- the example of the gavel
17.10-17.35 Krystyna Kamiska (Warsaw/Putusk, Poland), Being in Culture,
that is Contemporary Relation Human Being World
17.35-18.00 Krzysztof Garczewski (Putusk, Poland), Berlin Wall as a symbol of
politics and pop culture
18.00-18.25 Agata mieja (Warsaw, Poland), How to create the symbol of
beauty? The process of shaping the image of Cleopatra VII concerning both
antique and modern sources

Pultusk Academy of Humanities

17, Daszynskiego st.
8.00-9.00 breakfast
Auditorium Maximum
9.00-9.25 Paulina Stachowicz (Warsaw, Poland), Symbols on Roman urns
9.25-9.50 Aleksandr Farutin (St. Petersburg/Putusk, Russia/Poland),
Crucifixion: Emergence of the Symbol
9.50-10.15 Tomasz Twardziowski (Warsaw, Poland), The Symbolism of Nature
in the Canonical Gospels
10.15-10.40 Jacek Konik (Warsaw, Poland), The Kabbalah Mystique of
Symbols and Numbers
10.40-11.00 Pawe Szczepanik (Toru, Poland), Symbols, Material Culture and
Images in Western Slavonic pre-Christian Religion

18.25 Concluding discussion

11.00-11.30 Coffee break

11.30-11.55 Renata Zych (Cracow, Poland), Kujavian long barrows Through
Time the symbolism of the cemeteries
11.55-12.20 Waldemar Gniadek (Putusk, Poland), Symbols in Freemansonery.
300 years of tradition
12.20-12.45 Katarzyna Szczypka (Putusk/Warsaw, Poland), Symbolism in
Turkish carpets
12.45-13.10 Alicja Skwirut (Putusk/Warsaw, Poland), Colour symbolism in
ceremonial dresses based on Matejkos and Baccios paintings of Polish kings
13.10-13.35 Joanna Wawrzeniuk (Warsaw, Poland), How do they understand
death? What does the symbol mean?
13.35-14.45 Lunch break
14.45-15.10 Federica Manfredi (Rome, Italy), Body Symbols. The use of body
from an anthropological perspective
15.10-15.35 ukasz Karol (Putusk/Warsaw, Poland), The light from the wall of
church. Penance holes as the sign of activities connected with starting a fire
15.35-16.00 Hanna uraw (Warsaw/Putusk, Poland), Disability as a symbol
16.00-16.25 Krzysztof ukawski (Putusk, Poland), University studies as a door
to a career and a symbol of elitism on the medieval and the modern Mazovia
16.25-16.45 Coffee break


Lidia Ambroziak
Putusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland

Mind Maps
in Creative Knowledge Gaining Process by Students
Mind maps, as an expression of multidirectional thinking, follow the natural
way of working of the human mind. It is constructed on the basis of interactive
quotation, which is a reflection of what is happening outside in the head of
person creating it. The brain functions in a radial manner. It means that thought
passing through the brain explodes in all directions. The brain processing the
information that it receives, uses imagination and a network of associations.
Mental maps allow to express your thoughts fuller and faster. Visually, the
design is based on a multi-coloured graphic technique with the main element
the central figure symbolising the topic of discussion. This compilation of
techniques for supporting the learning process is also invaluable in managing,
organising, analysing, communicating or making decisions.
Mind maps contain not only facts, but also take into account the links between
them, which contributes to a better understanding of a topic or issue. By its
form they arouse interest in a young person as a unique way of assimilation or
summarising the knowledge and dispose to greater activity and concentration
in the classroom. During the process of their formation, new neural connections
that empower the brain are created, increasing the creativity of young person.
They may be symbols of an appropriate knowledge gaining.


Ivan Badanjak
Department of History
Centre for Croatian Studies
University of Zagreb

Codex Gigas as a Symbol of the Occult

Codex Gigas is medieval manuscript written in the early 13th century in the
Czech region. Due to its large dimensions and weight of 165 pounds (75 kg),
it has a reputation of the largest hand-written book in the world. It contains
awhole copy of the Bible, historical and medical texts, calendar with necrology,
conjurations, entire confession of the writer and large illuminated images.
According to the legend, manuscript was written during a single night, after the
writer sold his soul to the Devil. Because of that, manuscript received the name
The Devils Bible.
Even though the manuscript was not written as a book of magic or a book
of the occult, it was considered, almost throughout its entire history, as such.
The reason is that we can find in it the legend about its creation, conjuration
texts and the portrait of the Devil and also it was transmitted by bad omens that
happened to people who were in the possession of it. But to me those reasons
are not enough to identify this manuscript as an occult one. However, the most
famous person who had Codex Gigas in his possession was emperor Rudolf II
Habsburg. He was obsessed with the occult and thus he borrowed the manuscript
from its original owners Benedictine monks. After many years of research he
became mad and many people believed that the Codex was the reason for that,
but I believe that there were many more reasons of it. Moreover, even though the
manuscript certainly was not written with the help of the Devil himself and its
content does not deal only with the occult, then why did the writer created such
enormous manuscript. I believe that the answer to these questions can be found
in the manuscript itself that is in the Confession.
Even if we could know the complete answers to the above mentioned
questions, still this manuscript would remain enigmatic, because there are many
more unanswered doubts and there is still plenty of space for further research,
and so we can only hope that one day we will know entire story about the world
largest manuscript.


Spyridon Bakas
Institute of Archaeology
University of Warsaw

Psychological Warfare in Greek Bronze Age.

Mycenaean Panoplies and Weapons
as Symbols of Power and Divinity
Greek Bronze Age designates an era of extensive and multiform military
activity. Local war struggles, naval incursions, broadened military conflicts were
common practices among the Aegean populations. Confronting sea raiders,
land invaders or regulated armies, the Mycenaean warrior had to use all of
his abilities in the battlefield to defend his ground and encounter his enemies.
Exotic weapons with bizarre shapes and usages, impressive body armours
with megalithic structure and shining bronze, helmets with series of horns and
colourful plumes were some of the psychological weapons that Mycenaeans used
in order to affect their opponents. Symbols of military superiority and divine
heritage with military items characterised a new type of warfare that introduced
the psychological factor that would evolve in the later Greek armies.


Guilherme Borges Pires

CHAM/ FCSH/ Universidade Nova de Lisboa/ UA
Lisbon, Portugal

Aquatic Symbolism in Ancient Egypt: a Complex Issue

A symbol is a mysterys epiphany (Gilbert Durand). In that sense, symbols
have not a meaning per si but rather evoke multiple senses, which cannot be
reduced to a single definition. The quotidian expression of the symbol, whose
function is mainly to reconcile the human being with the universe, is the
symbolic language, composed of central metaphors. The purpose of this paper
is thus to show how water can be regarded as a vital symbol, and consequently
ametaphor, to the Ancient Egyptians.
As stated by the historian of religion Mircea Eliade, the Waters pre-existed
the Earth, hence it should be the first element we focus on. In fact, the Waters
are fons et origo, being the means by which every creation takes place. The
Ancient Egyptians perfectly assimilated this as they envisaged their origins from
the Primeval Waters, believing everything started in Nun, the primordial ocean
that gave life to all living forces and beings, from gods to plants. The Nile, as the
river that enabled the continuing fertility of the Valley, was seen as the mimetic
watercourse of Nun, sacred and eternal.
Although it was true that the Waters open the path to existence it was also
undeniable that they represented the end of life, destruction and alienation.
Annually, the Niles flood caused several damage, which partially explains why
the Egyptians thought their apocalypse would be a return to the Waters. But
the destruction embodied a new beginning: after the flood subsided, the fields
would be ready to be cultivated and once again the Egyptians would not starve.
However, when one thinks about the water symbol in Ancient Egypt, it is also
crucial to look to the other waterways, for instance, the Mediterranean Sea, both
an opportunity and a threat to the Nilotic people.
It is precisely this complexity connoting the Waters in Ancient Egypt that we
intend to explore.



Brbara Botelho Rodrigues

CHAM/ FCSH/ Universidade Nova de Lisboa/ UA
Lisbon, Portugal

Osiris One Deity, Many Symbols

Osiris is undoubtedly one of the most popular and important deities in the
Egyptian pantheon. At first glance, one might associate the gods popularity
with its role as god and king of the dead, due to the importance of the Afterlife
in the ancient Egyptian imaginary. However, Osiris had various spheres of
action besides ruling the world of the dead. He is associated with the ideas
of regeneration and rebirth and ultimately with the cosmos and the cycle of
life, since the Egyptians perceived time as cyclical. He was also linked with
vegetation and the waters of the Nile the vehicle through which his rebirth is
made possible and also with the monarchical system and with Order (Maat),
acting as the opposite of his brother, Seth.
Osiris is not only a deity which has symbols connected with him, he is also at
the same time a symbol better yet, various symbols himself. In other words,
Osiris as many other deities was identified with symbols, for instance, the djed
pillar, a symbol of stability. However, he is also a symbol of various other things
mentioned above.
Using Plutarchs account of the Osirian mythic cycle as our source, we intend
to identify and analyse the symbols associated with this god. Likewise we intend
to look at Osiris as a figure containing many symbols and try to understand why
such image of a deity was made by the ancient Egyptians. More than a god with
powers and attributes, Osiris was a god of symbols, incorporating a multitude of
meanings and attributes in himself.



Nicholas Campion
Sophia Centre
University of Wales Trinity Saint David
Bath, Great Britain

the Survival of an Ancient Symbolic Language
Modern western astrology is a survival of a pre-modern, pre-Christian
worldview. It is common for modern western astrologers to rationalise astrology
as a symbolic language. However, it is also widely believed that astrological
claims are true; that astrology can, for example, make accurate forecasts.
This paper questions what astrologers actually mean by the phrase symbolic
language. There are apparent contradictions in the astrological position: do
astrologers really think symbolically? Do some, but not all uses of astrology rely
on the interpretation of symbols? Does some astrology rely on the assumption
of absolute, literal, truth, rather than the reading of symbols? And, are these
approaches compatible? explores the understanding of symbolism through
the western astrology of the English-speaking world, focusing on the legacy of
Platonism and theosophy.



