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By Bern hard Berenson

The Venetian

Painters of the Renaissance.


With a Frontispiece. Third Edition. Revised
and enlarged. Crown 8vo, gilt top
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reproductions of famous paintings.


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The

Florentine Painters of the Renaissance.


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PUTNAM'S SONS
London

THE
FLORENTINE PAINTERS
OF THE RENAISSANCE
WITH AN INDEX TO THEIR WORKS

BERNHARD BERENSON
(I

AUTHOR OF "VENETIAN PAINTERS OF THE RENAISSANCE,


" LORENZO LOTTO," "CENTRAL ITALIAN PAINTERS
"
OF THE RENAISSANCE

THIRD EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED

THE

VERSf
G. P.

PUTNAM'S SONS
LONDON

NEW YORK
37

WEST TWENTY-THIRD STREET

24

BEDFORD STREET, STRAND

be |jmclurboclur *$tm

1909

REESE
Copyright, 1896
BY
G. P.

PUTNAM'S SONS

Entered at Stationers' Ha//, London


Copyright, 1909
BY

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
(For revised edition)

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION


Years have passed since the second edition
of this book.

But as most of

this

been taken up with the writing of


ings of the Florentine Painters,"

it

me

to

sense,

been spent

new

edition.

that

must

in

preparing

Indeed,

it is

time has

my

"

Draw-

has, in a

make

to that bigger

this

work

who may wish

refer the student

have the reasons for some of

my

to

attributions.

There, for instance, he will find the intricate


Carli question treated quite as fully as

Jacopo del Sellajo

serves.

the

first

time.

Ample

is

in

articles

de-

inserted here for

accounts of this

quently entertaining tenth-rate painter

found

it

fre-

may be

by Hans Makowsky, Mary

Logan, and Herbert Home.

The most important event

of the last ten

years, in the study of Italian art, has been the

rediscovery of an

all

but forgotten great master,

57t>2

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION

IV

The study

Pietro Cavallini.
S. Cecilia in

Rome, and

of his fresco at

of the other

readily group themselves with

it,

works that
has illumi-

nated with an unhoped-for light the problem


of Giotto's origin

and development.

felt

stimulated to a fresh consideration of the subject.

The

results will

inclusion, for the

the
his

lists

first

be noted here

in

time, of Cimabue,

of paintings ascribed to Giotto

immediate

the

and

and

assistants.

B. B.
Boston, November, igo8.

in

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION


The
some
cini,

lists

of

have been thoroughly revised, and

them considerably

increased.

Pier Francesco Fiorentino, and

Sandro have been added, partly


sic

Botti-

Amico

di

for the intrin-

value of their work, and partly because so

many

of their pictures are

under

admiration

greater

sounds too much

like

exposed to public
names.

Botticelli not

Botticini
to

have

been confounded with him, and Pier Francesco


has similarly been confused with Piero della
Francesca.

Thus, Botticini's famous " Assump-

tion," painted for

Matteo Palmieri, and now

in

the National Gallery, already passed in Vasari's

time for a

Botticelli,

and the attribution

at

Karlsruhe of the quaint and winning " Nativity

"

to the sublime, unyielding Piero della Francesca


is

surely nothing

real author's

more than the echo

name.

of the

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

vi

Most inadequate accounts, yet more than can


be given here, of Pier Francesco, as well as of
Botticini, will

Cavalcaselle's

be found
Storia

Vol. VII.

The

dealt with

fully

in the Italian edition of

delta

Pittura in Italia,

latter painter will doubtless

and ably

Home's forthcoming book on


this connection

my

suaded

me

Sandro

des

am happy

indebtedness to Mr.

Beaux

Botticelli,

for

in

having per-

Of Amico

di

at length in the Gazette

Arts, June and July, 1899.

Fiesole, November, 1899.

and

to acknowledge

Home

to study Botticini.

have written

be

Mr. Herbert P.

in

CONTENTS.

PAGE

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS OF THE

RE-

NAISSANCE

INDEX TO THE WORKS OF THE PRINCIPAL


FLORENTINE PAINTERS
INDEX OF PLACES

95

189

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS OF


THE RENAISSANCE

Florentine

between

painting

Michelangelo contains the names of such


as Orcagna, Masaccio,

and

Giotto

artists

Fra Filippo, Pollaiuolo,

Verrocchio, Leonardo, and Botticelli.


side these the greatest

names

in

Put be-

Venetian

art,

the Vivarini, the Bellini, Giorgione, Titian, and


Tintoret.

The

difference

nificance of the Venetian

is

striking.

names

is

Not

with their significance as painters.


the Florentines.
ers,

left

they remain great sculptors

no form

sig-

so with

Forget that they were paint-

they were sculptors, and


tects, poets,

The

exhausted

still

and even men

forget that

they remain archiof science.

of expression untried,

They

and to none

could they say, " This will perfectly convey

my

MANYSIDEDNESS OF THE PAINTERS

meaning."
partial

Painting,

therefore,

and we

festation of their personality,


artist as greater

The immense
his greatest

means that

the

feel

than his work, and the

soaring above the

man

as

artist.

superiority of the artist even to

achievement

his personality

mined by the particular


tended to mould
It

but a

offers

and not always the most adequate mani-

it

in

any one

was but

slightly deter-

art in question, that

rather than let

would be absurd,

art form,

therefore,

it

he

shape him.

to

the

treat

Florentine painter as a mere link between two


points in a necessary evolution.

The

history of

the art of Florence never can be, as that of

Venice, the study of a placid

Each man

development.

of genius brought to bear

art a great intellect, which,

upon

his

never condescend-

ing merely to please, was tirelessly striving to


reincarnate what

forms that would

it

comprehended

fitly

convey

it

of

life

to others

in

and

in this

endeavour each man of genius was neces-

sarily

compelled to create forms essentially his

own. But because Florentine painting was preeminently an


it

art

formed by great personalities,

grappled with problems of the highest

inter-


IMAGINATION' OF TOUCH
est,

and offered solutions that can never

their value.

What

they attained,

is

they aimed

at,

lose

and what

the subject of the following

essay.
II.

The

first

painting

entine
affords

of the great personalities in Flor-

was

Florentines exploited

Although

Giotto.

no exception to the

he

rule that the great

the arts in the en-

all

deavour to express themselves, he, Giotto,

nowned

as architect

and sculptor, reputed as

wit and versifier,

differed

Tuscan successors

in

from most of his

having peculiar aptitude

for the essential in painting as

an

But before we can appreciate

we must come

to an

altogether diverse laws

we may

art.

his real value,

agreement

the art of figure-painting

figure-painting,

re-

as to

the craft has


is

what
its

the essential

in

own
for

say at once, was not

only the one pre-occupation

of

Giotto,

but

the dominant interest of the entire Florentine


school.

Psychology has ascertained that sight alone


gives us

no accurate sense

of the third dimension.

IMAGINATION OF TOUCH

In our infancy, long before

we

are conscious of

the process, the sense of touch, helped on by

muscular sensations of movement, teaches us


to appreciate depth, the third dimension, both
in objects

and

in space.

In the same unconscious years

make

we

learn to

of touch, of the third dimension, the test

of reality.

The

child

is still

dimly aware of the

intimate connection between touch and the

He

third dimension.

cannot persuade himself

of the unreality of Looking-Glass

Land

Later,

we

although

it

has touched the back of the mirror.


entirely

the

forget

connection,

until he

remains true, that every time our eyes recog-

we

nise reality,

are, as a

matter of

fact,

giving

tactile values to retinal impressions.

Now,

painting

is

an art which aims

an abiding impression of
only two dimensions.
fore,

The

artistic

reality

all

do uncon-

construct his third dimension.

he can accomplish
plish ours,

his task only as

by giving

impressions.

His

rouse the tactile

first

with

painter must, there-

do consciously what we

sciously,

at giving

tactile

And

we accom-

values to retinal

business, therefore,

sense, for I

is

to

must have the

GIOTTO
illusion of

have the
inside

being able to touch a

illusion of

my

must

figure, I

varying muscular sensations

palm and

fingers corresponding to

the various projections of this figure, before


shall take

me

for granted as real,

it

and

let it affect

lastingly.

It

follows that the essential in the art of

painting
ouring,

as distinguished

from the

beg the reader to observe

art of col-

is

somehow

to stimulate our consciousness of tactile values,


so that the picture shall have at least as

power
our

tactile imagination.

Well,

it

was

of the

tactile consciousness

ventured to

call

it,

power

in the art of painting

lasting claim to greatness,

make him

to stimulate the

of the essential, as

Giotto was supreme master.

will

much

as the object represented, to appeal to

This

and

it is

is

have

that

his ever-

this

which

a source of highest aesthetic de-

light for a period at least as long as decipherable

traces of his

handiwork remain on mouldering

panel or crumbling wall.

For great though he

was as a poet, enthralling as a

story-teller, splen-

did and majestic as a composer, he was in these


qualities superior in degree only, to

many

of

GIOTTO

who

the masters

painted in various parts of Eu-

rope during the thousand years that intervened

between the decline of antique, and the


in his

own

person, of

modern

birth,

But

painting.

none of these masters had the power to stimulate the tactile imagination, and, consequently,

they never painted a figure which has


Their works have value,

existence.

if

artistic

at

all,

as

highly elaborate, very intelligible symbols, capable, indeed, of

losing
is

all

communicating something, but

higher value the

moment

the message

delivered.

Giotto's paintings, on the contrary, have not

only as

much power

imagination as
represented

of appealing to the tactile

by the

possessed

is

human figures

objects

in particular

but

actually more, with the necessary result that


to his contemporaries they

conveyed a keener

sense of reality, of life-likeness than the objects

themselves

anatomy
tion
in

is

We

whose current knowledge of

who expect more articulain the human figure, who,


much less naively now than

greater,

and suppleness

short,

see

Giotto's

contemporaries,

paintings

more than

no longer

find

his

but we

still

feel

life-like

ANAL YSIS OF FN/0 YMENT OF PAINTING


them

to be intensely real in the sense

they

still

powerfully

appeal

our

to

that

tactile

imagination, thereby compelling us, as do

all

things that stimulate our sense of touch while

they present themselves to our eyes, to take

when we can take


pleasure that

is

it

genuinely

from the interest we

only

is

can begin to give us


artistic, as

feel in

separated

symbols.

the risk of seeming to wander off into the

boundless domain of
at this point for a

are of

aesthetics,

moment

to

we must stop

make

sure that

we

one mind regarding the meaning of the

phrase "
it is

it

for granted the existence of

the object painted that

At

And

existence for granted.

their

artistic pleasure,"

used

What

in

is

in so far at least as

connection with painting.

the point at which ordinary pleasures

pass over into the specific pleasures derived

Our judgment
any given work of art

from each one of the arts?


about the merits of

depends to a large extent upon our answer to


this question.

Those who have not yet

entiated the specific pleasures of the

differ-

art

of

painting from the pleasures they derive from

the art of literature, will be likely to

fall

into

ANAL YSIS OF ENJO YMEN T OF PA IN TING

the error of judging the picture by


presentation of a situation or
character
that

demand

will, in short,

be

the

in

first

dramatic

rendering of

of the painting

place a

Those others who seek

tion.
is

shall

it

its

its

good

illustra-

painting what

in

usually sought in music, the communication

of a pleasurable state of emotion, will prefer

which suggest pleasant associations,

pictures
nice

people,

landscapes.
is

amusements,

refined

In

many

agreeable

cases this lack of clearness

of comparatively slight importance, the given

containing

picture

elements

these

all

in addition

pleasure-giving

to the qualities peculiar

But

in

the case of the

Florentines, the distinction

is

of vital conse-

to the art of painting.

quence, for they have been the artists in Europe

who have most

resolutely

set

themselves to

work upon the

specific

figure-painting,

and have neglected, more than

any other school, to

problems of the

call to their aid

ary pleasures of association.


issue

is

merit,

clear.

we

If

we wish

art of

the second-

With them the

to appreciate their

are forced to disregard the desire for

pretty or agreeable types, dramatically inter-

preted

situations,

and,

in

fact,

" suggestive-

ANAL YSIS OF ENJO YMENT OF PAINTING


ness " of any kind.

Worse

still,

we must even

forego our pleasure in colour, often a genuinely

they never systematically

artistic pleasure, for

exploited this element, and in

works the colour


ant.

It

was

is

in fact

some

of their best

actually harsh and unpleas-

upon fqrm^and form

alone,

that the great Florentine masfers concentrated

and we are consequently forced to

their efforts,

the belief that, in their pictures at least, form

is

the principal source of our aesthetic enjoyment.

Now
ing give

in

what way, we

me

ask, can

How

is it

given

becomes, when recognised


aesthetic

pleasurable
pleasure the

The

answer,

moment
I

that

source

recognition

becomes an enhanced

nature

in

whose recog-

me no pleasure,

in a picture, a

enjoyment, or

from

receive

that an object

may have

nition in nature

of

in paint-

a sensation of pleasure which differs

from the ordinary sensations


form

form

it

believe,

is

transferred to art?

depends upon the

that art stimulates to an

unwonted

fact

activity

psychical processes which are in themselves the

source of most

(if

and which here,

free

not

all)

of

our pleasures,

from disturbing physical

sensations, never tend to pass over into pain.

ANAL YSIS OF ENJO YMEN T OF PA IN TING

For instance

am

in the habit of realising a

given object with an intensity that


value as

suddenly

If I

2.

we

shall

realise this familiar

object with an intensity of

receive the

4,

immediate pleasure which accompanies a doubling of

my

mental

activity.

But the pleasure

Those who are capable

rarely stops here.

receiving direct pleasure from a


are generally led

work

of

of art,

on to the further pleasures of

The

self-consciousness.

fact that the psychical

process of recognition goes forward with the

unusual intensity of 4 to

2,

overwhelms them

with the sense of having twice the capacity

they had credited themselves with


personality
this

is

is

this

is

it

whole

connected with the object

they for some time after

only an increased interest


realise

their

enhanced, and, being aware that

enhancement

in question,

in

it,

with the new intensity.

what form does

Ivigher coefficient

of

in

tajce

not

but continue to
Precisely

painting:

reality to

it

the

lend s
object

represented, with the consequent enjoyment


of

accelerated

exhilarating

the observer.

psychical

sense

of

processes,

increased

and

capacity

the
in

(Hence, by the way, the greater

ANAL YSIS OF ENJO YMENT OF rA IN TING


we take

pleasure

painted than

in

We remember that

to

in the object

itself.)

And

it

happens thus.

form we must give

realise

able

tactile values to reti-

Ordinarily

nal sensations.
difficulty

in

skimming

we have

consider-

these tactile

off

and by the time they have reached

values,

much of their
who gives us

our consciousness, they have lost


Obviously, the

strength.

artist

these values more rapidly than the object

itself

gives them, gives us the pleasures consequent

upon a more

vivid

realisation

of the object,

and the further pleasures that come from the


sense of greater psychical capacity.

Furthermore, the stimulation of our

tactile

imagination awakens our consciousness of the

importance of the

tactile sense in

our physical

and mental functioning, and thus, again, by

making us

we

feel

better provided for

life

were aware of being, gives us a

ened sense of capacity.

And

than

height-

this brings us

back

once more to the statement that the chief business of

the figure painter, as an

artist,

is

to

stim ulate the tact ile imagination.

The

proportions of this small book forbid

me

ANAL YSIS OF ENJO YMENT OF PAINTING

to develop further a theme, the adequate treat-

ment

of

which would require more than the

my command.

entire space at

word

only, that

myself

do not mean

further

this

to imply that

get no pleasure from a picture except the

On

tactile satisfaction.

much

and perhaps more

to say nothing of

still

What

satisfies

our

from movement,

all

work

do wish to say

tactile

reality

and then

its

and

tions,

first

we

power

its

"

is

is

the

that unless

shall

an ever-height-

exhaust

its ideas,

of appealing to our

beauty

significant at the

of art

imagination, a picture

will not exert the fascination of

ened

get

more from

the possible associative

pleasures for which every


occasion.

we

the contrary,

pleasure from composition,

colour,

it

satis-

with the crude and unillumined exposition

fied

given already, allowing

we

must be

emo-

not seem more

" will

thousandth look than at the

first.

My
I

need of dwelling upon

must

this

this subject at

all,

repeat, arises from the fact that although

principle

is

indeed

all-important in

schools,

it

school.

Without

is

important

its

in

other

the Florentine

due appreciation

it

would

AND VALUES OF TOUCH

GIOTTO

be impossible to do justice to Florentine painting.

We

should lose ourselves in admiration

of its " teaching," or perchance of its historical

importance

as

if

synonymous with

artistic

we should never

realise

haunted the minds of


understand

why

importance were

historical

its

significance

what

but

artistic

idea

great men, and never

at a date so

early

became

it

academic.

Let us now turn back to Giotto and see

in

what way he

fulfils

ing as an

art,

which condition,

somehow

to stimulate our tactile imagination.

We

shall

the

first

condition of paintas

we

agreed,

understand this without difficulty

we cover with

is

if

the same glance two pictures of

same subject

that hang side by side


Academy, one by " Cimabue,"
and the other by Giotto. The difference is

nearly the
in

the Florence

striking,

but

does not consist so

it

difference of pattern
tion. In the "

and types, as

Cimabue

"

much

in

of realisa-

we patiently decipher
we conclude at last

the lines and colours, and

that they were intended to represent a


seated,

To

men and

recognise

angels standing

these

woman

by or kneeling.

representations

we have

GIOTTO AND VALUES OF TOUCH

14

had to make many times the


actual objects

that the

effort

would have required, and

in con-

sequence our feeling of capacity has not only


not been confirmed, but actually put in ques-

With what sense


we turn to

tion.

of relief, of rapidly

ing vitality,

scarcely have
realise
a

real

upon

Our

had time to

completely

it

the Giotto
light

the

space, the Virgin

it,

on

it

throne occupying

satisfactorily seated

the angels grouped in rows about

tactile

imagination

ris-

Our eyes
before we

is

it.

put to play imme-

Our palms and fingers accompany our


much more quickly than in presence of

diately.

eyes

real objects, the sensations

varying constantly

with the various projections represented, as of


face, torso,

knees; confirming in every

way our

feeling of capacity for coping with things,


life,

in short.

endowed with the

care

little

gift of

for

the picture

that

evoking such feelings

has faults, that the types represented do not

correspond to

my

ideal of

figures are too massive,

lated

better to

forgive

them

all,

beauty, that the

and almost unarticubecause

do than to dwell upon

have much

faults.

But how does Giotto accomplish

this mira-

AND VALUES OF TOUCH

GIOTTO
cle

With the simplest means, with almost

rudimentary
line,

and shade, and functional

light

he contrives'to render, out of

ble outlines, out of


of light

when we

we must

his compositions.

He

schemes

types, that

This de-

it.

of colour,

is

larger-boned,

to say,

which

his

scheme

his

that his contrasts

sti mulus

Obliged to get the

rudimentary

utmost out of

and

in actual

would furnish the most pow erful

to the tactile imagination.

he makes

even

aims at types which both

and figure are simple,

massive,
life

isolate for special atten-

are actually realising

termines his types, his

in face

the possi-

all

the possible variations

all

and shade that a given figure may have,

only those that


tion

light

and shade,

of colour of the lightest

may be

of the strongest.

In

his compositions, he aims at cle arness of gro up-

may have its


desired tacttTe value. Note in the" Madonna "we
have been looking at, how the shadows compel
ing, so that eachjmrjcrtan.gure

us to realise every concavity, and

the lights

every convexity, and how, with the play of the


two, under the guidance of line,
significant parts of each figure,

or undraped.

we

realise the

whether draped

Nothing here but has

its archi-

GIOTTO

AND VALUES OF TOUCH

functional; that
pose.

Above

reason.

tectonic

every_ line

all,

Its existence, its direction, is absolutely

determined by the need of rendering the

Follow any

values.

tactile

line here, say in the figure

of the angel kneeling to the


it

pur-

to say, chargol_with

is

is

outlines and models,

how

left,
it

and see how

enables you to

realise the head, the torso, the hips, the legs,

the

feet,

and how

its

direction, its tension,

always determined by the action.

There

is

is

not

a genuine fragment of Giotto in existence but

has these qualities, and to such a degree that


the worst treatment has not been able to spoil

them.

Witness the resurrected

Santa Croce at Florence

The rendering

frescoes

in

of tactile values

once recog-

nised as the most important specifically artistic

quality of Giotto's work, and as his personal

contribution to the art of painting,

we

are

all

the better fitted to appreciate his more obvious

though

less peculiar merits

merits,

must

add, which would seem far less extraordinary


if it

were not for the

which Giotto keeps

hireh

us.

nlan^-ef-Teality on

Now

what

is

back of

this power of raising us to a higher plane of

7
;

SYMBOLISM OF GIOTTO
reality

but a genius for grasping and communi-

What

cating real significance?

communi-

the tactile value? of an object but to


cate

its

after

material significance?

generations

symbols,

of

to render'

is it

painter who,

mere manufacturers
and

illustrations,

allegories

power to render the material

of

had the

significance of the

objects he painted, must, as a man, have had a

No

profoun d sense of the significant.


then,

what

his

theme, Giotto

cance and communicates as


general limitations of his

When

permit.

art,

the theme

feels its real signifj-

much
and

is

of

gravity,

it

of his

as the

own

sacred story,

scarcely necessary to point out with


cessional

matter,

with what

skill
it

is

what pro-

hieratic_-xlignity,

with what sacramental intentness he endows

it

the eloquence of the greatest critics has here

found a darling subject.

ment

at certain of his

But

let

symbols

in

us look a

mo-

the Arena at

Padua,at the "Inconstancy," the"Injustice" the


"Avarice," for instance.

"

What

are the signifi-

cant traits," he seems to have asked himself,


"in the appearance

and action

of a person under

the exclusive domination of one of these vices?

Let

me

paint the person with these

traits,

and

SYMBOLISM OF GIOTTO

have a figure that perforce must

shall

the vice in question."

stancy

"

woman

as a

with a blank

arms held out aimlessly, her torso

call

her

face,

falling back-

wards, her feet on the side of a wheel.

makes one giddy


is

man

in

It

" Injustice,"

to look at her.

a powerfully built

up

" Incon-

So he paints

the vigour of his

years dressed in the costume of a judge, with


his left

and

his

hooked

hand clenching the

clawed right hand grasping a double

His cruel eye

lance.

watch, and his attitude


to spring in

He
tall

sits

farer.

are

is

one of

his giant force

sternly on the
alert readiness

upon

and below him

trees,

stripping

"Avarice"

trumpets.
curls

all

is

his prey.

enthroned on a rock, overtowering the

waving

lings

of his sword,

hilt

is

his under-

and murdering

way-

a horned hag with ears like

snake issuing from her mouth

back and bites her forehead.

hand clutches her money-bag,

Her left
moves

as she

forward stealthily, her right hand ready to shut

down on whatever
label

them

it

can grasp.

No

need to

as long as these vices exist, for so

long has Giotto extracted and presented their


visible significance.

GIOTTO
Still

19

another exemplification of his sense-far^

the significan t

is

furnished by his treatment .of

action and

movement. The grouping, the

ures never

fail

ly

to be just such as will

convey the meaning.

line,

most

So with the

lookjap_._or^ down,

and the

rapid-

significant

the significant light and shade, the

cant

gest-

signifi-

significant

ge sture with means technically of the simplest,


,

and, be

it

remembered, with no knowledge of

anatomy, Giotto conveys a com plete sense of

motion such

as

we

get

in his

Paduan

frescoes

of the ''Resurrection of the Blessed," of the

"Ascension of our Lord," of the God the Father


the " Baptism," or the angel in " Zacharias'

in

Dream."
This, then,

is

Giotto's claim to everlasting

appreciation as an artist

that his thorough-

going sense for the significant in the visible

w orld
we

e nabled him. so to represent things that

realise

his

representations

more quickly

and more completely than we should

realise

the things themselves, thus giving us that confirmation of our sense of capacity which

great a source of pleasure.

is

so

FOLLOWERS OF GIOTTO

20

III.

For a hundred
appeared

years

Giotto

after

there

Florence no painter equally en-

in

dowed with dominion over the

significant.

immediate followers so

understood the

little

essence of his power that

some thought

His

it

re-

sided in his massive types, others in the swiftness of his

and

colour,

line,
it

and

still

others in his light

never occurred to any of them

that the massive form without


nificance, its tactile values,

that the line which

is

its

material sig-

a shapeless sack,

not functional

is

caligraphy, and that light colour

by

mere

is

itself

can at

The better of
but knew no remedy,

the best spot a surface prettily.

them
and

felt their inferiority,

worked

all

busily,

copying and distorting

Giotto, until they and the public were heartily


tired.

and

it

change at

all

grope about for the


vious

became necessary,

costs

was very simple when

is

at

hand

it

significant,

Let

me

came.

"

Why

when the

ob-

paint the obvious

the obvious always pleases," said some clever


innovator.

So he painted the obvious,

clothes, pretty faces,

and

trivial action,

pretty
with the

FOLLOWERS OF GIOTTO
results foreseen

Crowds

still.

in S.

21

he pleased then, and he pleases

flock to the Spanish chapel

still

Maria Novella to celebrate the triumph of

the obvious, and non-significant.

Pretty faces,

pretty colour, pretty clothes, and trivial action!


Is there a single figure in the fresco representing

the "

Triumph

the idea

it

of St.

Thomas " which

symbolises, which, without

whatever?

One

pretty

am

its label-

convey any meaning

instrument, would

ling

incarnates

woman

holds a globe

and sword, and

ty of empire

another has painted over her

required to feel the majes-

pretty clothes a

bow and

posed to rouse

me

war

must

to a sense of the terrors of

a third has an organ

to be her knee,
suffice

still

her arm akimbo, and


edification she

on what was intended

and the sight of

to put

heavenly music

arrow, which are sup-

me

this instrument

into the ecstasies of

another pretty lady has


if

you want

to

know what

can bring, you must read her

Below these pretty women sit a number


men looking as worthy as clothes and beards
can make them one highly dignified old gen-

scroll.

of

tleman gazes with


at

the

all his

point of his

heart and

quill.

all

The same

his soul

lack of

ORCAGNA

22
significance, the

same obviousness

the fresco representing the "

for the

Church than a church

philosopher

what more

sig-

Dominic than the refuted Paynim

who

as obvious as
his

Church Militant

What more obvious symbol

and Triumphant."

nificant of St.

characterise

it

(with a movement,
is

And

own book ?

by the way,

clever) tears out a leaf from


I

have touched only on

Not

the value of these frescoes as allegories.

to speak of the emptiness of the one and the

confusion of the other, as compositions, there

not a figure in either which has tactile values,


that

is

is

to say, artistic existence.

While

do not mean to imply that painting

between Giotto and Masaccio existed

in vain

on the contrary, considerable progress was made


in the direction of landscape, perspective,
facial expression,

it is

and

true that, excepting the

works of two men, no masterpieces of

art

were

These two, one coming

in

the

produced.

middle of the period we have been dwelling


upon, and the other just at

its

close,

were

Andrea Orcagna and Fra Angelico.


Of Orcagna

it

is

difficult to speak, as

only a

single fairly intact painting of his remains, the

FRA A NGELICO

as

material
exist.

in

Here he

Maria Novella.

altar-piece in S.

veals himself as a

ment

23

man

of considerable

we have

Giotto,

significance

But while

tactile

re-

endowvalues,

the figures artistically

this painting betrays

no pe-

culiar feeling for

beauty of face and expression,

the frescoes

the same chapel, the one in

in

particular representing Paradise, have faces full


of

charm and

that

grace.

we have here

by the recent

am tempted

to believe

happy improvement made

restorer.

But what these mural

paintings must always have had

is

real artistic

existence, great dignity of slow but rhythmic

movement, and splendid grouping.


convince us of their high purpose.
other hand,

we

They

still

On

the

are disappointed in Orcagna's

sculptured tabernacle at

Or Sammichele, where

the feeling for both material and spiritual


nificance

We

is

much

sig-

lower.

are happily far better situated toward

Fra Angelico, enough of whose works have

come down

to us to reveal not only his quality

as an artist, but his character as a


fect certainty of purpose, utter

man.

Per-

devotion to his

task, a sacramental earnestness in

performing

FRA AXCELICO

24
it,

what the quantity and quality of

are

work together proclaim.


to's

profound feeling

It is true

is

difference

that Giot-

for either the materially

or the spiritually significant

and there

was denied him

no possible compensation

it

yet extended to fields which

Giotto had not touched.

Like

the supreme

all

Giotto had no inclination to concern

artists,

himself with his attitude toward the


cant, with his feelings about

and presentation of
weaker personality,
ceived,

is

him.

the. significant,

realised.

Over

this
first

signifi-

the grasping

In the

vaguely per-

converted into emotion,

and not

God

it

sufficed

it

ing Fra Angelico was the


"

for the

but although his sense for the real

was weaker,

felt,

his

is

merely

realm of

feel-

great master.

in

his

heaven

world " he

felt

with an intensity which pre-

's

vented him

When

all 's

from perceiving

right with

evil

he was obliged to portray

it,

the

anywhere.
his imagi-

nation failed him and he became a mere child


his hells are bogy-land

his

martyrdoms

are

enacted by children solemnly playing at martyr

and executioner

and he nearly

spoils

one of

the most impressive scenes ever painted

the

FRA ANGELICO.
great

" Crucifixion " at

2$

San Marco

with

upon the picturing of

blitheness, of ecstatic con-

fidence in God's loving care, he lavished

resources of his
a

power

art.

Nor were they

all

small.

the

To

of rendering tactile values, to a sense

for the significant in composition, inferior,

but superior to the

true, to Giotto's,

tions of

the

But

childish violence of St. Jerome's tears.

any intervening

it is

qualifica-

painter, Fra Angelico

added the charm of great

facial

beauty, the

interest of vivid expression, the attraction of

delicate colour.

What in

the whole world of art

more rejuvenating than Angelico's


tion " (in the Unizi)

the

happiness on

faces, the flower-like grace of line

And

all

scene, although in a world

are standing, sitting, and

and care not, on what.

real

kneeling

people

we know

It is true,
is

the

sig-

scarcely

how well Angelico com-

municates the feeling with which

him

beauty of

reality of the

where

nificance of the event represented

touched upon, but then

the

this in tactile values

which compel us to grant the

iiot,

all

and colour, the

childlike simplicity yet unqualifiable

the composition

" Corona-

Yet simple though he was

it

inspired

as a person,

FRA ANGELICO

26

simple and one-sided as was his message, as a

He was

product he was singularly complex.


the

typical

painter of

the

The

Mediaeval to Renaissance.
feeling are in the

We

sources of his

almost modern

is

and almost modern also are


pression.

his

means

we count

against

him with

him every awk-

wardness of action, and every lack of


tion in his figures.
articulation he

precursors

of ex-

are too apt to forget this transi-

tional character of his, and, ranking

the moderns,

from

Middle Ages, but he enjoys

way which

his feelings in a

transition

Yet both

made

articula-

in action

great progress

and

upon

in

his

so great that, but for Masaccio, who

completely surpassed him, we should value him


as an innovator.

the

first

be identified

(a

view of Lake Trasimene from

Cortona), but the


of

we

Moreover, he was not only

Italian to paint a landscape that can

first

to

communicate a sense

the pleasantness of nature.


feel

the freshness and

How

of his gardens in the frescoes of the "


ciation "

Marco

and the " Noli

readily

spring-time gaiety

me

Annun-

tangere " at San

MASACCIO

27

IV.
Giotto born again, starting where death had
cut short his advance, instantly

making

his

own

that had been gained during his absence,

all

and profiting by the new conditions, the new

demands

imagine such an avatar, and you

will

understand Masaccio.
Giotto

new

we know

already, but

aeval skies

what were the

The mediasunder and a new

new demands

conditions, the

had been torn

heaven and a new earth had appeared, which


the abler

were already inhabiting and

spirits

enjoying.

Here new

prevailed.

The

interests

and new values

thing of sovereign price was

the power to subdue and to create


ereign interest

all

that helped

man

of sov-

to

know

the world he was living in and his power over


it.

To

the artist the change offered a

the freest activity.


reveal to an age

It is

always his business to

its ideals.

But what room was

there for sculpture and painting,


first

rial

purpose

it is

to

make

significance of things

field of

arts

whose

us realise the mate-

in a period

like the

Middle Ages, when the human body was de-

MASACCIO

2$
nied

all intrinsic

significance?

In such an age

the figure artist can thrive, as Giotto did, only


in spite of

it,

and as an isolated phenomenon.

In the Renaissance, on the contrary, the figure


artist

had a demand made on him such

not been

made

since the great

as

had

Greek days, to

reveal to a generation believing in man's

power

subdue and to possess the world, the physi-

to

cal types best fitted for the task.

demand was imperative and


but a hundred Italian
in his

own way

to

And

as this

constant, not one,

artists arose, able

meet

it,

each

in their combined

achievement, rivalling the art of the Greeks.


In sculpture

body
his

to the

brief

Donatello

new

career,

ideals

and

had already given

when Masaccio began


in

the education, the

awakening, of the younger


of the elder
force.

But a type gains vastly

by being presented
other individuals of

Donatello was

meed

artist

must have been

in significance

some action along with


the same type and here

in

apt, rather

of profit, to incur loss

the obvious

the example

of incalculable

witness

than to draw his

by descending

to

his bas-reliefs at Siena,

Florence, and Padua. Masaccio was untouched

MASACCIO
by

Types,

this taint.

29

themselves of the

in

manliest, he presents with a sense for the materially significant

which makes us

realise

the utmost their power and dignity

thus gained he uses to

spiritual significance

give the highest import to the event he

traying;

to

and the

por-

is

import, in turn, gives a higher

this

we

value to the types, and thus, whether

de-

vote our attention to his types or to his action,

Masaccio keeps us on a high plane of reality

and

easily find

we

In later painting

significance.

shall

greater science, greater craft, and

greater perfection of detail, but greater reality,


greater significance,

venture to say, never.

Dust-bitten and ruined though his Brancacci

Chapel frescoes now

are, I

never see them with-

out the strongest stimulation of

figure, that

to

my

thus

it

much

realise

it

tactile

could touch every

would yield a

definite resistance

I feel

touch, that

that

should have to expend

effort to displace

walk around

my

consciousness.

it.

