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13

Teaching
gnammar

Grammarteachingsometimes
happensasa resultof other
work the studentsaredoins example,when they study
languaj. n u text theyhave
been
,;j^g or listeningto, or rrh._
grammarproblem presents
itself unexpectedlyin the
middle oiu l.rro' and we
to dealwith it on the spot (see
feelrve- pug 3ai.Gru--u,. teaching
may grow directryfrom the
:;.":*:$performing'.r'"'i*tj.,ro,-.aaSpartJruJu,-on-formapproach
At othetimes,however,we
relyon the co,

orwepran
inadvance
what
grami",,;;;::?::,I#ff

;:t:,il;l*:J::i::.rr':.T;
their own favouritegrammar
presentationand practice
and will often use ri....
when they want students
".,i"iri.,
to studya particularpieceof
grammar.

.,,:J::TilTlu,;;,T"t""iT"l *Tl" of.ay,,orwecanshow


students
sranr:

want
,"0.""'0J#i:H'"i,?J
il:,'trf.T,:',1'r.""lilJ
,'.:Hfijt;*:":li"'o
inchapter,,,;;:;:J,T,XTli"":::;T:'#:,1:'J.:,i"'J
appropriate.The rangeof
activitieswhich we will look
at i' tt i, .t upterall satis$,
requrrements
these:_,
in differentways.we will
alsodiscussg."-;;;;J,
una rheir uses.

A Introducinggrammar
The followingactivitie
fo. int.Ju.iij",'i';;Xff::t'range
Example1: The postman

of possibilities(somesimple,
somemore elabor:
Language:presentsimple
Age:
any
Level:
beginnen,/elementary

In this grammarpresentation

(which follor,
ESA
- sJe
pug.
iri,,uen
ts
rearn
h";;;;"T"X
:J,o"'".:::Tfffi;:n:::ffi::,T,'':T:,,
personsingular'They have

alreadylearnthow to say affirmati


und negativesentences
first and secondperson(e.g.
in :,
I tikecoffer,ro) oon,rrikebananas).
The teacherholds up a number
oiflashcards(seeFigureri""
ericitsthe words dogs,
up' doorbell'car, unrform,
a rot of monrr. i;rstudents
..
Ly trr.*.t orally (see page
zo6)
ar.:
qui't'.'u'-"'io","

iiff:fflll.:"?.Tj:j"t"u

_ or evendrawn
", ":tl::lcards,
210

o.u,using
thein,"ntpictures
aspromp::

rheymaybeon OUn"o, ,t ol.n


tf,rougl,a

dataprojectc:

TEACHING GRAMMAR

FrcuRE1:Sarah,spictures

Studentsnow seethe picture of Sarah(Figure


z).
The teacherasksthe studentswhat
they think Saraht
iob is, but doesnot confirm or deny
their suggestions.
prcun z: Sarah
teacherexplainsthat sheis going to
tell them what Sarahdoeseveryday.
. .fh.
Shesaysthe
tollowing sentences
and the studenl nuie to choosewhich
flashcardor pictureis beingialked
aDout.
Shedoesnt like dogs.
Shegetsup early.
Shedoesn'tdrive a car.
Sheringsdoorbells.
Shedoesn'teurna lot of monev.
Shewearsa uniform.
when the studentshaveguessed(confirmed
their guesses)
that Sarahis a postwoman,the
teacherholds up the cardsindividually
and tries to elicit the sentences
about eachone. she
modelsthe sentences.and
probablygel choral and irrdiuiau"i
r"fetition
beforemoving on,
in the accuratereprodu,ctionstage(see
page zo6), toconduct u .r._r"rpo.rse
drilr by hording
up' say'card c so that the students
haveto sayshe ringsdoorbers.
once students are reasonablyconfident
with theJe sentences,the teacher
asks them to
think of a real person (or-invent their
own) and what their job ir. it
are
asked
to come up
with three affimativeand threenegative
"y
,,"rr.", about what that person
doesor doesn,tdo

ergoesround
gtheir work(offerin
g
ili,it"lT;,Hiilffi:" j:J,:;'I i.'n' teach
-o,,iio.i.,
t, ;ff;::::il:;:ad

out theirsentences
andtherestof theclasshaveto guess
whatprofession

2rl

cHAP'l'ER 13

Example 2: Girls' night out

Language:
Age:
Level:

past simplermegularverbs
youngadultprus
etementany

In this example,the languageto be studied


is presentedto the studentsin a text.
The sequence
startswhen the teacherusksth" studentswhether
girls in their countr\
go out togetherand where,-ifthey do, they
go. Students.ur,irJ.rrl;h,;l;;;;;';;
groupsbeforereportingbackto the class.
The studentr
l1o\.1t two texts(seeFigure and rry to decide
3)
if they areabour.,
"or
out in Rio de /aneiro,
Beijingor Moscow.wlen they havedone this,
the teachercheck
all havethe sameanswer.