Jos das Candeias Montes Sales

CHAM/ FCSH/ Universidade Nova de Lisboa/ UA/ Universidade Aberta
Lisbon, Portugal

The Ritual Scenes of Smiting the Enemies

in the Pylons of Egyptian Temples:
Symbolism and Functions
The use of symbolism by the ancient Egyptians is an important and powerful
way to impose their view of life. By definition, symbols represent something other
than what they actually depict, based on conventionally agreed-on meanings.
The case of the civilization of ancient Egypt is paradigmatic because the ancient
Egyptians expressed and affirmed many of their ideas through symbols and
symbolic languages.
In the representational forms of Egyptian art visual symbols were employed
to manifest some ideas of political domination. Is the case of the ritual scenes of
smiting the enemies, a topos of the Egyptian iconography of military nature which
goes through Egyptian history almost in its entirety, from the 4th millennium
BC until the 2nd century AD.
In this paper we would like to presented some important examples of the use
of the ritual scenes of smiting enemies, especially in architectural structures
(pylons of divine and funerary temples), to understand the meaning and
functions of this visual symbol.



Marcus Vicinius Carvalho Pinto

CHAM/ FCSH/ Universidade Nova de Lisboa/ UA
Lisbon, Portugal

Seeing the Unseen:

The Matter of Union in the Middle Kingdom
Ideology was in the heart of Egyptian monarchy and, since Narmer, the
unification of the Two Lands became one of its essential myths. Middle Kingdom
was marked by the restauration of the union and also the restructuration of the
central State. Its rulers developed a political-cultural project, in accord with past
models, centering in the image of the king as the unifier of the land. Known as
aperiod of rebirth under the Pharaohs rule, loyalty and the maintenance of MAat
over Isfet are common themes.
It is not possible to think about Egypt forgetting the magical and symbolic
aspect intrinsic to their choices. Their thinking always containeds a deeper
meaning whose aspirations could be fulfilled and accomplished through its
The symbolic expression of unification of equal parts is the hieroglyph smA
(F36) and it was commonly used to depict the union of the Kingdom. The
symbol was elaborated in the IV dynasty and usually depicted on the sides of
royal thrones the Pharaoh ruling over the Two Lands in union. It is a symbol
worked out to express a concept and, as an abstract idea, may be present even
in its absence.
This paper aims to explore a few questions related to smA through pieces of
literature, as well as the choices of Pharaohs names considering the symbolic
aspect of names as part of the beings identity and the union expressed in
architecture taking the example of Senusrets White Chapel.



Jim Cogswell
University of Michigan
Michigan, United States of America

Cosmogonic Tattoos:
Epistemic Limits and the Will to Adorn
As an artist I am fascinated by how pattern works in accord with the human
mind, mind in its most expansive sense, not just as the brain, or even the
bounded body, but working through and in concert with the material world that
we are part of. I question the lowly role that pattern has been afforded in our own
culture, these acts of marking that are as archaic as the first human artifacts,
commonly understood as frame or background to figuration and meaning, at
best granted the role of establishing a sense of order in the world.
I have been invited by the University of Michigan Kelsey Museum of
Archaeology and the University of Michigan Museum of Art to create a set
ofpublic window installations in response to the objects in their collections. My
project will deploy invented patterns derived from my research and drawings
of those objects, using adhesive window vinyl tattooed in saturated colors
tothe skin of their two buildings. By heightening my awareness of pattern in
objects from antiquity, my research for this project is forcing me to re-examine
dismissive modernist attitudes to the decorative.
My talk will examine how this and earlier artistic projects interrogate the
categories separating ornament and figuration, taking advantage of the hypnotic
qualities of pattern that render it suspect to our intellectualised constructions
and revealing it as a window to our own minds and a tool for connecting us with
the world. I want to examine how pattern helps us to see how we see, how it
might be used as a tool for thinking about thinking.



Piotr Czerkwiski
Antiquity of Southeastern
Europe Research Centre
University of Warsaw
Warsaw, Poland

Symbolic Burials
from the Temple of Thutmose IIIs in Deir el-Bahari.
But are they really symbolic?
During excavations carried out on the territory of the Thutmose IIIs temple
in Deir el-Bahari in the 1960s evidence was found and confirmed that this area
was used as a necropolis. Some of the excavated burial sites proved quite unique.
Instead of mummies, expected to be found in coffins, there were only embalming
materials such as linen and bags filled with natron. On this basis the discovery
was interpreted as, for instance, symbolic burials. But are they really so and does
the interpretation hold true today? Many years have passed from the time of
finding these burial sites thus the issue of symbolic burials discovered near
the Theban Necropolis should be re-examined.



Andrzej wiek
Adam Mickiewicz University/ Pozna Archaeological Museum
Pozna, Poland

Pedj-aha is an enigmatic object of a peculiar shape, occurring in various and
different contexts, infrequently discussed thus far. It appears first in the sun
temple of Niuserra in the heb-sed scenes. The pedj-aha and the big bow are
there carried by members of the royal suite. It occurs in the Pyramid Texts,
denoting, together with the standard of Wepwawet and the bow, the Followers
of Horus. In the Middle Kingdom it is represented in the frises dobjets, and
it appears in the scenes of funerary rites in the New Kingdom tombs, still in
relation to the big bow. It also occurs in the funerary equipment, with seemingly
more amuletic than functional role. One may notice not only a transfer from
the royal to private sphere, but also a change from utilitarian into symbolic use.
This extended meaning is reflected in the afterlife books, where the term pedjaha occurs as an epithet of gods. The original function of this implementation,
significantly related to the etymology of the term, may be reconstructed while
using an iconographic and textual analysis as well as experimental archaeology.
This may help to explain further developments and later functions.



Teresa Dobrzyska
Institute of Literary Research
Polish Academy of Sciences
Warsaw, Poland

Lutes on the Willows, Harps on the Poplars

The Dilemmas Involved in Translation of Psalm 137

When comparing the different English translation versions of Psalm 137, it is

already in its opening lines that one can discern certain odd discrepancies. This
reoccurs when including modern Polish translations, such as the one published
in the Bible of the Millennium and those by the poets Roman Brandstaetter and
Czesaw Miosz. The Psalm portrays the Hebrews who, sitting/getting seated/
having settled by the rivers of Babylon, have hung their musical instruments
on the trees the instruments being harps, lyres, or lutes [Polish, harfy/liry/
lutnie], and the trees being described as poplars [topole] or willows [wierzby],
depending on the translation. With the earlier Polish translations taken into
consideration, beginning with the earliest contained in Psaterz floriaski
(Sankt Florian Psalter, late 14th/early 15th century) the array of instruments
hung in the trees would be even richer: for instance, the Gdansk Bible features
a violin [skrzypce], whilst the other Polish translators proposed gle (a sort of
primitive fiddle), or cytra (cither).
These divergences with respect to the translated versions of a text that
forms part of the Bible and thus calls for a particularly penetrating rendering
of its content, are pretty astonishing. The diverse concepts become intriguing
especially with respect to modern translations.



Wadysaw Duczko
Pultusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland

Most Ancient and Most Potent Symbols
Studies of symbolic sphere of ancient world of humans is a popular field of
research which seems to be well-worked through since a long time. But, as it
used to happen, some symbols, while recognised, were never studied in detail
and thus did not become broadly known, although they certainly deserved it.
It is the case with three symbols made of spiral elements: double spiral, volute
and omega. These signs appeared about 5000 BC among Neolithic cultures of
Balkans and Anatolia and since then were used in almost all European cultures
until Middle Ages, in some cases even long after. Each of these symbols had
its place in religious cults, first in fertility, later, when they were accepted by
Christianity, in symbolic iconography representing various meanings.



sds Egilsdttir
Department of Icelandic and Comparative Cultural Studies
University of Iceland
Reykjavik, Iceland

Serpents and dragons

The theme of a confrontation with a dragon or other monstrous beast is
common in the folklore and mythology of numerous ancient cultures. Combat
with a dragon is the most common myth in heroic tales and is its most important
theme. The dragon/serpent-combat myth is a creation-myth with the monster
symbolising chaos, the formless and desolate. In Old Norse mythology, the serpent
Migarsormr (Midgard Serpent, World Serpent) surrounded the earth and kept
its forces together by biting his tail. When he lets it go, the world will end. Wellknown and popular myths tell of the god rrs battle with Migarsormr. When
the world ends at Ragnark, rr kills Migarsormr and then walks nine paces
before falling dead, having been poisoned by the serpents venom. The role of
the Migarsormr is both positive, by tying the world together, and negative, by
being one of the gods most dangerous enemies. In Christian culture, dragons and
serpents represent evil. In one of the oldest (12th century) Nordic translations of
Descensus Christi, the devil is translated as Migarsormr. In my paper, Iintend
to analyse the appearence of dragons and serpents in popular medieval Icelandic
texts, the translation of the Passio of St Margaret and the Ketils saga hngs, an
entertaining story of a male Cinderella. In the Passio of St Margaret of Antioch,
a dragon, representing the devil, swallows the young Margaret. Thanks to her
purity and faith, the dragon bursts open and she is saved. The miraculous rescue
of St Margaret made her a patron saint of childbirth. The Male Cinderella hides
away in the kitchen, despised by his father and other grown-up men, but loved
and protected by the mother. Such unpromising boys are a popular motif in late
Icelandic literature. When they come of age they have to break free from the
mother and leave her area, the kitchen and the home. They need to prove their
manhood to both men and women, by winning heroic deeds and overcoming his
shyness regarding physical contact with women. The narrative shows how they
grow up mentally, physically and sexually and are finally able to fulfill the model
male role accepted by the society, no longer different from other men. Slaying
adragon becomes an initiation rite in Ketils saga hngs and resembles a version
of rrs encounter with the Migarsormr. In my proposed paper I intend to
show how conquering dragons in both the Passio of St Margaret and Ketils saga



Aleksandr Farutin
Saint Petersburg State University
and Putusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland

Crucifixion: Emergence of the Symbol

The paper deals with historical circumstances accompanying the emergence
of one of the most important symbols of the Western world the crucifixion.
It starts with describing the history of that kind of execution in a non-Roman
world with a special attention to Alexander Janneus crucifying 800 Pharisees
in Palestine in 1st century B.C.E. The author continues telling about crucifixion
procedure among Romans including social, moral and technical aspects of
the execution. The presentation will end with the description of the supposed
crucifixion of Jesus Christ and the reaction of Early Church to that event.



