Análisis de la disipación.

© All Rights Reserved

134 views

Análisis de la disipación.

© All Rights Reserved

- Fl Mech Ch 9
- Momentum Transfer
- SfpHanOfFirProEng5thEdi
- Lesson Plan Fluid Mechanics
- Full Elementary Aerodynamics Course by MIT
- Aerodynamic Analysis of Drag Reduction Devices on the Underbody for SAAB
- r5220303 Mechanics of Fluids r5 2-2
- Introduction to Cfd-2011
- Simulation
- Engelund_Hansen1967
- Phenotypic plasticity in juvenile jellyfish facilitates effective animal-fluid interaction
- One Droplet Electrocoalescence
- e18313-0-12-05_evs3100-3110
- Fluid Viscosity
- Solucion ayudantia examen
- MAE552 Introduction to Viscous Flows
- Flow, Thermal Criticality and Transition of a Reactive Third
- Rgdkxgq7rqadwvdvyewm_mae 195 Report 1
- 4. Effect of Air Lubrication Method on Frictional Resistance Reduction of Ship
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs13324-015-0110-8

You are on page 1of 5

viscous potential flow

By D. D. J O S E P H1 , J. W A N G1

1

AND

T. F U N A D A2

Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, 110 Union St.

SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

2

Department of Digital Engineering, Numazu College of Technology, 3600 Ooka, Numazu,

Shizuoka, 410-8501, Japan

(Received Nov 10, 2004)

liquid induced by a balance of the acceleration of the added mass of the liquid with

the Levich drag. The equation of rectilinear motion is linear and may be integrated

giving rise to exponential decay with a decay constant 18t/a2 where is the kinematic

viscosity of the liquid and a is the bubble radius. The problem of decay to rest of a bubble

moving initially when the forces maintaining motion are inactivated and the acceleration

of a bubble initially at rest to terminal velocity are considered. The equation of motion

follows from the assumption that the motion of the viscous liquid is irrotational. It is an

elementary example of how potential flows can be used to study the unsteady motions of

a viscous liquid suitable for the instruction of undergraduate students. Another example,

considered here, is the purely radial irrotational motion of a viscous liquid associated

with the motions of a spherical gas bubble. This gives rise to an exact potential flow

solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in which the jump of the viscous component of

the normal stress is evaluated on the potential flow. The equation of motion for the

liquid is almost always called the Reyleigh-Plesset equation but the viscous terms were

introduced by Poritsky (1951) and not by Plesset (1949). We show that when the normal

stress equation is converted into energy equation in the conventional way used for inviscid

fluid, the viscous normal stress term is converted into the viscous dissipation in the liquid

evaluated on potential flow.

We consider a body moving with the velocity U in an unbounded viscous potential

flow. Let M be the mass of the body and M 0 be the added mass, then the total kinetic

energy of the fluid and body is

T =

1

(M + M 0 )U 2 .

2

(1)

Let D be the drag and F be the external force in the direction of motion, then the power

of D and F should be equal to the rate of the total kinetic energy,

(F + D)U =

dU

dT

= (M + M 0 )U

.

dt

dt

(2)

2

We next consider a spherical gas bubble, for which M = 0 and M 0 = a3 f . The drag

3

can be obtained by direct integration using the irrotational viscous normal stress and a

viscous pressure correction: D = 12aU . Suppose the external force just balances the

drag, then the bubble moves with a constant velocity U = U0 . Imagine that the external

12aU =

2 3 dU

a f

.

3

dt

(3)

The solution is

18

U = U0 e a2 t ,

(4)

which shows that the velocity of the bubble approaches zero exponentially.

4

If gravity is considered, then F = a3 f g. Suppose the bubble is at rest at t = 0 and

3

starts to move due to the buoyant force. Equation (2) can be written as

4 3

2

dU

a f g 12aU = a3 f

.

3

3

dt

(5)

The solution is

18

a2 g

1 e a2 t ,

9

which indicates the bubble velocity approaches the steady state velocity

U=

U=

a2 g

9

(6)

(7)

exponentially.