In

more, and

scarcely realise

it

short,
in

it,

real

that

life

could
could

scarcely

should

so well, the attention of each

of us being too apt to concentrate itself

upon


MASACCIO

3<D

some dynamic
begun to

quality, before

at

all

realise the full material significance of

Then what strength

to

young men, and what gravity and power

to

the person before us.


his

we have

his old

possess

How

quickly a race like this would

itself of

the earth, and brook no rivals

but the forces of nature


simply because

Whatever they do

they

is

it

is

impressive and

important, and every movement, every gesture,


is

Compared with

world-changing.

same chapel by

those in the

his figures,

his

precursor,

Masolino, are childish, and those by his

fol-

lower, Filippino, unconvincing and without significance, because

without

tactile values.

Even

Michelangelo, where he comes in rivalry, has,


for

both reality and significance, to take a

ond

Compare

place.

his

"

Expulsion

sec-

from

Paradise " (in the Sixtine Chapel) with the one

here by Masaccio.

more

correct,

powerful
a

but

Michelangelo's figures are


far

less

tangible

man warding

off a

less

blow dealt from a sword,

and a woman cringing with ignoble


saccio's

and

and while he represents nothing but

Adam

and Eve

heart-broken with

stride

fear,

Ma-

away from Eden

shame and

grief, hearing,

MASACCIO
perhaps, but

31

not seeing, the angel hovering

high overhead

who

directs their

exiled foot-

steps.

Masaccio, then, like Giotto a century

himself

the Giotto

propitious world

an

of

was,

as

earlier,

more

artistically

an

a great

artist,

master of the significant, and, as a painter, en-

dowed

to the highest degree with a sense of

tactile

values,

them.

In a career of but few years he gave to

and with a

skill

Florentine painting the direction


the end.

young

In

in

it

rendering

pursued to

many ways he reminds us of the


Who knows? Had he but

Bellini.

lived as long,

he might have

laid the

tion for a painting not less delightful

more profound than that


his frescoes at

of Venice.

founda-

and

As

it

far

was,

once became, and for as long as

there were real artists

among them remained,

the training-school of Florentine painters.

Masaccio's death
the hands of three

left

Florentine painting in

men older, and two somewhat


all men of great talent, if

younger than himself,


not of genius, each of

whom the

former to the

PAOLO UCCELLO

32

extent habits already formed would permit, the


latter

overwhelmingly,

older,

who, but

felt

his influence.

for Masaccio,

The

would themselves

have been the sole determining personalities


their art,

Andrea

were Fra Angelico, Paolo Uccello, and

del Castagno

men who

a whole

for

Domenico

the younger,

Veneziano and Fra Filippo.


the

in

As

these were

generation

after

Masaccio's death remained at the head of their


craft,

forming the taste of the public, and com-

municating their habits and aspirations to their


pupils,

we

at this point can scarcely

do better

than try to get some notion of each of them and


of the general art tendencies they represented.

Fra Angelico we know already as the painter

who devoted

his life to picturing the departing

mediaeval vision of a heaven upon earth. Nothing could have been farther from the purpose of

Uccello and Castagno.

Different as these

were from each other, they have

common,

that in their

us, dating,
ity,

there

it is

is

true,

no touch

note of transition.
tirely to the

new

much

in

works which remain to

from their years of maturof mediaeval sentiment,

As

era,

this

two

artists

no

they belonged en-

and they stand

at the be-

PAOLO UCCELLO

3:

ginning of the Renaissance as types of two


tendencies which were to prevail in Florence

throughout the whole of the fifteenth century,


partly supplementing and partly undoing the

teaching of Masaccio.

Uccello had a sense of tactile values and a


feeling for colour, but in so far as he used these
gifts at all,

lems.

His

it

was to

illustrate scientific prob-

real passion

was perspective, and

painting was to him a mere occasion for solving

some problem

in this science,

and displaying his

mastery over

its

difficulties.

Accordingly he

composed
as

pictures in

many lines as

Prostrate

which he contrived to get

possible leading the eye inward.

horses,

dead

broken lances, ploughed

or
fields,

dying

Noah's

cavaliers,

arks, are

used by him with scarcely an attempt at


guise, to serve his

colour

scheme of mathematically

In his zeal he forgo t local ^


he loved to paint his horses green or

converging

pink

lines.

forgot action, forgot composition, and,

need scarcely be added, significance.


his battle-pieces, instead of

any

dis-

sort,

we

adequate

Thus

in

action of

get the feeling of witnessing a

of stuffed figures

it

show

whose mechanical movements

J)
<

^u

d*****,

^'Vi^

{A
J a S~

"

'
<


PAOLO UCCELLO

34

have been suddenly arrested by some clog


their wires

in his fresco of the "

in

Deluge," he

has so covered his space with demonstrations


of his cleverness in perspective

and foreshorten-

home

ing that, far from bringing

to us the ter-

he at the utmost suggests

rors of a cataclysm,

the bursting of a mill-dam

and

in the neigh-

bouring fresco of the " Sacrifice of Noah," just


as

some

capitally constructed figures are

to enable us to realise the scene,


of artistic pleasure

an object in the

we

air

decipher as a

is

figure,

human

some

difficulty,

being plunging downInstead of making this

which, by the way,

is

meant

to represent

the Father, plunge toward us, Uccello de-

liberately preferred to

away from
in

about

possibility

destroyed by our seeing

which, after

ward from the clouds.

God

all

us,

make

it

dash inward,

thereby displaying his great

skill

both perspective and foreshortening, but at

the same time writing himself

down

as the

founder of two families of painters which have


flourished ever since, the artists for dexterity's

sake

mental

and the

or manual,

naturalists.

As

it

scarcely matters

these two clans in-

creased rapidly in Florence, and, for both good

ART FOR DEXTERITY'S SAKE


and

evil,

greatly affected the whole subsequent

course of Florentine painting,

going

35

briefly

farther,

we must,

define

before

ourselves

to

dexterity and naturalism, and their relation to


art.

The

essential in painting, especially in figure-

painting,

we

is,

agreed, the rendering of the

tactile values of the

by

this

means, and

forms represented, because

this alone,

us realise forms better than


great painter, then,

is,

we do

above

all,

in life.

an

Now

will increase as the


is

man

this
is

with

artist

a great sense of tactile values and great

rendering them.

make
The

can the art

sense,

skill in

though

it

revealed to himself,

something which the great painter possesses

at the start, so that

of possessing

to the

means

it.

he

is

scarcely,

His conscious

of rendering.

if

at

all,

effort

It is of

is

aware
given

means

of

rendering, therefore, that he talks to others

and, because his triumphs here are hard-earned

and conscious,

it is

he prides himself.
less likely

art

he

is

on

his skill in rendering that

The

greater the painter, the

to be aware of aught else in his

than problems of rendering

while he

is

but

all

the

communicating what the force of

ART FOR DEXTERITY'S SAKE

7,6

his genius
for

makes him

without his striving

almost without his being aware of

it,

material and

However
skill

skill
;

significance

spiritual

his

thing but

but

feel

intimates hear
;

talk of no-

he seems to think of nothing

and naturally they, and the entire

public, conclude that his skill

that skill

him

the

it,

forms.

of

is

and

his genius,

is

This, alas, has at

art.

times

all

been the too prevalent notion of what

art

is,

divergence of opinion existing not on the principle,

but on the kind of dexterity to be prized,

each generation, each

critic,

having an

indi-

vidual standard, based always on the several


peculiar problems and difficulties that interest

them.

At Florence

these inverted

notions

about art were especially prevalent because

was a school of

art with a score of

and a thousand mediocrities

all

egging each

other on to exhibitions of dexterity, and


their hot rivalry

it

was

all

it

men of genius
in

the great geniuses

could do to be faithful to their sense of

signifi-

Even Masaccio was driven to exhibit


mere skill, the much admired and by itself

cance.
his

wonderfully

realised

figure of a

trembling with cold being

not

naked

man

only without

ART FOR DEXTERITY'S SAKE


but positively distracting,

real significance,

the representation of a baptism.

man

like

he

of artistic significance

started with, in

weaker

may have

eagerness to display his

his

As

and knowledge.

work has now the

for the rabble, their

interest of prize exhibitions

at local art schools,

and their number merely

momentum

helped to accelerate the

Florentine art rushed to

But out of

end.

its

with which

even mere dexterity a certain benefit to

may come. Men


nificant may yet

without feeling for the

man who comes

and when

Botticelli

easier

and quicker

artistic patri-

increased in spite of the fact that since

Masaccio there had

been no man at

was due not

artistically

at all so

much

What

is

a Naturalist

ap-

to the sons of

much

even inferior race of

Uccello was the ancestor

all

This increase, how-

dexterity, as to the intellectually

but

for

and Leonardo and Michel-

proaching their genius.


ever,

sig-

with something to render,

angelo appeared, they found their

mony

art

perfect a thousand matters

which make rendering


the

in

Paolo Uccello almost entirely sacrificed

what sense

skill

$7

nobler,

whom

also

the Naturalists.
?

venture upon the

NATURALISM IN ART

38

following definition
for science
is

who

A man with a native

has taken to

gift

His purpose

art.

not to extract the material and spiritual

nificance of objects, thus

to us

more

rapidily

sig-

communicating them

and

we

intensely than

should perceive them ourselves, and thereby


giving us a sense of heightened vitality

purpose

is

research,

and

his

his

communication

consists of nothing but facts.

From

haps too abstract statement

us take refuge

in

let

an example already touched upon

of

the Almighty in

Noah."

Uccello's

this per-

the figure

" Sacrifice

of

Instead of presenting this figure as

coming toward us

in

expression that will

an attitude and with an


appeal to our sense of

man whose

solemnity, as a

as Giotto,
did
Uccello seems to have been

artistic

would have done

in his "

Baptism

"

was

chief interest
in fact,

possessed with nothing but the scientific intention to find out

how

man swooping down

head-foremost would have looked


instant of his

fall

may have

at a given

he had been suddenly con-

gealed and suspended in space.


this

if

A figure like

a mathematical but certainly has

no psychological

significance.

Uccello,

it

is

NATURALISM IN ART

39

phenom-

true, has studied every detail of this

down

enon and noted

his

observations, but

because his notes happen to be


colour, they

form and

do not therefore constitute a work

Wherein does

of art.

in

his

quality from a coloured

can easily conceive of a

achievement

differ in

map of a country ? We
relief map of Cadore or
and so elaborately

Giverny on so large a

scale,

coloured, that

be an exact reproduc-

it

will

tion of the physical aspects of those regions,

but never for a

moment

side a landscape

of

it

as a

Titian or

work

should

we

of art.

Yet

Monet painting

say,

who

be-

it

relation to the

its
is

exactly that of

Uccello's achievement to Giotto's.


scientist

place

by Titian or Monet, and think

paints

What

the naturalist, that

attempts to do

is

the

is

to

not to give us what art

alone can give us, the life-enhancing qualities


of objects, but a reproduction of
are.

If

them

as they

he succeeded, he would give us the ex-

act visual impression of the objects themselves,

but

art, as

we have

already agreed, must give

us not the mere reproductions of things but a

quickened sense of capacity for realising them.


Artistically, then, the naturalists, Uccello

and

ANDREA DEL CASTAGNO

40

numerous

his

Yet

successors, accomplished nothing.

their efforts to reproduce objects as they

are, their studies in

anatomy and

made

that

inevitable

it

genius did

arise,

perspective,

when another

great

he should be a Leonardo or a

Michelangelo, and not a Giotto.


Uccello, as

have

was the

said,

first

repre-

sentative of two strong tendencies in Florentine

painting

of

art

for dexterity's sake,

Andrea

for scientific purposes.

and

art

del Castagno,

while also unable to resist the fascination of

mere

and

science

artistic

dexterity, had too

genius to succumb to either.

endowed with great sense


although,

it

is

completely from the

peculiar to himself
cate at

pitfalls

and even

Florentines,

was

for the significant,

enough

true, not

much

He

less

to save

him

which beset

all

from one more

the tendency to communi-

any cost a feeling of power.

To make

us feel power as Masaccio and Michelangelo


at their best

is

indeed an achievement, but

do
it

requires the highest genius and theprofoundest

sense for the


sense
in

is

significant.

The moment

this

at all lacking, the artist will not succeed

conveying power, but such obvious manifes-

ANDREA DEL CASTAGNO


tations of

as

it

mere strength,

insolence not infrequently

Now

spirits.

enough
his

Castagno,

or,

worse

the

still,

accompanying high

who succeeds

well

one or two such single figures

in

Cumaean

or

Sibyl

Farinata

his

Uberti, which have great,

if

as

degli

not the greatest,

power, dignity, and even beauty, elsewhere condescends to

mere swagger,

Spano or Niccolo

di

as

Tolentino

in

his

Pipo

to

mere

or

strength, as in his " Last Supper," or, worse


still,

to actual brutality, as in his Santa Maria


" Crucifixion."

Nuova

Nevertheless, his few

remaining works lead us to suspect


greatest

artist,

sonality

among

and the most

him the

in

influential per-

the painters of the

first

genera-

tion after Masaccio.

VI.

To

distinguish

nearly five

clearly,

centuries,

after the

between

lapse

Uccello

of

and

Castagno, and to determine the precise share


each had
school,
ties.

makes

is

in

The
it

the formation of the Florentine

already a task fraught with

difficul-

scantiness of his remaining works

more than

difficult,

makes

it

almost im-

DOMENICO VENEZIANO

42

come

possible, to

conclusions

to accurate

garding the character and influence of

re-

their

somewhat younger contemporary, Domenico


That he

Veneziano.

was

an

innovator

technique, in affairs of vehicle and

know from Vasari but

as such innovations, in-

may become

dispensable though they

ing as a

craft, are

in

in

medium, we
to paint-

themselves questions of

theoretic and applied chemistry, and not of art,

they do not here concern

us.

His

achievements seem to have consisted


,<

movement and

to the figure

artistic

in giving

expression, and to

the face individuality. In his existing works


find

no trace

of sacrifice

naturalism, although

it

made
is

to dexterity

clear that

we

and

he must

have been master of whatever science and whatever craft were prevalent in his day. Otherwise

he would not have been able to render a figure


like

the St. Francis in his

where

tactile values

of character

gait

what

were perhaps

Unfizi

altar-piece,

and movement expressive

we

usually call individual

for the first

time combined

or to attain to such triumphs as his St. John

and

St. Francis, at

figures express as

Santa Croce, whose entire

much

fervour as their elo-


FRA FILIPPO LIPPI
quent
in

As

faces.

43

to his sense for the significant

the individual, in other words, his power as

a portrait-painter,

we have

in the Pitti

two heads to witness, perhaps, the


achievements

No
in

such

great

first

kind of the Renaissance.

in this

difficulties as

we have encountered

the study of Uccello, Castagno, and Venezi-

ano meet us

works are

still

as

we

facility for

turn to Fra Filippo.

His

many

are

copious, and

admirably preserved

is

one or

we

of

them

therefore have every

judging him as an

artist,

yet nothing

harder than to appreciate him at his due.

If

attractiveness,

and attractiveness of the best

kind, sufficed

to

make

great

artist,

then

Filippo would be one of the greatest, greater

perhaps

than

any

Where

Leonardo.

other
shall

Florentine

we

find

winsome, more appealing, than

faces

before

more

in certain of his

Madonnas the one in the Ufifizi, for instance


more momentarily evocative of noble feeling
Where in
than in his Louvre altar-piece ?
Florentine painting is there anything more fascinating than the playfulness of his children,

more poetic than one or two

more charming than

is

at

of his landscapes,

times his colour?

FRA FILIPPO LIPPI

44

And

with

all this,

health, even robustness,

almost unfailing good-humour

and

Yet by them-

selves all these qualities constitute only a highclass illustrator,


I

and such by native endowment

That he

believe Fra Filippo to have been.

became more

very

much more is due

rather

to Masaccio's potent influence than to his

genius

for

own

he had no profound sense of either

material or spiritual significance

the essential

Working under

qualifications of the real artist.

the inspiration of Masaccio, he at times renders


tactile

admirably,

values

Madonna but most


genuine

feeling for

to render

as

billowy, calligraphic draperies.

than the

tactile values

later,

attempt

of bunchy,

These, acquired

Lorenzo Monaco) who had been

adopt

in his

Giottesque painter (probably

he seems to have prized as

to

his first master,

artistic

elements no

which he attempted

serenely unconscious, apparently,

of their incompatibility.

Filippo's

strongest

impulse was not toward the pre-eminently


tic

one of

sion,

Uffizi

frequently he betrays no

them, failing

them by the introduction

from the late

less

the

in

re-creation, but rather

and within that

field,

artis-

toward expres-

toward the expression

NATURALISM IN FLORENTINE ART

45

of the pleasant, genial, spiritually comfortable

His

feelings of ordinary

life.

the genre painters

only his genre was of the

soul, as that of others

example

own, scarcely

any

with

of Benozzo Gozzoli, for

was of the body.

naturalists,

real place is

Hence

less pernicious

a sin of his

than that of the

and cloying to boot

expression

at

cost.

VII.

From

the brief account just given of the four

dominant personalities

in

Florentine painting

from about 1430 to about 1460,

it

results that

the leanings of the school during this interval

were not

and

artistic

artistic alone,

but that

there were other tendencies as well, tendencies

on the

one

side,

emotion (scarcely
and colour than

if

toward the expression of

less literary

because

in words), and,

in

form

on the other,

toward the naturalistic reproduction of objects.

We

have also noted that while the former tend-

ency was represented


latter

by Filippo

had Paolo Uccello, and

all

alone, the

of

Castagno

and Veneziano that the genius of these two

men would permit them

to sacrifice to natural-

-N

NATURALISM IN FLORENTINE ART

46

ism and science.

To

the extent, however, that

they took sides and were conscious of a

dis-

tinct

purpose, these also sided with Uccello

and

not with Filippo.

therefore, that the

It

may be

agreed,

main current of Florentine

painting for a generation after Masaccio was

and that consequently the impact

naturalistic,

given to the younger painters

who

during this

period were starting, was mainly toward naturalLater, in studying Botticelli,

ism.

how

difficult

it

was

for

we

the time to escape this tide, even

perament

farthest

shall see

any one young

removed

if

from

at

by temscientific

interests.

Meanwhile we must continue our study


the naturalists, but

now

of

of the second genera-

Their number and importance from 1460

tion.

to 1490

is

not alone due to the fact that art

education toward the beginning of this epoch

was mainly

naturalistic,

but also to the real

needs of a rapidly advancing

more

craft,

and even

to the character of the Florentine mind,

the dominant turn of which was to science and

not to

art.*

But as there were then no profes-

sions scientific in the stricter sense of the word,

A LESS/0 BALDOVINETTI.
and

some form was the pursuit

of

art

as

47
of

a considerable proportion of the male inhabitants of Florence,

many

happened inevitably that

it

a lad with the natural capacities of a

Galileo

was

methods

boyhood apprenticed

in early

And

artist.

as an

he never acquired ordinary

as

of scientific expression,

and never had

time for occupations not bread-winning, he was


obliged his

life

long to

make

of his art both

the subject of his strong instinctive interest in


science,

and

the

vehicle

conveying

of

his

knowledge to others.
This was

among

literally

the

leaders

the case with the oldest


of

the

new

generation,

Alessio Baldovinetti, in whose scanty remaining works no trace of purely artistic feeling or
interest can be discerned

true of Alessio's

and

it

is

only less

somewhat younger, but

far

more gifted contemporaries, Antonio Pollaiuplo

we should
being more than men of

and Andrea Verrocchio.


scarcely suspect of
science,

rocchio

if

These

also

Pollaiuolo once or twice, and Ver-

more

frequently, did not dazzle us with

works of almost supreme

art,

which, but for our

readiness to believe in the manifold possibilities

POLLAIUOLO AND VERROCCHIO

48

of Florentine genius,

we should with exceeding

difficulty accept as their creation

so

little

they seem to result from their conscious


ing.

do

striv-

Alessio's attention being largely devoted

to problems of vehicle to the side of painting

which

is

time for

scarcely superior to cookery


little else,

he

had

although that spare time he

gave to the study of landscape,


ing of which he was

Andrea and Antonio

among

set

in

the render-

the innovators.

themselves the

much

worthier task of increasing on every side the


effectiveness of the figure arts, of which, sculpt-

ure no less than painting, they aimed

to

be

masters.

To

confine ourselves, however, as closely as

we may

to painting, and leaving aside for the

present the question of colour, which, as

already said,

in

is,

Florentine

art, of

have

entirely

subordinate importance, there were three directions in which painting as Pollaiuolo

rocchio found
it

could attain

landscape,

it

and Ver-

had greatly to advance before

its

maximum

of effectiveness:

movement, and the nude.

had attempted none of

The nude, of
movement he sug-

these.

course, he scarcely touched

Giotto

POLLAIUOLO AND VERROCCHIO


gested admirably, but never rendered

landscape he was

satisfied

49

and

in

with indications

hardly more than symbolical, although quite

adequate to his purpose, which was to confine

human figure. In all directions


Masaccio made immense progress, guided by

himself to the

his never failing sense for material significance,

which, as

it

led

him to render the

tactile values

him

of each figure separately, compelled

also

to render the tactile values of groups as wholes,

and of their landscape surroundings


ference, hills so

shaped as readily to stimulate

the tactile imagination.

For what he accom-

plished in the nude and in


his

by pre-

"Expulsion" and

with Cold " to witness.

movement, we have

"Man Trembling

his

But

in his

works neither

landscape nor movement, nor the nude, are as


yet distinct sources of artistic pleasure
to say, in themselves life-enhancing.

we can

well leave the

Michelangelo,

who was

nude
the

until

first

that

is

Although

we come

to

to completely

realise its distinctly artistic possibilities,

we

can-

not so well dispense with an enquiry into the


sources of our aesthetic pleasure in the representation of
4

movement and

of landscape, as

it


REPRESENTATION OF MOVEMENT

50

was

these two directions

in

in

movement by

Pollaiuolo especially, and in landscape

and Verrocchio

Pollaiuolo,

vinetti,

by Baldo-

that

the

great advances of this generation of Florentine


painters were made.

VIII.

Turning our attention


which, by the way,

mere change
it

we

just as

is

of place

movement

to

first

not the same as motion,

we find

that

we

realise

by the stimulation

realise objects,

of our tactile imagination, only that here touch


retires to a

second place before the muscular

and

feelings of varying pressure

an example) two

(to take

my

unless

men

strain.

see

wrestling, but

retinal impressions are

immediately

translated into images of strain and pressure


in

my

muscles, of resistance to

touch

me

all

over

body,

it

are

in

fact,

artistic

we

to

more,

Two

Although a wrestling
contain

many

elements, our enjoyment of

be quite

not

heard some one say "

wrestling."

match may,
artistic

if

weight, of

means nothing

terms of vivid experience

in

perhaps, than

men

my

my

it

genuinely

can never

are prevented from com-

REPRESENTATION OF MOVEMENT
pletely realising
interest in the

not only by our dramatic

it

game, but

granting the

also,

possibility of being devoid of dramatic interest,

by the succession

of

movements being too

rapid for us to realise each completely, and too


fatiguing,

even

if

Now

realisable.

if

way

could be found of conveying to us the realisation of

movement without

the fatigue

of

the

the confusion and

actuality,

themselves can give us

we should be

more than they

getting out of the wrestlers

the

heightening of

vitality

which comes to us whenever

realise

life,

such as the actuality

we keenly

itself

would

give us, plus the greater effectiveness of the

heightening brought about by the clearer,


tenser,

and

precisely

less fatiguing realisation.

what the

artist

as

succeeds

This

heightened sense of capacity, and whatever


in

is

in repre-

movement achieves making us realise


we never can actually, he gives us a

senting
it

who

in-

the actuality enjoyable, he

enjoy at our

leisure..

allows us

is

to

In words already familiar

to us, he extracts the significance of movements,


just as, in rendering tactile values, the artist

extracts the corporeal significance of objects.

REPRESENTATION OF MOVEMENT

52

His task

is,

however,

less indispensable

more

far

it

is

difficult,

although

not enough that he

should extract the values of what at any given

moment

is

what

no moment

at

He

an actuality, as

ment.

is

an object, but

is

namely move-

really

can accomplish his task

way, and that

in

only one

by so rendering the one

is

par-

movement that we shall be able to realise


movements that the same figure may
"
make.
He is grappling with his enemy now,"

ticular
all

other

say of

my

"

wrestler.

What

a pleasure to be

my own muscles, on my own


my own arms and legs, the life that

able to realise in
chest, with
is

in

him

What

he

as

is

making

a pleasure, as

his

supreme

sentation, to realise in the

same manner, how

after the contest his muscles will


rest

trickle like

his nerves

by the

"

artist

a refreshing

All this

who,

in

I shall

relax,

and pressure

and

stream through

be made to enjoy

representing

movement, can give me the


of visible strain

effort

look away from the repre-

logical
in

any one
sequence

the parts and

muscles.
It is just

here that the scientific

spirit of

the

Florentine naturalists was of immense service

REPRESENTATION OF MOVEMENT
This logic of sequence

to art.

53

to be attained

is

only by great, although not necessarily more

than empiric, knowledge of anatomy, such per-

haps as the
to

work out

artist

pure would never be inclined


such as would

for himself, but just

be of absorbing interest to those

temperament and

we have

by

artists

by

scientists

profession

whom

in Pollaiuolo and, to a less extent, in

Verrocchio.

We

remember how Giotto conOf

trived to render tactile values.

all

the pos-

sible outlines, of all the possible variations of

light

and shade that a

selected those that

attention

may

figure

we must

when we
we say

isolate for special

are actually realising

instead of figure,

figure in

laiuolo rendered

movement with

ence, however, that he

line

and

light

way PoU

this differ-

had to render what

we never can
This the

in

perfectly isolate, the

and shade most

given action.

If

it.

movement,

the same statement applies to the

actuality

have, he

significant of

artist

any

must construct

himself out of his dramatic feeling for pressure

and

strain

and

his ability to articulate the figure

in all its logical

sequences,

for, if

he would con-

vey a sense of movement, he must give the

line

"BATTLE OF THE NUDES"

54

and the

light

and shade which

will best

render

not tactile values alone, but the sequences of


articulations.
It

would be

more

difficult to find

effective

illustration of all that has just

been said about

movement than one

Pollaiuolo's

or

two of

own

works, which, in contrast to most of his achieve-

ments, where

more than

little

and

effort

re-

search are visible, are really masterpieces of


art.
Let us look first at
engraving known as the " Battle of the

life-communicating
his

What

Nudes."
to

this

less

it

sheet with

creased pleasure
faces of

is

most of the

Nor

decorative design, which


all in

exerted upon us.


of us

an

and

is

is

ever

in-

not the hideous

it is

figures

hideous bodies.

deed, but not at

renewed,

ever

Surely

makes us return

that

it

their scarcely

the pattern as

of great beauty in-

proportion to the spell

Least of

all is

it

for most

interest in the technique or history

of engraving.

No, the pleasure we take

in

these savagely battling forms arises from their

power

to

directly

communicate

mensely heighten our sense of


at the

life,

vitality.

to

im-

Look

combatant prostrate on the ground and

'

'

HER C UL ES STRA NGLING

his assailant

-BA VID

"

55

bending over, each intent on

stab-

See

bing the other.

how

the prostrate

man

plants his foot on the thigh of his enemy, and

note the tremendous energy he exerts to keep


off

the foe, who, turning as upon a pivot, with

on the other's head, exerts no

his grip

to keep the advantage gained.


of

less force

The significance

these muscular strains and pressures

all

rendered that

we imagine

we cannot help

all

so

them

realising

ourselves imitating

is

the move-

ments, and exerting the force required for them

and

all

If

this

all

we

should

And

without the least

on our

side.

without moving a muscle, what


feel if

we

too had exerted ourselves

thus while under the spell of this illusion

this

hyperesthesia not bought with drugs,

and not paid


vitality

own

effort

we

for

with cheques drawn on our

feel as

if

the elixir of

life,

not our

sluggish blood, were coursing through our

veins.

Let us look now


of movement

at

an even greater triumph

thantheNudes, Pollaiuolo's

cules Strangling Antaeus."

suction

of

Hercules' grip

As you

"

Her-

realise the

on the earth, the

swelling of his calves with the pressure

that

VERROCCHIO

56
falls

AND LANDSCAPE

on them, the violent throwing back of

chest, the stifling force of his

supreme

realise the

embrace

his

you

as

Antaeus, with one

effort of

hand crushing down upon the head and the


other tearing at the arm of Hercules, you feel
as

if

a fountain of energy had sprung up under

your

and were playing

feet

veins.

your

through

cannot refrain from mentioning

still

another masterpiece, this time not only

movement, but
beauty as well

The young

of tactile values

and personal

Pollaiuolo's " David " at Berlin.

warrior has sped his stone, cut off

the giant's head, and

now he

graceful, slender figure

still

strides over

the ease of
feel as

derful

it.

we

it,

his

vibrating with the

rapidity of his triumph, expectant, as

we

of

if

fearing

What lightness, what buoyancy


realise the

movement of

this

won-

youth
IX.

In

all

that concerns

was a learner from


ator,

movement, Verrocchio

Pollaiuolo, rather than an initi-

and he probably never attained

proficiency.

We

his master's

have unfortunately but few

terms for comparison, as the only paintings


AND LANDSCAPE

VERROCCHIO

$?

which can be with certainty ascribed to Verroc-

chio are not pictures of action.

however

Museum, which attempts


as the Hercules
lection,

is

by

much movement
same

of obviously inferior quality.

as harbingers of

terpieces of

Yet

movement

for

any

as the " Child with the

and the Colleoni monument


if

in

he created two such mas-

" in the courtyard of the Palazzo

the latter sinning,

col-

works which are valuable

Leonardo rather than

intrinsic perfection,

Dolphin

as

Pollaiuolo, in the

sculpture, along with

chio,

drawing

like that of his angel, in the British

at

all,

at

Vec-

Venice

by an over-exuber-

ance of movement, by a step and swing too


suggestive

of

drums and trumpets.

But

in

landscape Verrocchio was a decided innovator.

To understand what new elements he introduced, we must at this point carry out our
determination to enquire into the source of our
pleasure in landscape painting

or rather

to

avoid a subject of vast extent for which this

not the place


tised

of

is

landscape painting as prac-

by the Florentines.

Before Verrocchio, his precursors,

first

Alessio

Baldovinetti and then Pollaiuolo, had attempted

LANDSCAPE PAINTING

58

to treat landscape as naturalistically as painting

would permit. Their

ideal

was to note

it

down

with absolute correctness from a given point of

view

darno
this

their subject almost invariably the Val-

their achievement, a bird's-eye view of

Nor can

Tuscan paradise.

it

be denied

that this gives pleasure, but the pleasure

such as

is

conveyed by

of having the

difficulty

is

only

Instead

tactile values.

we should have

in

nature to distinguish clearly points near the


horizon's edge,

without an

we here

effort,

and

in

see

them

perfectly and

consequence

confirmation of capacity for

life.

feel great

Now

if

land-

scape were, as most people vaguely believe, a


pleasure coming through the eyes alone, then

the Pollaiuolesque treatment could be equalled

by none that has followed, and surpassed only


by Rogier van der Weyden, or by the quaint

German " Master of the Lyversberg Passion,"


who makes us see objects miles away with as
great a precision and with as much intensity of
local colour as if we were standing off from them
a few feet. Were landscape really this, then
nothing more inartistic than gradation of tint,
atmosphere, txwA plein

air, all of

which help to

VERROCCHiaS LANDSCAPES
make

distant objects less clear,

tend

in

ure

we

and therefore

no way to heighten

capacity.

But

as a

matter of

59

our sense of
fact the pleas-

take in actual landscape

only to a

is

limited extent an affair of the eye, and to a

one of unusually intense well-

great extent

The

being.

painter's problem, therefore,

merely to render the

ble objects, but to convey,

unfailingly than nature


ness of

This

means purely
chiefly

task

not

more rapidly and

would do,

the conscious-

an unusually intense degree

being.

is

tactile values of the visi-

the

visual

of well-

communication

of

by sensations non-visual

by

occasioned

feelings

is

of

such

difficulty that, until recently, successes in the

rendering of what
art,

is

peculiar to landscape as an

and to landscape alone, were accidental

Only now,

and sporadic.

in

our

own

days,

may

painting be said to be grappling with this prob-

lem seriously
the

dawn

and perhaps we are already

of an art

has hitherto been

which

at

have to what

called landscape, the

tion of our music to the


of the

will

rela-

music of the Greeks or

Middle Ages.

Verrocchio was,

among

Florentines at least,

VERROCCHIVS LANDSCAPES

60
the

to feel that a faithful reproduction of

first

the contours
of nature

is

but

lay,

art distinct

He

the figure.

ence

not landscape, that the painting

is

an

scarcely

from the painting of

knew where

an entirely different part

in each,

landscape these have at least as

ance as

vague

tactile

must

the

differ-

that light and atmosphere play

felt

values.

grant,

and that

much

in

import-

vision of plein air,

seems to have hovered be-

fore him, and, feeling his powerlessness to cope

with

it

in full

tempted

effects

chose the twilight hour, when,


fine

days,

the

trees

such as he

of light

in his earlier pictures,

at-

he deliberately
in

stand out

Tuscany, on
almost black

against a sky of light opalescent grey.

To

ren-

der this subduing, soothing effect of the coolness and the

day
"

the

Elegy

"

dew

after the glare

effect so matchlessly

seemed to be

ter,

and

the

Uffizi),

in

and dust

of the

given in Gray's

his first desire as a pain-

presence of his " Annunciation "

we feel

(in

that he succeeded as only one

other Tuscan succeeded after him, that other

being his

own

pupil Leonardo.

GENRE ARTISTS.

X.
a temptation to hasten on from Pollaiu-

It is

olo and Verrocchio to Botticelli and Leonardo,


to

men

of genius as artists reappearing again

two generations, men who accomplished

after

with scarcely an effort what their precursors had

been toiling
even more

But from these

after.

difficult

it

would be

than at present to turn back

to painters of scarcely

any rank among the

world's great artists, and of scarcely any im-

portance as links

in a

chain of evolution, but

not to be passed by, partly because of certain


qualities they

do possess, and partly because

names would be missed

their

even so brief as

The men

this,

in

an account,

of Florentine painting.

chiefly refer to,

one most active

to-

ward the middle and the other toward the end


of the fifteenth century, are

Beno^zo Gozzoli

and Domenico Ghirlandaio.