Marta Fitua
Noto, Italy

Occhio e Malocchio.
Eye Symbol from the Neolithic Material Culture
to the Modern Magical Practice in Sicily
The Neolithic culture of Stentinello appeared on the Ionic coast of Sicily in
the 5th millennium BC, diffusing tradition developed in the Near East with
economy based on agriculture. One of the peculiarities of Stentinello material
culture, derived from context of the Impressed Ware pottery is image of an
eye on the clay vessels. The symbol of this human body part was widespread in
the Mediterranean various civilisation and present in different periods in Sicily
island cultures the background of great conquest. Apotropaic big eyes were
comprised on the 6th century BC Greek kylix ad occhioni (eye-cups). Painted
or modelled reproduction of a miraculously healed eyes as an ex voto votive
offering to a saint or to a divinity, so popular Christian custom, had already
been produced in the classic world. We have a lot of testimonies in Greek and
Roman sanctuaries. Votive eyes shaped in a form of breads (called uccioli) are
still prepared to celebrated Saint Lucia of Syracuse Day (saint patron of the
blind). With the Arab invasion to the Sicilian culture there was introduced
Allah eye, singular or in the centre of the Fatima hand amulet symbol of the
wish khamsa fi ainek (five fingers in your eye), protecting from the evil eye.
The Eye of Providence (or the all-seeing eye of the God) is shown in triangle,
which was also adapted by the Masons such as Grand Lodge of the Sicily. The
eyes, windows of the soul expressing emotions and according to the Sicilian
tradition can be used to generate maleficent power. The victims of Malocchio
(the evil eye), which cause misfortune or injury, happened to have problems
manifested by strong headache. They can receive help only by lucciatura rites
consisting of the complicate system of symbols, combination of pagan magical
practices and Christian tradition.



Ana Alexandra Fraga Vieira

Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Lisbon, Portugal

For All Eternity:

Existence in the sx.t-jArw (Field of Rushes)
Ancient Egyptian man believes in the existence beyond the limits of death:
that idea was present in several aspects of Egyptian mentality, not only in both
art and literature, but also in ritual practices. Within the framework of symbolic
expressions of the death conception appear the Field of Rushes (sx.t-jArw),
aplace located where the sun rises, being described as a flooded marshland
favourable to the existence of life. It should be noted their appearance in the
funerary texts, namely in the Old Kingdom Pyramid Text and the Book of the
Dead (chapters 109-110, 149). So, the scope of this study is to present and
analyse some imagery represented in the tombs, scrutinising the iconography
with textual references. Paying attention to the images of the repertoire we
can see the deceased in quotidian scenes, like agriculture or fishery. This way,
life in the hereafter would reflect the existence in the human world, with its
hierarchies. However, the arrival in the Field in question emerges only after
passing through the court of Osiris. These illustrations can be observed like an
artistic frame, where the author seeks to express the vision of his time in the
face of death. Furthermore, it is necessary to scrutinise the elements that make
up the whole, in which case the symbolism of greenery elements, the colour,
writing, and among other things, the divine presence in this picture. This image
was reinterpreted by other cultures, whereby the Greeks had their Elysian
Fields, for example, thus creating a new artistic style to express the meaning
of life.



Anna Garczewska
Kolegium Jagielloskie Toruska Szkoa Wysza
Toru, Poland

Symbols of Law in Pop Culture

the Example of the Gavel
There are many depictions of law and lawyers that can be found in popular
culture. We are taught about law and lawyers by way of popular culture, it
influences us the audience. Symbols of law are widely used in pop culture as
they tend to have supranational associations. Some symbols are attributed to law
in all its aspects, some only to courts or judges and not to justice. One of the legal
symbols used in courtroom dramas and music is the gavel. It is interesting that
an object used mostly only in American courts became widely connected with
the judges in collective imagination. There seems to be quite strong influence
of popular culture representations on the image of the legal system. This paper
aims to analyse the image of the gavel as an example of symbols of law in a pop



Krzysztof Garczewski
Putusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland

Berlin Wall as a Symbol of Politics and Pop Culture

Symbols play important role in both politics and popular culture. One of the
most recognizable symbols is Berlin Wall, built in 1961, symbolised not only
divided Germany, but also Europe split by the Iron Curtain. The fall of the Wall
in November 1989 was seen by many people as a symbol of political changes
happening both in Germany and in the Eastern Bloc countries as well. Since
1989-1990 the Wall has been used widely in pop culture. Berlin Wall is an
essential element of German politics of memory. Hence, it became the symbol of
German and European culture of remembrance. The fall of the Wall (1989) and
German reunification (1990) did not fill in the gap between the Germans who
had lived in two different political systems. One can say that the wall still exists
within the minds of many German citizens.



Eva Katarina Glazer

Department of History Centre for Croatian Studies
University of Zagreb
Zagreb, Croatia

Symbols of Gods and Deities in the Ancient Near East
The Semitic word beth-el (bytl), means dwelling/house/temple of god and
is mostly used to describe sacred stones which ancient people used to erect in the
Levant. There are many examples and different types of sacred stones because
they were in use from Bronze Age (or even earlier) to the Hellenistic period and
further on. Archaeological excavations have provided many examples of sacred
stones from the Levant, most of which have been published. Their iconography
can sometimes help us determine to what deities they were presented but most of
them can be recognised only by their position, shape, size or other characteristics.
Erecting stones as a religious and sacred act is well attested in ancient literature
but they do not always have a unique feature. The need for an interdisciplinary
approach to studying and unveiling the meaning of betyls is well understood but
it is a difficult task. This paper will try to present guidelines for such research
with a short synthesis of the results so far collected in an effort to reevaluate the
importance of this interesting symbol.


are related in terms of space (stars and the Sun determine the location) and
time (stars, the Moon and the Sun define the seasons, i.e. periods of migration).
Hence, also in the case of the Saka-Scythian art abstract ideas were not applied.
Curvilinear motifs depicted movement, both in physical and time aspect.

Tomasz Gralak
University of Wrocaw
Wrocaw, Poland


Symbols or Visualisations.
Genesis of Scythian Animal Style
The ethnological and linguistic research shows that indigenous peoples
languages had the image-representation character. In addition, they were
characterised by small amount of abstract concepts. Most likely, the languages of
prehistoric peoples also had such features. It can, therefore, be assumed that the
lack of abstract concepts resulted in the lack of abstract thinking, and this, in turn,
in the lack of abstract ideas. The adoption of such assumptions results in the thesis
that decoration applied by prehistoric peoples imaginations had to represent
concrete entities, really existing in the contemporary conceptual apparatus. This
thesis would be verified by analysis of stylistic transformations in prehistoric
Central Asia. The pottery of the Andronovo culture developed in the Bronze Age
was characterised by geometric ornamentation motifs dominated by triangles.
The applied decoration, however, was not abstract. The patterns were imitation
of decoration of wickerwork vessels, resulted from the mode of production. By
combination and multiplication of geometric figures (mostly triangles) also
animals and humans were represented, which was recorded in petroglyphs as
well. This way of perceiving the world, thus became the fundamental principle of
the style, which expressed itself by various media. The decline of the Andronovo
culture is associated with profound economic and cultural changes. As a result
of climate change the dominant sector of the economy instead of agriculture
becomes nomadic animal husbandry. People involved in this activity created a
new decoration style, which became typical of Saka-Scythian tribes. In the Early
Iron Age the most common motifs become animals representations. Based
on written sources it was assumed that at least some of them were identified
with gods represented by certain celestial bodies. Also repeating scenes of
fight were supposed to be a realisation of a mythological scenario, but also of
cyclical changes of certain constellations positions in the sky. It is characteristic,
however, that representations of animals are constructed of repeating curvilinear
elements: semicircles, ellipses, spirals, S-shapes etc. It seems that the new style
expressed common experience of nomadic population. The cyclical movement
of people and their herds (they moved in circles seeking pastures) corresponds
to the cyclical and circular movement of the celestial bodies. Both phenomena



Ronaldo G. Gurgel Pereira

CHAM/ FCSH/ Universidade Nova de Lisboa/ UA
Lisbon, Portugal

Sounds Full of Power or a Mere Noise of Words?

The Importance of Speech in the Hermetic Literature
en face the Book of Thoth
This study aims to establish a dialogue between hermetic discourses and
theDemotic Book of Thoth. It aims to analyse the status given by both sources
to the power of the spoken word. The comparative approach is necessary to the
best understanding of disputes in the Hermetica concerning the relevance of
human and animal languages in the quest for the divine.
If one compares the content of hermetic discourses, it must be noticed that
they, sometimes, led its receptor to deal with contradictions on many topics of
debate. Definitely, the task of debating such contradictions is sometimes too
much subjective, since the Hermetica are a product of different authors and
the text production was extended through many generations.
In that context, the most emblematic case of contradictory treatment in the
hermetic literature is that on the usages of the spoken word. Thus, this study
posits the following question: How relevant was the usage of any spoken word
to achieve the gnosis, according to the hermetic teachings? By presenting
acomparative dialogue with the Book of Thoth, some new lights are shed over
that matter. According to the Book of Thoth, both the speeches of human and
animals were equally legit channels for the understanding of the divine will. On
the other hand, the spoken word received sometimes derogatory, sometimes
flattering treatments in hermetic discourses.
The Book of Thoth deals with elements which are from time to time similarly
acknowledged, and sometimes are deliberately denounced in the hermetic
discourses. It also portrays the religious worldview of the late Egyptian priestlyclass. On the one hand, traditional Egyptian religion praises in general the art
of eloquence and the magic power of sacred words. Hence, the social taboo over
translation assures that the purity of the original sounds stay untouched. On the
other hand, the Hermetica claim to be Greek translation of Egyptian knowledge.
Thus, both sources stand as intellectual production of two distinguished symbolic
universes which coexisted during the Greco-Roman age.



Anna Hamling
University of New Brunswick
Fredericton, Canada

An Introduction to the Historical and Artistic

Significance of Two Religious Icons
The Black Madonna art pieces of Czestochowa, Poland and Guadalupe,
Mexico have been the most popular religious and cultural icons since the
16th century. The well-known religious images have both symbolic and
practical functions in their countries of origin. What is their historical
andartistic significance? What is their influence on the Polish and
Mexican people and millions of other visitors every year? What if any
are the similarities between two works of art? This study will make
a preliminary analysis of the historical and artistic significance of both



Christy Emilio Ioannidou

Naval History Researcher
Athens, Greece

Negative Verbal Symbols in Ancient Greek Warfare

Words are an essential tool of each exercise of Psychological Operations
(PSYOPs). A message real or fake usually includes keywords that charge
emotionally and cause the immediate reaction of the receiver.
Beyond the positively charged words (such as freedom, faith, homeland,
justice etc) there are negatively charged words too. These are addressed directly
to the receiver and cause negative emotions (for example, by using insults, the
transmission of a message tends to become more personal).
In ancient Greek battle fair (naval or land), the use of negative verbal symbols
in a witty way, could alter the outcome of the clash of opponents. Written on
papyrus or leather, engraved in stone or slingshots or expressed orally, in most
cases, undermines severely the morale of the enemy.