Themagazin
e Marie Claire askeditswomen
journalists
inRio,Beijing
andMoscow
to gooutfortheevenino
andthenwritea report
t.worea blackswerer
and trousenand lot of make-up.Cls tre
lkewearingsexy(lothes!
We went to Piramida.lt! a bar and
restaurantthat,sopen 24 hours
a day, and t! the 'n, ptace at tle moment.
There.sa DJ and rve
salv a lot of interestng people.
We had (offee nd pple cke

dnd then wrne

l,!e talked bout Llit poblenrswith


her boyfriend.She tvsa bit
sd.Then sonre nle[ t the net table
startedtlking to us and
they bought u5 a dink. fhs 5 tcrt
nta(ho (ourtrr nd men
wayspay tor $'on)ens drinkr.
we got a tax. lt can be qutte dngerous
lreret night and the
nretro closesal bout 12.10.

6
7

\Ve felt Pir)idat aboilt LJ0.


rndI gol lrorle t 2 00.
tntastic. l0 points. \ve ha(i qrci
rirte,lncl tJi!!s happr again.

I worea longdrss. peopleare quttraditional


herebut vou-l
peopletrrnt to wearne| fashions
and havene\yhair cofof
FrrstI droveto BarStreet,a stret rlith about
50 bars.
Wemet in the pnkLoft.a Thairestaurant.
Afterdinner
\!e lventto a teahousebecause
t\ a goodplacefo rall
we hadtlpicalThaifood.likegreenrurv. Then
we ha(itr.
lvomenhcr('donI drink lol of al(oho,
Wc talked about ou lole l;yes.especilly
Hujia.s.5he h!
a problem $ith her oanner. lle talked
aDout men, t,lshior
,rnd literature

We werl honte by ar I didn t drjnk


anv t(ohol
so I could dri!.
we lett at 12.00.rnd I qot home at bout
,..j0.
ll ws !er\ good nighl. B points.
( .:,f! \l(t ltrri. atrrr
i,{ !ri il,j.l

FrcuRE3: Girls''ight out from NewEngrish


FireErementaryby c oxencren,
C Lathan-Koenig and p Seligson(Oxford
Universitypress)

The studentsnow match questions,such


as Did you havea good time?How dicr y
home?What did you do? what ctidyou
haveto eat and drink?
*ir,r'a'i;;';;;;;
.
the women'sanswers,markedr-7 in the
texts.Then they fill in^ia
a chart with ticks for Sa:
or sharon' dependi'g on whetherthey
wore a dress,went to a bar,talkedabout
men, r.,
homeby taxi,etc.
212

TEACHING

GRAMMAR

Their attention is drawn to the irregular verbs by an exercisewhich asksthem


to find the
past tenseforms of certain verbs (seeFigure 4).

, GRAMIUIAR
pastsimple
irregular
verbs
a Look at the reportsagainand find the past

tenseof theseirregularverbs.
wear

|wJil

go

buy

/went/
/sc/
lhad/
lbc'^tl

get

/gfjtl

leave

neftl
ldreuv/
/metl
lku

see
have

drive
meet
can

l.r cu R E 4: Textsearch

The phonemic forms of thesepast tense verb forms are given as a back-up for those
students
,iho are comfortable readingat leastsome phonemic symbols.
\\hen students have identified the past tenseverb forms, the teacher gets them to say
them
st to check that they are pronouncing them correctly.They now look at a grammar chart
'ee FiSure 5) before doing exerciseswhere they filI in a short text with the correct form of the
.'rbs be, buy, go, wear, look, have,see,etc.
5C

pastsimpleirregular
verbs
l n l i nitive

Past +

Past

g ('

wenf

h r

had
got

didn't go
didn' t ha e

s.l
l)r\

nr et

didn't get
didn' t huv
rlidn't lcave
didn' t dr ivc
didn' t nr eet

sil\t

tlidn't

scc

\10re

didn't

wcar

bought
lcft
dr ove

Use the irregular past form onlv in


-{ sentences.
I saw n film last night.
. Use the infinitive a{er did I didn't.
Did you see n filn last night? xor gido**ar*.*
. Remember word order = ASI (auxiliarr',
subject, infinitire)
or QUASI (question nord, auxiliarl', subiect, infinitive).
Dd S,ougo out lost night?
\{htre did S,ougo?
'

didn' t do

Past of rnl = rr/J.


i. = couldn't Nor dkln:rean
.1, = Coukl )'ou-..? xor Dkllore*n,..?

F r cu RE 5 : Grarmar chart

Studentsnow listen to the third girl (Silvia)talkingabouther night out. Theycanthenask


.:rd tell eachother about their own experiences
of goingout with friends,usingthe verbsthey
-.,.\'e
been learning.
Example3: Disappointment

Language:
Age:
Level:

reported speech
teenage plus
intermediate

-:ls sequenceteachesstudents the differencesbetween reporting speechas it happens and


- :r'this changeswhen we report things that were
said in the past.
\\ e show studentsa picture of two young men walking down the street.One of them has

213

CHAPTER 13

a mobile phone clamped to his ear and


looks
really happy. The other is listening to
him with
a look of resignation on his face.If we
can't get
hold of a picture, we simply draw two
faces
on the board (see Figure 6) and mime
what
follows.
We give the young man on the phone
a name
(lack). We ask the students who
iack is talking
to and we elicit the fact that he,s talking
to a
young woman he met in the school
canteen.