Another way to obtain the equation of motion is to argue following Lamb (1932) and

Levich (1949) that the work done by the external force F is equal to the rate of the total

kinetic energy and the dissipation:

F U = (M + M 0 )U

dU

+ D.

dt

(8)

Equations (8) or (2) can be used to consider the rectilinear motion of a bubble of

non-spherical shape, e.g. the oblate ellipsoidal bubble considered by Moore (1965) and

Joseph & Wang (2004). The added mass M 0 and the expression for the drag need to be

changed. The relation D = DU still holds and the drag depends linearly on U , thus

the equation of motion is still a linear equation of U and the solutions would be similar

to (3) and (6).

It is of interest to see how the viscosity alters the analysis of the force on a bubble in

translational motion. Batchelor (1967) has presented an analysis of the force on a body in

translational motion in an inviscid fluid. The same analysis applies to a bubble when its

shape is given. He writes (p. 404) We consider the total force F exerted instantaneously

by the surrounding fluid on a body moving without rotation. This force arises from the

pressure at the body surface, and with the aid of (6.2.5) we have

Z

Z

1

2

n dA + q n dA g xn dA,

(6.4.20)

F = pn dA =

t

2

the integrals being taken over the fixed surface A that coincides instantaneously with

the body surface. Batchelor (1967) considers the motion of a sphere of mass M moving

with velocity U through infinite fluid under the action of an applied force X (p. 453).

He writes the equation of motion as

Z

= X 1 M0 U

+ M g M0 g,

MU

2

(6.8.19)

3

4 3

where M0 = a f is the mass of fluid displaced by the sphere. In the case of a gas

3

sphere moving under gravity alone, the above equation is equivalent to (5) without the

2g and

viscous drag term. Batchelor (1967) gives the acceleration of the gas sphere U

wrote Thus a spherical gas bubble moves from rest in water with an upward acceleration

of 2g, and, since in this case boundary-layer separation seems not to occur (in a liquid free

from impurities), continues to have this acceleration until either the bubble is deformed

or the velocity becomes comparable with the terminal velocity considered in 5.14.

The terminal velocity referred to here is obtained by equating the buoyancy force to the

viscous drag 12aU obtained from the dissipation calculation. Batchelor (1967) gives

a2 g

the terminal velocity

in his (5.14.12), which is the same as our (7). Without the

9

viscous drag in the equation of motion (6.8.19), Batchelor (1967) cannot show how the

gas sphere approaches the terminal velocity.

If the motion of the bubble irrotational and the liquid viscous, the irrotational shear

stress vanishes and a viscous contribution to the pressure pv is induced in a thin boundary

layer. In this case, drag terms arising from the normal stress

Z

(pv + n ) n dA

(9)

where

n = n ( ) n

(10)

and the drag component of pv is known (see Joseph & Wang 2004) for spherical and

oblate ellipsoidal bubbles. Following then the analysis given by Batchelor through to the

acceleration reaction on page 407, we find equations of bubble motion like (3) and (5) in

which the retarding effect of viscosity on the irrotational motion of the bubble is made

explicit.

The motion of a single spherical gas bubble in a viscous liquid has been considered by

some authors. Typically, these authors assemble terms arising in various situations, like

Stokes flow (Hadamard-Rybczynski drag, Basset memory integral) and high Reynolds

number flow (Levich drag, boundary layer drag, induced mass) and other terms into a

single equation. Such general equations have been presented by Yang & Leal (1991) and

by Park, Klausner and Mei (1995) and they have been discussed in the review paper of

Magnaudet & Eams (2000, see their section 4). Yang & Leals equation has Stokes drag

and no Levich drag. Our equation is not embedded in their equation. Park et al. listed

five terms for the force on a gas bubble; our equation may be obtained from theirs if the

free stream velocity U is put to zero, the memory term is dropped, and the boundary

layer contribution to the drag given by Moore is neglected. Park et al. did not write down

the same equation as our equation (1) and did not obtain the exponential decay.

It is generally believed that the added mass contribution, derived for potential flow

is independent of viscosity. Magnaudet and Eames say that ... results all indicate that

the added mass coefficient is independent of the Reynolds, strength of acceleration and

... boundary conditions. This independence of added mass on viscosity follows from the

assumption that the motion of viscous fluids can be irrotational. The results cited by

Magnaudet & Eams seem to suggest that induced mass is also independent of vorticity.

