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New phase of regionalization Ports

Ports: Objective Spain


(text made from a paper by Notteboom and Rodrigue, 2005)

The hinterland of load distribution of the ports is taking a very important


dimension in the globalization of shipping and logistics market. Structural
changes in logistics have generated new patterns of distribution of goods,
requiring new approaches to ports.
Customers are concerned with the calculation of total logistics costs in the
transportation of containerized cargo, which means that improvements in
the efficiency of logistics containers takes place largely on land distribution.
The development of global supply chains has increased pressure on the
shipping and port operations, and not least, on the means of distribution of
goods.
Thus, the accessibility to hinterland, as such, has become a cornerstone of
the competitiveness of the port area where the ports and port authorities
can play a more significant role.
The phase of regionalization of the port of Notteboom and Rodrigue, 2005,
means that the port has to go out of their area of jurisdiction and regionalize
it, expanding the hinterland. This model not only expands the model
Anyport Bird, but also extends the existing literature on the spatial
development of the port and its relationship with the networks of maritime
and inland.
In this new phase of port regionalization is increasingly recognized
importance of land transport as a target for reducing logistics costs, the
ports should be the engines of change.
The shipping industry is an excellent example of a greater focus on logistics
integration, as more and bigger ships, more alliances and cooperation have
reduced the cost of shipping system, with many shipping lines, consider the
logistics of the hinterland and the area more important to further reduce
costs.
Some shipping lines like Maersk have gone one step further with the
availability of door-to-door packages integrated logistics services to the
management on the client, including through the operation of port terminals
and inland transport, sometimes ignoring the forwarder by developing direct
relationships with the shipper, regardless of their size.
Many ports will continue the next phase of the regionalization of its scope
trading, gathering of market forces and political influence that gradually
form networks of freight movement throughout the hinterland, which extend
with varying degrees of formal linkages to us terrestrial networks in the
hinterland, with the port as a center base.
The corridor is the main paradigm of the legal accessibility of the port, it is
through the main areas that the port can access the second line terminal
and hence the distribution systems within expanded.
The development, under the leadership of the port, rail networks of centers
and intermodal terminals and logistics is important to contribute to a
greater modal shift from road to rail, as such, creating long-distance runners
from the port, which extends the phase of regionalization and the scope of
action of the port, creating a dynamic port system that covers the
hinterland. In the case of Portuguese ports, this phase of regionalization
under the leadership of the ports, you can expand the hinterland of ports
and logistics companies to the Portuguese interior of Spain.
Issues of governance of the regionalization phase in port services and
shipping are very important and although the port is not in itself the main
reason for the occurrence of the regionalization process (your customers are
shippers, operators and owners), may have a role in the governance
process.
The new phase of port regionalization result of logistics decisions and
actions of shippers and logistics operators. This observation does not,
however, that the ports should act as passive agents in the process of
regionalization. The new phase of regionalization requires appropriate
governance structures of the port to meet the challenges posed by changing
relations of the port with its hinterland.
The governance of the phase of port regionalization should recognize the
rights and potential contribution of various stakeholders (operators, terminal
lines, shippers, road and rail) in the development of new approaches in
relations of the port with the hinterland. It should also encourage the
cooperation and active participation of those involved in the creation of
corridors and ports of second lines, as well as in trade policy.
Change the geographic scope of the governance of the harbor and their
supply chains is very relevant in the context of competition from the port.
The seaports are an essential link in many supply chains and their role in
international distribution, it is important to its flexibility to adapt quickly to
changing opportunities and an integrated logistics chains.
The success of a port depends on its ability to fit into networks that make up
supply chains, and for this the port community synergies with the nodes
land and other stakeholders of the logistics networks of which they belong.
This supports the development of regional networks of cargo, serving major
logistics hubs, based on ports and on its route.
The role of port authorities that manage the process of regionalization
phase of the port is different depending on the type of model exploration.
Under the landlord port model, it is tempting to assume that the authorities
should act as "facilitators" of transport chains. The port authorities must
constantly rethink and expand its role as facilitator, in which "initiative,
cooperation and consultation" are the keywords behind the government's
pro-active port.
This means creating a platform on which the port authorities work together
with various stakeholders (carriers, shippers, transport operators, labor and
government) to identify and resolve problems that affect logistics
performance. The port authorities are in an excellent position to play a
leading role in these initiatives, the focal point of international movements.
Their concerns with the overall efficiency and growth of trade can be a
catalyst, even when its direct impact on cargo flows is limited.
In the new phase of regionalization, the port authorities can play an
important role in the creation of regional networks based load ports and
logistics hubs. First, the port authorities should promote an efficient
intermodal system that ensures the movement of cargo in terms of
competitiveness. This includes, for example, participation in the introduction
of new train services to transport to the hinterland, together with their
national railway companies, rail operators, terminal operators, shipping
companies and large shippers.
Secondly, the development of strategic relationships with other modes of
transport is another important role for port authorities. It is often assumed
that only the private actors should be involved in creating this type of
cooperation networks. But it should be.
Enterprises in the private port should be centers of strengthening links the
port with the hinterland, for example, by investing in inland terminals and
distribution facilities in the area inside the port. Strategic cooperation
network aimed at regulation and usually shared use of scarce resources,
such as the centers of traffic management, hinterland connections and
services, environmental protection, marketing and research and
development (R & D).
This implementation of regional network load can range from informal
coordination programs to advanced forms of strategic partnerships through
strategic alliances, associations, cross-holdings, joint ventures or mergers
and acquisitions.
They can develop new features and capabilities in close cooperation with
other modes of transport, and mutual interests.
For example, regional authorities and companies can work together to
better streamline and reduce the flow of empty containers. One solution
could be the development of intermodal services in combination, import and
export in order to create a system to reduce distance and transport costs of
empty containers.
A network strategy focused on the port inland terminals can allow, for
example, port authorities addressing the problem of diseconomies of scale
with traffic congestion or lack of space. The corridors towards the
hinterland, in fact, can create the necessary room for further growth of the
maritime traffic of containers. The inland terminals can acquire an important
function as satellites in the seaports, and help alleviate the potential of port
congestion.