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Connection and Protection

for Comm/Data
and CCTV Networks
Eric Sadler
Porta Systems Corporation

This training will discuss:


When and why Comm/Data protection is required
The magical devices that provide that protection
The features and benefits of each of these devices
The use of protection for data applications
The use of protectors, baluns, and protected baluns for
CCTV networks over unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

Primary Protection
is the LAW!

Primary Protection
Required by the National Electric
Code (NEC) Article 800.90 sec (A),
enforced by building inspectors
Defined and Qualified by UL 497 and
others

Primary Protection
Installed within 50 feet of the cable
entrance to any building fed by:
Any aerial run of communications cable
Any cable buried for more than 140
feet

When you run


outside plant cable,
you need
Primary Protection!

Protection at the Campus Environment


School

P
Main Switch

Annexes

P
P
P

P
P

Labs

P
P
CENTRAL
OFFICE

Telco Demarc

P
P= Surge Protection

Dorms
Hospital

The NEC requires


Primary Protection
to ensure that the
health and safety of
equipment operators
is protected.

Protected from
what?

Lightning is the most


common source of electrical
disturbance to Telecom lines

There are 865,000 Lightning Strikes each day


worldwide!

The second most common


source of electrical
disturbance is the
Power Cross
A Power Cross is the transfer of excessive
voltage and current by physical contact of an
electrical power line with a communications
network

Typical Connected
Building

Power Cross with


Telephone Line

Primary Protection is a legal


requirement and also makes
good business sense

But it is often overlooked!

Inspectors seldom check the installation of


Comm/Data equipment for NEC
compliance.
Contractors who submit their bid with
protection are more expensive than those
that submit a bid without it.
The problem with this, is that protection is
very inexpensive when compared to
Telecom equipment.

Whatever the property owner


saves in up front costs by
not including protection, he
will lose when his
equipment gets damaged!

Primary protection must contain:


Surge arrestor modules in an entrance terminal
which contains 26 AWG fusible links

Surge Arrestor
Module

24 AWG

22 AWG

PBX

26 AWG Fusible Link

Common Types of Primary


Protector Modules
Gas Tube (3B1E)
Solid State (3B1S)
Hybrid
Any of these can contain overcurrent
protection as well (4B1E, 4B1S)

Gas Tube Modules

Gas Tube
High energy Gas
Discharge Tube dissipates
surges as high as 10,000A
to ground.

3-Electrode Gas Tube Arrestor


Metal Electrode

Tip

Ceramic
Insulator
Metal Electrode

Proprietary
Gas Mixture

Ring

Ceramic
Insulator
Metal Electrode

Simultaneous short of both lines to ground

Gas Tube Protectors


UL 497 Listed Primary Protection
Most economical
Protects
the safety of equipment operators
prevents fires in the building
prevents damage to equipment from the
majority of surges
Self-resetting; withstands 10,000 Amps for 10
microseconds

Solid State Modules

Solid State

Solid State Components


Thyristor shorts fast-risingvoltage surges to ground,
or Diode that clamps these
voltages until Gas Tube
shorts them to ground.

Conventional Solid State


Transient Voltage Suppressor (TVS)
Equipment
is protected

Active Silicon
Wafer

Surge goes to
Gnd

Metal
Electrode

Metal
Electrode

Solid State Protectors


Signal quality and activation energy do not
deteriorate
Provide superior protection for sensitive
equipment
Fast reaction time of less than 5 nanoseconds
Self-resetting; withstands 100 Amps for 10
microseconds

Protector Modules are VoltageSensitive Devices


You should always choose a protector module
with a breakdown voltage as close to, but higher
than the operating voltage of your equipment.
This typically means 230-240 volts for analog
telephone lines.
75-volt modules for digital telephones that do
not have analog ringing voltage
Low voltage (7.5-65 volts) for data applications
we will discuss later

Overcurrent Protection
Protection from surges that do not have enough
voltage to trip the over-voltage devices, but still
have enough energy to damage equipment!
Modules that have in their generic part number a
4 such as 4B1E or 4B1S
To provide this type of protection, there are a
variety of devices available.