Although they

have been rarely coupled together, they have

much

in

common.

Both were,

as artists, little

more than mediocrities with almost no genuine


feeling for

The

what makes painting a great

real attractiveness of

both

lies

art.

entirely out-

BENOZZO GOZZOLI

62

side the sphere of pure art, in the realms of

genre

And

illustration.

them ends

between

here

within

the

their

likeness

common

ground they differed widely.

Benozzo was gifted with a


only of execution but of

rare facility not

invention, with

spontaneity, a freshness, a liveliness in telling a


story that

the fairy
gifts

wake the

tale.

child in us,

Later

and the lover of

in life, his

deserted him, but

more precious

who wants

to resist the

fascination of his early works, painted, as they

seem, by a Fra Angelico

who had

forgotten

heaven and become enamoured of the earth and


the spring-time?
coes,

In his Riccardi Palace

fres-

he has sunk already to portraying the

Florentine apprentice's dream of a holiday in


the country on St. John's
ideal of

Day but what


;

luxury and splendour

it is

With

a naif
these,

the glamour in which he saw the world began to


fade

we

away from him, and

have,

it is

true,

many

in his

Pisan frescoes

a quaint bit of ge?ire

(superior to Teniers only because of superior


associations), but

And

never again the fairy

as the better recedes,

worse, by the bane of

all

it is

tale.

replaced by the

genre painting, non-

GHIRLANDAIO
and positive bad

significant detail,

London

or

63

New York

taste.

or Berlin worse to

Have
show

us than the jumble of buildings in his ideal of


a great city, his picture of Babylon

It

may

be said he here continues mediaeval tradition,

which

is

quite true, but this very fact indicates

his real place, which, in spite of his

many

adopting so

of the fifteenth-century improvements,

not with

the artists of

is

the Renaissance, but with

the story-tellers and costumed fairy-tale painters of the transition,

with Spinello Aretino and

And

Gentile da Fabriano, for instance.

once

in a while,

character^ or a

he renders a head with such

movement with such

we wonder whether he had not


all,

yet,

the making of a real

in

ease that

him, after

artist.

Ghirlandaio was born to far more science and

cunning

in painting

than was current

nozzo's early years, and

all

that love of his occupation,

all

but unfor-

tunately he had not a spark of genius.

laiuolo's

Masaccio's

tactile

movement, Verrocchio's

and succeeded

in

so sugaring

all

that talent even,

can do for a man, they did for him

appreciated

Be-

in

that industry,

values,

He
Pol-

effects of light,

down what he

GHIRLANDA10

64

adopted from these great masters that the


perior philistine of Florence could say

now

is

man who knows

can really enjoy "

faces,

good

attractive

likenesses,

as

su-

There
any of

me something

Bright

where

much

as

the great men, but can give

"

that

colour, pretty

and the obvious every-

and

delightful,

must be

it

granted, but, except in certain single figures,

Let us glance a moment

never significant.
his

To

famous frescoes

Santa Maria Novella.

in

begin with, they are so undecorative that,

in

and surface imparted to them

spite of the tone

by four

at

centuries, they

still

many

suggest so

tableaux vivants pushed into the wall side by


side,

and

Then the compositions

in tiers.

are

as overfilled as the sheets of an illustrated news-

paper

witness

cents," a

the

scene of

possibilities.

"

Massacre of the Inno-

such magnificent

artistic

Finally, irrelevant episodes

irrelevant groups of portraits

and

do what they can

to distract our attention from all higher signifi-

cance.

Look

at the " Birth of

John

"
;

Ginevra

dei Benci stands there, in the very foreground,


staring out at

grapher's

you

iron

as

stiff

behind

as

her

if

she had a photo-

head.

An

even

larger

group of

LEONARDO

65

Florentine housewives in

all

their finery disfigures the " Birth of the Virgin,"

which
off

is

further spoiled

by a bas

relief to

show

the painter's acquaintance with the antique,

and by the figure of the serving maid who


pours out water, with the rush of a whirlwind
in

her skirts

this to

dering of movement.
"

Epiphany

show

off skill in

the ren-

Yet elsewhere,

as in his

" in the Uffizi, Ghirlandaio has un-

deniable charm, and occasionally in portraits


his talent, here at
ocrity, in

its

highest, rises above medi-

one instance, the fresco of Sassetti

in

Santa Trinita, becoming almost genius.

XL
All that Giotto and Masaccio had attained
in the

rendering of tactile values,

Angelico or Filippo had achieved


sion, all that

all

in

that Fra

expres-

Pollaiuolo had accomplished in

movement, or Verrocchio

in light

and shade,

Leonardo, without the faintest trace of that


tentativeness, that painfulness of effort

which

characterised his immediate precursors, equalled

or surpassed.

when

Outside Velasquez, and perhaps,

at their best,

Rembrandt and Degas, we

LEONARDO

66

shall seek in vain for tactile values so stimulat-

ing and so convincing as those of his "


"

Lisa

outside Degas,

we

supreme mastery over the


in

the unfinished

and

Leonardo has been

if

not find such

shall

movement

art of

Epiphany

"

"

Mona
as

the Ufrizi

in

behind as a

left far

painter of light, no one has succeeded in con-

veying by means of light and shade a more


penetrating feeling of mystery and awe than he
in his "

Add

Virgin of the Rocks."

to all this,

and significance that have

a feeling for beauty

Where again
manhood so po-

scarcely ever been approached.

youth so poignantly

attractive,

tently virile, old age so dignified and possessed


of

the

depicted

has
child
like

world's secrets

and the

the

Who

like

Leonardo

mother's happiness in her

child's joy in

being alive

Leonardo has portrayed the

of

tions,

maidenhood

the

Belle

inexhaustible

fascination
?

of

Look

and

see

whether

the
at

look at his

drawing of Isabella d'Este, or


Joconde,

refine-

or the enchantress intui-

woman in her years of mastery


his many sketches for Madonnas,
profile

who

timidity, the

newness to experience, the delicacy and

ment

at the

elsewhere

LEONARDO
you
of

Leonardo

find their equals.

whom

it

may be

()J

the one artist

is

said with perfect literalness

Nothing that he touched but turned into


thing of eternal

Whether

beauty.

be the

it

cross-section of a skull, the structure of a weed,

or a study of muscles, he, with his feeling for


line
it

and

and shade, forever transmuted

for light

into life-communicating values

and

all

with-

out intention, for most of these magical sketches

were dashed

to illustrate purely scientific

off

matter, which alone absorbed his

mind

at the

moment.

And
is

just as his art

life-communicating as

is

that of scarcely another, so the contempla-

tion of his personality


of scarcely

life-enhancing as that

any other man.

though he was as

nowned

is

a painter,

and

as a sculptor

and improviser, and that


whatsoever were

in

Think that great


he was no

less re-

architect, musician

all artistic

his career

occupations

but moments

snatched from the pursuit of theoretical and


practical

knowledge.

were scarcely a
either foresaw
it,

it

field

It

of

would seem

modern

as

if

there

science but he

in vision, or clearly anticipated

scarcely a realm of fruitful speculation of

LEONARDO

68

which he was not a freeman

and

as

if

there

were hardly a form of human energy which he

And

did not manifest.


of

all

was the chance to be useful

life

such a

man

the

wonderful possibilities

family, of

brings us the gladdest of

whose chances we

Painting, then,
a

demanded

that he

was

Surely,

all

tidings

partake.

Leonardo so

to

human

the

of

all

little

preoccupation that we must regard

merely a mode of expression used

at

of

as

it

moments

by a man of universal genius, who recurred to


it only when he had no more absorbing occu-

when

pation, and only

it

could express what

nothing else could, the highest spiritual through

And

the highest material significance.

though
for

mastery over his

his

significance

great

craft, his feeling

was so much greater that

it

caused him to linger long over his pictures,


labouring to render the significance he

which

his

quantity, but have

and

We

but

hand could not reproduce, so that

he rarely finished them.

mere

felt

we

thus have lost in

lost in quality

painter, or even a
felt as

We

Leonardo?

mere

artist,

We may

Could a
have seen

well doubt.

are too apt to regard a universal genius as

BOTTICELLI
a number of ordinary brains
in

one

skull,

69

somehow conjoined

and not always on the most neigh-

We

bourly terms.

means

forget that genius

mental energy, and that a Leonardo, for the


self-same reason that prevents his being merely
a painter

the

fact that

hundredth part of

his

does not exhaust a

it

energy

when he

will,

does turn to painting, bring to bear a power of


seeing, feeling,

that of

Lisa"

and rendering,

above,

is

let

" Portrait of his

the reproaches

painted so

us say,

made
;

Andrea

No,

Wife."

little

above

as utterly

painter as the "

the ordinary

to

let

del Sarto's

us not join in

Leonardo

because he had

to do than to paint, he has

Mona

for

having

much more

left all of

us heirs to

one or two of the supremest works of

art ever

created.

XII.

Never

dom

dolorous

and

sel-

types,

ill-

rarely correct in drawing,

satisfactory

favoured

charming or even

pretty, scarcely ever

attractive

in

in

colour

in

feeling acutely intense

what

is

it

and even

then that makes Sandro

Botticelli so irresistible that

nowadays we may

BOTTICELLI

JO

have no alternative but to worship or abhor

him

The

secret

that

this,

is

in

European

painting there has neveragain been an artist so


indifferent to representation

Educated

presentation.

and so intent upon

representation

earnestness

into

mere

self-obliterating

the pupil of Fra Filippo, he was

to a love of

trained

first

almost

with

triumph-

in a period of

ant naturalism, he plunged at

genre

spiritual

himself

gifted with strong instincts for the significant,

he was able to create such a type of the thinker


as in his fresco of St.

years he

left

Augustin

yet in his best

everything, even spiritual

cance, behind him, and

signifi-

abandoned himself to the

presentation of those qualities alone which in a


picture are directly life-communicating, and

enhancing.
the

in

work

Those

of us

of art but

who

what

it

represents, are

either powerfully attracted or repelled

unhackneyed types and quivering


if

we

and

we

life-

care for nothing

by

feeling

his

but

are such as have an imagination of touch


of

feel

movement

that

it is

easy to stimulate,

a pleasure in Botticelli that few,

other artists can give

us.

Long

after

if

any,

we have

exhausted both the intensest sympathies and

BOTTICELLI

the most violent antipathies with which the


representative

have inspired

elements
us,

we

his

in

are only

on the verge of

fully appreciating his real genius.

moments

happiest

This

in its

an unparalleled power of

is

combining

perfectly

may

pictures

touch

with

"

Venus

Throughout, the

tactile

values

of

values of movement.

Look,

for

instance, at

Rising from the Sea."

imagination
itself

is

almost as

Botticelli's

roused to a keen activity, by


life

the power of music

heightening as music.
is

But

even surpassed where, as

the goddess' mane-like tresses of hair flutter-

in

ing to the wind, not in disorderly rout but in

masses yielding only after resistance, the move-

ment
tire

is

directly life-communicating.

of all that

is

force

wave

Realm

as
"

in

How we

and freshness of the wind,

makes.
"

en-

pleasurable to our imagination of

touch and of movement.

the

The

picture presents us with the quintessence

And

such an appeal he always

His subject may be


of

Venus"

the Sixtine

revel in the

in the life of

fanciful, as in the

(the "Spring"); religious,

Chapel frescoes or

Coronation of the Virgin

"
;

in

political, as in

the
the


BOTTICELLI

J2

recently discovered " Pallas Taming a Centaur";

or even crudely allegorical, as in the


frescoes,

no

how

matter

Louvre

how

unpropitious,

abstract the idea, the vivid appeal to our tactile


sense, the life-communicating

movement

ways

it

Indeed, at times

there.

less artistic

al-

is

seems that the

the theme, the more artistic the

ful-

filment, the painter being impelled to give the

utmost values of touch and movement to just


those figures which are liable to be read off as

mere empty symbols.

Thus, on the figure

representing political disorder


in

the

" Pallas,"

most intimate
and flanks

in

Botticelli

gifts.

He

the

Centaur

has lavished his

constructs the torso

such a way that every

line,

every

indentation, every boss appeals so vividly to the

sense of touch that our fingers feel as

had everywhere been

in

while his face gives to a

if

they

contact with his body,


still

heightened degree

this convincing sense of reality, every line func-

tioning perfectly for the osseous structure of

brow, nose, and cheeks.


ine shapes having the

may

As to

supreme

the hair
life

imag-

of line

you

see in the contours of licking flames, and

yet possessed of

all

the plasticity of something


LJNEAL DECORATION

73

which caresses the hand that models

own
In

it

to

its

desire!
fact,

sentation

the mere subject, and even repre-

was so

general,

in

Botticelli, that

indifferent

he appears almost as

to

haunted

if

by the idea of communicating the unembodied

Now

values of touch and movement.

way

of

as faithfully as

movement.

is

rendering even tactile values with

almost no body, and that

them

there

by

is

may be

For instance

translating

values of

into

we want to render

the roundness of a wrist without the slightest

touch of either light or shade

movement of the wrist's


movement of the drapery as it

the

the roundness

is

we simply

falls

communicated

entirely in terms of

movement.

Take

one step further.

give

outline and the

over

it,

But

let

us go

this line that renders

the roundness of the wrist, or a

more obvious

example, the lines that render the

movements

of the tossing hair, the fluttering draperies,

the dancing waves

and

to us almost

in the " Birth of

take these lines alone with

all

Venus

their

and
"

power

of

stimulating our imagination of movement, and

what do we have

Pure values of movement

LINEAL DECORATION

74

abstracted, unconnected with any representa-

This kind of

tion whatever.

the

line, then,

quintessence of movement, has, like the

essential elements in all the arts, a

communicating

made up

Well

life.

movement-values, and you


that holds the

same

is

arts

Sandro

have something

and this art

To

in

the

element

would
was

him

for

translation into

lated

And

to this
;

but

in

to

em-

his

representative

mere

libretto

lent

called

itself

he
to

a lineal

symphony everything

tactile

into values of

same reason

his subject

what may be

was made to yield

and

The

permit.

was happiest when

symphony.

rivals in

demands he was ready

its

under Filippo and Pollaiuolo,


!

East,

everything that habits acquired

sacrifice

ployers

exists,

In this art of

may have had

Botticelli

and elsewhere

Europe never.

art

quintessences of

will

called lineal decoration.

Japan

of

relation to representation

that music holds to speech

and

an

imagine

these

entirely of

power

and of directly

stimulating our imagination

to

being

values were trans-

movement, and,

for the

prevent the drawing of the

eye inward, to permit

it

to devote itself to the

POPULARISERS OF ART
rhythm

the

of

line

the

J$

backgrounds were

either entirely suppressed or kept as simple as

Colour

possible.
for

representative

its

tirely

also,

with almost a contempt


function,

Botticelli

pelling

This

to

it

than, as

is

is

draw attention to the

usual,

away from

line,

In

some

of his later

works, such as the Dresden predelle,

line,

"

true, bacchanals rather than

and

many

in

Fortezza"

pings

so

we

have,

symphonies of

of his earlier paintings, in the

for instance, the harness

have

scarcely

rather

it.

the explanation of the value put upon

Botticelli's masterpieces.

it is

en-

subordinated to his lineal scheme, com-

disguised

Pegasus

and
that

trap-

we

know him from a cart horse. But the


Venus Rising from the Sea,"

painter of the "

of the " Spring," or of the Villa

coes

is

Lemmi

fres-

the greatest artist of lineal design that

Europe has ever had.


XIII.

Leonardo and
after them,

Botticelli, like

Michelangelo

found imitators but not successsors.

To communicate more

material and spiritual

significance than Leonardo,

would have taken

POPULARISERS OF ART

76

an

artist

with deeper feeling for significance

to get more music out of design than Botticelli,

would have required a painter with even

greater passion for the re-embodiment of the

pure essences of touch and movement.

were none such


of

Botticelli

in Florence,

Leonardo's

and do not here concern us

There

and the followers

were

all

Milanese,

could but imitate

the patterns of their master: the patterns of the


face,

the patterns of the composition, and the

patterns of the line; dragging


their

own

own

level,

sugaring them

palate, slowing

insensitiveness for

And

them down

down

them down

what

is

to

to their

to their

own

life-communicating.

although their productions, which were

nothing but translations of great man's art into


average

man's

art,

became popular,

inevitable, with the average

man

(who comprehended them better and


comfortable

in their

as

was

of their time,
felt

more

presence than in that of

the originals which he respectfully admired but


did not so thoroughly enjoy), nevertheless

we

need not dwell on these popularisers nor on


their popularisations

not

even on Filippino,

with his touch of consumptive delicacy, nor

FRA BARTOLOMMEO

77

Raffaelino del Garbo, with his glints of never-tobe-fulfilled promise.

Before approaching the one


left in

man

of genius

Florence after Botticelli and Leonardo,

man in
and much

before speaking of Michelangelo, the

whom

all

was most peculiar

that

that was greatest in the striving of Florentine


art

found

moment

they were

where

fulfilment,

its

us

let

turn for a

to a few painters who, just because

men

of manifold talent,

have

almost

become

might

else-

Fra

masters.

Bartolommeo, Andrea del Sarto, Pontormo,


and Bronzino were perhaps no
artists

than Palma, Bonifazio Veronese, Lotto,

and Tintoretto
being

less gifted as

but their talents, instead of

permitted

to

flower

naturally,

scorched by the passion for showing


terity,

blighted

by academic

ideals,

off

were
dex-

and uproot-

ed by the whirlwind force of Michelangelo.

Fra Bartolommeo,

who

delicate, refined, graceful,

in

temperament was

and as a painter had

a miniaturist's feeling for the dainty,

duced to desert

his lovely

women,

was

in-

his exquisite

landscape, and his gentleness of expression for


figures constructed mechanically

on a colossal

ANDREA DEL SARTO

78
scale,

or

for

And

cost.

as evil

is

round

the

of

effects

any

at

more obvious than good,

Bartolommeo, the painter of that masterpiece

and

of colour

light

and shade, of graceful move-

ment and charming feeling, the "Madonna with


the Baptist and St. Stephen" in the Cathedral at

Lucca, Bartolommeo, the dainty deviser of Mr.

Mond's tiny "Nativity," Bartolommeo, the

hundred masterpieces of pen drawing,

ficer of a
is

almost unknown

Bartolommeo

He

posity.

arti-

physically

and to most people Fra

a sort of synonym for pomknown only as the author of

is

is

colossal,

spiritually

prophets and apostles,


painter of pitch-dark

or,

insignificant

perchance, as the

altar-pieces

this

the reward of devices to obtain mere

Andrea

del

being

relief.

Sarto approached perhaps

as

closely to a Giorgione or a Titian as could a

Florentine,

ill

at ease in the

neighbourhood of

Leonardo and Michelangelo.


was,

it is

est sense

sphere of

true, not

As an

artist

he

endowed with the profound-

for the significant, yet

within the

common humanity who has produced

anything more genial than his " Portrait of a

Lady "

probably

his wife

with a Petrarch

in

ANDREA DEL SARTO


Where

her hands?

79

we

out of Venetia can

find portraits so simple, so frank,

and yet so

interpretive as his "Sculptor," or as his various


portraits of himself

these, by the way, an auto-

biography as complete as any


his " St.

" caressing children, a

James

Even

the sweetest feeling.

how

technique,

what

in his "

close

But

technical merit, the

we already

feel

And

the

in a

work

a back St.

of scarcely less

"Madonna of the Harpies,"


man not striving to get the

grand and magnificent.


almost a great

artist,

Even

saints,

pray

is

for

the

here, he remains

because his natural

bustness comes to his rescue

donna

the best

in addition, tactile

what

utmost out of himself, but panting

"

of

and

blacks and whites, what greys

and purplish browns

to

is

Dispute about the

values peculiar to Florence


Sebastian's

work

in colour effect,

singularly

Venetian painting
Trinity"

existence,

in

Almost Venetian again

and tragic as few?

ro-

but the " Ma-

too obviously statuesque, and, good

why

all

these draperies

The obviously statuesque and

draperies were

Andrea's devices for keeping his head above


water

in

the rising tide of the Michelangelesque,

ANDREA DEL SARTO

80

As you

glance

frescoes,

in

sequence at the Annunziata

on the whole so

and genuine delight

full of vivacity, gaiety,

in life,

you see from one

fresco to another the increased attention given

In the Scalzo series, otherwise

to draperies.

masterpieces of tactile values, the draperies do


their

these

utmost to smother the

Most

figures.

of

paintings are closed in with ponderous

forms which have no other purpose than to serve


as a frame,

ind as clothes-horses for draperies

witness the scene of Zacharias in the temple,

wherein none of the bystanders dare

move

for

fear of disturbing their too obviously arranged


folds.

Thus by constantly
and then material

Andrea

draperies,

What

tial in art.

tion,"

sacrificing first spiritual,

significance

pose and

to

loses all feeling for the essen-

a sad spectacle

is

his

"Assump-

wherein the Apostles, the Virgin

herself,

have nothing better to do than to show


draperies

off

Instead of feeling, as in the pres-

ence of Titian's "Assunta," wrapt to heaven,

you gaze

at

showing how

number

of tailor's

men, each

a stuff you are thinking of trying

looks on the back, or in a certain effect of light.

PONTORMO
But

let

mind

us not end on this note

that, despite all his faults,

let

us bear in

Andrea painted

the one " Last Supper " which can be looked at

with pleasure after Leonardo's.

Pontormo, who had

it

in

and portrait-painter

rator

was led astray by

him

to be a deco-

of the highest rank,

his awe-struck admiration for

Michelangelo, and ended as an academic con-

What he

structor of monstrous nudes.

do when expressing himself, we see

could
the

in

lunette at Poggio a Caiano, as design, as colour,


as fancy, the freshest, gayest,

most appropriate

mural decoration now remaining

in Italy

what

he could do as a portrait-painter, we see

in his

wonderfully decorative panel of Cosimo dei

Medici at San Marco, or


"

Lady with

in his portrait of

Dog " (at Frankfort),

portrait ever painted in

first

social position

was

insisted

the personal character.

which the

upon

perhaps the

as

sitter's

much

What Pontormo

as

sank

to,

we

all

caricatures of Michelangelo, as his "Martyr-

dom

see in such a riot of meaningless nudes,

of Forty Saints."

Bronzino,

none of
6

Pontormo's close

follower,

had

his master's talent as a decorator, but

BRONZINO

82

happily

much

of his

power as a

portrait-painter.

Would he had never attempted anything else


The nude without material or spiritual signifi!

cance, with

no beauty of design or

nude simply because

it

colour, the

was the nude, was

Bronzino's ideal in composition, and the result


is

his " Christ in

painter,
ter

and continued

in

But as a

it,

portraithis mas-

leaving behind him a series

which not only had

of portraits

all

Limbo."

he took up the note struck by

their

effect

determining the character of Court painting


over Europe, but, what

is

more to the

point,

a series of portraits most of which are works of

As

art.

painting,

often timid

it is

but their

true,

they are hard, and

air of distinction, their

interpretive qualities, have not often been sur-

passed.

In his Uffizi portraits of Eleanoro di

Toledo, of Prince Ferdinand, of the Princess


Maria,

we seem

to see the prototypes of Velas-

quez' queens, princes, and princesses


fine
ter,

example

look in the Sala Baroccio of the

a bust of a

hand.

and

for a

of dignified rendering of charac-

young woman with a

Uflfizi at

missal in her

MICHELANGELO

83

XIV.
The

great Florentine artists, as

we have seen,

were, with scarcely an exception, bent

upon

rendering the material significance of visible


This,

things.

ulated

them

little

though they may have form-

was the conscious aim

it,

and

in

of

most

of

proportion as they emancipated

themselves from

ecclesiastical

found among their employers

dominion, and

men

capable of

understanding them, their aim became more

and more conscious and their striving more

the pupil of
felt

man who was


nobody, the heir of everybody, who

At

energetic.

last

appeared the

profoundly and powerfully what to his pre-

cursors had been vague instinct,

expressed the meaning of

it all.

who saw and


The seed that

produced him had already flowered into


Giotto, and once again into a Masaccio

him, the

last

artistically

maining

in

of his race, born in conditions

most propitious,

in his stock

him Florentine

art

all

the energies

were concentrated, and

had

its

re-

in

logical culmination.

Michelangelo had a sense for the materially


significant as great as Giotto's or Masaccio's,

ANTHROPOMORPHISATION IN ART

84

but he possessed means of rendering, inherited

from

Donatello,

Leonardo,

Pollaiuolo,

means that

Verrocchio

and

had been undreamt

Add

by Giotto or even by Masaccio.

to this

him had been

that he saw clearly what before

only dimly, that there was no other such

felt

of

in-

strument for conveying material significance as


the

human

nude.

This

fact

is

as closely de-

pendent on the general conditions of realising


objects as tactile values are on the psychology
of sight.

We

translate

them

own

realise objects

when we perfectly
own states, our

into terms of our

So obviously true

feelings.

is

this,

even the least poetically inclined among


cause

way

we keenly

train, to

speak of
ing on

movement

of a

rail-

take one example out of millions,

as going or running, instead of roll-

it

its

realise the

that

us, be-

wheels, thus being

no

less guilty of

anthropomorphising than the most unregenerate savages.

every time

Of

we

this

same

fallacy

we

are guilty

think of anything whatsoever

we are lending this


human attributes. The more we
endow it with human attributes, the less we
merely know it, the more we realise it, the more

with the least warmth


thing some

VALUE OF THE NUDE IN ART


does

it

approach the work of

one and only one object

Now there is

art.

the visible universe

in

which we need not anthropomorphise to

and

that

man

is

out any myth-making effort


is

no

we
we

directly.

nothing, then,

represented so as to be realised more

quickly and vividly than


effect

Hence,

nothing, therefore, in which

so rapidly perceive changes


if

realise with-

human body nothing with which

are so familiar

which

we

visible object of such artistic possi-

the

bilities as

realise

His movements,

himself.

his actions, are the only things

there

85

in life, will

produce

its

with such velocity and power, and so

strongly confirm our sense of capacity for living.

Values of touch and movement, we remember,

are

the specifically artistic qualities in

by the

figure painting (at least, as practised

Florentines), for

it is

through them chiefly that

painting directly heightens

remains true that

Now

life.

while

tactile values can, as

it

Giotto

and Masaccio have forever established, be admirably rendered

drapery

way out

is

on the draped

figure,

yet

a hindrance, and, at the best, only a

of a difficulty, for

the really significant, which

we
is

feel
the

it

masking

form

under-

86

VALUE OF THE NUDE IN ART

neath.

A mere

painter, one

reproduce what everybody

days.

The

draped

artist,

portraits

manufactured nowa-

even when compelled to paint


drapery to render

figures, will force the

the nude, in other words the material

cance of the

the

is

and the clothing,

in a figure, the face

most of the

as in

satisfied to

His only significant

this feeling.

obvious

is

and to paint

fun of painting, will scarcely compre-

for the

hend

who
sees,

signifi-

human body. But how much more


how much

clearly will this significance shine out,

more convincingly
itself,

will the character

when between

its

the artist nothing intervenes

rendering

is

manifest

and

perfect rendering

And

this perfect

to be accomplished with the nude

only.
If draperies are a

ance of

rendering of
realise the

the

full

hindrance to the convey-

tactile values,

they make the perfect

movement next

to impossible.

To

play of muscle everywhere, to get

sense of the various pressures and

re-

sistances, to receive the direct inspiration of the

energy expended, we must have the nude


here alone can

we watch

for

those tautnesses of

muscle and those stretchings and relaxings and

VALUE OF THE NUDE IN ART

87

ripplings of skin which, translated into similar

on our own persons, make us

strains
realise

Here alone the

movement.

translation,

owing to the multitude and the clearness


appeals made,

is

fully

of the

instantaneous, and the conse-

quent sense of increased capacity almost as


great as can be attained

we miss

figure

and

skin,

all

while in the draped

the appeal of visible muscle

and realise movement only

after a slow

translation of certain functional outlines, so that

the sense of capacity which


the perception of

movement

we

receive from

increased but

is

slightly.

We
art

are

whose

now

able to understand

chief preoccupation

figure

must have the nude

why,

also,

problem of
is it

the nude

is

itself

human

for its chief interest

the

most absorbing

classic art at all times.

the best vehicle for

directly life-confirming
it

is

why every
human

the

is

all

Not only

that in art which

is

and life-enhancing, but

the most significant object in the

world.

The

first

person since the great

days of Greek sculpture to comprehend

fully

the identity of the nude with great figure

was Michelangelo.

Before him,

it

art,

had been

MICHELANGELO

88
studied

for

purposes

scientific

in

itself,

and the

his art.

For him the nude and

mous.

Here

and

an aid

He saw

rendering the draped figure.

was an end

as

that

it

purpose of

final

art

in

were synony-

the secret of his successes

lies

his failures.

Nowhere outside of the


we find, as in Michelangelo's

First, his successes.

best Greek art shall

works, forms whose tactile values so increase

our sense of capacity, whose movements are so


directly
artists

communicated and

values

tile

others

still

alone,

Masaccio,

have had

at least as

movement and power


ardo,

Other

inspiring.

have had quite as much feeling

for

modern

example

instance

for

much

of rendering

all

sense of

it,

no other

but

times, having at

for tac-

Leonof

artist

his control over

the materially significant, has employed

it

as

Michelangelo did, on the one subject where

its

full

of

value can be manifested

all

the nude.

the achievements of

the most invigorating.

modern

Hence

art, his

Surely not often

imagination of touch roused as by his


in

the " Creation," by his

tion," or

by

his

Eve

many nudes

in the "

in the

is

are

our

Adam

Tempta-

same

ceiling

MICHELANGELO
of the Sixtine Chapel,

pose, be

Nor

is

it

it

there

89

for

no other pur-

noted, than their direct tonic effect


less rare to quaff

such draughts of

we receive from the


"God Creating Adam," the "Boy Angel" standing by Isaiah, or to choose one or two instances
from his drawings (in their own kind the greatthe " Gods Shooting at a
est in existence)
"
"
Mark or the Hercules and the Lion."
unadulterated energy as

And

to this feeling for the materially signifi-

cant and
this

all

this

power

more narrowly

of conveying

it,

capacity,

artistic

to

all

Michel-

angelo joined an ideal of beauty and force, a


vision of a glorious

but

possible

which, again, has never had


times.

Manliness,

its

robustness,

humanity,

like in

modern

effectiveness,

the fulfilment of our dream of a great soul

we shall encounter
among the figures

habiting a beautiful body,

nowhere
in

else so frequently as

the Sixtine Chapel.

Michelangelo completed

what Masaccio had begun, the creation


type of

in-

man

of the

best fitted to subdue and control

the earth, and,

who knows

perhaps more than

the earth.

But unfortunately, though born and nurtured

LAST WORKS OF MICHELANGELO

90
in a

world where his feeling for the nude and

his ideal of

humanity could be appreciated, he

passed most of his

life

in the

and while yet

disasters,

vigour, in the midst of his

midst of tragic

the fulness of his

in

most creative

years,

he found himself alone, perhaps the greatest,


but alas

also the last of the giants

born so

He

plentifully during the fifteenth century.

lived

on

in a

world he could not but despise,

no more employ

a world which really could

him than

it

in

could understand

him.

He was

not allowed, therefore, to busy himself where

he

felt

against

most drawn by
his

own

his genius, and,

much

impulses, he was

strongest

obliged to expend his energy upon such subjects as the " Last
all

show

Judgment."

His

later

signs of the altered conditions,

works

first in

an overflow into the figures he was creating of


the scorn and bitterness he was feeling, then in
the lack of

harmony between

his genius

what he was compelled to execute.


sion

was the nude,

his ideal power.

outlet for such a passion,

"

Last

Judgment,"

or

His pas-

But what

what expression

such an ideal could there be

and

for

in subjects like

the

" Crucifixion

of

the

LAST WORKS OF MICHELANGELO


Peter

"

subjects

which the Christian world

demanded should incarnate


the humble and the self-sacrifice of

imperatively
fear of

Now

patient?
ings as

humility and patience were

unknown

before him,

to Michelangelo as to

or, for

the world's

felt

the
feel-

Dante

that matter, to any other of

geniuses

creative

Even had he

the

at

any time.

them, he had no means of

expressing them, for his nudes could convey a


sense of power, not of weakness
of dread

And
ment

of despair, but not

terror the giant


"

do

feel,

who, being

in

in spite of his

but

nudes

it is

no wise

of terror, not

of

submission.

of the " Last Judg-

not terror of the Judge,

different

from the others,

omnipotent gesture, seems

to be

announciyig rather than willing what the bystanders, his fellows, could not unwill.

representation of the

moment

verse disappears in chaos

As

the

before the uni-

Gods

huddling

the

gether for the Gotterddmmernng

"

to-

Last

Judgment " is as grandly conceived as possible


but when the crash comes, none will sur:

vive

it,

no, not

even

God.

Michelangelo

therefore failed in his conception of the subject,

and could

not

but

fail.

But

where

LAST WORKS OF MICHELANGELO

92

in

else

receive

whole world

the

such

this giant's

or,

For kindred reasons, the


is

and life-enhancing.
death, these

and

will,

from

as

nightmare?

" Crucifixion of Peter "

Art can be only life-communicating

a failure.

tions

you

if

we

shall

art

energy

of

blasts

dream,

of

If

it

and

treats of pain

must always appear

as manifesta-

as results only of living resolutely

and energetically.

What

chance

is

there,

ask, for this, artistically the only possible treat-

ment,

in

the representation of a

with his head downwards

man

crucified

Michelangelo could

do nothing but make the bystanders, the execu-

more life-communicating, and


No
therefore inevitably more sympathetic
tioners, all the

wonder he

failed here

What

a tragedy,

by

the way, that the one subject perfectly cut out


for his genius, the

none

but

" Bathers,"
last

one subject which required

genuinely

artistic

treatment, his

executed forty years before these

works, has disappeared, leaving but scant

traces

Yet even these

suffice to

enable the

competent student to recognise that


position

this

com-

must have been the greatest master-

piece in figure art of

modern

times.

LAST WORKS OF MICHELANGELO


That Michelangelo had
is

As he got

undeniable.

lacking

faults

older,

of

and

93

own

his

his genius,

proper outlets, tended to stagnate

its

and thicken, he

fell

into exaggerations

ex-

aggerations of power into brutality, of tactile


values into feats of modelling.

was

No

doubt he

also at times as indifferent to representa-

tion as Botticelli

But while there

thing as movement, there


tactile values

is

is

such a

no such thing as

without representation.

