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A. Barriers in Communication
Penggunaan Bahasa: jargon, bahasa yang rumit, bahasa yang jarang
digunakan, bahasa Daya Tangkap : Kurang perhatian, Kurangnya Minat , Kurang relevan,
adanya gangguan
Penilaian :Persepsi dan cara pandang yang berbeda, hambatan fisik,
hambatan bahasa, prasangka, stereotyping
Perbedaan Kultur seperti status sosial, strata
o Contoh : hugging, pidato tentang hal pribadi, arti uang receh
B. Influencing Skill

Commitment (and Consistency)
Social Proof

C. Cross Cultural Communications

1. The important of intercultural communication
Globalization of Market
Technological Advancements
Multicultural Work Force
2. Characteristics of Culture (Learned, Inherently Logical, Identity, VisibleInvisible, Dynamic)
a. Culture is learned
In Asia, same sex people may walk hande in hand. In Arab, conversations are
often held in close proximity, sometimes nose to nose. In western culture, too
close means violation.
b. Cultures are inherently logical
In Japan, Barbie doll was a failure because of the toothy smile
c. Culture is the basis of self-identity and community
Who we are and what we believe.
d. Culture combines the visible and invisible.
In Japan, harmony with the environment is important. In India, people avoid
stepping on ant or insects because they believe in reincarnation.
e. Culture is dynamic
Culture change as a result of migration, disasters, and wars.
3. Dimension of Culture
Context (Low or High)
Communication style
Time orientation

4. LOW vs HIGH Context

5. Achieving Intercultural Sensitivity

Avoiding Ethnocentrism:
The belief in the superiority of ones owned race.
Bridging the Gap
Emphaty: trying to see the world through anothers eyes.
Saving face: indirectly respect the feelings and dignity of others
Patience: tolerance, patient, silent

D. Teamwork Communication
Roles You Can Take

The INITIATOR suggests or proposes to the group new ideas. S/he offers a novel
point of view concerning problems, procedures, goals, or solutions.
The INFORMATION SEEKER asks for clarification of suggestions made in terms of
their factual adequacy, for authoritative information and facts pertinent to the
problem being discussed.
The INFORMATION GIVER offers facts or generalizations which are "authoritative" or
relates his/her own experience pertinent to the group problem.
The OPINION SEEKER asks primarily for a clarification of values pertinent to what
the group is undertaking or values involved in various suggestions that have been
The OPINION GIVER states his/her belief pertinent to a suggestion made. The
emphasis is on what s/he believes should be the groups view of pertinent values, not
primarily upon relevant facts or information.
The ENERGIZER prods the group to action or decision, attempts to stimulate or
arouse the group to "greater" or "higher quality" activity.
The GATE-KEEPER expedites attempts to keep communication channels open by
encouraging or facilitating the participation of others ("we havent gotten the ideas of
Mr. X yet," etc.) or by proposing regulation of the flow of communication ("why dont
we limit the length of our contributions so that everyone will have a chance to
contribute?" etc.)
The REALITY TESTER subjects the accomplishment of the group to some standard or
set of standards of group- functioning in the context of the group task. Thus, s/he may
evaluate or question the "practicality," the "logic," the "facts," or the "procedure" of
the suggestion or of some unit of group discussion.
The SUMMARIZER defines the position of the group with respect to its goals by
summarizing what has occurred, points to departures from agreed upon directions or
goals, or raises questions about the direction which the group discussion is taking.
The DIAGNOZER defines the position of the group with respect to its goals by
summarizing what has occurred, points to departures from agreed upon directions or
goals, or raises questions about the direction which the group discussion is taking.

Relationship Roles

The ENCOURAGER praises, agrees with, and accepts the contribution of the others.
S/he indicates warmth and solidarity in her/his attitude toward other group members,
offers commendation and praise and in various ways indicates understanding and
acceptance of other points of view, ideas, and suggestions.
The HARMONIZER mediates the differences between other members, attempts to
reconcile disagreements, relieves tension in conflict situations through good hearted
jokes, a soothing attitude, etc.
EVALUATOR OF EMOTIONAL CLIMATE merefleksikan perasaan atau suasana
yang ada pada peserta

PRAISE GIVER menebar kehangatan, memberikan pujian

EMPHATIC LISTENER menunjukan minat, tidak menginterupsi, lebih banyak

Discfunctioned Roles

The BLOCKER tends to be negativistic and stubbornly resists, disagreeing and

opposing without or beyond "reason" and attempting to maintain or bring back an
issue after the group has rejected or by-passed it.
The RECOGNITION-SEEKER works in various ways to call attention to her/himself,
whether through boasting, reporting on personal achievements, acting in unusual
ways, struggling to prevent being placed in an "inferior" position, etc.
The ATTACKER tries to attack
The JOKER, speaks too much in joking

E. Presentation Skill
Structure => introduction, main points & conclution (in logical order)
Practice => practice in front of mirror
Body Language => smile, make eye contact, move around a bit, dont
hide behind podium
Speech => clearly, confident & not to fast
Nervousness => preparation & practice will reduce nervous
Interaction => build a rapport with your audience, use humor
Powerpoint => keep slides clean & simple, dont have a lot of text, use
charts, diagram & pictures
Notes & Handouts
F. Negotiation Skill
Two or more parties with diferent need and goal discuss an issue to find a
mutually acceptable solution
Strong negotiators master written, verbal & non verbal communication
Good Negotiator:


Flexible (F)
Creative ( C )
Aware of themselves and others (A)
Good pleasure (P)
Honest (O)
Win-win oriented (W)
Good communicator(G)

Jangan Dilakukan:
Negosiasi bukan menang-menangan
Tidak emosional
Jangan menyalahkan orang lain
G. Selling Skill
Not just selling a product
Also selling a service
Undestanding customer

Verbal ada Kata-kata (35%)

1. Specific
2. Smalltalk
3. Simple language
4. Paraphrase -> istilah
5. Plan your message
6. Greet cutomer warmly and sincerely
7. Communicate to your costomers style
8. Agree with customer
9. Solicit customer feedback and participation
10.Ask positively phrased question
Non verbal tidak harus ada kata-kata (65%)
Contohnya: mimik, ekspresi, gesture, gerakan tubuh, penampilan


message effective = clear, complete, save time, goodwill

Analyze business communication problem :

1. What are your PURPOSE in writing or speaking?

2. Who is (are) your AUDIENCE(S)?
3. What INFORMATION must your message include?
4. What reasons or reader BENEFITS can you use to support your position?
5. What OBJECTIVES can you expect your reader(s) to have?
6. How will the CONTEXT affect the readers response?
Why :
better decisions
respond faster
increase productivity
achieve greater buy-in
reduce resistance to change
improve employee morale,
reduced risk for individuals.
individual works may be better then team work, so team work will:
Slowed Decision
Shielded workers from responsibility
Reduced productivity

40 % of Communication Activity
Poor Listening Habits:
Most of us listen at only 25 percent efficiency.
We are inefficient listeners due to:
Lack of training
Competing sounds
Slowness of speech

Differing frame of reference
Pseudo listening