Overcurrent Protection
Fuse
Positive Temperature Coefficient resistor
(PTC)
Heat Coil

Fuses
Conventional fuse
Newer
miniature fuse

Needle
eye

Fuses
Detect low levels of current
Require replacement after activation
Permanently open the circuit when
excess current is detected (when the
fuse has blown)

Positive Temperature Coefficient


Resistors (PTC)
Polymer
Based

Ceramic
Based

PTCs
Basically, a self resetting fuse
Hysteresis problems
Close the circuit when reset, but
still have the open circuit at the
most critical time: during the
electrical disturbance!

Heat Coil

For Overcurrent Protection


Heats up if current is too high, then
spring pushes contact forward,
grounding the circuit.

Heat Coil
Cap & Dart
Thimble

Heat Coil
Resistance wire is coiled around
thimble
Low-melt temperature Solder
Alloy

Compressed spring urging


cap forward

Heat Coil

Dart contacts ground


electrode and circuit is
permanently shorted to GND
Solder melts and spring
pushes dart forward

When excess current flows, the


resistance wire heats up

Heat Coils
Detect low levels of current
Permanently short the line side to
ground
Require replacement after activation

Why such a
complicated device?
Excellent slow-blo characteristics
Unlike PTCs and Fuses, Heat Coils ground the
line instead of opening the circuit
this reduces the potential for currents to jump
to other wires
Provides the best over-current protection for
equipment fed with multi-pair cables

The Hybrid Protector Module


Putting the components together for the best results!

TEST POINTS

GAS TUBE

Contacts for easy


circuit access/test.

High energy discharge tube.


Withstands surges as high as
10,000A dissipated to
ground.

HEAT COIL for Overcurrent


Protection
Heats up if current is too high,
then spring pushes contact
forward grounding the circuit.

INSIDE PROTECTED PIN

GROUND PIN

CLAMPING SURGE DIODE


Clamps fast rising voltage
surges until Gas Tube ionizes
to short the surge to ground.

OUTSIDE UNPROTECTED PIN

Reaction Time: <5 Nanoseconds

Primary Protection Modules fulfill one part of


the requirement for Primary Protection:
Voltage Surge Suppression
To complete the requirement, one must have
the second component:
A housing with a fusible link

A fusible link is:


A piece of thin wire located in the housing
(BET) before the protector module field
Designed to open before any other wiring
in the system
Without a fusible link, any wire in a
communications system could burn open
during a surge and cause a fire!

Building Entrance
Terminals (BETs) and
Protector Packs must
meet or exceed these
requirements

Splice Chambered BET


Local distribution of cable in multitenant office buildings, high-rise
apartments and campus
environments
Splice Chamber physically protects
and isolates incoming gel-filled cable
UL Listed for Primary and
Secondary Protection
Available in 25, 50 and 100 Pair
Vertically Stackable
Available in a variety of terminations
Optional cover over the protector
field

No Splice Chamber BET


Local distribution of cable in multitenant office buildings, high-rise
apartments and campus environments
Used when physical protection and
isolation of incoming cable is not
required
UL Listed for Primary and Secondary
Protection
Available in 25, 50 and 100 Pair
Available in 66 and 110 terminations
and cable-stub inputs
Economically priced

Typical BET Installation

Stub in Stub out BET


Primarily used to run from a Demarc
or splice casing to a separate cross
connect field.
Comes with 26 awg input Riser
Rated Cable to provide fusible link
UL Listed for Primary and Secondary
Protection
Available in 25, 50 and 100 Pair

Protector Packs with Primary Protectors:


Protector
Pack
(6 Pair)

Small, light-weight BET for the termination and


protection of incoming copper communication
cables
Protects electronic telephone systems,
particularly PBXs and KSUs
UL Listed for Primary and Secondary
Protection
Units may be cascaded for future growth
Available in 6, 12, and 25 pair counts

Protector
Pack
(12 Pair)

Choice of 66 or 110 terminations


Can be used with any of the Protector
Modules we discussed

XLBET
Rack-Mountable 300-pair BET, fits on
standard 23 x 6 deep relay rack
Standard configuration is cable-stub input,
110, 66 or cable-stub output
All mounting hardware and wire
management guides are included
UL Listed for Primary Protection
Highly customizable
1800-pair on a 7-ft. rack for protection
and cross connection
2400-pair on a 7-ft. rack for protection
only
Contact the manufacturer to customize an
XLBET to your specifications

The Primary Protection


requirement applies to
data systems the same
way it does for
telephone systems!