Richard Vallance Janke

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

The Role of Supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B

Supersyllabogram (SSYL): the first syllabogram = first syllable of a Linear B
word or phrase, always found adjacent to or inside an ideogram, and always
with the same invariable meaning in a particular sector of Minoan/Mycenaean
society. Sectors include agriculture, military, textiles, vessels & religious. If the
ideogram or the sector changes, so does the meaning of the supersyllabogram.
Scribes would never have written single syllabograms unless they meant
something! with ideograms, they do. SSYLs are a form of shorthand.
r rZf O = onato o0nato/n lease field , ,dJZ KI = kitimena kiti/mena plot of
land j
j<O> PE = periqoro peri/boloj enclosure or sheep pen, all adjacent to the
ideogram for ram, ewe or sheep;
{ {t. ZE = zeuko zeuko/j a team of horses with ideogram for horse + a set of
chariot wheels adjacent to ideogram chariot
q qlMu A = aporewe a0mforh#ej amphorae l lf PO = poto poto/n (drink)
&ttF U = water u3dwr inside an ideogram for vessel
28 of 61 syllabograms are supersyllabograms. About 800/3000 tablets from
Knossos I meticulously examined use supersyllabograms (27%).



Boena Jzefw-Czerwiska
Pultusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland

Symbol or Metonimical-Magical Connotations?

Beliefs in Polish Traditional Culture
Research on intangible heritage of Polish traditional culture shows
that in the beliefs, the phenomenon of metonymy has a much deeper
meaning that we explain in linguistic definition. Metonymy generally
defined as the relation of substitution, which is reflected in the notations
used for the expression of metonymic relations, for example: A for
B. Metonymy, for example, replacing the name of a thing, the name of
another thing that remains with relationship contiguity.
This phenomenon, according to our research in the area of the
traditional culture shows that it is much more complicated. We could
find beliefs concerning the spiritual and indissoluble connections
between human and things. They are related to the establishment of the
principles of ritual. Thus relationship is not only symbolic of contact, but
remaining inseparable relationship, which if they are broken have a huge
consequences for members. Can cause even the death of a man, if these
relationships will be broken.



Krystyna Kamiska
Pultusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland

Being in Culture
That Is Contemporary Relation Human Being World
For some time, apart from the academic debate on culture, it can be
seen today a raise of interest on the relation between human and world.
Both the cultural repesentation of human in life according to values
context and the linguistical image of the world composed thanks to
this context, are rich in semantic meanings and intensively valorised.
However, because the traditional understanding of the ideas within the
field of culture sciences (concentrating on such ideas as identification
and ethnicity) is not explicit among all the texts, there has been made
many new qualifiers, that contrary to these definitions mentioned
above creates new cognitive categories. The contemporary paradigm of
culture allows to analyse it variously by situating the culture in the past,
in the present and in the future so that it could be redefined without
any temporal or geographical conditions, yet also without giving up
the relation before history, round it and after it. Culture considered
as above-mentioned (and also in its dynamic aspect) does not refer to
gain understanding of some ideas (once narrowly tied with culture itself),
but to apply a specific open access to cognitive categories. This allows to
replace tradition with memory, symbol with metaphor or border with
borderland more and more often nowadays. Thus, is it necessary to put
the binding between on the one hand human and culture, on the other
human and language (the one in which we try to express this relation).
All that from perspective representing the human (in the new cultural
reality)? Does this modernization of nomenclature have a practical effect
on the new way noticing the centuries-old relation human world?



Jolanta Karbowniczek
Jesuit University Ignatianum in
Cracow, Poland

The Stimulation and Multi-intelligent Principle

of Students Functioning in the Educational Process
Exemplification in Practice
The main task of contemporary school is to prepare students for
active and creative activity in their everyday life. The sense of presented
principle is covered by outer impacts incentives, situations, didacticpedagogical events, animating the childs psychological functions that
enable him/her multi- side personality formation, and multi-intelligent
functioning in a school environment. Early elementary education
creates opportunities for releasing creative potentiality, cognitive skills
development, talents, interests and preferences, thanks to which, a person
can realise his/her own interior possibilities. Teacher of early school
education stimulates varied spheres of a childs activities: perceptive,
motional, verbal one, proposing multiplicity of acts of doing and tasks to
be performed, diagnosing development; defines strong and weak points
of students personality determining their intelligence profile; cares
for creating autonomous, sustainable individuals with their readiness
for independence, undertaking challenges and discovering themselves
within complex social layers.



ukasz Karol
Pultusk Academy of Humanities/ University of Warsaw
Putusk/ Warsaw, Poland

The Light from the Wall of a Church.

Penance Holes as the Sign of Activities
Connected with Starting Fire
Penance holes are small, cupular hollows appearing on the walls of gothic
churches in Poland (and abroad). Their form resembles cups and ring marks
that can be found in the rocks and stones all over the world. However, only
seemingly they are similar to hollows and spirals made by the representatives
of prehistoric cultures.
Some of the hypothesis claim that the hollows are characteristic of their
penitential values. They are also connected with traditional medicine, as well
as the rite of marking burial places. What is more, they can be seen as wars
remainings (bullets holes). However, the most credible explanation for their
existence is the use of bow drill as the way of starting the fire. Why such activity
would consider the meaning of the church walls and would be aligned with the
symbolic ritual of starting a new fire during church festivals?
The speech, supported by the photographic materials gathered by the author,
will show the current state of studies on the discussed subject.



Pantelis Komninos
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Department of Archaeology
Thessaloniki, Greece

Symbols and Landscape Iconography

on Aegean LBA Mural Depictions
The basic intention of this paper is to show how symbols and other ideology
elements of the Aegean person were reflected in the material culture, such
as the mural depictions in Minoan Crete and the Cyclades in the Late Bronze
Age. Thus, the symbols, inspired by the natural world, seem to form a frame
of reference, where the symbols function as a communication bridge between
the real and the imaginary world. Elements of nature, such as felines, birds,
blossoms and plants, are interwoven with fantastic creatures and form a ritual
landscape. Through this landscape, recorded in the wall paintings, the Aegean
person expressed his/her own ideological narrative, built his/her own social
and ethnic identity objectifying the cultural context of an acting agent. Thus, the
symbol in Aegean iconography is the means that the narrator will incorporate in
his/her narration and ritual in order to express their collectivity.



Jacek Konik
Wysza Szkoa Przymierza Rodzin
Warsaw, Poland

The Kabbalah Mystique of Symbols and Numbers

The Kabbalah is the part of Jewish culture which although in some sense
strongly present in the popular culture has not been thoroughly examined by
the scientists. Obviously there are people engaged in the Kabbalah researches
but this phenomenon is so diverse and multidimensional that even its minor
aspects need serious and comprehensive studies. Moreover the reliable scientific
researches on the Kabbalah have to be based on the knowledge of history of Israel
and the history of Kabbalah tradition itself, as well as on the understanding of
the basic meanings of the Kabbalah symbols and the issues related to gematria.
The Kabbalah and its entire accompanying tradition, although it was born
within the Jewish diaspora in medieval Spain, is deep-rooted in the mysticism
of the ancient Israel. In the Kabbalah we can find biblical symbolism of numbers
and related gematria, as well as different biblical motives (e.g. the tree of
life), Jewish angelology and mystical ideas. Kabbalists supplemented all these
motifs with their own concepts and on such a wide foundation they built the
philosophical and theological tradition which became the form of expression of
the Jewish mysticism, with its complicated symbolism of signs and numbers.
According to the Kabbalists the world consists of the levels in other words,
circles or spheres which ascend from the earth to the heaven, where, in the
highest circle, God lives. From this circle ten sephirot come they start in the
highest circle Keter (crown) and reach the earth. It is difficult to define the
Hebrew term sephirot in a simple way they can be described as the rays of
Divine Wisdom which penetrate all the spheres of the surrounding world.
In the Kabbalistic iconography ten sephirot are often put within the biblical
tree of life which in this way also goes through all circles of reality. Its roots
penetrate down into the earth while its branches reach the sphere of Gods
presence. In this iconography there is also another characteristic element,
Adam Kadmon, a mystic creature, the original man, depicted with his feet
standing on the earth and his head, as the branches of the tree of life, reaching
the highest circle of reality. Thus the symbolism of the Kabbalah tradition is the
form of reality description which shows that the whole world is penetrated by
Gods presence and that one can experience, see and understand Gods message
on condition of having the open mind.



Olga Konstantinova
Putusk Academy of Humanities, Putusk

Stanisaw Lems Pseudoterms

Translated into Russian: A Comparative Analysis
of Connotations
The paper deals with comparative analysis of Stanisaw Lems neologisms
connotations when translated from Polish into Russian. The analysed
pseudoterms designate the biological species human beings as arepresentative
of one of civilizations coexisting in the universe. S. Lem plays on symbolical and
cultural meanings of the
scientific term Homo sapiens (literally wise man), speaks ironically and puts
a very different complexion on the human being. The Stanisaw Lems human
being is horrible. After introducing of some of that pseudoterms into the text
Homo Sapiens becomes a degenerate immoral life form. Connotations really
matter in constructing a new image of
human beings. In the lecture the author reveals the way S. Lem gives ahuman
existence a new symbolical sense and the way a translator reflects the neologisms
shades of meaning in Russian.



Dorota Kulczycka
Uniwersytet Zielonogrski
Zielona Gra, Poland

Archetypes and Symbols

in the Films of M. Night Shyalaman
In my presentation I will discuss the features characteristic of the creative
imagination by M. Night Shyamalan film director-screenwriter-producer
(and actor) and the creator of several films including The Sixth Sense, Signs,
Unbreakable and After Earth. The significant attention in these films is directed
to mighty trees and the elements of water and air, with highly characteristic
motives of wind, gust and gale. Finding, so to speak, his balance between the
traditions of the Orient (he is a Hindu) and the West (who lives and works in
Philadelphia, USA), Shyalaman offers a unique take on the centuries old and
rich symbolism that has accrued around these works of nature (rather than
culture). When dealing with those images, the director chooses to think in terms
of archetypes, making his films brim with a multitude of symbolic, but not
archetypal, meanings related to particular gestures (such as a touch of a hand)
and objects (including old dolls and paintings). Embedding seemingly everyday
things and phenomena in a much broader symbolic and mythical context, the
artist suffuses his work with a particular aura of the ethereal.