Yet he

seems to have dreamt of presenting nothing


but

tactile values

many drawings

hence his

with only the torso adequately treated, the

unheeded.

rest

passion

for

Still

tactile

another result from his

values.

have

already

suggested that Giotto's types were so massive

because such figures most easily convey values


of

tended

Michelangelo

touch.

exaggerations, to

to

similar

making shoulders, for instance,

too broad and too bossy, simply because they

make thus
tile

more powerful appeal to the

imagination.

farther,
arts,

Indeed,

and suggest that

tac-

venture to go even

his faults in all the

sculpture no less than painting, and archi-

tecture no less than sculpture, are due to this

94

CONSTANT AIMS OF FLORENTINE ART

self-same predilection

for salient

But the lover

figure arts for

them

of the

genuinely

is

ethical, will in

what

not

in

merely

Michelangelo, even at his worst,

get such pleasures

even

and

artistic

projections.

excepting a few, others,

as,

at their best, rarely give him.

In closing,

let

us note what results clearly

even from this brief account of the Florentine


school,

namely

although no Florentine

that,

merely took up and continued a predecessor's


work, nevertheless

same

for the

all,

from

first

There

cause.

to last, fought

no opposition

is

between Giotto and Michelangelo.


energies of the

of the last,

first,

The

and of

best

all

the

intervening great Florentine artists were persistently

values,

or of

successful

and

of

devoted to the rendering of

movement,

or

Now

both.

grappling with problems of form

movement

is

at the

bottom of

higher arts; and because of this


painting, despite
sculpture, the

ence.

of

tactile

its

many

fact,

faults,

most serious

is,

all

the

Florentine
after

Greek

figure art in exist-

INDEX TO THE WORKS OF THE PRINCIPAL FLORENTINE PAINTERS.

The

following

lists

make no

claim to absolute completeness,

but no genuine work by the painters mentioned, found in the


better

With

known

public or private collections, has been omitted.

the exception of three or four pictures, which he

knows

only in the photographs, the author has seen and carefully


studied every picture indicated,

the attributions, although he

is

and is alone responsible


happy to acknowledge his

for
in-

debtedness to the writings of Signor Cavalcaselle, of the late

Giovanni Morelli, of Signor Gustavo Frizzoni, and of Dr.

For the convenience of students, lists of the


more important only, have been appended
of pictures by those artists who have left sculptures

Richter.

J. P.

sculptures, but the


to the lists

as well as paintings.

Public galleries are mentioned

and churches

last.

The

first,

then private collections,

principal public gallery

is

understood after the simple mention of a city or town.


Paris

means

Paris, Louvre,

always

Thus,

London means London, National

Gallery, etc.

An

interrogation point after the

title

cates that its attribution to the given

Distinctly early or late works are


It

of a picture indi-

painter

marked E.

is

doubtful.

or L.

need scarcely be said that the attributions here given are


official catalogues, and are often at variance with

not based on

them.
95

WORKS OF

96

MARIOTTO ALBERTINELLI.
1474-1515. Pupil of Cosimo Rosselli and Pier di Cosimo
influenced by Lorenzo di Credi worked in partnership with Fra Bartolommeo.
;

Agram

(Croatia).

Strossmayer Collection. Adam


and Eve driven from Paradise.
E.

Bergamo.

Lochis, 203.

Morelli,
dalen.

Cambridge.
Chartres.

Crucifixion.

32.

St.

John and the Mag-

E.

Fitzwilliam Museum, 162. Madonna


and infant John. 1509.
Musee.
Tabernacle:
Madonna
and
Saints, Crucifixion, etc.

Florence.

Academy, 63. Trinity.


Madonna and four
167.

E.

Saints.

Annunciation.
15 10.
Pitti, 365.
Holy Family.
Uffizi, 71
Last Judgment
169.

(begun in
1499 by Fra Bartolommeo).
Visitation, with Predella. 1503.
1259.
Corsini, 160.
Holy Family (in part).

iS".
Certosa (near

Florence).

Crucifixion.

1505-

Geneva.

Musee.

Gloucester.

Highnam Court,

Annunciation.
151 1.
Sir Hubert Parry,

7.

Nativity.
24.

Scenes from the Creation. E.


Holy Family with infant John (on

The Hague.

306.

Madrid.
Milan,

Duke of Alba.

Fra Bartolommeo's cartoon).

Munich.

Madonna.

Poldi-Pezzoli, 477. Triptych.


1500.
Annunciation and two Saints.
1057.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


New

Samuel

Mr.

York.

97

Untermeyer.

Female

Saint.
Paris.

1 1

Madonna and Saints (begun by


who laid in the St. Jerome.
Albertinelli was assisted by Bugi-

14.

Filippino,

ardini in the execution of the rest,


especially
scape).

the Child and land-

in

1506.

Caterina. Madonna and Saints (on


Fra Bartolommeo's cartoon)
1 5 1 1

Pisa.

S.

Rome.

Borghese, 310. Madonna and infant


John (on Fra Bartolommeo's car-

toon).

151

1.

Scotland.

Head of Christ.
Gosford House, Earl of Wemyss. Ma-

Siena.

564.

St. Catherine.

565.

The Magdalen.

421.

donna.

Stuttgart.

242, 243, 244.


(top of

15 12.

1512.

Coronation and two putti

Fra Bartolommeo's

piece at Besancon).

altar-

15 12

Seminario, 18. Madonna.


Duomo. Annunciation. E.

Venice.
Volterra.

ALUNNO

DI DOMENICO.

name for Florentine painter whose real


name appears to have been Bartolommeo di

Descriptive

Giovanni. Flourished last two decades of fifteenth century. Assistant of Ghirlandajo;


influenced by Amico di Sandro.
Aix-en-Provence.

Musee.

Madonna and

infant

John

adoring Child.
Arezzo.

Museo, Sala
dalen and

II,

St.

4.

Tabernacle: Mag-

Antony

at foot of Cross.

WORKS OF

98
Dresden.

17

and

Tondi:

18.

and

Michael

SS.

Raphael.
Florence.

Academy,

67.

Pieta

and

of

Stories

Saints.
268.

St.

Thomas Aquinas,

Gabriel,

and a

Prophet.

Madonna with St. Dominic and a


Prophet.
St. Jerome.
278.
St. Francis receiving the Stigmata.
279.

269.

280.

Entombment.
Tondo: Madonna and infant
St. Benedict and two

Uffizi, 85.

1208.

John.

Monks.

Museo

di

San Marco, Small Refec-

tory.

Crucifixion with SS. Peter,

Andrew, the

Magdalen,

and two

other Saints.

MarcheseManelli Riccardi.

Pieta.

Innocenti, Gallery, 63-70.

Seven

Predelle to Ghirlandajo's altarpiece


in church, in

which he painted

the "Massacre of

also

the Innocents."

1488.

Horsmonden

(Kent).

Two

Capel Manor, Mrs. Austen.


Centaurs and

Cassone-ironts:

Lapithas.

Liverpool.

Walker Art Gallery,

17.

Martyrdom

of St. Sebastian.
is.

London.

Bishop dining with a

Woman.

Mr. Brinsley Marlay.


ironts

Taking
Sir

Stories

Four Cassoneof Joseph and of The

of Troy.

Kenneth Muir Mackenzie. Madonna and infant John.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

99

Two

Marquess of Bath.

Longleat (Warminster).

Feast and Flight.


Galleria Tadini, 29.
Ma-

Cassone-ironts:

Lovere

(Lago d'Iseo).

donna and infant John.


Borromeo. Pieta.
Municipio. Two compartments

Milan.
Narni.

of the

Predelle to Ghirlandajo's Coronation


of Virgin:

SS. Francis

and Jerome.

i486.

New Haven

(U. S. A.).

Jarves Collection,

47.

St.

Jerome.
Oxford.

Christ Church Library,


and infant John.

Palermo.

Baron Chiaramonte-Bordonaro,
St.

Paris.

14 1 6 a.

Jerome.
Marriage

of

22.

Madonna

Peleus

118.

and

Thetis.

14 1 6b.

Triumph

of Venus.

M. Jean Dollfus, 1519. Frame to a


Trecento Madonna.
M. Joseph Spiridon. Scene from the
Tale of Nastagio degli Onesti.

Rome.

Colonna,

Scotland.

Rape of Sabines.
Langton (near Duns),

11.

Romans and

Reconciliation

1483.

between

Sabines.

14.

Baillie-Hamilton.
Vienna.

Warwick

Hon.

Mrs.

Casso ne-iront

Story of Io.
Dr. A. Figdor.

Large Cross with SS.


Jerome and Francis.
Count Lanckoronski. Several Martyrdoms, including the Decapitation of
Castle.

the Baptist beside a Well.


Two small
Earl of Warwick.
Tondi: St. Stephen; A Bishop.

WORKS OF

100

AMICO DI SANDRO.
An

artistic personality

between

Botticelli

and

Filip-

pino Lippi.
Altenburg.

Linden au Museum,

ioo.

Por-

Profile

trait of Caterina Sforza.

Bergamo.
Berlin.

Morelli, 21. Profile Portrait of Giuliano de' Medici.


82.
Madonna.
Herr Edward Simon. Bust of Young

Man.
Budapest.

Madonna

52.

in

Landscape with

St.

Antony of Padua and kneeling Monk.


Chantilly.

Musee Conde.

Cassone-iront:

Story of

Esther.
Florence.

Pitti, 336.

"La

Bella Simonetta"

Death of Lucretia.
353.
Uffizi, 23. Madonna and three Angels
(from S. Maria Nuova). E.
Madonna adoring Child.
Cenacolo di Foligno (Via Faenza),
1547.

100.

Madonna and

adoring Child.
Corsini Gallery, 340.

infant

John

The Five

Vir-

tues.

Horsmonden

(Kent).

London.

1124.

Capel Manor, Mrs. Austen.


Madonna and Angel (version of lost
original by Botticelli).
E.
Adoration of Magi.

Madonna and infant John.


Victoria and Albert Museum, Ionides
Bequest. Portrait of Esmeralda
14 1 2.

Bandinelli.

E.

Mr. Robert Benson.


Angel.

Tobias and the

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

101

Meiningen.

Grand Ducal Palace.

Milan.
Naples.

Prince Trivulzio. Profile of Lady.


Madonna and two Angels. E.

Oxford.

Museo Filangieri, 1506 bis.


of Young Man.
Christ Church Library, 4,

Paris.

panels with Sibyls in Niches.


1662A. Cassone-iront Death of Virginia.

Nativity.

Portrait

5.

Two

1663.

Portrait of

Comte Pastre:

Young Man.

Cassone-iront: Story of

Esther.

Baron Schlichting. Madonna (version


of Filippo's Madonna at Munich).
Philadelphia.

Mr. John G.
Man.

Rome.

Count Gregori Stroganoff.

Scotland.

Angels swinging Censers.


Newbattle Abbey (Dalkeith), MarCoronation of
quess of Lothian.

Johnson.

Portrait

of

Two

Virgin (lunette).
St.

Stroganoff Collection. Nativity


and Angels in Landscape.
Tobias and the three Archangels
113.
Prince Liechtenstein. Bust of Young
Man.
Two Cassone panels with

Petersburg.

Turin.

Vienna.

Story of Esther.

ANDREA
1486-

(Vanucci)

DEL SARTO.

Pupil of Pier di Cosimo; influenced by


53 1.
Fra Bartolommeo and Michelangelo.

Berlin.

Dresden.

240.

Bust of his Wife.

246.

Madonna and

Saints.

76.

Marriage of

77.

Sacrifice of Isaac.

1528.

St. Catherine.

E.

WORKS OF

102
Florence.

Academy,

6i.

Fresco:

75.

Two

Dead

76.

Four

77.

Predelle to 76.

Pitti, 58.

Angels.

1528.

Christ.

Saints.

1528.

Deposition.

1524.

Young Man.

66.

Portrait of

81.

Holy Family.

1516.
87,88. Life of Joseph.
Annunciation.
124.
Dispute over the Trinity.
172.

Portrait of

191.

225.

Assumption.
Assumption.

272.

The

7.

1531.
1526.

Baptist.

Madonna.
476.
" Noli
Uffizi, 93.

me

Tangere."

188.

Portrait of his Wife.

280.

Fresco Portrait of Himself

E.

"

1112.
1 1

151

Young Man.

184.

Madonna

dell'

Arpie.

I'

1517.

Portrait of Himself.

76.

Portrait of Lady.

1230.

James.
Corsini Gallery.
1254.

St.

Apollo and Daphne.

E.

Monochrome

Chiostro dello Scalzo.

Frescoes: Charity, 15 12-15. Preaching of Baptist, finished 15 15.


Jus'
tice,
St.
John Baptising,
15 15.
15

1 7.

Faith,

Baptist
1520.

made

Prisoner, 151 7.
Salome,
of

Dance

Annunciation to Zacharias,
Decapitation of Baptist, 1523.
Feast of Herod, 1523. Hope, 1523.
Birth of Baptist,
Visitation, 1524.
1522.

1522.

1526.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

103

Annunziata, Entrance Court.

Florence. (Con.) SS.

Frescoes: Five to L. with the Story


of St. Filippo Benizzi, 1509-1510.
R.,

Adoration of Magi, 151

Birth

1.

of Virgin, 15 14.

Chapel to

L. of

Head

Entrance.

of

Christ.

Inner Cloister, over Door. Fresco:

"Madonna
Salvi.

S.

5 15.

del Sacco."

1525.

Four Evangelists.
Fresco: Last Supper, begun
Fresco:

in 1510.

Poggio a Cajano
Tribute.

(Royal Villa near


Caesar receiving

Fresco:

Florence).

1521

(finished

by A.

Al-

lori).

London.

Portrait of a Sculptor.

690.

Hertford House. Madonna and Angels.


Mr. Robert Benson. Tondo: Madonna
with infant John.

L.

Mr. Leopold de Rothschild.


and infant John.
Madrid.

383.

Portrait of his Wife.

385.

Holy Family and Angel.


Sacrifice of Isaac.

387.

Naples.
Paris.

Copy

of Raphael's

1514.

Charity.

1515.

Holy Family.

Madonna

1529.

Leo X.
1518.

Lord Leconfield, 7>2>3Madonna with infant John and three

Petworth House (Sussex).


Angels

Rome.

Borghese,
John.

St.

Petersburg.

24.

(?).

336.

E.

Madonna and

infant

E.

Madonna with

Catherine.

15 19.

SS. Elizabeth

and

104

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Madonna enthroned

Florence. (Con.) 240.

10$

(but not the

Trinity above).

Story of SS. Cosmas and Damian

243.

(in part).

246.

Entombment.

250.

Crucifixion.

251.

Coronation of Virgin.
Sixteen scenes from Life of
Christ and Virgin, except the " Legge
d'Amore." 1448.

252-254.

258.

Martyrdom
Damian.

of

Madonna with

265.

SS.

Cosmas and

six Saints

and two

Angels.
266.
Last Judgment (not the Damned
nor the Inferno).
Madonna and eight Saints and eight
281
Angels.
1438 (ruined).
L.
Predella: Pieta and Saints.
283.
.

(ruined).

Uffizi,

Triptych:

17.

Saints

and Angels;

Madonna with
Predella.

No. 1290:

Predella to

1433.
of

Birth

162.

168.

Predella to No. 1290: Sposalizio.

184.

Predella to No. 1290: Dormition.

1290.

Coronation of Virgin.
Tabernacle Madonna, Saints, and

John.

1294.

Angels.

Museo

di

1443-

San Marco.

Frescoes,

all

painted from between about 1439 to

no

later

Cloister.
inic

than 1445.
St. Peter Martyr;

at foot of Cross;

(ruined);

Pieta; Christ

St.

as

St.

Dom-

Dominic
Pilgrim

WORKS OF

I06
Florence. (Con.)

with two Dominicans; St. Thomas


Aquinas.
Chapter House. Large Crucifixion.
Upper Floor, Walls. Annunciation;

Dominic at foot of Cross; Madonna with eight Saints.


Rooms, No. i. " Noli me Tangere."
St.

2.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Florence. (Con.)

107

Madonna and Saints (architecture


and landscape by Lorenzo di Credi).
Sacristy of adjoining Monastery.
Fresco Crucifixion.
:

Frankfort, a/M.

Herr Adolf Schaeffer.

Madonna

enthroned and four Angels.

London.
Lyons.

Madrid.

Munich.

Paradise.

663.

Mrs. J. E. Taylor. Small panel.


M. Edouard Aynard. Madonna with
SS. Peter, Paul, and George, with
Angels and kneeling Donor.
Prado, 14. Annunciation.
Duke of Alba. Madonna and Angels.
989-991. Legends of Saints.

Entombment.
Duomo, Chapel of
992.

Orvieto.

Paris.

S. Brizio.
Ceiling
Frescoes: Christ as Judge; Prophets
(assisted by Benozzo Gozzoli). 1447.

1290.

Coronation of Virgin.

Martyrdom of SS. Cosmas and


Damian.
_ /

1293.
1294.

Fresco: Crucifixion.

M. Georges Chalandon. Meeting of


Francis and Dominic.
M. Noel Valois. Crucifixion with Cardinal (probably) John Torquemada,
as Donor.

L.

Madonna and

Parma.

429.

Perugia.

Sala V, 1-18. Altarpiece in many parts.


Sala VI, 7. Salvator Mundi.
Corsini, Sala VII, 22. Pentecost.
Last Judgment.
23.

Pisa.

Rome.

24.

four Saints.

Ascension..

Vatican, Pinacoteca. Madonna; two


Predelle with Legend of St. Nicholas.

WORKS OF

108

Rome.

Museo Cristiano, Case

Q. V. St.
Francis receiving Stigmata.
Chapel of Nicholas V. Frescoes:
Lives of SS. Stephen and Lawrence.

{Con.)

1447-1449.

Count

Gregori

Stroganoff.

Small

Tabernacle
St.

Petersburg.

Turin.

Vienna.

Hermitage,

1674.

Fresco:

with SS. Dominic and


Aquinas.
Adoring Angels.
103, 104.
Baron Tucher. Annunciation

BACCHIACCA

Madonna
Thomas

(in part).

(Francesco Ubertini).

About 1494-1557. Pupil of Perugino and Franciabigio


influenced by Andrea del Sarto and Michelangelo.
Asolo.

Canonica della Parrocchia. Madonna

Bergamo.

Morelli, 62. Death of Abel.


Baptism.
267.

with
Berlin.

267 a.

St. Elizabeth.

Portrait of

(Magazine.)

Herr Eugen
Boston (U.

S. A.).

Swan.
Mrs.

Young Woman.

Decapitation of Baptist.
Schweizer. Leda and the

J.

L.

Gardner.

Head

of

Woman.
Brocklesby
Budapest.
Cassel.

Dijon.

Earl of Yarborough.
Madonna and St. Anne.

(Lincolnshire).

Preaching of Baptist.
Old Man Seated.
Muse, Donation Jules Maciet.
70.

484.

rection.

Dresden.

80.

Legendary Subject.

1523.

Resur-

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Florence.

Pitti, 102.

109

The Magdalen.

Descent from Cross.


Uffizi, 87.
Predelle: Life of St. Ascanius.
1296.
Tobias and Angel.
157 1.

Corsini Gallery, 164. Madonna,


fant John, and sleeping Child.
Portrait of

206.

Man.

in-

1540.

Conte Niccolini (Via dei Servi). Madonna with St. Anne and infant
John.

Conte Serristori. Madonna with


Anne and infant John.
Mr. Drury Lowe,
Locko Park (near Derby).

St.

44.

Christ bearing Cross.

London.

1218,1219.

Milan.

Marcus Curtius.
Mr. Charles Butler. Portrait of Young
Man.
Mr. Frederick A. White. Birth Plate.
Comm. Benigno Crespi. Adoration of
Magi; Madonna.
Dr. Gustavo Frizzoni. Adam and Eve.
Madonna and infant John.
1077.
Christ Church Library, 55. "Noli me

Story of Joseph.

1304.

Munich.
Oxford.

Tangere."
Resurrection of Lazarus.
Holy
(Surrey).
Sir Frederick Cook.
Family; Last Supper; Crucifixion.
Two Grisailles: Apollo and Cupid Apollo
57.

Richmond

Rome.

and Daphne.
Borghese, 338. Madonna.
Life of Joseph.
425, 426, 440, 442, 463.
Miss Hertz. Bust of Magdalen.

Troyes.
Venice.

Musee.

Tobias and Angel.


Seminario, 23. Madonna.

no

WORK'S OF

Venice. {Con.) Prince Giovanelli.

Moses

Striking

Rock.

Wiesbaden.

Nassauisches Kunstverein,
donna and infant John.

114.

Ma-

ALESSO BALDOVINETTI.
1425-1499. Pupil of Domenico Veneziano; influenced
by Paolo Uccello.

Bergamo.

Morelli,
self

Fresco: Portrait of Him23.


(fragment from S. Trinita,

Florence).
Berlin.

16

Florence.

Academy,

14.

233

Young Woman.

Profile of
159.

Trinity.

Marriage of Cana Baptism Trans;

figuration.

Uffizi, 56.

1448.

Annunciation.

Madonna and

60.

(?)

1471.

Saints.

Mr. B. Berenson. Madonna. E.


S. Ambrogio. Baptist with SS. Catherine,
Stephen, Ambrose,
and Angels.
1470-1473.
SS.

Annunziata,

Entrance

Fresco: Nativity.

Duomo, Sacristy.

Court.

1460-1462.

Intarsias (after his

cartoons): Nativity, 1463.

Circum-

cision.
S.

Marco, Courtyard. Crucifixion with

S.

S. Antonino.
Miniato, Portuguese Chapel.

nunciation.

An-

1466.

Cupola and Spandrils:


Begun 1466.
Pancrazio,
Ruccellai Chapel.

Frescoes in
Prophets.
S.

Fresco: Resurrected Christ.

1467.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

III

Chapel (beside S. Croce). Winin Choir (after his design): St.

Florence. (Con.) Pazzi

dow

Andrew.
Choir.
Frescoes: begun
Ceiling. Noah; Moses;
Abraham; David.
Lunettes: Fragment of Sacrifice of
Isaac; slight fragment of Moses receiving the Tables of the Law.
1300A. Madonna in Landscape.
E.
Trinita,

S.

in

Paris.

Mme.

1471:

Edouard Andre.

Madonna

in

Landscape.

FRA BARTOLOMMEO

(Baccio della Porta).

Pupil of Pier di Cosimo; influenced by


Leonardo and Michelangelo.

1475 -1 517.

Earl Brownlow,
Ashridge Park (Berkhampstead).
Madonna. L.
Assumption (upper part by AlberBerlin.
249.
tinelli).
Probably, 1508.
Cathedral. Madonna in Glory, Saints,
Besangon.
and Ferry Carondolet as Donor.
1512.

Cambridge (U.

S.

A.).

Fogg Museum.

Sacrifice of

Abel.
Florence.

Academy,

58.

St.

Vincent Ferrer.

Vision of St. Bernard.


1506.
Heads in Fresco
168.
Fresco: Madonna.
171.
Portrait of Savonarola.
172.

97.

Fresco Madonna
173.
Deposition.
Pitti, 64.
:

125.

St.

Mark.

1514.

WORKS OF

112
Florence. (Con.) 159.

Christ

and the four Evangelists.

1516.
208.

Madonna and

256.

Holy Family.

Saints.

15 12.

Fresco: Ecce Homo.


377.
Uffizi, 71.
Fresco: Last Judgment. Be-

gun
1

126.

1130.
1

1499, finished
Isaiah.

by

Albertinelli.

Job.

Small Diptych. E.
Altarpiece
Underpainting
for
(from his cartoons).
15 10-13.

16 1.

1265.

Museo

di

San Marco, Savonarola's

Cell. Fresco: Madonna, 1514. Profile of Savonarola. E. Fresco: Christ


at
S.

Emmaus.

Marco, 2D Altar R.
Saints.

Madonna and

1509.

Pian di Mugnone (near Florence). S.


Maddalena. Frescoes: Annunciation.

15 15;

"Noli

me

Tangere."

1517-

Grenoble.

Musee,

London.

in Landscape.
Col. G. L. Holford, Dorchester House.

1694.

374.

Madonna.

Madonna

Madonna

(in part).

Mr. Ludwig Mond. Holy Family; Small


Nativity.

Earl of North brook.


(finished

Lucca.

Naples.

by

Holy Family

Albertinelli).

"Madonna della Misericordia." 15 15.


God adored by Saints. 1509.
Duomo, Chapel L. of Choir. Madonna
and Saints. 1509.
Assumption of Virgin (in great part)

1 5 1

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

I I

Panshanger (Hertford). Holy Family.


Burial and Ascension of S. Antonino.
" Noli me Tangere."
iii5Paris.
1506.
1

Annunciation.

153.

15 15.

Madonna and Saints. 1511.


Mr. John G. Johnson. Adam and Eve

1154.

Philadelphia.

(unfinished).

Richmond

Rome.

Sir Frederick Cook, Octagon


Room, 40. Madonna with St. Elizabeth and Children.
15 16.
Corsini Gallery, 579. Holy Family.

(Surrey).

1516.

Lateran,

St.

73.

Peter

(finished

by

Raphael).
75. St. Paul.

Marchese Visconti Venosta. Tondo:


Holy Family.
St.

Madonna and

Petersburg.

Vienna.

34.
38.

three Angels.

Madonna and
Albertinelli).

41.

15 15.

Madonna.
Saints (assisted

by

15 10.

Circumcision.

15 16.

BENOZZO GOZZOLI.
1420-1497. Pupil possibly of Giuliano Pesello, and
of the Bicci assistant and follower of Fra Angel;

Berlin.

Madonna, Saints, and Angels.


60 b.
Miracle ot S. Zanobi.
1461.

Beziers.

Musee,

Cambridge (U.

S.

193.

A.).

St.

Castelfiorentino (near Empoli).

ara.

Rose and the Magdalen.

Fogg Museum.

Madonna.
Cappella di S. Chi-

Tabernacle with Frescoes

great part).

(in

WORKS OF

114

Madonna della Tosse

Castelfiorentino. (Con.)

way

to Castelnuovo)

great part).

(on
Frescoes (in

1484.

Certaldo.

Cappella del Ponte dell' Agliena.

Cologne.
Florence.

520.

Tabernacle with Frescoes.

Madonna and

Saints.

1465.

1473.

Academy,

Pilaster with SS. Bar37.


tholomew, James, and John the Baptist (execution probably by Giusto
d' Andrea).
Uffizi, 1302. Predella: Pieta and Saints.

Palazzo Riccardi. Frescoes Procession


of Magi Angels.
1459.
Palazzo Alessandri.
Four Predelle:
:

Miracle of St. Zanobi; Totila before


St. Benedict; Fall of Simon Magus;

Conversion of

Mr. Herbert

P.

St.

Paul.

Horne.

E.

Large Cruci-

L.

fixion.

Locko Park (near Derby).

Mr. Drury Lowe. CruciE.

fixion.

London.

Madonna, Saints, and Angels. 1461.


H. M. The King, Buckingham Palace.
Death of Simon Magus. 1461.
Mr. C. N. Robinson. Madonna and

Meiningen.

Grand Ducal Palace.

Milan.

Brera, 475.

Montefalco.

Pinacoteca (S. Francesco). Bay to R.


of Entrance. Various Frescoes,

283.

Angels.

to Life.

St.

St. Ursula.

Dominic restoring Child

146 1.

1452.

Choir.
St.

S.

Frescoes:

Francis, etc.

Scenes from Life of


Finished, 1452.

Fortunato, over Entrance. Fresco

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

Montefalco. (Con.) Madonna, Saints, and Angels. 1450.


Fresco:
Madonna and
R. Wall.

Angel,

1450.

Second Altar
Narni.
Paris.

R.

Fresco:

S.

For-

tunato enthroned.
1450.
Municipio. Annunciation.
1319-

Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas.


Four Saints.
d' Adelsward.

Baronne

1471.

Sala VII, 20. Madonna and Saints. 1456.


Philadelphia. Mr. Peter Widener. Raising of Lazarus.
Sala VI. Madonna, Saints, and Angels.
Pisa.
Madonna and St. Anna.
Campo Santo. Series of Frescoes from
Old Testament; also an AnnunciaPerugia.

tion.

1468-1484.

Ricovero per Mendicita. (ancient Refectory of S. Domenico).

and Saints;

Frescoes:

Dominic
and two Angels (in part). L.
Universita dei Cappellani (Piazza del
Duomo). Madonna, Saints, and DoCrucifixion

nors.

Rome.

Lateran,

St.

1470.
60.

Polyptych.

1450.

Vatican, Museo Cristiano, Case S,


XII. Small Pieta.
Aracoeli, third Chapel L. Fresco: St.
Antony, Donors, and Angels.
San Gemignano. Municipio. Restoration of Lippo

Memmi's

Fresco,

R. added, 1467.
S.

and two figures to


Fresco: Crucifixion.

Agostino, Choir. Frescoes: Life of


St. Augustine (the children's heads
in the purely ornamental parts are

by

assistants).

1465.

WORKS OF

i6

Second Altar

San Gemignano. (Con.)


St.

Sebastian.

Andrea

S.

(three miles out

Madonna.

Fresco:

L.

1464.

town).

of

1466.

Collegiata,

Madonna

Choir.

and

1466.

Saints.

Entrance Wall.

St.

other Frescoes.

Monte Oliveto.

Sebastian and

1465.

Fresco:

Crucifixion.

1466.

Sermoneta.

Madonna and

Parish Church.

Angels.

E.
Terni.

Madonna with Angels and

Biblioteca.

five Saints.

1466.

Madonna and Saints. E.


Baron Tucher. Madonna and Cheru-

Vienna.

26.

Volterra.

Duomo, Cappella del Nome

bim.
di

Gesu.

Fresco Background to a Delia Robbia


Nativity Procession of Magi.
:

BOTTICELLI

(Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi).

1444-15 10. Pupil of Fra Filippo; influenced early by


the Pollajuoli.

Bergamo.

Morelli,

Berlin.

106.
1

Story of Virginia.

25.

Madonna and

128.

Saints.

St. Sebastian.

1474.

von Kaufmann Collection.


part).

Boston (U.

S. A.).

Child.

9.

Judith

(in

L.

Mrs. J. L. Gardner. Madonna with


Angel offering Ears of Wheat to

Death
Dresden.

L.

1485.

E.

of Lucretia.

L.

Scenes from Life of

S.

Zanobi.

L.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Florence.

Academy,

73.

Coronation.

God the Father by


74.

117

(Virgin

and

inferior hand).

Probably, 1490.
Predelle to above.

80.

"Primavera."

85.

Madonna,

Saints,

Christ;

Death

and Angels.

Predelle to 85:

157, 158, 161, 162.

of

St.

Dead

Ignatius;

Sa-

lome; Vision of St. Augustine.


Birth of Venus.
Uffizi, 39.
1 154.
Portrait of Giovanni di Cosimo de'
Medici.
E.
1 1 56.
E.
Judith.
1 158.
Holofernes. E.
1 1 79.
St. Augustine.
1

Calumny. L.
Tondo: "Magnificat."

182.

1267

bis.

Adoration of Magi.
Tondo:
Madonna and Angels
("Madonna of the Pomegranate").

1286.

1289.

1487
"Fortezza."

1299.

1470.

3436.

Adoration of Magi (only laid in

by

Botticelli).

Palazzo Capponi, Marchese Farinola.


Last

Palazzo

Communion

of St. Jerome.

Pallas subduing a Cen-

Pitti.

taur.

Ognissanti. Fresco

Corbignano.

(near

St.

Augustine. 1480.

Florence,

London.

592.

work)
626.

towards

Cappella Vanella.
Repainted Fresco: Madonna. E.
Adoration of Magi (earliest extant

Settignano),

Portrait of

Young Man.

WORKS OF

Il8
London. {Con.)

Mars and Venus.

915.

1033.

Tondo:

1034.

Nativity.

Mr.

P.

J.

Adoration of Magi.

E.

1501.

Heseltine.

Madonna and

in-

fant John (in small part).

Mr. Ludwig Mond.


S.

Scenes from Life of


Zanobi (two panels). L.

Ambrosiana,

Milan.

145.

To ndo: Madonna and

Angels.

Madonna.
Giovanna Tornabuoni
with Venus and the Graces, i486.
Fresco: Lorenzo Tornabuoni in1298.

Poldi-Pezzoli, 156.
Paris.

297-

Fresco:

troduced
Sciences,

Rome.

into

the

Circle

of

the

i486.

Vatican, Sixtine Chapel. Frescoes:


Moses and the Daughters of Jethro;
Destruction of the Children of Korah
Christ tempted

1481-2.

on Roof of Temple.

Among

the single figures of


Popes: Most of Stephen and Marcellinus, and heads of Cornelius, Lucius,
and Sixtus II, and probably Euaristus.
St.

Petersburg.

1481-2.

Hermitage, 3. Adoration
Probably 1482.

of Magi.

FRANCESCO BOTTICINI.
1446-1498. Pupil of Neri di Bicci; influenced by Castagno worked under and was formed by Cosimo
Rosselli and Verrocchio; influenced later by
Amico di Sandro.
;

Bergamo.

Morelli,

33.

Tobias and the Angel.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Berlin.

Crucifixion

70 a.

Boston (U.

Mrs.

A.)

S.

and

Saints,

1475.

Coronation of the Virgin.

72.

J. L.

Gardner.

E.

Madonna

in

Landscape.
Chicago (U.

Cleveland (U.

Adoration of Magi.
Holden Collection,
A.).
donna adoring Child (?).

S.

13.

Empoli.

Mr. Martin Ryerson.

S. A.)

Tondo:
3.

Ma-

Madonna.

Opera del Duomo,

25.

Annunciation.

Towards 1473.
Tabernacle

for

Sacrament, with

St.

Andrew and Baptist; Predelle: Last


Supper; Martyrdom of two Saints.
1484-1491.
Tabernacle for sculptured St. Sebastian
with two Angels and Donors; PreSebastian.
of
Story
St.
delle:
Florence.

Towards
Academy, 30.

1473.

St. Vincent Ferrer.


Augustine.
St. Monica.
60.
Tobias and the three Archangels.
84.
Tobias and the Angel, with youth154.
ful Donor.

59.

St.

Martyrdom

Andrew.
Madonna, infant John, and

of St.

