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Dye And

Dyeing
Compounds that absorb one or
more wavelengths of visible light
appear colored to the human eye.
White light possesses all
wavelenghts of visible light. When
a beam of white light strikes a
colored surface,certain
wavelengths are absorbed and
others are reflected,we see what is
reflected.
what structural features cause an
The compound has a chromophore
organic
group ( a molecule to appear
chemical group of selective
colored?
light absorption resulting in coloration of
certain organic compounds,also called
color radical)
There is an extensive network of
alternating single and double bonds
(conjugation) of which the chromophore
is a part.
For a compound to be a dye,it must not only
show color,it must also be able to adhere to a
fabric. Auxochrome is a chemical group within
a dye molecule by which the dye is bound to
reactive end group in tissues. The auxochrome
enhances the intensity of absorption.
Classification of dyes

DIRECT DYES
Any of a class of coloured,water-soluble compounds
that have an affinity for fiber and are taken up directly,such as
the benzidine derivatives. Direct dyes are usually cheap and
easily applied,and they can yield bright colours. Washfastness
is poor but may be improved by after treatment. Silk and
wool,can be colored simply by being dipped in the dye (the
dyes so used are consequently called direct dyes).
MORDANT DYES
Dyes which require a mordant in their
application and which upon combination with
the mordant deposit insoluble color on the
substrate. e.g.,dyes with metal chelating
groups. Mordants are substances of organic or
inorganic origin which combine with the
coloring matter and are used to fix the same in
the production of the color. For the purpose of
this class,such materials as oils and sulfonated
oils, soaps, fats and higher acids,are not
generally considered as mordants.
REACTIVE DYES
Fiber reactive dyes are textile dyes which
form a covalent bond with the fibers of the
textile,resulting in a long lasting,bright dye.
-clothing colored with reactive dyes will not
bleed in washing or fade.unless exposed to
bright light.

INGRAIN DYE
A colourant which is formed in suit in the
substrate by the development and coupling of
one or more intermediate compounds.
VAT DYE
Dyes such as indigo,that produces a fast
color by impregnating fiber with a reduced
soluble form that is then oxidized to an
insoluble form. Applied by reducing the dye to a
base-soluble form,applying the dye,the
regenerating the insoluble dye by oxidation in
he material,used for dyeing cotton using Vat or
buckets. It can be performed whenever a
liquid,even shade over the entire garment is
desired.