Edyta ubiska
Cultural Studies
Department of International and Political Studies
The Jagiellonian University
Cracow, Poland

Symbolism of African Funeral Rituals

(Case of the Mbomou Zande People
from the Central African Republic)
Death is a significant event in every tribal community in Africa. It does not
mean the end, but it is an exceeding of the human way, of living, moving to the
other side of life. Although the significance of such an event largely depends
on age and the posi-tion of a deceased, death of any member of the community,
man or woman, child or newborn, becomes the cause of the internal division
and may cause a long-term loss of balance in life of a social group. Funeral
rites celebrated by the particular community have aimed to re-organised the
group and restore the lost balance. These rites include some necessary but fixed
phases: prepara-tion of a body and a burial, specified period of time after burial
to the beginning of mourning, and the period of mourning until its termination.
However, contact with the dead does not end in the same time as the period of
mourning. Generally speaking, it is believed that death is not the end, but it is
achange in condition (status). Death is linked closely with the journey of life, also
with a transition from the real world to the invisible one. The deceased, even if he
or she is not physically present, remains a member of the community. The only
thing that has been changed is a place of his/her existence. Multistage funeral
rites affirm belief in the afterlife while fixed forms of its exercise, anumber of
relevant actions and accompanying gestures maintain the tradition.
During her presentation the author will use material from her field studies
carried out among the Mbomou Zande people in the heart of Africa.



Adam ukaszewicz
University of Warsaw
Warsaw, Poland

Christian Symbols in Pagan Context:

from the Milvian Bridge to the Tomb of Memnon (KV 9)
It is a common knowledge that Christianity has taken a lot of ideas and symbols
from the pagan heritage. However, during the long co-existence of Christendom
with the pagans, a parallel phenomenon can be observed in the context of the
traditional pre-Christian religion. The pagan pre-history of the Signa Christi will
be briefly discussed. Some examples of the use of Christian symbols by nonChristians will be added.



Krzysztof ukawski
Pultusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland

University Studies
as a Door to a Careerand a Symbol of Elitism
in the Medieval and Modern Mazovia
Since the beginning of universities people joined them seeking the knowledge
of life and the world. They searched to find answers to their questions, they
searched for wisdom. For poorer students receiving the title was a ticket to
abetter world, was a secular career or a career in the Church. The same was in
Mazovia. This region needed educated people, that is why, the Bishop of Plock
Andrew Noskowski founded in Krakow dormitory for 40 students from Mazovia.
Using his speech I will discuss some biographies of some students from Mazovia
typical and untypical careers examples.


Federica Manfredi
Rome, Italy

Body Symbols.
The Use of Body from an Anthropological Perspective
The present abstract proposes a reflection on two main topics studied during
anthropological researches from 2008 to 2012 in Italy and in the United States
of America (explorative phase): body modifications and body suspensions.
Analysing and comparing these subjects, exposed in the following paragraphs,
the author proposes a new perspective to observe marks on bodies in the
contemporary Italian culture. The present paper aims to share preliminary
results of fieldwork in a working progress.
Body Modifications
Tattoos, piercings, implants and scarifications are ways to modify bodies that
a little step by step have appeared in the contemporary Italian culture. We are
not astonished by a draw on the skin or a piercing on a lip: our perception of body
modification has changed deeply compared even to the last generation. Why are
we witnessing this spread of new body interventions that do not belong to the
local tradition? What needs are elaborated throughout these performances?
The anthropological approach proposed by the author is used to answer these
questions showing the results of an Italian fieldwork conducted from 2008 and
2009. In this research we can find the empty rite as a central concept proposed
to understand this trend: tattoos (and many other body modifications) are
considered as spontaneous cultural tools used to elaborate the need to sanctify
some important moments of life (or perceived like this by the protagonists).
Body modifications are realised to mark and control changes, as the access
to the adult life, the start of a new love story, a baby birth or the death of an
acquaintance. The local culture loses its rites of passage to celebrate and to
mark the big moments of the existence; consequently individuals are called
tofix it taking some rituals from other cultures. The stolen rite is emptied by its
traditional original meaning and it is refilled with a new one, the meaning that
the protagonist needs to celebrate. This is the empty rite, actually emptied and
refilled ritual on-demand.
Body Suspensions
Among the contemporary extreme ways to modify a body, we can find the
body suspension as an example of using the body in a ritual way, very far from

all the rest of the body modifications such as tattoos or scarifications. Deep
differences characterise these two categories of body interventions: aesthetic
result, preparation and complexity of their organization, the mark remaining on
the skin, emotional input, final effect. Across the analysis of these elements, the
research shows a special ritual valence among body suspensions in agreement
with the concept of empty rite: even if body suspension is a ritual technique
coming from abroad, it is emptied and refilled with something individual and
different, it is not done to celebrate a special passage in the protagonists life.
The body suspension is something special, a real ritual of passage that creates
anew perspective and consideration of life. The form is less present because
almost any marks left on the body can be interpreted as a celebrative sign. The
sense of the performance is the opposite when compared with the rest of body
modifications: the body suspension is not made to sanctify a critical event of
the life, but in order to create a passage, a truly special event. Even in this case,
the culture does not provide appropriate tools to help its members: once again,
the protagonist needs to invent a rite taking it from outside his/her cultural
Reading this modern phenomena we can see that we live in a culture devoid
of rituals and thus people, spontaneously, modify the tradition creating new
rites to answer to this shortage of cultural models. This cultural bricolage is very
interesting and the author proposes to study it from the theory of the antropopoiesis perspective.


1. F. Remotti, Forme di Umanit, Mondadori 2002.



Jessica Alexandra Monteiro Santos

CHAM/ FCSH/ Universidade Nova de Lisboa/ UA
Lisbon, Portugal

Amulets and Apotropaic Objects:

Childrens Protection Symbols in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptians perceived amulets and apotropaic objects as important
protection symbols. This conceptualization is evident not only through
the designation of the first category, sa, which is translated as amulet or
protection, but also by the manner that Egyptians used them. Those two types
of objects were used by all individuals, independently of gender, age or social
status in order to avoid or to overcome the misfortunes of daily life or death.
However, several authors argue that those were used mainly by mothers and
their children, who were regarded as the most vulnerable members of society
due to high maternal and infant mortality rates.
The Egyptians produced a wide and diversified set of this kind of objects,
since their shape, material, colour and other physical features depended on
the specific function and the desired effect. Taking into account this diversity,
the aim of this communication is to demonstrate what features that particular
amulets and apotropaic objects should be considered as the most adequate for
the Egyptian childrens protection, in detriment of others.


of different disciplines, including exact sciences like neuro-linguistics or

physical anthropology, can be of great help, especially when confronting
with such universal matters as the origin of writing.

Susana Moser
Civico Museo di Storia ed Arte
Trieste, Italy


Old Signs, New Hieroglyphs.

How Symbols Become a Language
This paper is not the result of a systematic study, but rather a collection
of thoughts which hopefully will be the source of further meditation and
The origin of writing is a fascinating as much as a widely debated
subject. It is usually assumed that each writing system must be born in
close and exclusive connection with the language it expresses, but the
nature of some writing systems, which are also among the oldest ones
attested so far, demand this assumption to be reviewed. The continuous
use of ideograms in Chinese writing for several millennia, as well as the
mixed writing systems of Japanese and Egyptian hieroglyphs, as well
as cuneiform signs, hint at the idea that the most natural way of writing
down a concept is actually that of drawing it. Of course, a simple
sequence of drawings can hardly be defined as a writing system, because
it lacks the possibility of rendering accurately the morpho-syntactic
characteristics of a specific language, nonetheless the point here is that
it probably all begun with a drawing. The reason for this is suggested
by studies of cognitive sciences and neuro-linguistics: the way human
brain is structured forces us to actually think in symbols. A proof of this is
the large use of meaningful symbols in countries which writing systems
are alphabetic, simply because the information conveyed by them can be
received in an immediate way (sometimes even without the mediation of
a specific language!). This is even true when we speak about single words
written alphabetically: after the painstaking process of learning how to
read, our brain does not treat each word as a sequence of letters, but it
gathers it as a whole. In fact, it treats it as a hieroglyph.
Going back to the beginning and closing the circle, the main suggestion
deriving from the thoughts shared in this paper is that the contribution


Andrzej Niwiski
Institute of Archaeology
University of Warsaw
Warsaw, Poland

What Have Ancient Egyptians Seen, Looking

at the Decoration of the Coffins of the 21st Dynasty?
Symbols and Thinking Process at Burial
The religious iconography of the 21st Dynasty is particularly rich, and the
number of symbols used then for the decorative repertoire of the coffins and
funerary papyri of those days is incomparable with any other period of the
Egyptian history. The decipherment of the meaning of these figures and
scenes is rather difficult task for the modern mind. Theories are developed
attempting the understanding of these on the mythological and ritual levels.
The theological ideas concerning the universe, the human being and the relation
of these two entities towards God certainly constitute one important subject.
This was, however, as it seems, understood only by a very limited number of
the participants of the burial ceremonies. Probably only a small group of the
craftsmen producing the coffins and papyri was able to read properly the sense
of the scenes, which were, in general, supposed to be mysterious ones, with
the meaning situated outside the living human thinking process. Therefore,
a tendency can be observed, in some workshops, to enrich this mysterious
atmosphere of the scene by adding still stranger elements, sometimes quite
alot distant from the original patterns created by theologians and eternised
by the best artists. The elapsing time made this hiatus more and more visible.
Sometimes the original ideas could hardly be recognisable even by the ancient
experts in religious matters.
A question arises, which associations may have had common onlookers present
at the ceremony? It seems that an important number of the scenes decorating the
coffins should be interpreted as symbols very well understandable for everybody,
evoking places situated in the sacred Theban landscape, and ritual activities
often repeated, and therefore well recognisable by the Theban citizens.
This everyday life approach to the funerary iconography shall be attempted
by the present author.