Pitti, 347.

Angels worshipping Child.


Uffizi, 3437.
S.

Madonna.

Appolonia. Deposition with Magdalen and SS. Sebastian and Bernard.

Two Cassone-panels:
di Brindisi.
Story of Virginia.
Marchese Pio Strozzi. Madonna with
Duca

SS.

Antony Abbot and Donate

WORKS OF

120

Altarpiece
Florence. (Con.) S. Spirito, R. Transept.
with Predelle: St. Monica and Nuns.
1483.
S. Andrea,
Madonna and Saints.

Brozzi (near Florence).

Wall.

R.

1480.

(The Fresco above, with God,


is school work.)

the Father,
Gottingen.

London.

University Gallery, 236. Madonna


and infant John.
St. Jerome with other Saints and
227.
Donors.
1 1

Assumption

26.

of

Virgin.

Before

1475-

Earl of Ashburnham.

Madonna

ador-

ing Child.

Tondo: Madonna
Landscape.
Madonna with four rose-crowned
Angels and two Cherubim.

Mr. Robert Benson.


in

Mr.

C.

Brinsley Marlay.

Madonna

adoring Child.

Charles Butler. Bishop enthroned, with four Female Saints.


Madonna and Angels adoring
449.
Mr.

Modena.

Child.

Municipio.
Montefortino (near Amandola, Abruzzi).
Madonna adoring Child.
Baron Chiaramonte Bordonaro. SS.
Palermo.
Nicholas and Roch.
S. Maria, third Altar L.
Angels and Saints around old Pic-

Panzano (near Greve).


ture.

La Grange Blanche, M.
Henri Chalandon. Nativity.
Madonna in Glory, and Saints.
1482.

Parcieux (near Trevoux).


Paris.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Paris. (Con).

Mme. Edouard Andre.


four

Saints;

Filippo's Uffizi

121

Madonna and

Version

Madonna

of

Fra

Pietd with

SS. Nicholas, James, Dominic,

and

Louis.

Comtesse Arconati-Visconti.

Tondo:

Madonna adoring Child.


M. Henri Heugel. Madonna adoring
Child.

Madonna and

Prato.

Richmond

Bust of Young Man.


Gosford House. Earl of Wemyss.

Scotland.

Youth.
Bust of Youth.
Coronation of Virgin.
119.
Haigh Hall, Earl Crawford. Madonna, enthroned with St. Francis,
Donor, Tobias, and Angel.
Profile

Stockholm.
Turin.

Wigan.

of

Royal Palace.

BRONZINO
i502(?)-i572.

Pupil
Michelangelo.

Bergamo.

four Saints.

Sir Frederick Cook, Museum.

(Surrey).

Morelli,

(Angelo Allori).

of

Pontormo;

65.

Portrait

influenced

of

by

Alessandro

de' Medici.

Berlin.

338.

338 a.
338B.

Portrait of Youth.
Portrait of Ugolino Martelli.

Portrait of Eleonora da Toledo.


Simon Collection, 2. Bust of Youth.

Herr Edward Simon.


Besancon.

Bearded Man.
Musee, 57. Deposition.

Portrait

of

WORKS OF

22
Boston. (Con.)

Mrs.

L.

J.

Gardner.

Portrait of a

Medici Princess.
Budapest.
Cassel.

Florence.

190.

Venus and Cupid

191.

Adoration of Shepherds.

(in part).

Duke Cosimo de' Medici in


armour, holding Myrtle-branch.
Holy Family.
Pitti, 39.
Portrait of

403.

Portrait of

434.

Portrait

Duke Cosimo

of

the

I.

Architect

Luca

Martini.
158-

Lucrezia Panciatichi.
Descent from Cross. 1545.

Uffizi, 154.
159-

Bartolommeo

172.

Eleonora da Toledo and DonGarzia.

198.

Portrait of

Panciatichi.

Young Woman.

"55-

Don

1164.

Maria

1166.

Man

1209.

Dead

1211.

Allegory of Happiness.

Garzia.
de' Medici.

in

Armour.

Christ.

1266.

Portrait of Sculptor.

1271.

Christ in Limbo.

1272.

Don

1275-

Maria

1552.

Ferdinand.
de' Medici.

Miniatures: 848. Don Garzia.


Don Ferdinand.
852.

855.

Maria de' Medici.


Francesco de' Medici.
Duke Cosimo I.

857.

Alessandro de' Medici.

853.
854.

Magazine. Annunciation.
Palazzo Vecchio, Chapel of Eleonora
da Toledo. Frescoes. 1564.
Fresco: MarS. Lorenzo, L. Wall.
tyrdom of St. Lawrence.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


The Hague.

3.

London.

651.

123

Portrait of Lady.
Allegory.

1323.

Piero de' Medici

Lucca.

Don Ferdinand.
Don Garzia.

Milan.

Brera,

il

Gottoso.

Portrait of

565.

Andrea Doria

as Neptune.

New

York.

Mrs. Gould.

Woman

Portrait of

and

Child.

Havemeyer Collection.

Youth

Pisa.

Black.
" Noli me Tangere."
1 183.
1 184.
Portrait of Sculptor.
Nativity.
S. Stefano.
1564.

Rome.

Borghese Gallery,

Paris.

444.

St.

in

John the

Baptist.

Colonna Gallery,
and Satyr.
Corsini Gallery,

2 171.

Stefano Colonna.

Prince Doria.

Venus, Cupid,

4.

Portrait

of

1548.

Portrait of Giannottino

Doria.
Portrait of Giovanni delle
Nere.

Turin.

128.

Venice.

Seminario,

Vienna.

44.

Portrait of

49.

Holy Family.

16.

Bande

Portrait of Child.

Man.

L.

BUGIARDINI.
1475-1554. Pupil of Ghirlandajo and Pier di Cosinfluenced by
imo; assistant of Albertinelli
Francesco Francia,
Perugino, Michelangelo,
;

and Franciabigio.

WORKS OF

124
Agram.

Madonna

Gallery.

Strossmayer

seated in a Loggia looking down


towards infant John (?).
Casscm^-panels
Story of
149.
142,
Tobias.

Berlin.

Madonna and

283.

Saints.

Museum

of Industrial Art. Cassonefront: Story of St. Felicitas.


Palace of Emperor William I. Cassone-ivont: Story of Tobias.
Bologna.

St.

25-

John

in Desert.

Madonna enthroned with SS. Catherine, Antony of Padua, and infant

26.

John.

Bonn.

Madonna.
Gallery, 285.

Tondo:

745-

University

Madonna

with infant John.

Bowood Park

Marquess of Lansdowne.
Perugino's Madonna in

(Calne).

Copy

of

Louvre (No. 1565).


"Votto Santo di Luca"

Budapest.

92.

Dijon.

Musee.

Madonna and

1.

Figline (near Florence).

S.

Piero al Terreno, High

Madonna with

Altar.

Paul, Francis,
Florence.

(?).

infant John.

SS. Peter,

and Jerome.

Pitti, 140.
Portrait of Lady.
Uffizi, 89.
Tondo: Madonna and infant John (?).
E.

213.

Madonna.

3451.

Museo

S.
5.

Madonna and

infant John.

1520.

Marco, Anticamera of
Refectory, 6. Madonna adored
by St. Francis and the Magdalen.
Croce, Refectory, 3. St. Nicholas.
The Baptist.
di

S.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Florence. (S. Croce Con.)
St.

43.

42.

12$

St. Paul.

Jerome.

Maria Novella, R. Transept. Martyrdom of St. Catherine.


Madonna, infant John, and Angels
809.

S.

London.

(Michelangelo's suggestion).
Baptist in Des-

Earl of Northbrook.
ert drinking.

Maria delle Grazie. The Baptist.


Modena.
Madonna and infant John.
334.
Mombello (near Milan). Prince Pio di Savoia.
Madonna.
Newport (U. S. A.). Mr. Theodore M. Davis, The
Reef. Madonna, infant John, and
Milan.

S.

Angel.

Metropolitan Museum. Madonna and


infant John ( ?)
Olantigh Towers (Wye, Kent). Mr. Erle-Drax, 610.
Madonna and infant John.

New

York.

Oldenburg.

28.

Paris.

1644.

St. Sebastian.

Bust of Youth.

Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Salle,


253.

Bust of

Woman

with Prayer-

Book.
Philadelphia.

Rome.

Mme. Edouard Andre. Portrait of Lady.


Mr. Peter Widener. 179. Tondo:
Madonna and infant John (?).
Borghese Gallery, 177. Marriage of
St. Catherine.

Madonna and
Colonna Gallery,

136.

John (?).
Madonna.

Corsini Gallery,

580.

Madonna

443.

infant

(?)

1509584.

Leo X. (variation of Raphael's portrait in Pitti).

WORKS OF

126

Rome.

Prince Colonna.

(Con.)

7 ondo: Madonna and

infant John.

Scotland,

Contessa Spaletti. Tondo: Madonna


and infant John.
Langton (Duns).
Hon. Mrs. BaillieHamilton. Madonna and infant
John.

Palazzo Saracini,

Siena.

1420.

Holy Family

in Landscape.
St.

Tondo: Holy Family with infant John

Petersburg.

asleep.

University Gallery,

Strasburg.

286.

Presenta-

tion.

Tondo: Holy Family.

Stuttgart.

250.

Turin.

Madonna and infant John.


Museo Civico. Madonna and
114.

infant

John.

Baron

Venice.

Giorgio Franchetti.
and Cupid.

Venus

asleep

Rape
Academy,

Vienna.

36.

infant

of Dinah.

1134.

1531.

Tondo: Madonna with

John (Michelangelo's sugges-

tion).

RAFFAELLE DEI CARLI

(or Croli).

1470-after 1526.
Started under influence of Ghirlandajo and Credi, later became almost Umbrian,

and

at one time

whom
Berlin.

was

may have

he

in close contact with Garbo,


assisted.

Von Kaufmann Collection.

Three

half-length figures of Saints in small


ovals.

Dresden.

Madonna and two

Saints.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

127

Diisseldorf. 120.
Tondo: Madonna, with Child blessing.
Eastnor Castle (Ledbury). Lady Henry Somerset.

Altarpiece

Esher.

Mr. Herbert

Madonna and Saints.

F.

Cook, Copseham.

ites crossing

Red

Sea.

Israel-

The Golden

Calf.

Florence.

Madonna appearing

Uffizi, 90.

to four

Madonna, two Saints, and


two Donors (probably painted in
Garbo's studio). The four Evangelists (framed above Triptych ascribed
Saints.

to Spinello Aretino)

(?).

Magazine. Annunciation.
Mr. B. Berenson.
Christ
between Mary and John.

in

Duca

of Marine

di Brindisi.

Combat

Tomb

Deities.

Mr. H. W. Cannon, Villa Doccia (near

Chapel in Woods. Fresco.


Madonna with two
Saints and two Angels.
Via Conservatorio Capponi. I. Tabernacle: Madonna and two Angels.
Via delle Colonne, Scuola ElemenFiesole),

Corsini Gallery.

tare.

Fresco:

Miracle

of

Loaves

and Fishes. 1503.


Mrs. Ross, Poggio Gherardo. Madonna
in Glory, and two Bishops.
S. Ambrogio, first Altar R.
St. Ambrogio and other Saints; Annunciation in lunette.
S.

Maria Maddalena dei


Roch.

S.

Pazzi.

St.

St. Ignatius.

Procolo. Altar R.
Saints and Angels.

Visitation with

WORKS OF

128

South Transept. Madonna


and Evangelist with SS. Stephen,
Lawrence, and Bernard. 1505.

Florence. {Con.) S. Spirito,

Madonna with Evangelist, St. Bartholomew, and two Angels. E.


Madonna with two Angels and SS. Nichoand Bartholomew, and busts of
Jerome and another Saint.
Brozzi (near Florence). S. Andrea,
las

Fresco in lunette:
R. Wall.
Albert and Sigismund.

Le Mans.
Musee, 19.
Locko Park (near Derby).

SS.

Madonna.
Mr. Drury Lowe. Deposi-

The Baptist.
Robert Benson.

tion.

London.

Mr.

Mass

of

St.

Gregory.
1501.
Lucca.
Sala IV, 16. Polyptych.
Milan.
Poldi-Pezzoli, 158. Madonna and infant John.
Montepulciano. Municipio, 80.
Tondo: Madonna in
Landscape.
Olantigh Towers (Wye). Mr. Erle-Drax. Pieta.
Oxford.
Christ Church Library.
The Magdalen.
Paris.

*303-

Coronation and four Saints.

Baron Michele Lazzaroni.


tion,

M. Eugene Richtemberger.
Madonna and two Angels.
Pisa.

Museo

Resurrec-

with kneeling Donors.

Civico, 238.

Tondo:
L.

Madonna and

four

Saints.

S.

Sala VI, 15. God appearing to kneeling Company.


Matteo, L. Wall. Predelle to No.
238 in Museo.


THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS
Poggibonsi.

S.

Lucchese, R. Wall.

" Noli

29

me Tan-

gere."
Prato.

Municipio,

San Miniato

dei Tedeschi.

with

6.

Madonna and

infant John.

Domenico. Madonna
Andrew and Baptist (?).
S.

St.

i57Siena.

S.

Maria degli Angeli, High Altar.


Madonna in Glory, and Saints.
1502.

Vallombrosa.

Pieve. S. Giovanni Gualberto enthroned between four Saints. 1508.

Academy,

Venice.

55.

Madonna and two

Saints,

E.

Municipio, Anticamera.
donna.

Volterra.

Museo.

Madonna,

Fresco:

Saints,

Ma-

and Angels.

E.

Weston

Birt

(Tetbury).

Captain G.

L.

Holford.

Nativity.

ANDREA DEL CASTAGNO.


Died rather young in 1457.
and Paolo Uccello.
Florence.

Influenced

by Donatello

Third Tuscan Room. 12. Fresand Saints.


Appolonia, Refectory. Frescoes:
Last Supper; Crucifixion; Entombment; Resurrection.
Soon after

Uffizi,

co: Crucifixion

S.

Boccaccio;
(Nine Figures)
1434.
Petrarch; Dante; Queen Thomyris;
Cumaean Sibyl; Niccolo Acciajuoli;
Farinati degli Uberti; Filippo Scolari
("Pippo Spano"); Esther.
L.
Frieze of Putti with Garlands.

WORK'S OF

130

Florence. (Con.) Cloister.

Angels.

Hospital

(33

Fresco: Dead Christ and


Soon after 1434.
Via degli Alfani), Court.

Fresco: Crucifixion.
SS. Annunziata, first Altar L. Fresco:
(InvisiChrist and St. Julian.
L.
ble.)

Second
with

Altar

St.

L.

Fresco:

Jerome and other

Trinity

Saints.

L.

(Invisible.)

Duomo, Wall R. of Entrance:

Fresco:

Equestrian Portrait of Niccol6 da


Tolentino.

Window

in

his design).

1456.

Drum

of Cupola (from

Deposition.

1444.

Mr. Drury Lowe.


L.
(painted on a Shield).

David

Locko Park (near Derby).


London.

1138.

Mr.

J.

Small Crucifixion.

Pierpont Morgan.

Bust of Man.

CIMABUE.
About 1240-about

30 1.

all by the same hand, probably Cimabue's.

The following works are

Assisi.

'

S.

Francesco, -Upper Church, Choir


and Transepts. Frescoes.
~

Lower

Church, R. Transept.
Fresco: Madonna and Angels with
St. Francis.

Florence.

Academy,

102.

Madonna, Angels, and

four Prophets.
Paris.

1260.

Madonna and

Angels.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


COSIMO,

131

PIER DI COSIMO.

see

LORENZO DI CREDI.
145 6- 1537.
Berlin.

Woman

Bust of Young

80.

E.

(?).

Madonna.

100.

Cambridge.

Pupil of Verrocchio.

St. Mary of Egypt.


103.
Fitzwilliam Museum, 125.

Sebas-

St.

tian (the Saint only).

Carlsruhe.

Madonna and

409.

infant

John adoring

Child.

Collegiata, Altar R. of High


Altar. Nativity. L.
Holden Collection, 14. MaA.).

Castiglione Fiorentino.

Cleveland (U.

S.

donna.
Dresden.

Florence.

13.

Madonna and

14.

Nativity (in part).

15.

Madonna and

Academy,

92.

Nativity

94.

infant John.

E.

Saints.

Adoration of Shepherds.
(in great part).

Uffizi, 24.
Tondo: Madonna (in part).
Portrait of Young Man.
34.
1

Annunciation.

160.

E.

1163.

Portrait of Verrocchio.

1168.

Madonna and

Evangelist.

"Noli me Tangere."
Annunciation.
*3*3Annunciation.
Venus. E.
3452Tondo.
Madonna and Angel
1311.

adoring

Child (in part).


Marchese Pucci. Portrait of Lady.
S.

Domenico
R.

(near Fiesole), First

Baptism.

Altar

WORKS OF

132
Florence. {Con.)

Duomo. Sacristy.

Or San Michele,

Forli.

Glasgow.

Hamburg.

Hanover.
London.

1523.

Bar-

1488.

University Museum, 220. Crucifixion.


Weber Collection. Tondo: Ascension
of Youthful Saint accompanied by
two Angels.
Kestner Museum, 21. Bust of Youth.
Madonna.
593.

Madonna adoring

648.

Mr. Charles Butler.


Earl of Rosebery.
Longleat

St.

tholomew.
Madonna with St.
S. Spirito, Apse.
Jerome and an Apostle. E.
Scandicci (near Florence), Comtesse de
Turenne. Portrait of Youth.
Portrait of Lady.
E.
130.
Mr. William Beattie. Portrait of
the Artist.

Gottingen.

Michael.

St.

Pillar.

Child.

Madonna.
St.

George.

Marquess of Bath.

(Warminster).
donna.

Ma-

Milan.

Madonna. E.
105.
ConteCasatti. Madonna and infant John.

Munich.

1040 a.

Mayence.

Madonna

(?)

(done in Verroc-

chio's studio).

Naples.
Oxford.
Paris.

Nativity.

L.

University Galleries, 26. Madonna (?).


Madonna and two Saints. 1503,
1263.
or later.
1264.

" Noli

me

Tangere."

M. Gustave Dreyfus.

Madonna (done

in Verrocchio's studio).
Pistoia.

Duomo, Chapel L. of High Altar.


donna and Saints (done
chio's studio.

Ma-

in Verroc-

1478-1485).

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Pistoia. (Con.)

Madonna del Letto.

III

Virgin, St. Je-

rome, and Baptist.

1510.

Madonna and

Rome.

Borghese, 433.

Scotland.

John.
(Cf. Glasgow.)

Strasburg.

University Gallery,

infant

Madonna.

215.

E.
Turin.

115.

Madonna.

118.

Madonna

E.
(in part).

Querini-Stampalia, Sala III,


donna and infant John.

Venice.

DOMENICO,

see

Ma-

4.

VENEZIANO.

FILIPPINO and FILIPPO,

see

LIPPI.

FRANCIABIGIO.
Pupil of Pier di Cosimo and Albertinelli
worked with and was influenced by Andrea del

1482-1525.

Sarto.

Barnard Castle.

Bowes Museum,

235.

Bustof Young

Man.
Berlin.

235.

Portrait of Man.

245.

Portrait of

Man

writing.

Youth

1522.

in

Landscape.

Schweizer.

Madonna

245A.

Portrait of

Herr

Eugen

with infant John.


Bologna.
Brussels.
Chantilly.

Cracow.
Dijon.

Madonna.
Leda and her Children.
Musee de la Ville. Profile of Old Man.
Musee Conde, 41. Bust of Man.
Potocki Collection. Madonna with
infant John (?).
Musee, Donation Jules Maciet. Bust
294.

478.

of

Youth.

WORKS OF

134

Bathsheba.

Dresden.

75.

Florence.

Pitti, 43.

1523.
Portrait of Man.

Calumny. E.
427.
Uffizi, 92.
Tondo:
fant John.

15 14.

Madonna and

in-

E.

1223.

Temple

1224.

Tondo: Holy Family and infant

of Hercules.

John.

Madonna with Job and Baptist E


Chiostro dello Scalzo. Monochrome
1264.

Frescoes Baptist leaving his Parents,


Baptism, 1509.
1518-19.
Meeting of Christ and Baptist, 15 18-19.
:

SS.

Annunziata, Entrance Court, R.


Fresco:

Sposalizio.

15 13.

La Calza.

(Porta Romana).
Fresco:
Last Supper.
Poggio a Cajano (Royal Villa near
Florence).
Fresco: Triumph of Caesar.

Hamburg.

1521.

Weber Collection,

119.

Bust of Young

Man.
London.

Portrait of Young Man.


1035.
Mr. Robert Benson. Portrait of Young
Man.
Earl of Northbrook. Head of Young
Man.
Mr. T. Vasel.
Bust of Young Man.
Earl of Yarborough.
Bust of a

Modena.

223.

New

Mr. Rutherford Stuyvesant. Portrait


of Man.

Jeweller.

York.

Nimes.

15 16.

Birth of Baptist.

E.

Small Tondi: Trinity, SS.


Peter and Paul.

132, 269, 270.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Mr.

Oxford.

T.

W. Jackson.

135

Legend

of

Saint.
Paris.

Philadelphia.

Portrait of Andrea Fausti.


Mr. John G. Johnson. Bust of Christ

65 1 a.

Blessing (?).
Pinerolo (Piedmont). Villa Lamba Doria.
of

Portrait

Young Man.

Barberini Gallery. Portrait of Young


Man.
Borghese Gallery, 458. Madonna and

Rome.

infant John.

E.

Madonna

Corsini Gallery, 570.

ing Child on Parapet.

hold-

Portrait of

Man
Turin.

112.

Vienna.

46.
52.

with Book.
Annunciation.
Holy Family.

Madonna and

E.

infant

John

in

Land-

scape.

Man

Count Lanckoronski.
and

Feathers.

L.

with Cap
saving

Christ

Man from drowning (?).


Prince Liechtenstein. Bust of Young
Man. 15 1 7. Madonna and infant
John.

Wiesbaden.

Nassauisches Kunstverein,

118.

Cas-

sone picture.

Windsor

Castle.

Portrait of

Man

("

Gardener of Pier

Francesco dei Medici

").

RAFFAELINO del garbo.


1466-1524

(?).

Pupil

Lippi; influenced
Berlin.

of Botticelli and Filippino


by Ghirlandajo and Perugino.

Bust of Man.

WORKS OF

136
Berlin. (Con.) 81.

Profile of

Young Woman.

Tondo: Madonna and Angels.


Simon Collection, i.
Tondo i Ma-

90.

donna and Angels. E.


Madonna and infant John.
Academy, 90. Resurrection.
Corporation Gallery. Madonna with

Dresden.

22.

Florence.

Glasgow.

infant John.

Mr. Robert Benson. Tondo: Madonna


and Angels.
Holford, Dorchester
L.
Col. G.
Madonna and Angel.
House.
Mr. Charles Ricketts. Madonna in

London.

Landscape.

Henry Samuelson.

Sir

donna

with

Tondo: Ma-

and

Magdalen

St.

Catherine.

M. Edouard Aynard.

Lyons.

Profile

Bust of

Baptist.

Munich.

1009.

Naples.
Paris.

Tondo: Madonna and infant John.


M. Henri Heugel.
Tondo: Madonna

Parma.

Baron Edouard de Rothschild.


bust of Young Lady.
Madonna giving Girdle
56.

Venice.

Thomas.
Lady Layard.

Pieth.

and two Angels.

E.

Portrait of

Profile

to

St.

Man.

DOMENICO GHIRLANDAJO.
1449-1494.

by
Florence.

Pupil of Baldovinetti influenced slightly


and more strongly by Verrocchio.
;

Botticelli

Academy,

66.

Madonna and

Saints.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

37

Adoration of Shepherds.
Florence. (Con.) 195.
1485.
Madonna and Saints.
Uffizi, 19.
Portrait of Giovanni Bicci de Medici
43
.

'

1295.

Adoration of Magi.

1297.

Madonna, Saints, and Angels.


di San Marco, Small Refec-

Museo

tory.

Fresco: Last Supper.

Palazzo Vecchio, Flag Room. Fresco:


Triumph of S. Zanobi. 1482-1484.
Duomo, over N. Door. Mosaic: Annunciation.

1490.

Innocenti, High Altar. Adoration of


Magi (the episode of the "Massacre
of the Innocents" painted by Alunno
di Domenico).
1488.
Frescoes:
S. Maria Novella. Choir.
Lives of the Virgin and Baptist, etc.
save certain portrait
(execution,
heads, chiefly by David, Mainardi,
and other assistants). Begun i486,
finished 1490.

Ognissanti, L. Wall.
gustine.

Altar R.

Fresco: St. Au-

1480.

Fresco

Madonna

ericordia (in part).

Refectory.

della Mis-

E.

Fresco:

Last

Supper.

of

Choir.
1483-

1480.
S.

Trinita.

Chapel

R.

Frescoes: Life of St. Francis.


1485.

Over Arch.

Fresco:

Sibyl (in part).

Augustus and

Same

date.

Badia di Passignano (Tavernelle,


near Florence), Refectory. Frescoes: Last Supper, etc.

1477.

WORKS OF

138
London.

Portrait
1299.
painted).

Man

Young

of

(re-

Mr. Robert Benson. Francesco Sassetti and his Son.


Mr. Ludwig Mond. Madonna.
Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan. Profile of
Giovanna Tornabuoni. 1488.
Mr. George Salting. Madonna and
Bust of Costanza de'
infant John.
Medici.

Madonna and

Lucca.

Duomo, Sacristy.

Narni.

with Pieta in lunette.


Municipio. Coronation of
(U.

A.).

S.

Fresco

Virgin

(in

Jarves Collection,

73.

i486.

part),

New Haven

Saints,

Head

of

Woman

(Cf

woman

to extreme L. in "Visitation" at S.
Maria Novella, Florence).
Paris.

Pisa.

132 1.

Visitation (in part).

1322.

Old

Museo

Civico, Sala VI, 21.

Man and

Boy.
SS. Sebas-

and Roch (in part). Virgin


with St. Anne and Saints (in part).

tian

Rome.

Vatican,

Sixtine

Calling of Peter

Chapel. Frescoes:
and Andrew. 1482.

Single figures of Popes:


Iginius, Clement,

San Gemignano.

and

Anacletus,
1482.

Pius.

Collegiata, Chapel of

S.

Frescoes: Life of the Saint.

Fina.

About

1475Vercelli.

Museo Borgogna.
Infant.

Volterra.

Madonna adoring

E.

Christ in Glory adored by


two Saints and Don Guido Bon-

Municipio.

vicini (in part).

1492.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

39

RIDOLFO GHIRLANDAJO.
Pupil of Granacci, and eclectic imitator
1483 to 1 56 1.
of most of his important contemporaries.

Bergamo.

Morelli,

Berlin.

Budapest.
Chatsworth.

Duke

Bust of Man.

51.

Nativity.

58.

Nativity.

15 10.

of Devonshire.

Bust of

Man

(?).

L.
Colle di Val d'Elsa.

S.

Pieta.

Florence.

Academy,

Agostino, third Altar R.


1521.
83,

Panels

87.

Angels each.
Pitti, 207.

three

Portrait of a Goldsmith.

Portrait of a Lady.

224.

with

E.

Uffizi, 1275, 1277.

E.

1509.

Miracles of S. Zan-

1510.

obi.

Bigallo.

Predelle.

15 15.

Palazzo Vecchio, Cappella dei Priori.


Frescoes.

15 14.

Gallery,

Corsini

129.

Portrait

Man.
Palazzo Torrigiani. Portrait

of

of Ardin-

ghelli.

La Quiete. St. Sebastian.


William Beattie.

Glasgow.

Mr.

London.

Man(?).
Procession to Calvary.
E.
1143Mr. George Salting. Portrait of Giro-

Portrait

of

lamo Beniviene.

Madonna
Lucardo (near Certaldo). High Altar.
with SS. Peter, Martin, Justus, and
the Baptist.
Milan.

Comm.

E.

Benigno Crespi.

tych.

Small
Nativity and Saints.

Trip-

WORKS OF

140

New Haven

(U.

S.

Paris.

Collection,

Jarves

A.).

Madonna and

Coronation of Virgin.

3?4-

97.

Saints.

1503.

Elkins Park, Mr. Peter Widener,


Bust of Lucrezia Summaria.
191.

Philadelphia.

E.
Pistoia.

Pietro

S.

Maggiore.

Saints.

Madonna

Duomo.

Prato.

Thomas.

Madonna and

1508.

giving Girdle to St.

15 14.

The Priory, Mr. Somers Somer-

Reigate (Surrey).

set.

Portrait

of

Girolamo

Beni-

viene.
St.

Petersburg.

Wantage.

40.

Portrait of Old

Lockinge House,
Youngish Man

Man.

Lady
looking

Wantage.
up

from

Letter.

GIOTTO.
1

Follower of Pietro Cavallini influenced by


Giovanni Pisano.

76-1336.

Assisi.

S.

Francesco, Lower Church, Chapel


of the Magdalen: Frescoes: Feast

House of Simon (in great part)


Raising of Lazarus; " Noli me Tan-

in the

gere," (in part)

Magdalen and Donor

(The remaining frescoes in this chapel are by assistants.)


Before 1328.
(in part)

(?).

Upper Church.

II-XIX

of frescoes

recounting the Life of St. Francis


(with occasional aid of A).
E.
West Wall. Fresco: Madonna.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Boston (U.

S. A.).

Mrs.

J. L.

Gardner: Presentation

of Christ in the

Florence.

Academy,

103.

141

Temple.

L.

Madonna enthroned and

Angels.

Croce,

S.

Life

of

Bardi
St.

Chapel.

Francis,

etc.

Frescoes:
(Little

more than the compositions are now


Giotto's.)
Not earlier than 1 3 1 7
Peruzzi Chapel. Frescoes: Lives of
the Baptist and St. John the Evan(considerably repainted).
L.
Last Supper.
Arena Chapel. Frescoes: Lives of
Christ and His Mother; Last Judgment; Symbolical Figures. About
1305-6.
Sacristy. Painted Crucifix. About
1305-6.
Giovanni Laterano, Pillar R.
S.
Aisle. Fragment of Fresco: Boniface VIII proclaiming the Jubilee.
gelist

Munich.
Padua.

Rome.

983.

1300.

GIOTTO'S ASSISTANTS.
[An attempt to distinguish in the mass of work usually
ascribed to Giotto

the different artistic per-

engaged as his most immediate


lowers and assistants.]
sonalities

Assisi.

S.

fol-

Francesco, Upper Church. XXXXV and first of Frescoes recounting


the Life of St. Francis, done perhaps
under
Giotto's
directions.

WORKS OF

142

XXVI-XXVIII of same series done


more upon his own responsibility.
Lower Church, Chapel of the Sacrament. Frescoes: Legend of St.

Assisi. (Con.)

Nicholas; Christ with

SS.

Francis

and Nicholas and Donors, etc. (?).


Before 13 16. Madonna between SS.
Francis and Nicholas (?).
Before
Florence.

1316.
Uffizi, 20.
S.

Altarpiece of St. Cecily.

E.

Margherita a Montici (beyond Torre

Gallo).
Madonna. E. Altarpiece with St. Margaret.
E.
S. Miniato Altarpiece with S. Miniato. E.
del

B.
Assisi.

S.

Francesco,

Tomb

of

gories

of

Lower Church, Over


Saint. Frescoes: AllePoverty, Chastity, and

Obedience, and Triumph of St.


Francis. (The Francis between the
two Angels in the "Obedience" and
nearly all of the "Triumph" were
executed by another hand, probably

C)
R. Transept.
Frescoes: Bringing to
Life of Child fallen from Window;
Francis and a crowned Skeleton;
Two Scenes (one on either side of
arch leading to the Chapel of the
Sacrament) representing the Bringing to Life of a Boy killed by a falling
House; (above these) Annunciation;
(next to Cimabue's Madonna) Crucifixion (with the aid of C).

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Florence.

Croce, Cappella Medici.


Polyptych: Coronation
Saints and Angels (?).

S.

H3

Baroncelli
of

Virgin,

Francesco, Lower Church, R. TranFrescoes: Eight Scenes from


sept.

Assisi.

S.

Berlin.

the Childhood of Christ.


Crucifixion.
1074A.
Bargello Chapel. Fresco: Paradise

Florence.

(Cf.

under

also

(?).

assistance

for

rendered by C.)

VARIOUS.
Polyptych Madonna

Bologna.

Pinacoteca, 102.
and Saints.

Florence.

S.

Munich.

981.

Paris.

Francis receiving Stigmata.


St. Peter's, Sagrestia dei Canonici.
Stefaneschi Polyptych (suggests Bernardo Daddi).

Felice.

Rome.

Strasburg.

Painted Crucifix.

Crucifixion

12.

1 5

(?).

St.

Crucifixion.

203.

GOZZOLI,

see

BENOZZO.

FRANCESCO GRANACCI.
of Credi, and then of Ghirhe assisted; influenced by Botticelli,
Michelangelo Fra Bartolommeo, and
Pontormo.

1477-1543.

Pupil

landajo,

Berlin.

first

whom

74

and
(in

76.

SS.

Vincent and Antonino

Ghirlandajo's studio).

1494.

Soon after

WORKS OF

144
Berlin. {Con.) 88.

Madonna and
figures

four Saints (kneeling

and landscape

his

own

car-

toons, the rest Ghirlandajesque design).

97.

Madonna with Baptist and Archangel Michael.

229.

Budapest.
Cassel.

The

E.

Trinity.

John at Patmos.

54.

St.

78.

Madonna and infant John (?).


Tondo: Madonna holding Child

480.

on Parapet.
Crucifixion.

482.
Chantilly.

Musee

Conde,

95.

Madonna

Ghirlandajo's studio)
Citta di Castello.

(from

(?).

Pinacoteca. Coronation of Virgin


done in Ghirlandajo's
part;

(in

studio).

Darmstadt
Dublin.
Florence.

Small Crucifixion. L.
Holy Family.
78.

Academy, 68. Assumption


Madonna.
154.
285-290.

of Virgin.

Stories of Saints.

L.

Holy Family.
Pitti, 345.
Life of Joseph.
Uffizi, 1249, 1282.
Portrait of Lucrezia del Fede.

Covoni Altarpiece, Madonna and Saints.