Outside Plant Category cable can


carry data to:
Portable Classrooms
Trailers at construction sites
Equipment controlled remotely
using Industrial Ethernet

How does one provide


Primary Entrance
Protection to devices
requiring CAT 5E
performance?

CAT5E Protector Blocks


and Modules

CAT5E rated Blocks and Modules are


used to Protect Data Network and
other Low-Voltage Equipment,
Including:

Hubs / Concentrators, Routers


Audio / Video Equipment
Alarm Systems
Control equipment such as PLCs
IP anything!
Computers
Phones
Cameras

CAT5E Rated Blocks Features:


Protectors and Terminations provided in multiples of 4
32-pair on an 89 D mounting bracket
Comes with DIN-rail mounting hardware for industrial
applications
Accepts CAT5E rated modules available in 7.5, 18, 27
and 65-volt models, similar in design to telephone
modules.
UL Listed for Data/Alarm and Primary Protection

How does one provide


Primary Entrance
Protection to devices
requiring CAT6
performance?

CAT6 Rated Protector Blocks


and Modules

CAT6 Rated Protector Blocks


Features and Benefits:

Building Entrance protection that maintains the full


functionality of CAT 6
With ultra-low capacitance, they provide protection that
permits signals of frequencies up to 250 MHz

Standard 110 style terminations for inputs and outputs

CAT6 rated modules available in 18V, 27V or 65V

Provides an ideal solution for Power Over Ethernet (POE)


when used with 65-volt modules

Important!

CAT5E and CAT6 modules are for lowvoltage data applications only!
If someone is putting
telephone signal on CAT5E or
CAT6 cable, they must use one
of the telephone protector
modules discussed earlier!

Also Important!
Broadband is distinct from other data applications!

Broadband signals such as T1, E1, xDSL and VDSL require


protectors specific for those applications
Signal voltage can vary from 205 to 400 volts
Most xDSL are best protected by modules with silicon based
semiconductors specially designed to have low capacitance
(~20 pF)
T1, E1, and VDSL are best protected by a hybrid gas tube/
Metallic Oxide Varistor (MOV), a metallic based
semiconductor that reacts nearly as quickly as silicon based
semiconductors, but have ultra-low capacitance (~5 pF)

Protection plays a role in


CCTV applications that run
over copper wires

Coaxial Cable
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

For Installations that


use Coaxial Cable,
there are coaxial
Protectors available
(BNC to BNC)

Coaxial Protector

Coaxial Protector

Installed in front of cameras and/or recording devices

Standing wave ratio 1.2:1

Low Pass 20 Hz - 40 MHz

Insertion Loss - <0.3dB @ 40 MHz

Durable Design

The Modern trend is to run CCTV


networks over UTP. Why?

UTP is less expensive than Coaxial Cable


UTP is less bulky and easier to install
UTP can run for longer distances, 1000-2000 feet easily
compared to 600 feet for Coax
Many times structured cabling is already in place and one
can use the existing UTP to run the CCTV network
Allows easy upgrade to IP cameras on UTP of CAT5E or
better.

For UTP Installations,


there are protectors
specifically for the
application of
cameras over UTP

UTP Protectors

UTP Protectors

Single and double Channel Multi-function protector

Supports camera control signals RS422 and RS485 over UTP, as well
as camera signal and power

Compact Design

Video Baluns

Video Baluns

Active Video Balun

The devices that permit the transmission of video signals over UTP

Mini versions fit inside camera housings

Amplified versions or Active Baluns permit transmission over


greater distances

Models available both with and without surge protection

Video Combiners

Video Combiners

Provide for the combination of video signal, power and control for
PTZ cameras over UTP

Connectorized (RJ45) or with 110 terminations

Passive device no power required

Can pass power through them to power the camera

Video Combiners with


Protection

Combiners with
Protection

Provide the combination of video, power and control for PTZ


cameras over UTP or a combination of UTP and coaxial cable

Provides protection form surges

Passive device no power required

Can pass power through them to power the camera