Chen (1974) did a boundary layer analysis of the impulsive motion of a spherical

gasbubble which

shows that the Levich drag 48/Re at short times evolves to the drag

2.21

48

obtained

in a boundary layer analysis by Moore (1963). The Moore drag

Re

R

e

cannot be distinguished from the Levich drag when Re is large. The boundary layer

contribution is vortical and is neglected in our potential flow analysis.

Another problem of irrotational motion of a spherical gas bubble in a viscous liquid is

the expanding or contracting gas bubble first studied by Rayleigh 1917. The problem is

also framed by Batchelor 1967 (p.479) but, as in Rayleighs work, with viscosity and surface tension neglected. Vicosity and surface tension effects can be readily introduced

into this problem without approximation because the motion is purely radial and irrotational; shear stresses do not arise. Though Plesset 1949 introduced a variable external

driving pressure and surface tension, the effects of surface tension were also introduced

and the effects of viscosity were first introduced by Poritsky 1951. His understanding of

irrotational viscous stresses is exemplary, unique for his time and not usual even in ours.

The equation

2

3 R 2 4 R

= pb p RR

(11)

R

2

R

for the bubble radius R(t), is always called the Rayleigh-Plesset equation but Plesset did

not present or discuss this equation which is given as [62] in the 1951 of paper of Poritsky.

It is well known when and are neglected, that equation (11) can be formulated as an

energy equation

d

KE = (pb p ) V

dt

where

2

Z

1

KE =

4r2 dr

2 R

r

and

d 4 3

V =

R

dt 3

The equation

dKE

V

(pb p ) V =

+ D + 2

(12)

dt

R

where the dissipation

Z

2

2

D = 2

4r2 dr

R xi xj xi xj

= 162 RR 2

follows from (11) after multiplication by V . In this problem we demonstrate a direct

connection between the irrotational viscous normal stress and the dissipation integral D

computed on potential flow.

This work was supported in part by the NSF under grants from Chemical Transport

Systems.

REFERENCES

Batchelor, G. K. 1967 Introduction to fluid dynamics, Cambridge University Press.

Joseph, D. D. & Wang, J. 2004 The dissipation approximation and viscous potential flow, J.

Fluid Mech. 505, 365-377.

Lamb, H. 1932 Hydrodynamics, 6th edn. Cambridge University Press. (Reprinted by Dover,

1945)

Levich, V.G. 1949 The motion of bubbles at high Reynolds numbers, Zh. Eksperim. & Teor.

Fiz. 19, 18.

Moore, D.W. 1965 The velocity of rise of distorted gas bubbles in a liquid of small viscosity.

J. Fluid Mech. 23, 749766.

Plesset, M. 1949 The dynamics of cavitation bubbles ASME J. Appl. Mech. 16, 228-231.

Poritsky, M. 1951 The collapse on growth of a spherical bubble on cavity in a viscous fluid.

Proceedings of the first U.S National Congress of Applied Mechanics held at the Illinois

Institute of Technology, June 11-16, 1951, 813-821, ASME.

Rayleigh, Lord 1917 On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical

cavity. Phil. Mag. 34, 94-98.

- Fl Mech Ch 9Uploaded byArjun Cp
- Momentum TransferUploaded byrahul
- SfpHanOfFirProEng5thEdiUploaded byahmed abdoh
- Lesson Plan Fluid MechanicsUploaded byPrashanth Jagadeesh
- Full Elementary Aerodynamics Course by MITUploaded by34plt34
- Aerodynamic Analysis of Drag Reduction Devices on the Underbody for SAABUploaded byJosé López
- r5220303 Mechanics of Fluids r5 2-2Uploaded bysivabharathamurthy
- Introduction to Cfd-2011Uploaded byAvik Banerjee
- Phenotypic plasticity in juvenile jellyfish facilitates effective animal-fluid interactionUploaded byJanna Nawroth
- Engelund_Hansen1967Uploaded byNurLelyHardiantiZendrato
- One Droplet ElectrocoalescenceUploaded byOstahie Narcis
- e18313-0-12-05_evs3100-3110Uploaded bynfisica
- SimulationUploaded byGeorge Opar
- Fluid ViscosityUploaded byAnuj Mittal
- Solucion ayudantia examenUploaded byJosefinaesp
- MAE552 Introduction to Viscous FlowsUploaded byakiscribd1
- Flow, Thermal Criticality and Transition of a Reactive ThirdUploaded byNadji Chi
- Rgdkxgq7rqadwvdvyewm_mae 195 Report 1Uploaded byMuhammad Shujan
- 4. Effect of Air Lubrication Method on Frictional Resistance Reduction of ShipUploaded bySteven Latreia Iakwbos Fatsis
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs13324-015-0110-8Uploaded bynicolas
- 3D Modeling Axial FanUploaded bydiah
- Bubble Breakup in BioreactorsUploaded byYerrit Price
- Mass Transfer in Boundary LayerUploaded byskullmilione
- CE6451 SCAD MSM by Www.learnEngineering.inUploaded bytech guy
- SLIDE-1Uploaded byEmtiazEmon
- Series of Saho brown and othersUploaded byB7r
- Full GeometryUploaded bySiti Sarah
- ipaUploaded byREando
- IAS Physics SB1 Practs CP2 Teacher SheetUploaded byRami Zurikat