ISTITUTO DEI MlNORENNI CORRIGENDI
Altarpiece:
(Via della Scala.)
Madonna with SS. Sebastian and
Julian (?).
(near

Andrea.
Florence).
S.
Wall. Frescoes: Baptism, Madonna enthroned between SS. Dominic and Sebastian (Ghirlandajo's

Brozzi
L.

designs).

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Florence. (Con.)

Quintole (near Florence).


tro.

Pietd.

145
S.

Pie-

L.

VlLLAMAGNA (NEAR FLORENCE), CHURCH.


Madonna with SS. Gherardo and
Donnino.
Glasgow.
London.

Mr. James Mann. Madonna (?). E.


Victoria and Albert Museum. Tondo:
Madonna.
Mr. Robert Benson. God the Father
sending Holy Spirit to Christ kneeling, the Virgin recommending Donor,
who has his Family present, and
below a Saint pointing to a Scroll (?).
E.

Duke

of Buccleugh,

io.

Madonna and

infant John.

Lucca.

Milan.

Munich.

Marchese Mansi

(S.

Maria Forispor-

tam).
Tondo: Madonna and two
Angels.
Entry of
Comm. Benigno Crespi.
Charles VIII into Florence.
ion. Madonna in Glory and four Saints
Soon after
(Ghirlandajo's design).
1494.

1061-1064.
each.
1065.

New Haven

(U.

S.

with

Saint

Holy Family.
A.).
Jarves Collection,

Pieta.

Oxford.

Panels

in

L.
86.

L.

Christ Church Library.


University Museum, 23.
of Padua and an Angel.

St.

Francis.

St.

Antony

Panshanger (near Hertford). Portrait of Lady.


Madonna and
Dollfus.
M. Jean
Paris.
Saints

(?).

WORKS OF

146

M. d'Eichtal. Bust of Lady.


M. Eugene Richtemberger. Nativity.
Bust of Young
M. Joseph Spiridon.
Woman in Red.
Philadelphia.
Mr. John G. Johnson. Pieth in LandParis. (Con.)

scape
Reigate (Surrey).

Rome.

E.

(?).

The Priory, Mr. Somers Somerset.


Madonna giving Girdle to St. Thomas.
Maddalena

Borghese, 371.

Strozzi as

St. Catherine.

Scotland.

Corsini, 573. Hebe.


(Glasgow, cf. Glasgow).

Rossie Priory (Inchture, Perthshire),


Lord Kinnaird. St. Lucy before
her Judges.
St.

L.

Hermitage, 22. Nativity with SS.


Francis and Jerome.
Count Lanckoronski. Preaching of

Petersburg.

Vienna.

St.

Stephen.

Herr Carl Wittgenstein.

Woman
Warwick

Castle.

Earl of Warwick.
Virgin,

and four

LEONARDO DA
1452-1519.

Bust of

in Green. (?).

Assumption of

Saints.

L.

VINCI.

Pupil of Verrocchio.

Adoration of Magi (un-

Florence.

Uffizi,

London.

Begun in 1481.
Burlington House, Diploma Gallery.
Large Cartoon for Madonna with

Milan.

S.

1252.

finished).

St.

Anne.

Maria delle Grazie, Refectory.


Fresco:

Last Supper.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Paris.

1265.

Annunciation.

1598.

Madonna with

47

E.
St.

Anne

(un-

finished).

1599.
60 1.

Rome.

"La Vierge aux Rochers."


"La Gioconda."
Pinacoteca.

Vatican,

Jerome,

St.

(unfinished).

An adequate conception of Leonardo as an


can be obtained only by an acquaintance with
his drawings, many of the best of which are reproduced
in Dr. J. P. Richter's "Literary Works of Leonardo da
Vinci," and in B. Berenson's "Drawings of the FlorenNote:

artist

tine Painters."

FILIPPINO LIPPI.
Pupil of Botticelli; influenced by Amico
Sandro, and very slightly by Piero di Cosimo.

145 7-1 504.


di

Berlin.

Allegory of Music. L.
with Virgin

78 a.
96.

Francis.

Bologna.

and

Crucifixion

St.

L.

10 1.
Madonna.
Fragment of Fresco: Head of Youth in
black cap, with brown curls.
S. Domenico, Chapel R. of High Altar.

Marriage of St. Catherine. 1501.


Copenhagen. Meeting of Joachim and Anne. L.
Florence.
Academy, 89. St. Mary of Egypt.
St. Jerome.
91.
'

93.

The

98.

Deposition (finished by Perugino).

Pitti,

Baptist.

336.

Uffizi, 286.

E.

Allegorical

Subject.

Fresco Portrait of Himself.


:

WORKS OF

I48

1257.

Fresco Old Man.


E.
Adoration of Magi. 1496.

1268.

Madonna and

Florence. (Con.)

1167.

Palazzo Corsini.
Angels.

Mr.

Saints,

i486.

Tondo: Madonna and

E.

Herbert

P.

Horne.

Christ

on

L.

Cross.

Palazzo Torrigiani. Bust of Youth.


Monochromes:
S. Ambrogio, Niche L.
Angels, and medallions in predella.
L.

Badia.
di

Vision of St. Bernard with Piero


Francesco del Pugliese as Donor.

Soon
Carmine,

after 1480.

Brancacci

Chapel.

pletion of Masaccio's Frescoes.

Com1484.

Paul visiting Peter in Prison; Peter and Paul


before the Proconsul Martyrdom of
Peter; (in the " Raising of the King's
Son") the group of four men on the
extreme L. the Boy; and eight men
and a child in a row.
Maria Novella, Strozzi Chapel.
Frescoes: Episodes from Lives of

Angel delivering

St. Peter;

S.

Evangelist and St.


Philip,
etc.
Finished 1502.
Madonna and Saints, with
S. Spirito.
Tanai di Nerli and his Wife.
Villa Reale di Poggio a Cajano (near
Florence),

Porch.

Fragment

of

Fresco.

Genoa.
Kiel.

Palazzo Bianco, Sala V, 30.


and Saints. 1503.
Prof. Martius. Madonna.

Madonna

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Lewes

149

Tondo: Holy
Mr. E. P. Warren.
Family and St. Margaret.
Madonna with SS. Jerome and
293.

(Sussex).

London.

927.

Dominic.
Angel adoring.

Mr. Robert Benson. Dead Christ.


Henry Samuelson. Moses striking
Adoration of Golden
the Rock.

Sir

Calf.

Wernher. Madonna. L.
Michele, first Altar R. SS. Helena,
Jerome, Sebastian, and Roch. E.
Naples.
Annunciation, with Baptist and St.
Andrew. E.
New Haven (U. S. A.). Jarves Collection, 81.
Christ on Cross.
Oxford.
Christ Church Library. Centaur; on
Sir Julius

Lucca.

Prato.

Rome.

S.

back, unfinished allegorical figures.


Municipio, 16. Madonna with Baptist
and St. Stephen. 1503.
Fresco in Tabernacle on Street Corner: Madonna and Saints. 1498.
S.

sopra Minerva,
Chapel. Annunciation.

Triumph
St.

tion.

Strasburg.

Venice.

St.

Thomas

Frescoes:

Aquinas;
489-1 493.
Annuncia-

L.

University Gallery, 214. Head of


Angel (a fragment).
Seminario, 15. Christ and the Samar17.

Vienna.

of

Assumption of Virgin.
Stroganoff Collection.

Petersburg.

Caraffa

Maria

itan Woman.
" Noli me Tangere."

Herr Eugen von Miller


Christ

on Cross.

Aicholz.

WORKS OF

150

FRA FILIPPO

LIPPI.

1406-1469. Pupil of Lorenzo Monaco and follower


of Masaccio; influenced by Fra Angelico.

Ashbridge Park (Berkhampstead).


Berlin.

Earl Brownlow.

Madonna.
Madonna.

58.

Madonna adoring Child.


" Madonna della Misericordia."

69.
95-

95B.

Predella: Miraculous Infancy of a


Saint.

Florence.

Academy,

62.

55.

Madonna and

Coronation of Virgin.
Virgin adoring Child.

79.

Saints

1441.

82.

Nativity.

86.

Predelle: S. Frediano changing the

E.

Course of the Serchio Virgin receivAnnouncement of her Death


St. Augustine in his Study.
;

ing the

'

263.

Gabriel and Baptist.

Madonna and

St. Antony Abbot.


Madonna. 1442.
Uffizi, 1307.
Madonna.
Palazzo Alessandri. St. Antony Abbot and a Bishop. SS. Lawrence,
Cosmas, and Damian and Donors.
Palazzo Riccardi (Prefecture). Ma-

264.

Pitti, 343.

donna.
S.

London.

Lorenzo,

Martelli Chapel.

nunciation, and Predelle.


Vision of St. Bernard.
248.
Annunciation. E.
666.
667.

Seven Saints.

E.

1447.

An-

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Edouard

Aynard.

Lyons.

M.

Munich.

Benedict and Novice.


Annunciation. E.
1005.

151

Predella:

St.

Paris.

Madonna.
1006.
University Galleries, 12. Meeting
Joachim and Anne.
Madonna and Angels. 1437.
1344-

Prato.

Duomo, Choir.

Oxford.

of

Frescoes: Lives of St.

Stephen and the Baptist (assisted


by Fra Diamante). 1452-1464.
Fresco: Death of St. BerR. Transept.
nard (the upper part by Fra Diamante). Ordered 1450.
Richmond (Surrey). Sir Frederick Cook. Tondo:
Adoration of Magi. E. SS. Michael and Antony Abbot.
1457.

Lateran,

Rome.

Saints

65.

Triptych:

and Donors

Coronation,

(the angels are,

in execution at least, by another


hand, probably Fra Diamante's).
Prince Doria. Annunciation.
Mr. Ludwig Mond. Annunciation and
Donors.
Duomo, Apse. Frescoes Life of Virgin
(chiefly by Fra Diamante).
Left

Spoleto.

unfinished at death.

Accademia Albertina,

Turin.

140,

141.

The

Four Church Fathers.

LORENZO MONACO.
About

70-142 5.

Follower of Agnolo Gaddi and the

Sienese.

Altenburg.

Lindenau Museum,

23.

Crucifixion with

WORKS OF

152
Altenburg. {Con.) SS.

Benedict, and

Francis,

aid.

Romu.

Flight into Egypt.

90.

10.
Dead Christ.
Madonna with Baptist and

Bergamo.

Morelli,

Berlin.

11 10.

St.

E.

Nicholas.

Print Room.

Illuminations: Visitation;

Journey of Magi.
Von Kaufmann Collection. St. Jerome. Nativity.
Brant Broughton (Lincolnshire).
Rev. Arthur F.
"Sutton. Miracles of St. Benedict.
Brunswick.
SS.
Stephen, Dominic, Francis, and
Lawrence. E.
Fitzwilliam Museum, 555. Madonna
Cambridge.

and two Angels.


King David.

Cassel.

478.

Copenhagen.
Empoli.
Fiesole.

Thorwaldsen Museum,
Madonna.
Opera del Duomo, 20. Triptych. 1404.
S. Ansano (to be transferred to Museo).

Florence.

Christ on Cross between Mary, John,


and Francis.
Academy, 143. Annunciation.

i.

144.

Life of St. Onofrio.

145.

Nativity.

146.

Life of St

166.

Three Pinnacles above Fra Angel-

Martin.

ico's Deposition.

Bargello.

Codex X, Miniatures. 1412-

1413-

Adoration of Magi (An39.


nunciation and Prophets in frame

Uffizi,

by Cosimo
40.

Pieta.

41.

Triptych:

Rosselli).

1404.

Madonna and

Saints. 14 10.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Florence. (Con.) 42.

Madonna with

ISDO

Baptist and St. Paul.

Coronation and Saints.

1309.

Museo

1413.

ii,
San Marco.
12,
13.
Crucifixion with Mary and John.
Biblioteca Laurenziana. Miniatures.

di

1409.

Hospital
in a

(S.

Maria Nuova), over Door

Corridor.

of a Pieta.

Fresco: Fragment

E.

Mr. Charles Loeser. Crucifixion.


Refectory, 6. St. James
S. Croce,
enthroned.

Giovanni dei Cavalieri.


Mary; John.

S.

S.

Giuseppe. Crucifix.
degli Oblati

Chiostro

Crucifix;

(25

Via

S.

Egidio). Frescoes: Pieta with Symbols of Passion; Christ and Apostles;


S.

Agony in Garden.
Trinita, Bartolini Chapel. Altarpiece: Annunciation and Predelle. L.
Frescoes: Life of Virgin.

Gloucester.

London.

Milan.

Munich.

New Haven

L.

Sir Hubert Parry,


Adoration of Magi; Visitation.
49.
Various Saints.
215, 216.
Coronation of Virgin.
1897.
Mr. Henry Wagner. Legend of S. Giovanni Gualberto.
Comm. Benigno Crespi. Small Shrine
with Madonna and Saints.
Cav. Aldo Noseda. Madonna.
1405.
Lotzbeck Collection, 96. St. Peter
enthroned. E.

Highnam Court,

(U.

S.

A.).

Jarves Collection,

Crucifixion.

18.

WORKS OF

154

La Grange Blanche, M.
Henri Chalandon. Three Panels

Parcieux (near Trevoux).

with Saint and Prophet in each.


Agony in Garden; Three Marys

Paris.

1348.
at

Posen.

Raczynski Collection.

Tomb.

1408.

Adoration of

Magi.
Richmond (Surrey). Sir Frederick Cook. Madonna.
Vatican, Museo Cristiano, Case C, II.
Rome.
Crucifixion.

Case S, III. Fragment of Predella: St.


Antony Abbot visited by Madonna.
XI. Benedict calling a dead Friar
to life, and Demon tempting another
Friar.

Triptych Madonna and Saints. E.


Civico, 3023. Madonna with

Siena.

157.

Turin.

Museo

Baptist

and old Saint (on Glass).

1408.

Washington

(U.

S.

A.).

Mr. Victor G. Fischer.

Madonna and two

Angels.

E.

BASTIANO MAINARDI.
About 1450-1513. Pupil and imitator of
in-law, Domenico Ghirlandajo.
Altenburg.

Lindenau Museum,

Woman.
Berlin.

77.

102.

his brother-

Bust

of

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Cologne.
Dresden.
Florence.

Madonna and

522.

155

five Saints.

Tondo. Nativity.
Uffizi, 13 15.
St. Peter Martyr between
16

SS. James and Peter.


Bargello, Chapel. Fresco: Madonna.
1490.

Palazzo Torrigiani. Tondo: Madonna


and two Angels.
Fresco:
S. Croce, Baroncelli Chapel.
Virgin giving Girdle to St. Thomas.
Chiesa di Orbetello, R. Wall. Fresco:
Madonna and two Cherubim (SS.
Andrew and Dionysus, etc., by another Ghirlandajesque hand).
Brozzi (near Florence), Fattoria Orsini.
Frescoes: Nativity (Cf. Dresden 16);
Saints.

Hamburg.

Weber

Hildesheim.

Collection, 30.
Tondo: Madonna.

134.

Locko Park (near Derby).


cas

London.

of

Madonna.

Mr. Drury-Lowe.
Berlin

Portraits,

Repli-

Nos.

83

and 86.
Bust
1230.

of Young Woman.
Henry Howorth. Madonna and

Sir

three Angels adoring Child.

Mr. George Salting. Bust of Young Man


Longleat (Warminster). Marquess of Bath. Madonna, four Saints, Putti, and Angels.
Lyons.
M. Edouard Aynard. St. Stephen.
Milan.
Comm. Benigno Crespi. Two panels
with Men and Women Worshippers.
Munich.
1012, 1013.
SS. Lawrence and Catherine
of Siena (soon after 1494).
10 14.

Madonna and Donor.

10 1

SS. George

5.

and Sebastian.

WORKS OF

156

Munster i/W. Kunstverein,

32.

Marriage

of

St.

Catherine.

Oxford.

University Museum, 21.


tholomew and Julian.

Palermo.

Baron Chiaramonte Bordonaro, 98.


Madonna with SS. Paul and Francis.

Paris.

1367.

Bar-

SS.

1506.

Madonna

Tondo:

with

infant

John and Angels.


Comtesse Arconati-Visconti. Busts
of Man and Woman (free replicas of
Berlin, Nos. 83 and 86).
Philadelphia.
Mr. John G. Johnson. Madonna with
SS. Sebastian and Appolonia.
Rome.
Vatican, Museo Cristiano, Case O,
XVI. Tondo: Nativity.
Count Gregori Stroganoff. Three
Saints.

Municipio, 8 and 9. Tondi: Madonnas.


OspedalediS. Fina. Frescoesin Vaulting.
Via S. Giovanni. Fresco: Madonna and

San Gemignano.

S.

Cherubim.
Agostino, R. Wall. SS. Nicholas of
Bari, Lucy, and Augustine.
Ceiling. Frescoes: The four Church
Fathers.

Wall. Frescoes for Tomb of Fra


Domenico Strambi. 1487.
Collegiata, Chapel of S Fina. Frescoes
L.

in Ceiling.

Chapel of
tion.

Sacristy.
Saints.

S.

Giovanni.

Annuncia-

1482.

Madonna

in

Glory,

and

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


San Geinignano.

(Con.)

Monte Oliveto, Chapel

Madonna with
Jerome.

Woman
Vienna.

Harrach

SS.

Bernard

R.

and

1502.

Palazzo Saracini,

Siena.

157

205.

Bust of Young

in Red.

Collection,

Nativity

314.

(replica of Dresden, 16).

Prince Liechtenstein.

Madonna and

infant John.

MASACCIO.
1401-1428.
lesco
Berlin.

Pupil of Masolino; influenced by Brunel-

and Donatello.
58A.
58B.
58c.

Adoration of Magi. Probably 1426.


of St. Peter and BapProbably 1426.
tist.

Martyrdom

Birth Plate.

Four Saints. Probably 1426.


Boston (U. S. A.). Mrs. J. L. Gardner. Profile of
Young Man.
Brant Broughton (Lincolnshire). Rev. Arthur F.
Sutton. Madonna enthroned on
high Seat with two Angels below
worshipping and two others seated
playing on Lutes. Probably 1426.
Florence.
Academy, 73. Madonna with St. Anne.
58D.

E.

Carmine, Brancacci Chapel. Frescoes:


Expulsion from Paradise; Tribute
Money; SS. Peter and John healing
the Sick with their Shadows St. Peter
Baptising; SS. Peter and John distributing Alms Raising of the King's
Son (except the Son, a Child, and
;

WORKS OF

158
Florence. (Con.)

eight Figures of

same group,

as four figures on extreme

as well
left,

all

which are by Filippino Lippi, while


the fourth head of this group is again
of

S.

by Masaccio).
Maria Novella, Wall

R. of EnFresco: Trinity with Vir-

trance.

gin and St.

John and Donor and

his Wife.

Montemarciano

(Val

d'Arno

Fresco:

Superiore).

Oratorio.

Madonna with Michael and

Baptist.

E.

Strasburg.

Probably 1426.
Sala VI, 27. St. Paul. Probably 1426.
University Gallery, 211. Resurrected

Vienna.

Count

Naples.
Pisa.

Crucifixion.

Christ

(?).

E.

Lanckoronski.
Probably 1426.

St.

Andrew.

MASOLINO.
1384-after 1435.

Bremen.

Kunsthalle, 164. Madonna. 1423.


Church. Frescoes: Life of Vir-

Castiglione d'Olona.

gin.

Empoli.

Florence.

Baptistery. Frescoes: Life of Baptist.


Palazzo Castiglione.
Frescoes:
A
Landscape and Friezes.
Duomo, Baptistery. Fresco: Pietb,.
Fresco in an Arch: MaS. Stefano.
donna and Angels. Probably 1424.
Carmine, Brancacci Chapel. Frescoes:
Preaching of St. Peter; Raising of
Tabitha and Healing of Cripple; Fall
of Adam and Eve.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Madonna and

159

Angels.

Munich.

10 ig.

Naples.

Christ receiving Virgin in Paradise.

Rome.

Founding of S. Maria Maggiore.


Vatican, Museo Cristiano, Case P,
Predella: Dormition (?).
V.
S.

Case R, II.
Clemente.

Crucifixion (in part ?).


Frescoes: Episodes from
Lives of SS. Ambrose and Catherine
of Alexandria; Crucifixion (some of
these frescoes are completely re-

painted).
Scotland.

Gosford

House,

Earl

of

Wemyss.

Annunciation.
Todi.

fourth Chapel R.
Madonna with two Angels.

Fortunato,

S.

Fresco:

MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI.
147 5-1 564.

Pupil of Ghirlandajo; influenced by the

works of Jacopo della Quercia, Donatello, and


Signorelli.

Tondo: Holy Family.


Deposition (unfinished).

Florence.

Uffizi, 1139.

London.

790.

Rome.

Vatican,

Chapel.

Sixtine

Frescoes:

On

Ceiling, 1508-1512. W. Wall.


Last Judgment.
1 534-1 541.
Cappella Paolina.
Frescoes: ConMartyrdom of
version
of Paul;
St.

Peter.

L.

SCULPTURE.
Berlin.

Small Marble Apollo.

Bologna.

S.

Domenico.
(for

Ark

S.

Petronio;

of St. Dominic).

An Angel
1494.

WORKS OF

i6o
Bruges.

Notre Dame.

Madonna.

Finished be-

fore August, 1506.

Florence.

Academy.
model

David.

1504.

Life

size

Male Figure.
Court. St. Matthew. 1504.
Bargello. Bacchus. E. Bust of Brutus. Tondo, Relief: Madonna. Apof reclining

ollo.

Court. Victory.
Boboli Gardens, Grotto.

Four un-

finished Figures.

Casa Buonarroti. Reliefs: Centaurs


and Lapithae. E. Madonna. E.
Duomo, behind High Altar.
Pieth.
L.
S.

Lorenzo,

Tombs

New

of

Sacristy. Madonna;
Lorenzo dei Medici, Duke

Urbino, and Giuliano, Duke of


Nemours. Left unfinished 1534.
Burlington House, Diploma Gallery.
Tondo, Relief: Madonna.
Victoria and Albert Museum. Cupid.
of

London.

Beit Collection.

Young

Athlete

(bronze)
Paris.

Prince Trivulzio. Small Slave (bronze)


Room of Renaissance Sculpture. Two

Rome.

Palazzo Rondanini.

Milan.

Slaves.

Pieth (unfinished).

L.
S.

Maria sopra Minerva.


Cross.

St. Peter's.
S.

St.

Petersburg.

Christ with

Finished 1521.
Pieth.

1499.

Pietro in Vincoli.
and Leah.
Crouching Boy.

Moses, Rachel,

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

MONACO

see

LORENZO.

ANDREA ORCAGNA AND


Andrea,

1308

of

HIS BROTHERS.

Pupil of Andrea Pisano;


influenced by Ambrogio

(?)-i368.

follower

l6l

Giotto;

Lorenzetti of Siena.

Of the brothers, Nardo, who died in 1365, was scarcely


his inferior.

The only painting

certainly from Andrea's

hand

is

the

Maria Novella. The frescoes


in the same church are probably by Nardo.
altarpiece at S.

Budapest.
Florence.

Madonna and Angels.


50.
Academy, 14. Vision of
and Saints.
40.

Trinity

with

Romuald.
Uffizi,

10.

gel (?).
29.

St.

St.

Evangelist

Bernard

and

St.

1365.

Bartholomew and An-

E.

Coronation of the Virgin.

Third Tuscan Room. 20. St. Matthew Triptych. Begun in 1367.


Mr. B. Berenson. St. Benedict receiving a Novice.

Badia, Cappella

Holy
S.

S.

Bonsi.

Descent

of

Spirit.

Croce, Sacristy. Madonna with SS.


Gregory and Job. 1365.
Maria Novella, L. Transept. AltarFrescoes: Paradise;
1357.
Last Judgment; Hell.
Cloister. Frescoes: Annunciation to
Joachim and Anne Meeting of Same
Birth of Virgin Presentation of Virpiece.

WORKS OF

62
Florence. {Con.)

gin in Temple; Full length figures


of Saints.

Certosa (near Florence), Chapel.

Ma-

donna.
London.
569-578. Coronation and Saints, with
nine smaller panels representing the
Trinity, Angels, and Gospel Scenes.
New Haven (U. S. A.). Jarves Collection, 25.
Baptist.
26.

St. Peter.

Baron Chiaramonte-Bordonaro.

Palermo.

Ma-

donna.

SCULPTURE

(by Andrea).

Von Kaufmann Collection.

Berlin.

Head

of

female Saint.

Bargello. 139.
Or San Michele.

Florence.

Angel playing Viol.


Tabernacle. Finished

1359-

FRANCESCO PESELLINO.
Pupil possibly of his grandfather, Giuliano
follower of Fra Angelico, Masaccio and
Domenico Veneziano, but chiefly of Fra Filippo

1422-1457.

Pesello

Lippi.

Altenburg.

Lindenau Museum,

96.

SS.

Jerome and

Francis.

Florentine arraigned before

Bergamo.

Morelli,

Berlin.

a Judge.
Story of Griselda.
11.
Small Crucifixion.

Boston (U.

S. A.).

9.

Mrs.

Gardner. Two Cassone


Triumphs of Petrarch.

J. L.

panels:

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Chantilly.

MuseeConde,

Empoli.

11.

Madonna and

Adoration of Magi.

12.

163
Saints.

(?).

24.

Madonna and

Predelle:

Nativity; Mar-

Opera del Duomo,


Saints.

Florence.

Academy, 72.
tyrdom of

Gloucester.

Cosmas and Damian;


Miracle of St. Antony of Padua.
Highnam Court, Sir Hubert Parry, 95.

London.

Col.

SS.

Annunciation.

Milan.

Holford, Dorchester
G.
L.
House. Madonna and Saints.
Annunciation
Poldi - Pezzoli,
436.
(early

14 14.

Paris.

XVI

century copy).

Pieth.

587.

Predelle: Miracle

and Damian;

St.

of

SS.

Cosmas

Francis receiving

the Stigmata.
Predelle: Pope Sylvester
before Constantine; Pope Sylvester

Rome.

Prince Doria.

Wantage.

Lockinge House, Lady Wantage. Two

subduing Dragon.
Cassone panels: Story of David.

PIER DI COSIMO.
Pupil of Cosimo Rosselli; influenced by
Verrocchio, Signorelli, Filippino, Leonardo, and

1462-152 1.

Credi.

Venus, Cupid, and Mars.


Adoration of Shepherds.
Von Kaufmann Collection. Prometheus Myth (Cf. Strasburg).
Borgo San Lorenzo (Mugello). Chiesa del Crocifisso.
Madonna with St. Thomas and BapBerlin.

107.

204.

tist.

WORKS OF

164
Chantilly.

Musee Conde,

13.

"La

Bella

Simon-

etta."

Holy Family and Angels.


of Young Man.
Francesco. Coronation of Virgin

Dresden.
Dulwich.

Head

Fiesole.

S.

20.

part).

Florence.

(in

L.

Pitti, 370.
Head of a Saint.
Uffizi.
Immaculate Conception.

Story of Perseus and Andromeda.


Rescue of Andromeda.
13 12.

82, 83, 84.

3414.

Portrait of "Caterina Sforza"

Magazine.
fant John.

Tondo: Madonna with

(?).

in-

L.

Innocenti, Gallery.

Holy Family and

Saints.

Lorenzo, R. Transept. Madonna


and Saints adoring Child.
Mr. William Beattie. Tondo: Madonna with the two Holy Children
S.

Glasgow.

The Hague.

embracing.
Giuliano di Sangallo and his

254, 255.

Father.

Harrow -on -the -Hill.

Rev. J. Stogdon. Large Nativwith three Saints and three


Donors (?).
E.
Tondo: Madonna
and Angels.
Death of Procris.
698.
Portrait of Man in Armour.
895.
Hertford House. Triumph of Venus (?).
Mr. Robert Benson. Hylas and the
ity

London.

Nymphs.
Orsini

E.

Portrait of Clarissa

(?).

Earl of Plymouth.
Man.

Head

of

Young

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

l6 5

London. (Con.) Mr. Charles Ricketts. Combat of


Centaurs and Lapithae (Cf. New York).
Mr. A. E. Street. Tondo: Madonna
adoring Child.
Lyons.
M. Edouard Aynard. Tondo: Madonna
with Lamb.

Borromeo. Madonna. L.
Prince Trivulzio. Madonna and An-

Milan.

L.

gels.

New Haven

(U.

S.

Jarves Collection,

A.).

68.

Lady holding Rabbit.


Newlands

New

(Hampshire).
Col. Cornwallis
West. Visitation.
Metropolitan Museum. The Hunt.
Return from the Hunt (Cf. Mr.

Manor

York.

Ricketts, London).

Oxford.

Christ

Church Library,

Pieta.
Paris.

2.

Tondo:

L.

1274.

The Young

14 1 6.

Coronation of Virgin.

Baptist.

L.

Madonna.
Mr. John G. Johnson. Bust of Physician.
Portrait of Man. 1512. Madonna (fragment).
Borghese. 329. Judgment of Solomon.
Holy Family
L. (?).
335.
Tondo: Madonna and Angels ador343.
1662.

Philadelphia.

Rome.

ing Child.
Corsini. Magdalen.

Pieta.

Chapel.
Fresco:
Destruction of Pharoah.
1482.

Vatican,
Scotland.

(Glasgow,

Sixtine

Cf.

Glasgow).

Cawder House (Bishopbriggs, near


Glasgow), Capt. Archibald Stirling.
Madonna and infant John.

WORKS OF

66

Scotland. {Con.)

Earl of Wemyss.

Gosford House,
Bust of Man.

Newbattle Abbey (Dalkeith), Marof

quess

Lothian.

Mythological

Scene.

Monastero del Santuccio, Altar

Siena.

L.

Nativity.
Strasburg.

Royal Gallery. Madonna.


University Gallery, 216A. Madonna.
2 6b. Prometheus Myth (Cf. Von Kauf-

Vienna.

Harrach Collection,

Stockholm.

mann

Collection, Berlin).
136.

and Angels. L.
Prince Liechtenstein.

Holy Fam-

ily

infant John.

L.

with Water,

etc.

Madonna and

Tondo: Landscape

Worksop (Nottinghamshire). Clumber Park, Duke


of Newcastle. Altarpiece with
Predelle: Madonna with St. Peter
and Baptist and kneeling Ecclesiastic.

PIER FRANCESCO FIORENTINO.


Known

to have been active during the last three


Pupil posdecades of the fifteenth century.
or Benozzo Gozzoli;
sibly of Fra Angelico
influenced by Neri di Bicci; eclectic imitator
of Alesso Baldovinetti,
lino.

Some

Fra Filippo, and Pesel-

of the best of the

copies of the

two

last

and

of

following are

Compagno

di

Pesellino.

Altenburg.

Lindenau Museum,
infant John.

97.

Madonna with

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Morelli,

Bergamo.

SS.

36.

67

Jerome and Francis

(version of Pesellino at Altenburg).


Berlin.

71 a.

Madonna

against Rose-hedge (ver-

sion of M.

Aynard's Compagno

di

Pesellino)

Brussels.

Madonna.

Budapest.

55.

Cambridge (U.
Castelnuovo

di

Madonna and infant John.


Fogg Museum. Madonna.
Val d'Elsa. S. Barbara, High Altar.
Madonna and Saints surrounded byS. A.)

Frescoes.

First Altar R.

Madonna and

Saints.

dei Priori, Lower Floor.


Fresco: Pieta.
Fresco: In1484.

Palazzo

Certaldo.

Thomas.
Floor.
Fresco:

credulity of

Upper

Madonna.

*495-

Cappella del Ponte d'Agliena.


Frescoes: Tobias and Angel.

St.

Jerome.

Holden Collection, 8. Madonna adoring Child.


Val d'Elsa. Palazzo Antico del Comune.
Altarpiece Madonna and four Saints,

Cleveland (U.
Colle di

S.

A.).

Detroit (U. S.

Madonna with SS.


Bernardino, Antony Abbot, Magdalen, and Catherine.
Via Gozzina. Tabernacle, Fresco: Madonna and two Bishops.
Via S. Lucia. Frescoes in Tabernacle:
Annunciation and various fragments.
A.).
Madonna adoring Child.
4.

Dijon.

Donation Jules Maciet.

Predelle,

Eastnor Castle

etc.

infant John.
(Ledbury).
Lady

Madonna and

Henry Somerset.

WORKS OF

68

Madonna against
Eastnor Castle (Ledbury.) (Con.)
Rose-hedge (version of M. Aynard's
Compagno di PeselHno at Lyons).
Opera del Duomo, 22. Madonna and
Empoli.
four Saints,

Madonna.
Englewood (New Jersey, U. S.
30.

Florence.

A.).

Mr. D.

F.

Platt.

Madonna with Angel and infant John.


Uffizi, 61.
Madonna and Angels (copied
from Compagno di Pesellino formerly
in Hainauer Collection, Berlin).
Bargello, Carrand Collection,

15.

Madonna with infant John.


Cenacolo di S. Appolonia. Nativity.
Madonna
Mr. Edmund Houghton.
adoring Child.

Conte Serristori. Madonna.


Francesco delle Stimate.
S.

Ma-

donna.

GlOVANNINO DEI CaVALIERI, SACRISTY.


Madonna.
Stadelinstitut, 10. Madonna and
Frankfort, a./m.
S.

Angels.

Frome

(Somerset).

Gloucester.

Mells Park, Lady Horner. Ma-

donna, Saints, and Angels.


Highnam Court, Sir Hubert Parry.
Madonna with infant John (Cf.
48.

Herr Brachts' Compagno


lino,

Gubbio.

Pesel-

Madonna, with two Angels.


University Gallery, 226. Copy of
Fra Filippo's Annunciation (in the
Doria Gallery, Rome).
Pinacoteca, 49. Madonna and infant
56.

Gottingen.

di

Berlin).

John.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Hamburg.

Weber
St.

Collection,

22.

169

Madonna and

Catherine against Rose-hedge.

Rev. J. Stogdon. Madonna


and infant John (after Fra Filippo).
Warren Wood, Mr. Charles Butler.
Two Madonnas.
Musee, 407. Madonna.
Musee, 21. Madonna and Angel.
Procris and Cephalus (?).
929.
Scene in Temple (?).
930.
Walker Art Gallery, 19. Head of
Woman (possibly copy of lost porLucrezia Buti by Fra
trait
of

Harrow-on-the-Hill.
Hatfield.