Pawe F. Nowakowski
Jesuit University Ignatianum in Cracow
Cracow, Poland

The Symbols of the Spiritual Warfare

in the Writings of the Hussite Thinkers
Symbols are always an important factor in thinking about and imagining
religious ideas. The more complex the ideas are the more important role
symbols play. In the Hussite Revolution religious thinking was a mixture
of reformist ideas and the experience of actual warfare in the context of
crusades against Hussites. The aim of the paper is to show the connection
between religious thinking and military influences on the symbols used
to demonstrate and describe spiritual warfare. The treatises, letters and
other polemical texts form a base for analysis. Among the Hussite thinkers
especially the writings of Petr Chelick, Jan Rokycana and Mikula of
Pelhimov will be presented as showing a range of radical and moderate
views, all using symbols of the spiritual warfare, sometimes in different
meaning. It is also interesting to see how the symbols change during
different stages of the religious disputes in the 15th century Bohemia.



Magorzata Okupnik
Faculty of Choral Conducting, Music Education and Church Music
The Ignacy Jan Paderewski Academy of Music in Pozna
Pozna, Poland

Symbols of Death, Dying and Mourning

in the Polish Art Cinema
Recently Polish art cinema acquired two feature films about death and dying:
Tatarak (Sweet Rush) by Andrzej Wajda and 33 sceny z ycia (33Scenes
from the Life) by Magorzata Szumowska. The films differ in genre and
composition, however, they portray certain common characteristics:
1. The main theme the experience of loss, the death of near and dear people,
coping with death and mourning;
2. The action of both pictures set in an artistic community;
3. The similar musical esthetics (Pawe Mykietyn composed music to both
4. Intertextuality and intermediality (that means using literature, painting,
music, others films, photographs in the film narration).
5. Symbols of death, dying and mourning.
Andrzej Wajda has often taken up a topic of death. In the screen adaptation
of Sweet Rush (2009) he shows the loneliness of the married couple in the
face of death and serious illness. The director uses two stories Tatarak by
J.Iwaszkiewicz and The sudden call by S. Marai. The most important plot
of the film is Krystyna Jandas private confession after her husbands death
(Krystyna Janda is a well-known and widly-recognisable Polish actress). The
story about the loss and loneliness is a form of a therapy for her.
The film 33 Scenes from the Life by Szumowska (2008) is an autobiographical
film, inspired by real incidents which happened in her life almost simultaneous
death of her mother (Dorota Terakowska, a writer) and father ( Maciej Szumowski,
a documentalist). The film 33 Scenes was preceded by a documentary film
Aczego si tu ba? (What to be afraid of?) (2006), which showed the attitude
of the rural community to the problem of death and the deceased. In the film
33Scenes the other kind of experiencing death and mourning was represented.
It was an urban and atheistic version, a mockery of the rituals connected with the
death. Their disparity is determined not only by their religious versus atheistic
character, but also, most importantly, the language and various symbols. The
aim of my essay is the analysis of the film language and the process of taming the



Eithan Orkibi
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
Ariel University
Samaria, Isreal

Abusing the Emblems of the Republic:

Jamming National Symbols in French Political Dissent
This presentation explores the rhetorical humor in the French Anti-Sarko
movement, a network of political groups, organizations and activists which
brought together various trends of the French left, all of which shared a strong
opposition to Nicolas Sarkozys politics, and actively mobilised against his
presidency. Between 2007 and 2012, the movement produced an extensive
amount of anti-Sarko materials, mostly humoristic memes and caricatures
which were diffused on-line.
In many of these images, French official national symbols are evoked: the
Tricolor, the Marianne, the lyse Palace, as well as other symbolic historical
figures: De-Gaulle, the Resistance, the Cross of Lorraine, etc. In the visual
rhetoric of the Anti-Sarko movement, these symbols are decomposed, deformed,
altered and rearranged. But while profanation of sacred symbols in the context
of political protest, such as flag desecration in peace demonstrations, are
documented and studied, less attention had been given to forms of culturaljamming, in which national symbols are ridiculed as a part of the language
expressing contention.
The presentation offers a rhetorical analysis of this form of political humor,
and uncovers its hermeneutic functions, among which are the construction of
the Anti-Sarko repertoire of political arguments, identity claims and historical
frame resonance. It will be argued that despite its seemingly radical style,
the political humor of this movement mobilised national symbols in order to
reenergise a general debate with regard to national identity, cultural heritage
and traditional values.



Piero Pasini
Universit di Padova
Padova, Venice, Italy

No logo Country.
Images, Representations, Allegories and Symbols
of Italy from Napoleon to the National Football Team
Has Italy a national identity as France or England or Spain? This is a highly
inquiring question and a very difficult topic to discuss.
Considering the level of symbols, Italy seems to have many identities, as
many as the Italians. In the Risorgimento, the elaboration of the idea of Italy,
understood it as Homeland, as a state of mind, drove to some representations
that initially (between 1796 and 1815) repurposed the same symbols of the
revolutionary France and then developed till crystalising in the duo Italia turrita
and Stellone. At the same time various and different souls of the national
building movement pushed their symbols, logos and flags. The Tricolore itself
(the national three striped flag) has been the national flag but (with some little
modifications) the flag of the various movements. In 1849, after Savoy crown
took an active role in the national movement, Italy had the unique case of
arepublican flag with a monarchic armour in the middle. Many variations offlag
and symbols were produced during the Resistance against the nazi-fascists in
The representation of Italy in symbols and logos tells us a story of an identity
search and seems to repeat itself till today in many different ambits, including
sports and politics.
In my presentation I would like to give a quick review of the most representative
and meaning charged symbols of the Country linking them with the difficulties
that Italy has faced up in the searching for its identity. The search that is still on



Jacek Jan Pawlik

Faculty of Theology
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Olsztyn, Poland

Turning into Symbol.

Head of State as a Political Icon
during the Dictatorial Regime in Togo, 1967-2005
Common conception of the symbol is that it is something with a hidden
meaning, which is neither entirely clear nor unambiguous. Of itself, the symbol
means nothing. It acquires some meaning only within the framework of aspecific
cultural milieu and social structures of a given society, constructing the worldview
of its members. Nearly forty-years-long rule of president Gnassingbe Eyadema
in Togo was punctuated by recurring personality cult and a peculiar political
religion. Taking his case study the image of the head of state in Togo as a symbol,
the author of this essay examines the process of a government directed shaping
of the symbol by means of ideology and mythologisation of the institution of
power. Since the symbol becomes a substitute for sacrum, it must receive due
veneration, even if it is under coercion. The official version presents the state
as the icon of safety and prosperity. But the opposition perceives it as the tool
of violence and oppression. Thus, the meaning of a symbol can be ambivalent.
After a long ruling the head of state died. With him disappeared the symbols
of the head. Unlike national symbols, suppressed during the dictatorship, the
political symbol proved perishable.



Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska
Pultusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland
Federica Manfredi
Rome, Italy

The Body of the Pharaoh as Symbol?

the Egyptian Pyramid Texts
The authors of the paper will attempt to scrutinise, with reference to contextual
arguments, the linguistic image of the body of the pharaoh in the Old Kingdom
ancient Egyptian religious texts the so-called Pyramid Texts. The analysis shall
be done from two perspectives, this of an Egyptologist and the other of a cultural
The linguistic concept of the body of the Egyptian pharaoh seems to be
amulti-faceted, well-thought idea. Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska has studied
the topos of completeness in the Pyramid Texts and this pursuit allows to
reconstruct linguistic image of the pharaoh, his role and predestined place in the
world of the living and in the sky. Federica Manfredi has worked on the symbolic
construction that various cultures operate in order to elaborate their vision of
the humanity and the divine world.
We believe the theory of Anthropo-poiesis of Francesco Remotti may be of
use while interpreting the complexity of the ancient Egyptian beliefs concerning
the vital essence that the God share with the pharaoh. It may help to understand
the way the Egyptians expressed their religious concepts regarding their ruler.
However, we have noted some meaningful differences between ancient Egyptian
religious beliefs and other cultures, discrepant patterns: if the manipulation of
the human essence has always been studied in anthropology with implication
ofblood, dolour and painful body modification, in the Egyptian context we
discover a milder and more poetic solution of transmission.



Aleksandra Rycka
Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawa II
Lublin, Poland

The Visualisation of Suffering in Polish Gothic Painting

Art is one of the greatest sources of cognition of medieval society, religion and
politics. It reflects not only specific events, but also mentality. Therefore, art can
serve as an ideal source for the study of emotionality in the Middle Ages. This
research focuses on such human feelings as suffering, grief and sorrow. I will
present the ways of depicting suffering, based on analysis of selected examples of
Polish panel paintings from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The research
is limited to scenes of passion, as the most representative and one of the largest
samples of this period. In addition, a subject of Passion itself forced the artist
to use a variety of means of expression for the topos of suffering and to depict
personalised signs of pain of each character individually. The issue of physical
pain and the suffering of Christ are excluded from my research. Only the feelings
of co-suffering and compassion were analysed. The period of selected images
constitutes important reflection on the topic, as a moment of many cultural
and social changes, the time of artistic maturity and emanation of feelings in
religious sphere. I will also briefly discuss one of the issues with which artists
have struggled in the Middle Ages treatment of the body and physicality.
This is a crucial aspect for trying to understand the way in which suffering
was depicted, using schematic gestures modifying well the whole characters
corporeality. Analysis of medieval emotions covering aspect of feelings, was
based on the philosophical context, from the perspective of Christian thought.
The biblical text and the views on the feelings of the most influential medieval
philosophers St. Augustine of Hippo and St. Thomas Aquinas, were taken into



Hanna Rubinkowska-Anio
Department of Languages and Cultures of Africa
Warsaw, Poland

Imperial Clothes as a Symbol of Change

the Case of Haile Sillasie I and 20th-century Ethiopia
The aim of the presentation is to analyse the change in the image of the emperor
of Ethiopia through the lens of the outfits worn by Emperor Haile Sillasie I
(1930-1974). Imperial clothes, as an element of royal symbols of power and due
to being easily perceptible means of conveying certain information, provided
atool for propagating political ideas in the fast-changing circumstances of 20thcentury Ethiopia.
Traditional clothes in Ethiopia, as elsewhere in the world, convey different
notions and connotations connected to wearing a certain set of clothes. They
suggest a persons role in society, ones origins, prestige or lack thereof, ones
economic means, age; the clothes may also reflect ones gender or even features
of character or mood.
In terms of the emperor and his outfit, the symbolic role of imperial clothes
carried a different, and more meaningful message than did various individual
features and conditions. Over the decades, Haile Sillasie switched from
traditional Ethiopian outfits to Western-like suits and uniforms. This was
a symbolic reflection of the changes and transformations the state was going
through as well as a means of introducing a new image of imperial power.
The analysed sources include visual material (photography and films) as well
as written texts, both Ethiopian and those written by Western observers.