- Nissan NP300 Estaquitas 2016Uploaded byjucasega
- Catalogo Transporter May13Uploaded byjucasega
- Biesheuvel89addedUploaded byjucasega
- AnalisisDimensional BubblesUploaded byjucasega
- Rotational dynamicsUploaded byjucasega
- High Values of CLUploaded byjucasega
- PoF PRZV11 SphereUploaded byjucasega
- Velez 2013Uploaded byjucasega
- Velez 2011Uploaded byjucasega
- Velez 2010Uploaded byjucasega
- JFM Added MassUploaded byjucasega
- Char LatexUploaded byjucasega
- numeros-ingles-del-1-al-1000.pdfUploaded byhernandezlucy
- Lirik Lagu Better Half of MeUploaded byChandra Lie
- PolidispersidadUploaded byjucasega
- Catalogo TsuruUploaded byVictor M Domínguez Kuri
- Manual de Xperia Z3Uploaded byjucasega
- Xiao 2006Uploaded byjucasega
- LaTeX Help BeginnerUploaded byjamesyu

- kamalkantUploaded byKamal Kant Sharma
- Investigating the Effect of Heat Transfer Correlation on Predictability of Multi-zone Combustion Model of Hydrogen-fuelled SI Engine, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical EngineersUploaded bySeyed
- Biochem_N, M, m, Mf, pH, pOHUploaded byAli Uy
- Shirgiri14MPhilUploaded byipujulà
- 08 Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation - HandoutUploaded byMark Reyes
- 27151Uploaded byannisafn
- Catalogo Soportes Tuberia AisladaUploaded bydmitos
- Sacx307 Lead-Free wave bar solderUploaded byMarius Bogdanescu
- AMC8 Competition Solutions, 11-19-13_2Uploaded byLucy Li
- Enhanced Oil Recovery_EOR-1Uploaded byIvan Al-Jeboore
- Rwf Manufacturing ProcessUploaded byBinod Kumar Padhi
- Cybernetic Flowcycle SymbiosisUploaded byGavin Keech
- Poprzen NemanjaUploaded byOlga Joy Labajo Gerasta
- lect-2-cvg4150.pdfUploaded byLoki
- Tank Trailer StabilityUploaded byHomer Silva
- 2101_Ch1_03Uploaded byAlexSegura
- Power System Stabilizer Using Genetic AlgorithmUploaded byS Bharadwaj Reddy
- Aluminium CassetteUploaded byHarish Negi
- Solubility_ProductsUploaded byYongkang Gao
- Total Design ManuallUploaded byCarlos Alberto Rejas Reynoso
- 50 Solutions of Mercury's PerihelionUploaded byYousef Nahhas
- Basics Lighting DesignUploaded byTrisha Thompson
- vyssotski2015Uploaded byReinaldo Ongky Billy Anando
- ELECON India Conveyor IdlersUploaded byjgfingenieria
- Understanding Modern ElectronicsUploaded byNarayana Mugalur
- Ultragel II Technical Data SheetUploaded byjess, c
- T-2079Uploaded byHari Krishna
- IndexUploaded bysmelihates
- AugerValve_WhitePaperUploaded bybehzad
- Study Guide RocksUploaded byKyzer Gardiola