Le Mans.
Lille.

Liverpool.

Filippo).

Madonna and

23.

London.

199.

Angels.

Madonna, infant John, and Angels.

Victoria and Albert Museum. Fresco:


Baptist and St. Dorothy.
Ionides Bequest. Madonna (version
of M. Aynard's Compagno di Pesellino at Lyons).

Mr. Charles Butler. Madonna.


Mr. William E. Grey. Madonna and
infant John (after Fra Filippo).
Mrs. Louisa Herbert. Madonna in
Landscape.

Lady Horner.

Nativity.

Montefortino (near Amandola, Marches). Municipio.


Madonna with Tobias and two Archangels.

Nar bonne.

New Haven

1497.

Tondo: Madonna and


Angels adoring Child.
(U. S. A.).
Jarves Collection. 61.
Madonna, St. Catherine, and Angels
(perhaps after a lost Filippo).

Musee,

243.

WORKS OF

170
Palermo.
Parcieux

Baron Chiaramonte Bordonaro, 54.


Madonna and Angels.
(near Trevoux).
La Grange Blanche, M.
Henri Chalandon. Madonna and
two Angels.

Mme. Edouard Andre.

Paris.

Madonna with

Baptist and Angels.


Painted Flower
background to Desideriesque gesso
relief of

Madonna.

M. Leon Bonnat. Madonna and Angels.


M. Henri Heugel. Madonna and infant John (after Fra Filippo).
Galleria Malaspina, 25. Madonna
with SS. Catherine and Antony
Abbot.
Marchese Meniconi Bracceschi. Madonna and infant John (after Fra

Pavia.

Perugia.

Filippo).

Philadelphia.

Mr. John G. Johnson. Madonna with


two Angels. Madonna against Rosehedge (version of M. Aynard's Compagno di Pesellino at Lyons).
Elkins Park, Mr. Peter Widener.

Madonna

against Rose-hedge (ver-

sion of M. Aynard's

Compagno

di

Pesellino at Lyons).

Richmond

Sir Frederick Cook.


Municipio, Pinacoteca.

(Surrey).

San Gemignano.

S.

Madonna.

Madonna

between two kneeling Saints. 1477.


Sala del Giudice Conciliatore.
Fresco: Trinity and small scenes
from sacred Legends. 1497.
Tower. Fresco: Madonna.
Agostino, first Altar R. Madonna
and Saints. 1494.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

171

Collegiata, Nave. Monochrome Frescoes: Ten Disciples in


medallions, and two smaller Busts;
decoration of Putti and Garlands.

San Gemignano.

(Con.)

1474-1475.

Over
Dead

Triumphal
Christ.

L. Aisle,

coes:

Arch.

Fresco:

14 74-14 75.

Spandrils of Arches.

Abraham and

Fres-

six Prophets.

Wall. Fresco: Adam and Eve


driven forth from Paradise (original
fresco of Taddeo di Bartolo restored
by Pier Francesco).
Cloister. Fresco Dead Christ. 1477.
Fresco St. James.
S. Jacopo, Pillar R.
S. Lucia, behind High Altar.
Fresco:
Crucifixion.
E.
Capella di Monte (near San GeL.

mignano). Madonna with SS. Antony Abbot and Bartholomew. 1490.


(near
S. Maria Assunta a Pancole
San Gemignano). Madonna.
Pieve di Ulignano (near San Gemignano).
Madonna with SS.
Stephen and Bartholomew.
149-152. Triumphs of Petrarch.
Nativity.
Sinalunga (Val di Chiana). S. Martino, Sacristy.
Tondo: Madonna and infant John.
Siena.

209.

Madonna.

Todi.

Pinacoteca.

Vienna.

Faniteum (uber St. Veit). Fresco:


Madonna with Bishop and St.
Christina.

1485.

Count Lanckoronski. Madonna against


Rose-hedge.

WORKS OF

172
Volterra.

Municipio.

Fresco: Crucifixion.

Oratorio

di

Antonio.

S.

Nativity.

THE POLLAJUOLI.
Antonio.

Pupil of Donatello and Andrea


by BaldovinSculptor as well as painter.

1429-1498.

del Castagno; strongly influenced


etti.

Piero.

Pupil

1443-1496.

of

Baldovinetti

worked

mainly on his brother's designs. (Where the


execution can be clearly distinguished as of
either of the brothers separately, the fact

is

indicated).
Berlin.

Annunciation (Piero).

73.

David (Antonio).
Mrs. J. L. Gardner.

73 a.

Boston (U.

S. A.).

Lady
Florence.

Portrait of Galeazzo Sforza.

Uffizi, 30.
69.

Hope.

70.

Justice.

Temperance.

71.

these three

work

Profile of

(Antonio).

(The

execution

was perhaps

of

largely the

of pupils.)

Faith (Piero).

72.

Cartoon for "Charity" (on back of


which is

73.

picture, the execution of

studio work).

(Antonio).

1469.

Hercules and the Hydra; Hercules and Antaeus (Antonio).


SS. Eustace, James, and Vincent
130 1.
1

153.

(Piero).

1467.

1306.

Prudence

3358.

Miniature Profile of Lady (Piero).


di
Gallo (Arcetri). Fresco

Torre

(Piero).

1470.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

73

(discovered in 1897 and since then

Florence. (Con.)

entirely repainted)

Dance

of

Nudes

(Antonio).

Portuguese

Miniato,

S.

Chapel.

Flying
Fresco (around Window)
Angels (executed probably 1466).
(Antonio).
Fresco Assumption of VirNiccolo.
:

S.

gin (Piero).

London.

Sebastian (Antonio).
1475
Apollo and Daphne (Antonio).

292.

St.

928.

New Haven

(U.

E.

S.

A.).

Jarves Collection,

Hercules and

New

York.

Metropolitan
St.

Paris.

1367 a.

San Gemignano.

Nessus

64.

(Antonio).

Museum,

85.

Fresco:

Christopher (Piero).

Madonna

(Piero) (?).

Collegiata, Choir.
Virgin (Piero).

Coronation of

1483.

S. Maria Assunta, R. TranStaggia (near Siena).


sept.
St. Mary of Egypt upborne
by Angels (design Antonio, execu-

Strasburg.

tion Piero).
212A.
Madonna

Turin.

117.

enthroned
Tobias and the Angel.

(Piero).

SCULPTURE, ETC.
Francesco. Altar-frontal embroidered probably from designs by

Assisi.

S.

Florence.

Bargello.

Piero.

Bust

(Terra-cotta).

of Young Warrior
Hercules and Antaeus

(Bronze).

Opera del Duomo.

Enamels

tal of Silver Crucifix.

in PedesFinished 1459.

Birth of Baptist (Relief in Silver).

WORKS OF

174

Twenty-seven Scenes from Life of


(embroideries after AnBaptist

Florence. (Con.)

1466-1473.

tonio's designs).

London.

Rome.

Victoria and Albert Museum. "Discord" (Relief in Gesso).


St. Peter's, Chapel of Sacrament.

Tomb
L.

IV (Bronze).

Fin-

of Innocent
Finished 1498.

VIII

of Sixtus

ished 1493.
Aisle. Tomb
(Bronze).

PONTORMO

(Jacopo Carucci).

1494-1556. Pupil of Andrea del


by Michelangelo.

Bergamo.

Morelli,

influenced

Sarto;

Portrait of Baccio Bandi-

59.

nelli.

Berlin.

Portrait of

Andrea

del

Sarto (not ex-

hibited).

Herr von Dirksen.

Portrait of a

Lady

seated.

Borgo San Sepolcro.

Municipio.

St.

Quentin in the

Pillory (in part).

Parish Church.

Carmignano (near Florence).

Visi-

tation.

Dzikow

(Poland).

M.

Zanislas Tarnowski.

face bust of oldish

Florence.

lace, and pearls.


Academy, 183. Pieth.

190.

Christ at

Lady
L.

Emmaus.

1528.

Fresco (behind the Giotto):


E.
S. Matteo.
Pitti, 149.

Portrait of

with Dog
182.

Man

Hospital of
in

(?).

Martyrdom

Full
velvet,

in

of forty Saints.

Armour

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Florence. (Con.)

St.

233.

Antony.

Portrait of Man.

379.

Adoration of Magi.
cis

187.

198.

1 i

Madonna with

77.

75

L.

249.

Uffizi,

SS. Fran-

and Jerome.

Martyrdom

of S. Maurizio.
Birth Plate: Birth of St. John.
Portrait of Man.
Cosimo dei Medici.

1220.
1267.

Cosimo I, Duke of Florence.


Venus and Cupid (designed by

1270.

1284.

Michelangelo).

COLLEGIO

MlLITARE,

Frescoes.

Pope's

CHAPEL.

15 13.

di S. Marco, Room 38.


Portrait
Cosimo dei Medici.
Palazzo Capponi, Marchese Farinola.
Madonna and infant John.
Corsini Gallery, 141. Madonna and

Museo
of

infant John.
185.

SS.

Madonna and infant John.


Annunziata, Cloister R. Fresco:
Visitation.

15 16.

Cappella di S. Luca. Fresco: Madonna and Saints. E.


S. Felicita, Chapel R.
Altarpiece:
Deposition.

Frescoes

Annuncia-

tion; Medallions of Prophets.


S.

Michele Visdomini.

and
Certosa

Saints.

Holy Family

15 18.

(near Florence).
Cloister.
Fresco:
Christ
before
Pilate.
1523-

Poggio

Cajano

Florence)

(Royal Villa near


Decorative fresco around

WORKS OF

176

window: Vertumnus, Pomona, Diana, and other figures.


1521.

Florence. (Con.)

Stadelinstitut,

Frankfort a./M.

14A.

Portrait of

Lady with Dog.


Genoa.

Palazzo Bianco. Portrait of Youth.


Palazzo Brignole-Sale. Man in Red

Hatfield.

Warren Wood, Mr. Charles Butler

London.

with Sword.
Birth Plate.

Joseph
13 1.
E.

and

his

Mr. Ludwig Mond.


Earl of Plymouth.
Lucca.
Milan.

Kindred

in Egypt.

Conversation.

Portrait of Youth.

Sala I, 5. Portrait of Youth.


Prince Trivulzio. Portrait of Rinuccini Lady.
Portrait of Youth holding Book.

New Haven

(U.

104.

Oldenburg.
Palermo.

A.).
S.
Jarves Collection,
Cosimo dei Medici. L.
Bust of Lady. L.

19.

Portrait of Lady.

406.

L.
Judith.
Portrait

Panshanger (Hertford).

Two

Youth.

of

panels with Story of Joseph.


Paris.

1240.
1

241.

100.

E.

Holy Family and Saints. 1543.


Portrait of Engraver of Precious

Stones.

Pontormo (near Empoli).

Parish Church.

the Evangelist and Michael.

Rome.

SS.

John

E.

Barberini Gallery, 83. Pygmalion


and Galatea.
Borghese Gallery, 75. Lucretia (?).
Tobias and Angel. L.
173.
.

408.

Portrait of Cardinal.

Corsini Gallery, 577.

Bust of Man.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Scotland.

177

Keir (Dunblane), Captain Archibald


Stirling.

Portrait of

Bartolommeo

Compagni.

Newbattle Abbey (Dalkeith), Marquess of


Youth.

Lothian.

Portrait

of

Portrait of Lady.

Turin.

122.

Vienna.

45.

Portrait of Lady.

48.

Portrait of Lady.

L.

50.

Young Man with

Letter

L.

(?).

COSIMO ROSSELLI.
1439-1507.

Pupil

of

Neri

di

Bicci;

influenced

by

Benozzo Gozzoli and Alesso Baldovinetti.


Agram (Croatia). Strossmayer Collection. Madonna and two Angels.
Amsterdam.

Dr.

Berlin.

59.

Otto Lanz. Madonna with St.


Joseph and two Angels adoring Child.
Madonna,

and Angels.

Saints,

L.

Glory of St. Anne.


1471(Magazine.) 71. Entombment.

59A.

Breslau.

Schlesisches Museum.
and infant John.

171.

Madonna

Cambridge.

Fitzwilliam Museum, 556.


and four Saints. 1493.

Madonna

Cologne.

518.

Cortona.

Signor Colonnesi. Madonna with SS.


Jerome and Antony of Padua.
Akademie, iio. Madonna adoring Child

Diisseldorf.

Madonna,

Saints,

and Innocents. E.

Lady Henry Somerset.


Madonna with SS. Sebastian and

Eastnor Castle (Ledbury).


Michael.

WORKS OF

78

Opera del Duomo,

Fiesole.

Holy Family
32.
and infant John.
Duomo, Salutati Chapel. Frescoes:

Florence.

Academy,

Empoli.

Various Saints.
SS. Barbara, John,

52.

Matthew.

and

E.

Nativity.

160.

Moses and Abraham.


David and Noah.
276.
Uffizi, 50.
Coronation of Virgin.
Madonna adored by two Angels.
59.
Adoration of Magi. E.
65.
(From S. M. Nuova). Madonna
65.
275.

in

Clouds.

1280

Madonna,

bis.

Saints,

and Angels.

1492.

Via Ricasoli. Fresco in shrine: Madonna enthroned and two Angels.


Mr. B. Berenson. Madonna.
Corsini Gallery, 339. Tondo: Madonna and Angels adoring Child.
Mme. Finali, Villa Landau. Preaching of St. Bernardino.

Signor Angelo Orvieto. Nativity.


AssumpS. Ambrogio, third Altar L.
tion and Predella.
1498.
Chapel of Sacrament. Frescoes: Miraculous Chalice, etc.
SS.

Annunziata,
St.

Filippo

Habit.
S.

S.

i486.

L. Cloister.

Benizzi

taking

Fresco:
Servite

1476.

Croce, Cappella Medicea, over


Door. Lunette: God and Cherubim (?)

Maria Maddalena dei


onation of Virgin,

Pazzi.

1505.

Cor-

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Genoa.
Lille.

Liverpool

179

Palazzo Adorno. Small Triumphs.


St. Mary of Egypt.
667.
Walker Art Gallery, 15. St. Lawrence.

London.

Combat of Love and Chastity.


Charles Butler. St. Catherine
Maof Siena instituting her Order.
donna and Cherubs.
Duomo, Wall L. of Entrance. Fresco:
1

196.

Mr.

Lucca.

S.

Story of True Cross.


Frescoes: Presentation
Francesco.
of Virgin, etc.

Milan.

Miinster
Paris.

Conte Casatti.

Nativity.

Madonna with
Kunstverein, x$.
Gabriel and infant John.
Annunciation and Saints. 147 1.
1656.
Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Legs
M. Peyre, 253. Madonna and two

/W.

Angels.

Mme. Edouard Andre.

Madonna and

Angels adoring Child.


M. Joseph Spiridon. Portrait of Man.
Mr. John G. Johnson. Madonna with
Philadelphia.
Child holding Bird and Pomegranate.
E.
Reigate.

Rome.

The Priory, Mr. Somers Somerset.


Small Descent from Cross.
Vatican, Sixtine Chapel. Frescoes:
Moses destroying
Christ Preaching.
the Tables of the Law.
Last Supper
(but not the scenes visible through
painted windows). All 1482.
Mr. Ludwig Mond. Madonna and Angel
adoring Child.

Turin.

106.

Triumph

of Chastity.

WORKS OF

80

ROSSO FIORENTINO.
1

Pupil of Andrea del Sarto; influenced by


Pontormo and Michelangelo.

494-1 54 1.

Arezzo.

Sala

Citta di Castello.

Christ bearing Cross.

II, 6.

Orfanelle.

Borgo San Sepolcro.

Duomo.

Deposition.

Finished

Transfiguration.

1528.

Bust of Baptist.
Three Fates.

Dijon.

68.

Florence.

Pitti, 113.

Madonna and

237.

Saints.

Angel playing Guitar.


Madonna and four Saints with two

Uffizi,

24 1.

Putti reading.

15 17.

Bargello, Della Robbia Room. Fresco:


Justice.

SS.

Frankfort

Annunziata. R. Cloister.

Assumption.
Sposalizio.
S. Lorenzo.
a./m. Stadelinstitut,

14.

Fresco:

Madonna.

Paris.

1485.

Pieta.

i486.

Challenge of the Pierides.

Siena.

Portrait of

Young Man.

Turin.

Armeria

Reale,

Venice.

Academy,

Designs for
F. 3.
Buckler with Wars of Jugurtha and

Marius.
Profile bust of

46.

Man

in red

Cloak and Hat.


Vienna.

Count

Lanckoronski.

Two naked
Volterra.

Municipio.

SARTO

Madonna.

Putti.

Deposition.

see

ANDREA.

1521.

E.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

181

JACOPO DEL SELLAJO.


1

44 1 or 2-1493.
slightly

Pupil

Fra

of

Filippo; influenced

by Castagno's works

imitated most of

his Florentine contemporaries, especially Botticelli,

Altenburg.

Amico

Ghirlandajo, and

Lindenau Museum,

di Sandro.

99.

Adoration of

Magi.

Arezzo.

105.

Madonna with Tobias and John.

150.

St.

Sala

Jerome.

II,

9.

Madonna

against

Rose-

hedge.

Bergamo.
Berlin.

Carrara, 167. Bust of Christ holding


head of Lance.
Meeting of young Christ and Bap94.
tist.

1055.

Pieta.

1483.

Death of Julius Caesar.


Herr Eugen Sch weizer. Nativity with
1132, 1133.

infant John.

Bonn.
University Gallery, 1 139. St. Jerome.
Bordeaux.
Musee, 48. Ecce Homo.
Brandenburg a. /H. Wredowsche Zeichnenschule,65.
Adoration.
Breslau.

Schlesisches Museum, 189.

Budapest.

56.

Caen.
Castiglione

St. Jerome.
Esther before Ahasuerus.
(Magazine) 1221. St. Jerome.
St. Jerome.
1369.
Musee, 58. Madonna with infant John

and Angel.
Pinacoteca,

Fiorentino.

14.

Pool

of

Bethesda.
Chantilly.

Musee Conde,
scape.

14.

Madonna

in

Land-

WORKS OF

182
Dijon.

Musee, Donation Maciet.

Small Ador-

ation of Magi, with SS.

Catherine (?).
Eastnor Castle (Ledbury). Lady

Empoli.

Andrew and

Henry Somerset.

Madonna and Saints.


Opera del Duomo, 29. Madonna and
infant John.

Madonna in Glory with SS. Peter


Martyr and Nicholas.
Englewood (New Jersey, U. S. A.). Mr. D. F. Platt.
SS-

St.

Jerome.
(to be transferred to Museo).

Ansano

Fiesole.

S.

Florence.

Four Triumphs of Petrarch.


Academy, 150. Pieth.
Madonna and infant John
Pitti, 364.
adoring Child.
Story of Esther.

Uffizi, 66-68.
1573.

Pieth.

Bigallo.

Tondo: Madonna, Saints, and

Angels.

Cenacolo

EntombAppolonia.
Adoration of Magi.

di S.

ment.

Museo

di

San Marco, Ospizio,

21.

An-

nunciation.

Mr. Herbert P. Horne. St. Jerome.


Christ on Cross
S. Frediano, Sacristy.
and Saints.
Pieta.
S. Jacopo sopra Arno, Sacristy.
S. Lucia de' Magnoli ("tra le Rovinate"), First Altar L. Annunciation.

La Quiete.

Adoration of Magi, with


Trinity and Angels above.
Antependium St. Lawrence
S. Spirito.
Gangalandi (between Florence and
:

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Florence. (Con.)
Gloucester.

Hanover.

Martino, R. Wall.

Signa), S.

Ma-

donna, with Eternal in lunette.


Highnam Court, Sir Hubert Parry.
Madonna and St. Peter Martyr
23.
adoring Child.
32.

Gottingen.

IS3

Head

of Angel.

University Gallery, 237. Meeting of


Young Christ and John.
Provinzialmuseum. Pieta and other

Scenes.
Ince Blundell Hall (Blundellsands, Lancashire).

Charles

Weld

Blundell.

Mr.
Na-

tivity.
Lille.

Musee,

Liverpool.

Walker Art Gallery,

995.

Madonna.
21.

Adven-

tures of Ulysses.

London.

Venus and Cupids.


916.
Mr. Brinsley Marlay. Cassone-i ront
Cupid and Psyche.
Mr. Charles Butler. Cassone-iront
Cupid and Psyche.
Earl Crawford. Brutus and Portia.
St. Mary of Egypt. St. Jerome. Baptist.

Earl of Ilchester.

Ecce Homo.

Ma-

donna.

Mr. Charles Ricketts.

Madonna and

infant John.

Mr.

George Salting. Tondo : Madonna and Angels adoring Child.

Mr. Vernon Watney.

Marriage Feast

of Nastagio degli Onesti.

Lyons.

1483.

Musee, 62. Deposition.


M. Edouard Aynard. Epiphany.
Pieth.

WORKS OF

84

Marseilles.

Musee.
lost

Milan.

Conti

Madonna and Angels (copy of


Amico di Sandro).
Bagati Valsecchi.
Cassone-

front: Story of Griselda.

Prince Trivulzio. Young Baptist.


donna in Niche (?).
Munich.

1002.

St. Sebastian.

1004.

Adoration of Magi.
Annunciation. E.

1007.
Minister i./W.
Kunstverein,

Ma-

Tobias and

1377.

the Angel.
Nantes.

Musee des Beaux Arts,

Ma-

220.

donna (?).
Madonna.
273.
Musee Dobret, 384. Crucifixion.
New Haven (U. S. A.). Jarves Collection, 41.
donna adoring Child.

Ma-

Jerome.

52-

St.

72.

Madonna
(version

in Clouds with

by

picture

of

Cherubim
Rosselli in

Uffizi).

St. Sebastian.

80.

1479.

Diana and Actaeon.


Creation of Adam and Eve.
85.
James Collection. Cassone-i ront
82.

New

York.

Sto-

ry of Actaeon.

Stanley

Mr.

Madonna

Mortimer.

adoring Child.
Oxford.

Christ Church Library,

i.

Madonna

adoring Child.

Mr.

T.

W.

Jackson.

Madonna and

infant John.

Palermo.

Baron Chiaramonte Bordonaro,


Tondo:

Paris.

1299.

Nativity.

Venus and Cupids.

62.

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Paris. (Con.)

I8 5

Madonna and two Angels (copy


Amico di Sandro; Cf. Mar-

1300 a.

of lost
seilles)

1658.

M.

St.

Story of Esther.

Jerome.

Leon Bonnat.

Madonna and

in-

fant John.

M.

Gustave Dreyfus.
infant John

Madonna and

(?).

Baron

Michele Lazzaroni.
Panel for Story of Esther.

Pieta.

M. Eugene Richtemberger. Nativity.


Peace Dale (Rhode Island, U. S. A.). Mrs. Bacon,
The Acorns. Madonna adoring
Child.

Philadelphia.

Mr. John G. Johnson. Battle Piece.


Madonna and Angels against hedge of
Pinks.

Story of Nastagio degli Onesti.

Madonna adoring Child. David.


Hotel de Ville, 102. Madonna.
Count Gregori Stroganoff. Head

Poitiers.

Rome.

of

Virgin.

San Giovanni Valdarno.

Oratorio

di S.

Maria delle

Grazie.

Scotland.

Vienna.

Wiesbaden.

Annunciation.
1472.
Newbattle Abbey. (Dalkeith), Marquess of Lothian. Entombment.
Count Lanckoronski. Orpheus. St.
Sigismund and kneeling Youth. E.
Prince Liechtenstein. Tondo: Ma-

donna and Angels.


Nassauisches Kunstverein,

6.

tion of Magi.

PAOLO UCCELLO.
1397-1475.

Influenced

by Donatello.

Adora-

:;
:

WORKS OF

86

Battle of S. Romano.
Duomo, Wall above Entrance. Fresco
Four Heads of Prophets.
Wall L. of Entrance. Fresco:
Uffizi, 52.

Florence.

Equestrian

portrait

Hawkwood.

1437.

Windows

of

Sir

John

Drum

of Cupola (from
Resurrection Nativity
Ascension Annunciation.
1443.
Frescoes
S. Maria Novella, Cloister.
Creation of Adam; Creation of Animals; Creation and Temptation of
Eve. E.
The Flood; Sacrifice of Noah.
Battle of S. Romano.
583.
in

his designs)

London.

Profile of Lady (?).


Metropolitan Museum,

758.

New

York.

Collection.

Profiles

Marquand
of

Woman

and Man of Portinari Family.


University Museum, 28. A Hunt.
Portraits of Giotto, Uccello, Dona1272.
tello, Brunelleschi, and Antonio Ma-

Oxford.
Paris.

L.
Battle of S.

netti.

Romano.
Mme. Edouard Andre. St. George and
1273.

the Dragon.

Ducal Palace,

Urbino.

89.

the Host.

Story of the Jew and

1468.

Count Lanckoronski.

Vienna.

St.

George and

the Dragon.

DOMENICO VENEZIANO.
About

400-146 1. Probably acquired his rudiments


formed under the influence of Donatello, Masaccio, and Fra Angelico.
1

at Venice;

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS


Martyrdom

18 7

of St. Lucy.

Berlin.

64.

Florence.

Madonna and four Saints.


Uffizi, 1305.
Fresco The Baptist
S. Croce, R. Wall.
and St. Francis. L.
:

London.

Frescoes: Heads of Monks.


766, 767.
Fresco transferred to canvas:
12 15.

Madonna enthroned.

ANDREA VERROCCHIO.
1435-1488.

Pupil of Donatello and

vinetti, influenced

by

Alesso

Madonna and Angel.

Berlin.

104A.

Florence.

Academy,

Baptism

71.

Baldo-

Pesellino.

(in

E.

great part).

Uffizi, 1204. Profile of Lady (?).


Annunciation (possibly with as3450.
sistance of Credi).

London.

296.

Madonna and two Angels (deby Ver-

signed and superintended


rocchio).
E.
Milan.

Poldi-Pezzoli,

Woman
Paris.

(?).

Profile

157.

Baron Arthur Schickler.


and

(designed

of

Young

E.

Madonna
by

superintended

Verrocchio)
Sheffield.

Ruskin

Museum.

Child (designed

Vienna.

Madonna adoring
by Verrocchio).

Prince Liechtenstein,

32.

Portrait of

Lady.

SCULPTURES.
Berlin.

93.
9 a.

Florence.

Sleeping

Youth

Entombment

Bargello.

Woman

David

(terra-cotta).

(terra-cotta).

(bronze).

(marble).

Bust

of

88

THE FLORENTINE PAINTERS

Florence. (Cow.) Opera

del Duomo. Decapitation of


Baptist (silver relief). 1480.
Uffizi. Madonna and Child (terra-cotta)
Vecchio, Courtyard. Boy
with Dolphin (bronze).
Lorenzo, Sacristy. Tomb of Cosimo
de' Medici (bronze).
1472.
Inner Sacristy. Lavabo (marble) (in

Palazzo
S.

part).

Or San Michele, Outside:

Christ

and

Thomas (bronze). Finished 1483.


Gustave Dreyfus. Bust of Lady
St.

Paris.

Venice.

Piazza SS. Giovanni e Paolo.

(marble)
trian

Monument

Colleoni (bronze).

of

Left unfinished

at death.

VINCI

see

Eques-

Bartolommeo

LEONARDO

INDEX OF PLACES.
Agram

Strossmayer

(Croatia).

Collection: AlFra Angelico, Bugiardini,

bertinelli,

Cosimo

Rosselli.

Musee: Alunno di Domenico.


Lindenau Museum: Amico di Sandro,

Aix -en -Provence.


Altenburg.

Fra Angelico, Lorenzo Monaco, Mainardi, Pesellino, Pier Francesco Fio-

rentino, Sellajo.

Dr. Otto Lanz: Cosimo Rosselli.


Alunno di Domenico, Rosso, Sellajo.
Arezzo.
Ashridge Park (Berkhampstead). Earl Brownlow:
Fra Bartolommeo, Fra Filippo.

Amsterdam.

Asolo.

Canonica della Parrocchia: Bacchi-

Assisi.

S.

acca.

Francesco:

Cimabue,

Giotto

and

Assistants, Pollajuolo.

Barnard Castle. Bowes Museum: Franciabigio.


Bergamo.
Carrara: Sellajo.
Lochis: Albertinelli.
Morelli: Albertinelli, Amico di Sandro,
Bacchiacca, Baldovinetti, Botticelli,
Botticini, Bronzino, Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Lorenzo Monaco, Pesellino,
Pier Francesco Fiorentino, PontorBerlin.

Amico

di Sandro,

Angelico,

Andrea

del Sarto, Fra

Bacchiacca, Baldovinetti,

189

INDEX OF PLACES

190

Fra Bartolommeo, Benozzo, Botti-

Berlin. (Con.)

BugiarGarbo,
Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Assistant of
Giotto, Granacci, Filippino Lippi,
Bronzino,

Botticini,

celli,

dini, Carli, Credi, Franciabigio,

Fra Filippo Lippi, Lorenzo Monaco,


Mainardi,

Masaccio,

Michelangelo,

Pesellino, Pier di Cosimo, Pier Fran-

cesco

The

Fiorentino,

Pontormo, Cosimo

Pollajuoli,

Rosselli, Sellajo,

Domenico Veneziano, Verrocchio.


Simon Collection: Amico di Sandro,
Bronzino, Garbo.

Museum

of Industrial Art: Bugiardini.


I: Bugi-

Palace of Emperor William


ardini.

Herr von Dirksen. Pontormo.


Von Kaufmann Collection: Botticelli,
Carli,

Monaco,

Lorenzo

Orcagna,

Pier di Cosimo.

Herr Eugen Schweizer:

Bacchiacca,

Franciabigio, Sellajo.

Herr

Edward

Simon:

Amico

Besancon.

Sandro.
Musee: Bronzino.

Beziers.

Cathedral: Fra Bartolommeo.


Musee: Benozzo.

Bologna.

Bugiardini,

Assistant

Franciabigio,

di

of

Giotto.
S.

Domenico: Filippino

Lippi,

Michel-

angelo.

Bonn.
Bordeaux.

University Gallery Bugiardini, Sellajo.


:

Musee:

Sellajo.

Borgo San Lorenzo (Mugello).

Chiesa del Croci-

fisso: Pier di Cosimo.

INDEX OF PLACES
Borgo San Sepolcro.
Boston (U.

S.

9I

Municipio: Pontormo.

Orfanelle: Rosso.
A.).
Mrs. J. L. Gardner: Fra Angelico,
Botticelli,
Botticini,
Bacchiacca,
Bronzino, Giotto, Masaccio, Pesel-

Bowood

lino, Antonio Pollajuolo.


Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw: Mainardi.
Park (Calne). Marquess of Lansdowne:

Bugiardini.

Wredowsche Zeichnenschule:

Brandenburg a./H.

Sellajo.

Brant Broughton

Rev. Arthur F.
Lorenzo

(Lincolnshire).

Sutton

Fra

Angelico,

Monaco, Masaccio.
Bremen.

Kunsthalle: Masolino.

Breslau.

Schlesisches

Museum Cosimo
:

Rosselli,

Sellajo.

Brocklesby

(Lincolnshire).

Earl of Yarborough

Bacchiacca.
Bruges.

Notre Dame.

Brunswick.

Lorenzo Monaco.

Brussels.

Michelangelo.

Franciabigio, Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Musee de la Ville
Budapest.

Amico

Caen.
Cambridge.

Musee:

Carlsruhe.

Credi.

Franciabigio.

Sandro, Bacchiacca, Bronzino,


Bugiardini,
Ridolfo
Ghirlandajo,
Granacci, Orcagna, Pier Francesco
di

Fiorentino.
Sellajo.

Fitzwilliam Museum Albertinelli, Credi,


Lorenzo Monaco, Cosimo Rosselli.
Cambridge (U. S. A.). Fogg Museum: Fra Bartolommeo, Benozzo, Pier Francesco Fior:

entino.

INDEX OF PLACES

I92

Parish Church.

Carmignano (near Florence).

Pon-

tormo.
Bacchiacca, Bronzino, Granacci, Lorenzo

Cassel.

Monaco.

Cappella

Castel Fiorentino.

di S.

Chiara: Benozzo.

Madonna della Tosse:


Castelnuovo

di

Val d'Elsa.

S.

Benozzo.

Barbara:

Pier Fran-

cesco Fiorentino.
Castiglione d'Olona (Varesotto).

Palazzo Castigili-

one: Masolino.

Church: Masolino.
Baptistery: Masolino.
Pinacoteca:
Collegiata: Credi.

Sellajo.

Palazzo

Pier

Castiglione Fiorentino.
Certaldo.

Priori:

dei

Francesco

Fiorentino.

Cappella del Ponte d'Agliena: Benozzo,


Chantilly.

Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Musee Conde Amico


:

bigio,

Granacci,

di

Sandro, FranciaPier

Pesellino,

di

Cosimo, Sellajo.
Chartres.

Musee

Chatsworth.

Duke

Albertinelli.

of

Devonshire: Ridolfo Ghir-

landajo.

Chicago.

Mr. Martin Ryerson:

Botticini.

Granacci.
Duomo: Rosso.

Citta di Castello.

Cleveland (U.

S. A.).

Holden Collection

Botticini,

Credi, Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Colle di Val d'Elsa.

Palazzo Antico del Comune:

Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Via Gozzino: Pier Francesco Fiorentino.


Via S. Lucia Pier Francesco Fiorentino.
Ridolfo Ghirlandajo.
S. Agostino:
Benozzo, Mainardi, Cosimo Rosselli.
:

Cologne.

INDEX OF PLACES

93

Copenhagen. Thorwalpsen Museum: Filippino Lippi,


Lorenzo Monaco.
Cortona.
Signor Colonnesi: Cosimo Rosselli.
S. Domenico: Fra Angelico.
Gesu: Fra Angelico.
Potocki Collection: Franciabigio.
Cracow.
Granacci.
Darmstadt.
Pier Francesco Fiorentino.
Detroit (U. S. A.).

Musee: Bacchiacca, Bugiardini, Francia-

Dijon.

bigio,

Pier

Francesco

Fiorentino,

Rosso, Sellajo.

Alunno

Dresden.

di

Domenico, Andrea del Sarto,

Bacchiacca, Botticelli, Carli, Credi,


Franciabigio, Garbo, Mainardi, Pier
di Cosimo.

National Gallery: Granacci.

Dublin.

Dulwich (near London).


Dusseldorf.

Pier di Cosimo.