Magorzata Rybka
Adam Mickiewicz University
Pozna, Poland
Marta Wrzeniewska-Pietrzak
Adam Mickiewicz University
Pozna, Poland

bez niego nie speni si CZOWIEK

About the Symbol of Light in the Poetry and Dramas
Written by Karol Wojtya
The aim of this paper is to analyse Karol Wojtyas poetry and two dramas
Przed sklepem jubilera [The Jewellers Shop], Promieniowanie ojcostwa
[Radiance of Fatherhood]. In these texts Karol Wojtya associates two elements
WATER and FIRE. The last one is often presented as LIGHT or SUN. Both
of them have positive valuation, as they are parts of the two stereotypical
antinomies: up down, light dark. In the analysed texts they become symbols
of God, life, new life, goodness, infinity and love.


already-published material. Most of the latter has been hitherto overlooked

due to several factors, such as the textually biased approach of the editors of
the Coffin Texts Project of the Oriental Institute (The University of Chicago),
but most important is the fact that almost none of the coffins as archaeological
objects has received any adequate scientific publication until now (save handful
few). The coffins from the Hermopolitan cemetery are the clearest exposition of
this state of affairs. I will show some examples, where some pictorial elements
ofthe composition were overlooked, and hence, never found their way to modern
researchers, could enlighten us on the semantic and contextual levels.

Wael Sherbiny
Independent scholar
Leuven, Belgium

Coffin Texts Versus Coffin Images:

World of Symbols on the Ancient Egyptian
Middle Kingdom Coffins

The Case of the So-called Book of Two Ways


One of the most important magico-religious corpora that came to us from

ancient Egypt are the Coffin Texts. The term is confined to the religious texts
found frequently (but not invariably) on the insides of a substantial number of
coffins belonging exclusively to the elite of the Middle Kingdom. This means that
all the other texts found on the insides and outsides of the coffins were simply
left out. Recent research has showed that this segregation of the decoration
elements of these coffins is not justified. The Coffin Texts theselves offered some
interesting pictorial-textual compositions. The most famous of these is the socalled Book of Two Ways. Generally, this composition has solely survived in
its full and known pictorial-textual on the elite coffins of a certain province
in Egypt. It was the Hare nome with its famous capital Hermopolis (now AlAshmunein) in Middle Egypt. The coffins came from the cemetery on the other
bank of Nile, known now as Deir El Barsha.
The composition is frequently encountered, and there is a decoration of the
floorboards of the coffins. Although some parts of this composition (whether
in purely textual form or with some drawings) turned out in other provinces,
such as Kom El Hisen (from the western Nile Delta), Beni Hasan, and Lisht,
the corpus as attested on the Hermopolitan coffins has not been found in any
other place yet. The composition is highly enigmatic, It had rather a canonical
sequence of its several parts. My study on this Book, which has been going
for more than seventeen years now since then, has resulted in a complete
reassessment and re-documentation of the material. This includes correcting
lots of errors that crept into all the previous publications and discovering new
sources. The integrated pictorial-textual analysis of the composition led (among
other things) to significant discoveries concerning the several modes of visual
expression and the unprecedented use of pictorial symbols and images. In my
paper I will discuss the poly-functionality of the images in this composition and
will refer to completely new sources and unpublished parts from the seemingly



Ina Shved
University of Brest
Brest, Belarus

The Symbolism of the Loaf of Bread

in the Belarusian Wedding Ceremony
The report focuses on issues of semantics, symbolism and functioning of the
elements of bread code wedding rituals of the Belarusians. Historical-genetic
study, that focus on paradigmatic and diachronic study of the bread language
as a holistic phenomenon of semantic-symbolic system of ritual and mythological
text of wedding, has been complemented by a functional-semantic research. In
the Belarusian folklore and ethnographic material of 19th early 21st centuries
reveal features of the implementation of the wedding symbols of bread in the
rituals, associated with its kneading and baking, glorification, purchase, donation
and sharing of eating.
Special attention has been paid to the analysis of the Belarusian loaf of
bread songs. To conclude it shall be mentioned that by symbolising the main
wedding bread (loaf) are important such signs as a way of preparation, shape,
size, colour, material and taste. Great importance is attached to the participants
of the loaf rite. With symbols compound newly married couple and their share
of the offspring is associated not only with the loaf and its ritual use, but also
with such ornaments as spit-braided, flowers and evergreens, wedding sapling
Christmas trees, figures of birds and animals, the sun, the moon and other.



Alicja Skwirut
Putusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland

Colour Symbolism in Ceremonial Dresses

Based on Matejkos and Baccios Paintings
of Polish Kings
The author of the paper will attempt to present the following:
1. Explanation of the symbolism of the most common three primary colours
in the Polish Kings costumes images on paintings by Matejko and Bacciarelli.
2. Explanation of the symbolism of three rarely used colours in Polish Kings
costumes on Matejkos and Bacciarellis paintings.
The analysis will be done in comparison to the following:
3. Explanation of the symbolism of the festive clothes used on the important
family celebrations in the 21st century.
White-Blue-Pink-the birth of a new family member
White-Navy-Blue-the beginning of education, exams
White-Black communion, guests-colours costumes
White-Black wedding-guests-colours costumes
Black funeral, mourning time
4. The colours of rainbow and their symbolism in the 21st century.



Paulina Stachowicz
Institute of Archaeology
Warsaw University
Warsaw, Poland

Symbols on Roman Urns

In my speech, I would like to focus on symbols on Roman urns. Sepulchral
monu-ments such as funeral altars, stelae, sarcophagus, urns etc are the most
common group of all the types of relics of the past which stand the test of time.
One of the reasons of their good condition is the fact that these monuments were
the connection between sacrum and profanum. According to the Roman law, it
was necessary to show respect to the burial places and if someone disturbed it,
they had to pay a fine 2500 denarius, however in III AD it was increased to
20000 denarius. This modification testifies to rise of vandalism acts. Thanks
to this, we can assume that ancient Romans put certain elements on urns to
assure peace for the dead, for example, they placed a head of Medusa which
was an apotropaic symbol very popular in the Flavian period (6996 AD).
They had the power to prevent enemy both in the afterlife and on the earth (e.g.
vandals). Another example is a presentation of eagles. We know these birds
from a story of Herodian, which were said to be used for describing apotheosis
of emperors. According to this written source, the display of an eagle on urns
refers to a transition of the soul to the afterlife. There are many other interesting
symbols which require descriptions, as dolphins, doves, swans, heads of Ammon
or sphinx. All of these are inscribed in Roman urns in the National Museum in
Warsaw. I will try to explain these symbols taking monuments of the Museum
as an example. Moreover, I will question urns as houses of dead because of
apresence of pilasters, engaged columns, doors, opus quadratum and lids in
shape of gabled roofs on it.
Ancient symbolism is quite difficult to explain because of its complexity. The
more researchers, the more opinions. Probably we will never get to know their
original meanings but through mutual discussion we can try to get closer to the


A seventeenth-century Polish military, formed at the interface between the

Orient and the Occident cultures, was a veritable mosaic of customs, fashions and
tastes shaped by numerous contacts during the time of war and peace. Any war
or commercial expedition brought innovations and unusual things. Therefore,
based on these contacts old Poles developed culture visible in literature, poetry,
fashion, customs and architecture, original and unparalleled anywhere else in
the world. It was the same with the army as well as the attributes of military
power, which in part modelled on the western or eastern way, however, often
retain alarge autonomy or were completely different and unique when compared
with other cultures.

Tomasz Szajewski
Wilanw Palace Museum
Putusk Academy of Humanities
Putusk, Poland

Symbolism of Commanding Attributes

in Polish Army in 17th18th Centuries
Old Polish army in 17th century, was different from contemporary European
The basis of the Polish and Lithuanian army regiments were mounted. Army
was commanded by Hetman, the division by commander called Regimentarz.
Colonel, was in command of party which consisted of a few cavalrymen
companions and Captain one companion or more. The national army troops were:
hussars, horse Cossack called Mail coated or Petyhorcy, horse Tartar, Wallachia
cavalryman. Army of national contingent invoked to serve in a system where the
comerades served with the private (named postal). Basic unit of organisation was
mounted companion called banner, here commanded Captain and Lieutenant. In
position of governors acted sergeants. Both clothing and equipment were based
on Polish Hungarian fashion. Captain was the commander of the companion
and received from the King a letter of contract to haul troops. The nobility who
had been contacted were to appear adorned and armed.
Military authorities involving the power and responsibility. In addition to
the aforementioned batch of officers in the regiments served also comrades
and privates. The comrades always have been noblemen. Private, served with
acomrade who was the owner of retinue. A number of privates in regiments
such as hussars or Cossacks, were far greater than the number of comrades.
Anumber of private in retinue depended on the wealth of comrade. Individual
military batches used the other attributes (the outward signs of power). These
attributes were usually present in various forms, but could be grouped into basic
sets. Ihave done considering the form of following four categories: generalattributes command Army carried behind by commanders such as, hetmans
sign and orchestra; attributes command individualised - worn and used directly
by the ruler e.g. mace, regiment, emphasising individual elements of clothing
such as a military power. white burka of the commander, and finally highlighting
the colours reserved for the military authorities - red, bright red, cherry, crimson,




Pawe Szczepanik
Institute of Archaeology
Nicolai Copernici University
Toru, Poland

Symbols, Material Culture and Images

in Western Slavonic pre-Christian Religion
Our knowledge about pre-Christian/pagan western Slavonic religion is still
very poor. The biggest problem is of course limited number of written sources,
especially in perspective of other Indoeuropean religions. In this case we must
use other kinds of sources. In my opinion one of the most important group of
sources are archaeological artifacts. If we connect this category with information
from cultural anthropology, linguistic, study of religion our cognition of Slavonic
pagan religion will be much more broadly.
Contemporary study concerning symbols, material culture and images can
be very helpful to describe Slavonic mythical reality. We must start our study
from terminology and methodology problems. Archaeological interpretation
of artifacts as symbols have a long term perspective, but still allows a wide
perspective in interpreting the material. We do not know exactly how? and what?
a concrete artifact could symbolise in traditional culture. We must remember
that in that type of culture, all elements can plays both: utilitarian and symbolic
role. In that perspective all archaeological artifacts could have had a symbolic
One of the most interesting group of artifacts are pictures/images/statues
of gods, which we know from written and archaeological sources. I will try
to show possibilities of materialization and representation the conception
of pagan Slavonic deities. Statues of gods could have for example realistic,
anthropomorphic form, or they could have only anti-iconic form. Both of them
could be interpreted as symbols which have active role in creation of mythical
reality. In my paper Iwill try to show Slavonic pagan material from this
interpretation perspective.