Academy: Fra

Angelico, Carli, Cosimo

Rosselli.

Dzikow

(Poland).

M.

Zanislas Tarnowski:

Pon-

tormo.

Eastnor Castle (Ledbury).


Carli,

Lady Henry Somerset:

Pier

Francesco

Fiorentino,

Cosimo Rosselli, Sellajo.


Opera del Duomo: Botticini, Lorenzo
Empoli.
Monaco, Pesellino, Pier Francesco
Fiorentino, Cosimo Rosselli, Sellajo.
Baptistery Masolino.
S. Stefano: Masolino.
Englewood (New Jersey, U. S. A.). Mr. Daniel Fellows Platt: Pier Francesco Fioren:

tino, Sellajo.

Esher.

Mr. Herbert

Fiesole.

S.

Ansano

(to

F.

Cook:

Carli.

be transferred to Museo)

Lorenzo Monaco,

Sellajo.

INDEX OF r LACES

94

Duomo: Cosimo

Ficsolc. (Con.)
S.

Rosselli.

Francesco: Pier

Figline (Val d'Arno Superiore).

di

S.

Cosimo.

Piero al Terreno:

Bugiardini.
Florence.

Alunno di DomenFra Angelico,


Baldovinetti, Fra Bartolommeo, Be-

Academy
ico,

Albertinelli,

Andrea

del Sarto,

nozzo, Botticelli, Botticini, Cimabue,


Credi, Franciabigio, Garbo, Domenico and Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Giotto,
Granacci, Filippino Lippi, Fra Filippo

Lorenzo Monaco, Masaccio,


Pesellino,
Orcagna,
Pontormo, Cosimo Rosselli, Sellajo,

Lippi,

Michelangelo,

Verrocchio.

Bargello: Assistant

of Giotto,

Lorenzo

Mainardi, Michelangelo,
Orcagna, Pier Francesco Fiorentino,
Antonio Pollajuolo, Rosso, Verroc-

Monaco,

chio.

Albertinelli, Amico di Sandro,


Andrea del Sarto, Bacchiacca, Fra
Bartolommeo, Botticini, Bronzino,

Pitti:

Ridolfo
Franciabigio,
Bugiardini,
Ghirlandajo, Granacci, Filippino Lippi, Fra Filippo Lippi, Pier di Cosimo.
Pontormo, Rosso, Sellajc.

Uffizi: Albertinelli, Alunno di

Andrea

Domen-

Fra Angelico,
Baldovinetti, Fra Bartolommeo, Beico,

del Sarto,

nozzo, Botticelli, Botticini, Bronzino,


Bugiardini, Carli, Castagno, Credi,
Franciabigio, Domenico and Ridolfo
Ghirlandajo, Assistant of Giotto,
Granacci, Leonardo, Filippino Lippi,

INDEX OF PLACES
Florence. (Con.)

95

Fra Filippo Lippi, Lorenzo Monai


Mainardi, Michelangelo,
Orcagna,
Pier di Cosimo, Pier Francesco Fiorentino,

Cosimo

The

Pollajuoli,

Pontormo,

Rosselli, Rosso, Sellajo,

Paolo

Domenico Veneziano, Ver-

Uccello,
rocchio.

BiBLiOTECA Laurenziana: Lorenzo Monaco.

Bigallo: Ridolfo Ghirlandajo,

Sellajo.

Boboli Gardens: Michelangelo.


Casa Buonarroti: Michelangelo.
Cenacolo di S. Appolonia: Botticini,
Castagno, Pier Francesco Fiorentino,
Sellajo.

Cenacolo

di

Foligno:

dello

Scalzo:

Amico

di

Sandro.

Chiostro

Andrea

del

Sarto, Franciabigio.

Collegio Militare: Pontormo.


Hospital: Castagno, Lorenzo Monaco.
Innocenti, Gallery: Alunno di Domenico, Pier di Cosimo.
ISTITUTO DEI MlNORENNI CORRIGENDIJ

Granacci.

San Lorenzo,

New

Sacristy: Michel-

angelo.

Museo

di

nico,

San Marco: Alunno

di

Dome-

Fra Angelico, Fra Br:rtolommeo,

Bugiardini,

Domenico Ghirlandajo,

Lorenzo Monaco, Pontormo, Sellajo.


Opera del Duomo: Antonio Pollajuolo,
Verrocchio.

Palazzo Riccardi: Benozzo, Fra Filippo


Lippi.

I96

INDEX OF PLACES

Florence. (Con.)

Palazzo Vecchio: Bronzino, Domenico


and Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Verrocchio.

(Pitti, see above).

San Salvi: Andrea del Sarto.


Scuole Elementare (Via della Colonna)

Carli.

(Uffizi, see above).

Conservatorio Capponi, No.

Via

ii.:

Carli.

Via Ricasoli: Cosimo Rosselli.


Palazzo Alessandri: Benozzo,
,

Fra

Filippo Lippi.

Mr. B. Berenson: Baldovinetti, Bronzino, Carli, Orcagna, Cosimo Rosselli.

Duca

di Brindisi: Botticini, Carli.

Mr. Henry White Cannon, Villa Doccia: Carli.

Palazzo Capponi, Marchese Farinola:


Botticelli, Pontormo.
Palazzo Corsini: Albertinelli, Amico di
Sandro, Andrea del Sarto, Bacchiacca,

Carli,

Ridolfo

Ghirlandajo,

Filippino Lippi, Pontormo, Cosimo


Rosselli.

Mme. Finali, Villa Landau: Cosimo


Rosselli.

Mr. Herbert

P. Horne: Benozzo, Filippino Lippi, Pier di Cosimo, Sellajo.


Mr. Edmund Houghton: Pier Francesco

Fiorentino.

Contessa Lardarel: Botticini.


Mr. Charles Loeser: Lorenzo Monaco.

Conte Niccolini: Bacchiacca.


Conte Fernando dei Nobili:
Francesco Fiorentino, Sellajo.

Pier

INDEX OF PLACES
Florence. (Con.)

97

Signor Angelo Orvieto: Cosimo


Rosselli.

Palazzo Pitti: Botticelli.


Palazzo Pucci: Credi.
Marchese Manelli Riccardi: Alunno
di Domenico.
Mrs. Ross, Poggio Gherardo: Carli.
Serristori: Bacchiacca, Pier
Francesco Fiorentino.
Marchese Pio Strozzi: Botticini.
Palazzo Torrigiani: Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Filippino Lippi, Mainardi.
Torre del Gallo (Villino) Antonio

Conte

Pollajuolo.

Ambrogio: Baldovinetti, Carli,


pino Lippi, Cosimo Rosselli.
Andrea del
SS. Annunziata
S.

Filip-

Sarto,

Baldovinetti, Castagno, Franciabigio,


Pontormo, Cosimo Rosselli, Rosso.

Badia: Filippino Lippi, Orcagna.


La Calza (Porta Romana): Franciabigio.

Carmine:
S.

S.

Filippino

Lippi,

Masaccio,

Masolino.
Croce: Bugiardini, Giotto and Assistants, Lorenzo Monaco, Mainardi,

Orcagna, Cosimo Rosselli, Domenico


Veneziano.
Domenico di Fiesole: Fra Angelico,
Credi.

Duomo:

Baldovinetti,

Castagno,

Credi,

Domenico Ghirlandajo, Michelangelo,


S.
S.

Paolo Uccello.
Felice: Assistant of Giotto.
Felicita: Pontormo.

INDFX OF PLACES

I98
Florence. (Con.)

Francesco

S.

delle

Stimmate:

Francesco Fiorentino.

Pier
S.

Frediano:

S.

Giovannino dei Cavalieri

Sellajo.

Lorenzo
Monaco, Pier Francesco Fiorentino,
:

Sellajo.

Giuseppe: Lorenzo Monaco.


Innocenti (Church) Alunno di DoraeS.

Domenico Ghirlandajo.
Jacopo sopra Arno: Sellajo.
Lorenzo: Bronzino, Fra Filippo
nico,

S.
vS.

Pier di Cosimo,

Lippi,

Rosso, Verrocchio.

S.

Lucia de' Magnoli (tra le Rovin-

S.

Marco:

ate) Sellajo.
:

S.

Baldovinetti, Fra Bartolommeo.


Carli,
M. Maddalena dei Pazzi
Cosimo Rosselli.
M. Novella: Bugiardini, Domenico
Ghirlandajo, Filippino Lippi, Masaccio, Orcagna, Paolo Uccello.
Margherita a Montici: Assistant of

S.

Michele Visdomini: Pontormo.

S.

S.

Giotto.

Miniato: Baldovinetti, Assistant of


Giotto, Antonio Pollajuolo.
S. Niccol6: Piero Pollajuolo.
Chiostro degli Oblati
(25 Via S.
Egidio) Lorenzo Monaco.
Ognissanti: Botticelli, Domenico Ghir-

S.

landajo.

Chiesa

di

Orbetello: Mainardi.

Or San Michele:

Credi, Orcagna, Ver-

rocchio.
S.

Pancrazio: Baldovinetti.

INDEX OF PLACES

99

Pazzi Chapel: Baldovinetti.


Procolo: Carli.
La Quiete: RidolfoGhirlandajo, Sellajo.

Florence. (Con.)
S.

S.

S.

Spirito: Botticini, Carli, Credi, Filippino Lippi, Sellajo.


Domenico
Trinita: Baldovinetti,
Ghirlandajo,

Lorenzo Monaco.

Places near Florence:

Brozzi, Fattoria Orsini: Mainardi.

Andrea

S.

Certosa:

Botticini, Carli.

Albertinelli,

Pon-

Orcagna,

tormo.

CORBIGNANO (NEAR SETTIGNANO), CaPpella Vanella: Botticelli.


Gangalandi (between Florence and
Signa), S. Martino: Sellajo.
Badia di Passignano (Tavernelle),
Refectory: Domenico Ghirlandajo.
Pian di Mugnone, S. M. Maddalena

Fra Bartolommeo.
Poggio a Cajano (Royal Villa) Andrea
:

del

Sarto,

Franciabigio,

Filippino

Pontormo.
S. Pietro: Granacci.
Scandicci, Comtesse de Turenne Credi.
Villamagna, S. Donnino: Granacci.
Lippi,

Quintole,

Forli.

Frankfort

Credi.

a./M.

Stadelinstitut

Pier

Francesco

Fiorentino, Pontormo, Rosso.

Frome (Somerset). Lady Horner, Mells Park: Pier


Francesco Fiorentino.
Geneva.
Genoa.

Musee

Albertinelli.

Palazzo Adorno: Cosimo Rosselli.


Palazzo Bianco: Filippino Lippi, Pontormo.

2 GO

INDEX OF PLACES

Genoa. (Con.) Palazzo Brignole-Sale: Pontormo.


Glasgow.
Corporation Gallery: Garbo.

Mr. William Beattie:

Gloucester.

Credi, Ridolfo
Ghirlandajo, Pier di Cosimo.
Mr. James Mann: Granacci.
Highnam Court, Sir Hubert Parry:

Lorenzo Monaco,
Francesco Fioren-

Albertinelli, Credi,

Pesellino,

Pier

tino, Sellajo.

Gottingen.

University Gallery:
Pier Francesco

Credi,

Botticini,

Fiorentino, Sellajo.

Grenoble.

Musee: Fra Bartolommeo.

Gubbio.

Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

The Hague.
Hamburg.

Weber

Albertinelli, Bronzino, Pier di Cosimo.

Collection:

bigio,

Mainardi,

Credi,

Pier

Francia-

Francesco

Fiorentino.

Hanover.

Kestner Museum:

Credi.

Provinzialmuseum: Sellajo.
Harrow-on-the-Hill.
Rev. J. Stogdon Pier
:

di

Co-

simo, Pier Francesco Fiorentino.


Hatfield.

Mr. Charles Butler, Warren Wood:


Pier Francesco Fiorentino, Pontormo.

Hildesheim.

Mainardi.

Horsmonden

(Kent).

Mrs. Austen, Capel Manor:


Alunno di Domenico, Amico di

Sandro.
Ince Blundell Hall (Lancashire).
Kiel.

Mr. Charles Weld


Blundell: Sellajo.
Prof. Martius: Filippino Lippi.

Le Mans.

Musee

Lewes.

Mr. E.

Lille.

pino Lippi.
Musee: Pier Francesco Fiorentino, Sel-

Carli, Pier

P.

lajo.

Francesco Fiorentino.

Warren, Lewes House:

Filip-

INDEX OF PLACES
Liverpool.

201

Walker Art Gallery: Alunno

di

Do-

menico, Pier Francesco Fiorentino,

Cosimo
Locko Park

London.

Rosselli, Sellajo.

Derby). Mr. Charles DruryLowe: Bacchiacca, Benozzo, Carli,


Castagno, Mainardi.

(near

Amico

di Sandro,

Andrea

del Sarto, Fra

Angelico, Bacchiacca, Fra Bartolom-

meo, Benozzo,

Botticelli,

Botticini,

Bugiardini,
Castagno,
Bronzino,
Credi, Franciabigio, Domenico and
Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Filippino and
Fra Filippo Lippi, Lorenzo Monaco,
Orcagna,
Michelangelo,
Mainardi,
Pier di Cosimo, Pier Francesco Fio-

Antonio Pollajuolo, PonSellajo,


tormo, Cosimo Rosselli,
Paolo Uccello, Domenico Veneziano,
rentino,

Verrocchio.

H. M. The King, Buckingham Palace:


Benozzo.

Burlington House, Diploma Gallery:


Leonardo, Michelangelo.

Hertford House: Andrea

del

Sarto,

Pier di Cosimo.

Victoria and Albert Museum: Amico


di

Sandro, Benozzo, Granacci, MiFrancesco Fioren-

chelangelo, Pier

tino, Antonio Pollajuolo.


Beit Collection: Michelangelo.
Mr. Robert Benson: Amico di Sandro,
Andrea del Sarto, Botticini, Carli,
Franciabigio, Garbo, Domenico Ghir-

landajo, Granacci,
Pier di Cosimo.

Filippino Lippi,

INDEX OF PLACES

202
London. {Con.)

Mr. Charles Brinsley Marlay:


Alunno di Domenico, Botticini,
Sellajo.

Duke

of Buccleugh: Granacci.
Mr. Charles Butler: Bacchiacca, Botticini, Credi,

tino,

Cosimo

Pier Francesco FiorenRosselli, Sellajo.

Earl Crawford: Sellajo.


Mr. William E. Grey:

Pier Francesco

Florentine

Mrs. Louisa Herbert: Pier Francesco


Fiorentino.

Mr.

J.

P.

Heseltine:

Col. G. L. Holford,

Botticelli.

Dorchester House

Fra Bartolommeo, Garbo, Pesellino.


Lady Horner: Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Sir H. Howorth: Mainardi.


Earl of "Ilchester, Holland House:
Sellajo.

Sir

Kenneth Muir Mackenzie: Alunno


di

Domenico.

Mr. Ludwig Mond: Fra Bartolommeo,


Botticelli,
Domenico Ghirlandajo,
Pontormo.
Pierpont Morgan: Castagno, Domenico Ghirlandajo.
Earl of Northbrook: Fra Bartolommeo, Bugiardini, Franciabigio.
Earl of Plymouth: Pier di Cosimo,
Pontormo.
Mr. Charles Ricketts: Garbo, Pier di

Mr.

J.

Cosimo, Sellajo.

Mr.

C. N.

Robinson: Benozzo.

Earl of Rosebery:

Credi.

INDEX OF PLACES

203

London. (Con.) Mr. Leopold de Rothschild: Andrea


del

Sarto.

Mr. George Salting: Domenico

and

Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Mainardi, Sellajo.

Henry Samuelson: Garbo, Filippino Lippi.


Mr. A. E. Street: Pier di Cosimo.
Mrs. J. E. Taylor: Fra Angelico.
Sir

Mr. T. Vasel: Franciabigio.


Mr. Henry Wagner: Lorenzo Monaco,
Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Mr. Vernon Watney: Sellajo.


Sir Julius Wernher: Filippino Lippi.
Mr. Frederick A. White: Bacchiacca.

Earl of
Longleat (Warminster).

Yarborough Franciabigio.
Marquess of Bath: Alunno
:

di Domenico, Credi, Mainardi.


Galleria Tadini: Alunno di Domenico.
Lucardo (near Certaldo). Parish Church: Ridolfo

Lovere.

Ghirlandajo.

Lucca.

Fra Bartolommeo, Bronzino,

Carli,

Pon-

tormo.

Marchese Mansi

(S.

M. Forisportam)

Granacci.

Duomo: Fra Bartolommeo, Domenico


Ghirlandajo, Cosimo Rosselli.
Francesco: Cosimo Rosselli.
S. Michele: Filippino Lippi.
Musee: Sellajo.
M. Edouard Aynard: Fra Angelico,
Garbo, Fra Filippo Lippi, Mainardi,

S.

Lyons.

Pier di Cosimo, Sellajo.

Madrid.

Musee del Prado: Andrea


Fra Angelico.

del Sarto,

INDEX OF PLACES

204
Madrid. (Con.)

Duke of Alba:

Albertinelli,

Fra

Angelico.
Marseilles.

Musee:

Mayence.
Meiningen.

Credi.

Sellajo.

Grand Ducal Palace: Amico

di

Sandro,

Benozzo.
Milan.

Ambrosiana: Botticelli.
Borromeo: Alunno di Domenico, Pier

di

Cosimo.
Brera: Benozzo, Bronzino.
Poldi-Pezzoli: Albertinelli,

di

Domenico,

Botticelli,

lino, Sellajo,

Alunno

Carli,

Pesel-

Verrocchio.

Conti Bagati Valsecchi: Sellajo.


Conte Casatti: Credi, Cosimo Rosselli.

Benigno Crespi: Bacchiacca,


Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Granacci, Lorenzo Monaco, Mainardi.

Comm.

Dr. Gustavo Frizzoni: Bacchiacca.


Cav. Aldo Noseda: Lorenzo Monaco.
Prince Trivulzio: Amico di Sandro,
Michelangelo, Pier di Cosimo, Pontormo, Sellajo.
Maria delle Grazie: Bugiardini,
S.
Leonardo.

Modena.
Mombello

Botticini,

(near

Bugiardini,

Milan).

Prince

Franciabigio.

Pio

di

Savoia

Bugiardini.

Pinacoteca (S. Francesco) Benozzo.


S. Fortunato: Benozzo.
Montefortino (near Amandola, Marches). Municipio:

Montefalco.

Botticini,

Pier

Francesco

Fioren-

tino.

Montemarciano (Val d'Arno Superiore).


Montepulciano.

Carli.

Masaccio.

INDEX OF PLACES
Alte Pinakotek:

Munich.

20$

Fra AnGarbo,
Giotto and Assistant, Granacci, Fra
Albertinelli,

Bacchiacca,

gelico,

Filippo Lippi,

Credi,

Mainardi,

Masolino,

Sella jo.

Lotzbeck Collection Lorenzo Monaco.


Kunstverein: Mainardi, Cosimo
:

Munster i./W.

Rosselli, Sellajo.

Nantes.

Musee des Beaux Arts:


Musee Dobret: Sellajo.

Naples.

Amico

Sellajo.

di Sandro, Andrea del Sarto, Fra


Bartolommeo, Garbo, Filippino Lip-

pi,

Masaccio, Masolino.

Museo Filangieri: Amico


Narbonne.

Musee:

di

Sandro.

Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Alunno di Domenico, BeDomenico Ghirlandajo.


New Haven (Conn., U. S. A.). Jarves Collection:
Alunno di Domenico, Domenico and
Municipio

Narni.

nozzo,

Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Granacci, Filippino Lippi, Lorenzo Monaco, Orcagna, Pier di Cosimo, Pier Francesco
juolo,

Manor

Newlands

(Hampshire).

West:
Newport

New

Fiorentino,

Pontormo,

Antonio

Polla-

Sellajo.

Col.

Cornwallis

Pier di Cosimo.

Mr. Theodore M. Davis, The


Reef: Bugiardini.
Metropolitan Museum Bugiardini, Pier

(U. S. A.).

York.

di

Cosimo, Piero Pollajuolo,

Paolo

Uccello.

Mrs. Gould: Bronzino.


Havemeyer Collection: Bronzino.
James Collection: Sellajo.
Mr. Stanley Mortimer: Sellajo.

INDhX OF PLACES

2o6
New

York. {Con.)

Rutherford

Mr.

Stuyvesant

Franciabigio.

Mr. Samuel Untermeyer:

Albertinelli.

Gower Collection-: Franciabigio.


Nimes.
Mr. Erle-Drax: Bugiardini.
Olantigh Towers (Wye).
Carli.

Pontormo.

Oldenburg.

Bugiardini,

Orvieto.

Duomo: Fra Angelico.


Christ Church Library: Alunno di
Domenico, Amico di Sandro, Bac-

Oxford.

chiacca,

Carli,

Granacci,

Filippino

Lippi, Pier di Cosimo, Sellajo.

University Galleries: Bronzino,

Credi,

Fra Filippo Lippi, Mainardi, Paolo Uccello.


Granacci,

Mr. T. W. Jackson:

Franciabigio, Sel-

lajo.

Padua.
Palermo.

Arena Chapel: Giotto.


Baron Chiaramonte Bordonaro: Alunno

di

Domenico,

Mai-

Botticini,

nardi, Orcagna, Pier Francesco Fi-

orentino, Pontormo, Sellajo.


Panshanger (Hertford). Fra Bartolommeo, Granacci,
Pontormo.
Panzano (between Florence and Siena). S. Maria:
Botticini.

La Grange Blanche, M.
Henri Chalandon: Botticini, Lo-

Parcieux (near Trevoux).

renzo Monaco, Pier

Francesco

Fi-

orentino.
Paris.

Louvre:

Albertinelli,

Amico

nico,

di

Alunno

di

Dome-

Sandro, Andrea del

Fra Angelico, Baldovinetti,


Fra Bartolommeo, Benozzo, Botti-

Sarto,

celli,

Botticini, Bronzino, Bugiardini,

INDEX OF PLACES
Paris. (Con.)

Carli,

207

Cimabue, Credi, Franciabigio,

Domenico and Ridolfo Ghirlandajo,


Assistant of Giotto, Leonardo, Fra

Lorenzo Monaco,
Lippi,
Filippo
Mainardi, Michelangelo, Pesellino,
Pier di Cosimo, Piero Pollajuolo,
Pontormo, Cosimo Rosselli, Rosso,
Sellajo,

Paolo Uccello.

Musee des arts Decoratifs

Bugiardini,

Cosimo Rosselli.
Baronne d'Adelsward: Benozzo.

Mme.

Edouard Andre:

Botticini,

cesco

Baldovinetti,

Bugiardini,

Pier

Cosimo

Fiorentino,

Fran-

Rosselli,

Paolo Uccello.

Comtesse
cini,

M. Leon

Arconati-Visconti

Botti-

Mainardi.
Bonnat: Pier Francesco Fioren-

tino, Sellajo.

M. Georges Chalandon: Fra Angelico.


M. Jean Dollfus: Alunno di Domenico,
Granacci.

M. Gustave Dreyfus: Credi, Mainardi,


Sellajo, Verrocchio.

M.

Henri Heugel:

Botticini,

Garbo,

Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Baron Michele Lazzaroni:

Carli, Sel-

lajo.

Comte Pastre: Amico di Sandro.


M. Emile Richtemberger: Carli, Granacci, Sellajo.

Baron Edouard de Rothschild:


Garbo.

Baron Arthur Schickler:


Baron Schlichting: Amico

Verrocchio.
di

Sandro.

INDEX OF PLACES.

2o8
Paris. (Con.)

Parma.
Pavia.

M. Joseph Spiridon: Alunno di Domenico, Granacci, Cosimo Rosselli.


M. Noel Valois: Fra Angelico.
Fra Angelico, Garbo.
Galleria Malaspina: Pier Francesco
Fiorentino.

Peace Dale (Rhode Island, U.


Perigueux.
Perugia.

Musee: Amico

A.).

S.

The Acorns:

Mrs. Bacon,

Sellajo.

di Sandro.

Fra Angelico, Benozzo.


Marchese Meniconi Bracceschi: Pier
Francesco Fiorentino.
Petworth House (Sussex). Lord Leconfield: Andrea
del Sarto.

Philadelphia.

Mr. John G. Johnson Amico di Sandro,


Fra
Bartolommeo,
Franciabigio,
:

Granacci, Mainardi, Pier di Cosimo,


Pier Francesco Fiorentino, Cosimo
Rosselli, Sellajo.

Mr. Peter Widener: Benozzo, BugiarRidolfo Ghirlandajo, Pier Fran-

dini,

cesco Fiorentino.

Pinerolo (Piedmont).

Villa Lamba Doria: Francia-

bigio.

Pisa.

Museo

Civico: Fra Angelico, Benozzo,


Domenico Ghirlandajo, Masac-

Carli,
cio.

Campo Santo: Benozzo.


Ricovero: Benozzo.
dei
Universita
Cappellani:
nozzo.
S.

Caterina:

Albertinelli.

Duomo: Andrea

del Sarto.

S.

Matteo:

S.

Stefano: Bronzino.

Carli.

Be-

INDEX OF PLACES
Pistoia.

Duomo:

209

Credi, Verrocchio.

Madonna del Letto:

Credi.

Pietro Maggiore Ridolfo Ghirlandajo.


Poggibonsi
S. Lucchese: Carli.
Hotel de Ville: Sellajo.
Poitiers.
Pontormo (near Empoli). Parish Church Pontormo.
Raczynski Collection Lorenzo Monaco.
Posen.
Botticini, Carli, Filippino Lippi, Lorenzo
Prato.
Monaco.
Tabernacle in Street: Filippino Lippi.
Duomo: Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Fra Filippo
S.

Lippi.

Reigate.

The Priory, Mr. Somers Somerset:


Ridolfo

Ghirlandajo,

Cosimo

Ros-

selli.

Richmond

(Surrey).

Sir Frederick Cook: Bacchi-

Fra Bartolommeo, Botticini,


Fra Filippo Lippi, Lorenzo Monaco,
Pier Francesco Fiorentino.
Barberini Gallery: Franciabigio, Ponacca,

Rome.

tormo.

Borghese Gallery:
del

Albertinelli,

Bacchiacca,

Sarto,

Andrea

Bronzino,

Bugiardini,

Credi,
Franciabigio,
Granacci, Pier di Cosimo, Pontormo.

Colonna Gallery: Alunno

di

Domenico,

Bronzino, Bugiardini.

Corsini Gallery: Fra Angelico, Fra


BugiarBartolommeo, Bronzino,
dini, Franciabigio,

Granacci, Pier di

Cosimo, Pontormo.
Doria Gallery: Bronzino.
Lateran (presently to be united with
the Vatican) Fra Bartolommeo, Benozzo, Fra Filippo Lippi.
:

INDEX OF PLACES

2IO
Rome.

(Con.) Vatican,

Fra

Pinacoteca:

Angelico,

Leonardo.

MusEoCRisTiANo(presently to be united
with the Pinacoteca) Fra Angelico,
Benozzo, Lorenzo Monaco, Mainardi,
:

Masolino.

Chapel of Nicholas V Fra Angelico.


Cappella Paolina Michelangelo.
Sixtine Chapel: Botticelli, Domenico
:

Ghirlandajo,

Michelangelo,

Pier di

Cosimo, Cosimo Rosselli.

Prince Colonna: Bugiardini.


Prince Doria: Bronzino, Fra Filippo
Lippi, Pesellino.

Miss Hertz: Bacchiacca.


Mr. Ludwig Mond: Fra Filippo Lippi,
Cosimo Rosselli.
Palazzo Rondanini: Michelangelo.

Prince Rospigliosi: Bronzino.


Contessa Spaletti: Bugiardini.
Count Gregori Stroganoff: Amico
Sandro,

Fra

Angelico,

di

Mainardi,

Sellajo.

Marchese Visconti Venosta: Fra Bartolommeo.


Aracceli: Benozzo.
S. Clemente: Masolino.
S.

S.

Giovanni Laterano: Giotto.


Maria sopra Minerva: Filippino
Lippi, Michelangelo.

St. Peter's: Assistant of Giotto, Michel-

angelo, Antonio Pollajuolo.


Pietro in Vincoli: Michelangelo.
San Gemignano. Municipio: Benozzo, Mainardi, Pier
S.

Francesco Fiorentino.

INDEX OF PLA CES

211

San Gemignano (Con.) Ospedale di S. Fina: Mainardi.


S. Giovanni: Mainardi.
S. Agostino: Benozzo, Mainardi, Pier
Francesco Fiorentino.

Andrea: Benozzo.
Cappella di Monte:
S.

Pier

Francesco

Fiorentino.

Collegiata: Benozzo, Domenico Ghirlandajo,

Mainardi,

Pier

Francesco

Fiorentino, Piero Pollajuolo.


S. Jacopo: Pier Francesco Fiorentino.
S. Lucia: Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Monte Oliveto:

Benozzo, Mainardi.

Pancole (near San Gemignano),


Maria Assunta: Pier Francesco

S.

Fi-

orentino.
di Ulignano (near San Gemignano), S. Bartolommeo: Pier Francesco Fiorentino.
San Giovanni Valdarno. Oratorio di S. M. delle

Pieve

Grazie:

San Miniato

al

Sellajo.

Tedesco (Val d'Arno).

S.

Domenico:

Carli.

Scotland.

Cawder House, (Bishopsbriggs)


Archibald

Stirling:

Capt.

Pier

di

Cosimo.

(Glasgow, cf. under G.)


Gosford House Earl
Albertinelli,

Pier di

of

Botticini,

Wemyss:
Masolino,

Cosimo.

(Dunblane), Capt. Archibald


Stirling: Pontormo.
Langton (Duns), Hon. Mrs. BaillieHamilton: Alunno di Domenico,

Kier

Bugiardini.

212

INDEX OF PLACES

Scotland. (Con.)

Newbattle Abbey (Dalkeith), Marquess of Lothian: Amico

di Sandro,

Pier di Cosimo, Pontormo, Sellajo.

Rossie Priory (Inchture, Perthshire),

Lord Kinnaird
Sermoneta.

Granacci.

Parish Church: Benozzo.

Sheffield.

Ruskin Museum: Verrocchio.

Siena.

Albertinelli,

Lorenzo Monaco, Pier Fran-

cesco Fiorentino, Rosso.

Palazzo Saracini: Bugiardini, Mainardi.


S. Maria degli Angeli: Carli.
Monistero del Santuccio: Pier di
Cosimo.
Sinalunga (Val

di

Chiana).

S.

Martino: Pier Fran-

cesco Fiorentino.
Spoleto.

Duomo: Fra

Staggia (near Siena).

S.

Filippo Lippi.

Maria Assunta: The

Polla-

juoli.

Stockholm.
St.

Royal Palace:

Petersburg.

Botticini, Pier di Cosimo,

Hermitage: Andrea
Angelico,
ticelli,

landajo,

Fra

del Sarto, Fra

Bartolommeo,

Bugiardini,

Granacci,

Bot-.

Ridolfo GhirMichelangelo.

Palais Stroganoff: Amico

di

Sandro,

Filippino Lippi.
Strasburg.

University Gallery: Bugiardini,

Credi.

Assistant of Giotto, Masaccio, Pier


di Cosimo, Piero Pollajuolo.
Stuttgart.

Albertinelli, Bugiardini.

Terni.

Biblioteca: Benozzo.
Municipio: Pier Francesco Fiorentino.

Todi.

FortunaTO: Masolino.
Musee: Bacchiacca.
Amico di Sandro, Fra Angelico,

S.

Troyes.
Turin.

Botticini,

Bronzino, Bugiardini, Credi, Francia-

INDEX OF PLACES
Turin. {Con.)

213

Francesco Fiorentino, The


Pontormo, Cosimo Roselli.
Academia Albertina: Fra Filippo Lippi.
bigio, Pier

Pollajuoli,

Armeria Reale:

Rosso.
Civico: Bugiardini, Lorenzo Mo-

Museo

naco.

Urbino.

Vallombrosa.
Venice.

Ducal Palace: Paolo


Pieve-

Uccello.

Carli.

Academy

Carli, Rosso.

Querini Stampalia Gallery Credi.


Seminario
Albertinelli,
Bacchiacca,
:

Bronzino, Carli, Filippino Lippi.


Bugiardini.
Prince Giovanelli Bacchiacca.

Baron Giorgio Franchetti

Lady La yard: Garbo.


Piazza SS. Giovanni

Paolo: Ver-

rocchio.
Vercelli.

Museo Borgogna: Domenico

Ghirlan-

dajo.

Vienna.

Andrea

del

Sarto,

Fra

Bartolommeo

Benozzo, Bronzino, Bugiardini, Franciabigio,

Academy:

Pontormo.

Bugiardini.

Herr Eugen von Miller Aicholz:


Filippino Lippi.

Dr. A. Figdor: Alunno di Domenico.


Harrach Collection: Mainardi, Pier
di

Cosimo.

Count Lanckoronski: Alunno

di

Do-

menico, Franciabigio, Granacci, Masaccio, Pier Francesco Fiorentino,


Rosso, Sellajo, Paolo Uccello.
Prince Liechtenstein Amico di Sandro,
Credi, Franciabigio, Mainardi, Pier
di Cosimo, Sellajo, Verrocchio.
:

INDEX OF PLACES

214

Baron Tucher: Fra Angelico Benozzo.


Herr Carl Wittgenstein: Granacci.

Vienna. (Con.)
Volterra.

Municipio: Carli, Domenico Ghirlandajo,


Pier Francesco Fiorentino, Rosso.
Oratorio di S. Antonio Pier Francesco
:

Fiorentino.

Duomo:
Wantage.

Albertinelli,

Benozzo.

Lockinge House, Lady Wantage:

Ri-

dolfo Ghirlandajo, Pesellino.

Earl of Warwick: Alunno di Domenico, Granacci.


Washington.
Mr. Victor Fischer: Carli, Lorenzo
Monaco, Mainardi.
Weston Birt (Tetbury). Col. G. L. Holford: Carli.
Wiesbaden.
Nassauisches Kunstverein: Bacchi-

Warwick

Castle.

acca,

Wigan.

Franciabigio,

Sellajo.

Haigh Hall, Earl Crawford:

Botti-

cini.

Windsor

Castle.

Andrea

del Sarto, Franciabigio.

Worksop (Nottinghamshire). Clumber Park, Duke


of Newcastle: Pier di Cosimo.

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