Anna Szczypka
National Museum in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Laborartory of Tissue Preservation in Otwock, Otwock, Poland

Symbolism in Turkish carpets

Carpets manufactory were formed in Egypt and Turkey in cities such as Cairo,
Istanbul, Bursa.
For a long time immemorial carpet has been present at the European and
Polish homes.
Carpets have performed a decorative and practical role for centuries. They
have been woven of wool and silk and composed of the symmetry axis: horizontal,
vertical or vertical-horizontal. However, Turkish carpets involve symmetric
nodes. A node is made on the two warp yarns. These fabrics were made using the
stretched warp threads on the loom and interleaved by the warp (intersecting
threads) and the binding of knots.
The central part occupies the fabric named the Mihrab. Mihrab in the arts
of Islam is a blind arcade with prayer niche decoratively closed at the top.
Ornamental forms create palmettes, arabesques, flowers, leaves, feathered
serpents and other.
A great number of rugs are called prayer carpets and were used during



Maria F. Szymaska
Jesuit University Ignatianum in Krakow
Crakow, Poland

Word the Storage of Meanings

in Building Communicative Thinking.
Exemplary Pedagogical Context
This paper aims to show the value and power of words in developing
style of thinking which is closely aligned with the style of learning. The
usage of appropriate words in clear connotations and context seems to
have a large impact on mental development tightly connected with the
process of thinking, especially communicative thinking. This is reflected
in cognitive and communicative skills what can be seen, for example, in
transformative theory embedded in personalism, and what appears to be
fundamental to realise the aim of this lecture.
Thus, how the words are applied in theoretical and practical domain of
pedagogy becomes a challenge for those who really take care of childrens
true interest. It demands raising constant attention and deepening
of self-conscience reflection directed at the learning contents from
meta-side perspectives. All teachers and educators implementing any
programme concept should reflectively get acquainted with the meaning
of undertaken topics covering also hidden storage of the words. Having
basic psychological, neurobiological, moral and axiological knowledge
in terms of pedagogical application within interdisciplinary area, helps
insolving widely understood problems to be resolved.
Concluding, the theme of the paper may bring about some points for
reflection upon the theoretical and practical meaning of words used in
pedagogical work.



Sebastian Szymaski

Music as a Symbol of Communication

Music belongs to the art of a special kind of communication. It embraces
all people all over the world. It makes many traces in hearts, minds and
provokes acts of doing in the light of symbolic signs that appear to be
described from different angles and perspectives. Music joins people,
inspires for dreams that can come true one day. Music helps people solve
problems without words, seems to be an underground water stream
which brings live to the death, and joy to the sad, enhances spirituality in
our souls. All these descriptive words find their meanings in the chosen
pieces of music to be presented by the composer.
List of compositions:
1. Passio Domini Nostri Jesu Christi for soprano, alto, tenor, bass,
narrator, children choir, mixed choir and symphonic orchestra (2010)
2. Ad Astra for soprano, alto saxophone, ethnic instruments, percussion
instruments, guitar, female choir and string orchestra (2011)
3. Adagio for strings for string orchestra (2012)
4. Awaking music for selected poems by priest Jan Twardowski for
soprano, baritone, mixed choir and orchestra (2015)



Agata mieja
Institute of Archaeology,
University of Warsaw
Warsaw, Poland

How to Create the Symbol of Beauty?

The Process of Shaping the Image of Cleopatra VII
Concerning Both Antique and Modern Sources
Cleopatra VII, the last queen of Ptolemaic Egypt, is nowadays seen as
asymbol of feminine beauty. In spite of the fact that the queen came across
as a very influential and charismatic person, even for people of her times, the
analysis of pictures and source books presenting Cleopatra does not show the
image of atypical stunner. Was the physical beauty in this case less important
for ancient people? Or they may have focused more on spiritual values or just
wanted to harmonise all those three factors?
Did Cleopatra, the person who knew exactly how to use her talent and
intelligence in order to gain certain political and diplomatic benefits, consciously
create her own image as the beauty icon? Or was it a longer process of creation
lasting almost two thousand years in history influenced by certain stereotypes,
Roman propaganda, myths and legends?
The questions posed in this speech will help to analyse Cleopatra as the symbol
concerning both antique (texts, sculpture, coins) and modern (painting, movie,
advertisement) art.



Adriana Teodorescu
Petru Maior University of Trgu-Mure
Trgu-Mure, Romania

Representations of Symbolic Immortality

in The Book Thief Novel
Death is an imminent event, probably the most painful event in human
existence. To face death, our culture nurtured and transmitted beliefs under
different forms of immortality. It can easily be claimed that death and immortality
are inseparable (Derrida, 1996). Rationalism and European materialism
progressively led to setting immortality free from the grasp of religion and to
eroding the concept of absolute immortality (the immaterial double and the
birth-resurrection (Morrin, 1976)). If the souls immortality cannot be known,
as Kant says, then it must be postulated within the framework of pure practice.
This is the key moment when non-absolute immortality becomes integrated with
culture. Immortality is no longer severed from the possibilities that imagery
entails, as they become necessary. As such, symbolic immortality (non-absolute,
partial immortality), is specific for todays world, despite the persistence of the
millenary dream of absolute immortality. Symbolic immortality is a concept
coined by psychiatrist R. J. Lifton (1974, 1979) as a psychological and cultural
reality generated by the universal human will nurture a feeling of continuity
and transcendence in front of death. This human need is correlated with
symbols (e.g. children, art, nature, work, drugs etc). Still, symbolic immortality
is insufficiently exploited by research (Vigilant and Williamson, 2003).
Nevertheless, it is essential that symbolic immortality should not be ignored by
research as it questions the mechanism of conceiving and transmitting human
transcendence and implicitly of the ideals and socio-cultural values at a given
moment. Our study aims at analysing, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the
representations of symbolic immortality in the recent novel of Markus Zusak,
The Book Thief (2005), screened in 2013 by Brian Percival. We will observe
and explain the ways in which symbolic immortality through art/literature is
trusted and constructed (by the characters) and deconstructed (by the author),
begetting a bizarre structure of symbolic immortality: the symbolic immortality
through death. We will point out the fact that in Zusaks novel death functions as
a postmodern symbol which surpasses the book symbol and we will discuss the
cultural meanings of such representations.



Maria Helena Trindade Lopes

CHAM/ FCSH/ Universidade Nova de Lisboa/ UA
Lisbon, Portugal

Ramesses II and the Art of Narrating History

Can a man be a symbol?
When we speak about pharaonic Egypt, a structured civilisation based on
mythical thought and that expressed itself in a profoundly symbolic language,
we realise that historical characters, especially royal ones, are not simply
interpreters of a narrative. They are par excellence, symbols of that narrative
always evoking a multiplicity of senses, which cannot be reduced to only one
meaning. But Ramesses II (12791213 BC), third pharaoh of the 19th dynasty
New Kingdom, given his unusual capability of understanding the importance
of memory and given his fine perception of history, surpassed all his ancestors
and consecrated himself in time, in history, as a legend and the major symbol of
Egyptian civilisation.
How did he managed it?
Through his ingenious art of narrating history, imprisoning it in symbols and
images he bequeathed to posterity. The creative dimension of the word and the
magical strength inherent to signs and images were his privileged weapons in
the construction of this absolutely singular narrative.



Tomasz Twardziowski
Department of Theology, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyski University
Warsaw, Poland

The Symbolism of Nature in the Canonical Gospels

The canonical Gospels often refer to elements of nature. Sometimes these
references are quite literal, but more often the evangelists give them a symbolic
value using imagery already developed in the Old Testament. Using metaphors
and symbolic language and giving them new meaning is an essential part of
the evangelists narrative strategy. The way of implementation of that strategy
is individual for each one from the four. Despite the fact that the evangelists
describe historical events, they present them in the light of their own private
experience and the way they observed the world. The reason of this is in fact
their wish to pass the Good News message about the salvation given by Christ to
people more effectively. The impact of some of those images is so strong and left
a considerable mark in the Bible-based cultures.



Joanna Wawrzeniuk
Institute of Archaeology
Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
Warsaw, Poland

How Do They Understand Death?

What Does the Symbol Mean?
In my paper I would like to describe meanings of symbol in the past
societies. On the basis of examples from the early Middle Ages from
Polish lands I will show understanding of death in some material and
immaterial manifestations. In the analysis will be used archaeological
sources, written sources, anthropological and religious studies theories.



Renata Zych
Instytut Archeologii
Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Rzeszw, Poland

Kujavian Long Barrows Through Time

the Symbolism of the Cemeteries
With regard to all countries where there are megalithic structures, tens of
tombs of all types are known within proved evidence of some renewed activities.
Sometimes these marks appear rarely, but most of these are the finds that
demonstrate following certain traditions associated with the tombs.
Religious revolution, which was the conversion of Europe to Christianity,
ultimately destroyed the theoretical primary system, which was the framework
for the rituals associated with the megaliths. The devotion with which the rural
population until the Middle Ages referred to everything that was concerned
with the prehistoric civilisation, the magical and cult burial monuments, stone
weapons, may be explained not only in the light of the survival of religious ideas
that animated their prehistoric ancestors, but it was also caused by the fear,
reverence and superstitious admiration, which rural people used to have for
Another approach to megaliths was implemented by Church. For many
centuries it fought against the cult of ancient tombs, burial mounds and
stones, wherein as one of the used methods was the Christianisation of the old
constructions. This meant among other things that the megaliths of particular
importance were included in the sphere of Christian churches.
By joining the debate on this issue, it is necessary to define more precisely
its subject matter. As it was stated above, the phenomenon of megalithism is
very extensive. Therefore, the range of the analysis has been limited here to the
cemeteries of the so-called Kujavian barrows and their further fate.



Hanna uraw
PEDAGOGIUM Wysza Szkoa Nauk Spoecznych, Warsaw, Poland
Putusk Academy of Humanities, Putusk, Poland

Disability as a symbol
According to Ferdynand de Saussures linguistic study and Mary Douglas
anthropological resolving I analyse in perspective of anthropology of
communication social dialogue about people with mentally retardation and
people with psychic diseases. Basic questions of my paper are who, why,
how, what speak about people with these dysfunctions. I present results of my
research and I say: people like to speak about freaks they give us something
inducing to think about another face of the humanity.