That's why he's looking so happy.We ask


FIGURE
6:Disapporntment:
Boarddrarr,::.
the
studentswhat the youngwoman is sayingto
fackand elicit sentenceslikeyou,rereallyrt::.
seeyou thisevening,I likeyourjacket,your
friend gavemeyour number,I,vegot two tickc::
concert,
you cancomewith me.
we now askthe studentswhat Iack tellshis
friend asthe conversation
goeson (we po:the picturewhich showshim coveringthe
mouthpieceof the phone),and we elicit and n.
sentenceslike sfrsaysI'm reaily nice,she
saysshe,ilsee*, ,i, evening,she saysshe rik:
jacket'etc'we makesurethe students
understandthat Iack usesthe present(sa7s)
becausc
reportingthe conversation
asit happens.we makesuretheyunderstand
how youchanges
,
We canget somestudentsto suggestmore
of the girl's sentences
and havetheir classn.
pretendto be Iack and report the conversation.
We now tell the studentsthat it is a few hours
later. lack is back at his house looking really
glum (seeFigure).We explainthat h1
went
to the concert to meet the girl but she
never
turned up. His mother askshim, Wat did
she
say again?We now elicit and model sentences
such as Shesaid I was really nice,Shesaid
she
wouldseeme this evening,Shesaidsheliked
my
jacket,etc. We ask the studentswhy
the verb
sayis n the past (because
Jackis talkingabouta
past LurrvrsauonJ
ydJt
conversation) and
and what
what effect
elfect that
that has
has (ls

FIGURE
7: Disappointment:
Boarddrawins_

becomes
was,willbecomeswourd,/ikebecomes
riked,etc.).wecanwritethisuponthebc,:
to helpstudents(seeFigureg).

ie -wa e
will+would
like+liked

V o u -+
your+

|
my

rlcun g: Board explanation

studentscan now pretendto be havingconversations


with other peopleand report rr:
they sayin the samewa and then latertey
can report the conversationin the past.

T EAC H IN G GR AM M AR

Example 4: Light in space

Language:
A ge:
Level:

should,/shoutdn'thave done
any
intermediate
/ upperintenmediate

In Examplez above,the language


which the studentsweregoingto study(pasttense
forms)
wasembeddedin the textswhich they read.This next
,"qu"i.., however,usesthe storyof the
text asa situationto provokea number of statement,
.,rirrgthe targersrructure.
The sequence
startswhenthe studentsareaskedif they.ul, ,"ud science
fiction,makingsure
that theyunderstandwhatgenreof fictionwe aretalking
about.This might developinto a quick
discussion
of whattheyreadandwhy.The point is to getthem engaged
and interested
in what is
coming'studentscanbepromptedto saywhattheywuld
expect;ofind in a science
fictiontext.
we now askthe studentsto readthe text in Figure
9. while theydo this,they must find out
informationsuchashow manypeoplearein thespace
stationat thebeginningandendof the
text,whethertheyaremen or women,and how long
they,vebeenthere.
Theyhadbeenup herefor fiveyears.Fiveyearsfor fivepeopte,
cut off fromEarthsincewortdwar
IV' Truethe Moonshuttle
cameeverysix monthswith a supptyof food,but it waspitottess.
They
hadnot beenableto makecontactwith Moonbase
for twoyears.cathysaidit wasweird.
Yousaythat threetimesa dayiRosieanswered.
'wett'ifs true.It's weirdandI don't
thinkI canstandit muchlonger
'0h forJupiter's
sake,shutup!Goandptayeight-dimensional
death-chess
andleavemealone.you
drivemecrazy!'
ThanksjcathysaidquietLy,
'I canseeI'm notwantedisheteftthe cabin.
Thedoorhissed
behind
her.
whenshegotto theexitchamber,
shedidn'tlookat the record
bookwhereMitchhadwritten
'nine- motormalfunction.
Donotuse'.shegotintosuitnumber
nineandpressed
theexitkey.The
outside
doorhissed
openandshesailedoutinto space.
shehadn'ttoLdthe otherswhereshewas
going(spacestation
rulez+s/z/4).It gavehera goodsense
of freedom.
Backin the stationRosie.
sawthe redwarninglight abovethe exit controlbut
sheignoredit.
They'd
hadtroubtewiththe lightsrecentty.
Nothing
serious.
captainCtarke
sawit, though.shegot
on herpersonal
peopte
communicator
andcaltedTimHotzenfop,
thestationengineer.
'I thinkwe'vegota problem'
You'dbettercomeup quicklButTimwasdeepin conversation
with
Leilaso hesaid'sure'
I'[[ beupi andthenswitched
offthe radio.Leitawasnicertolistento than
old Clarke.
Mitchwasin the repairshopnextto the exitchamber
whentheaudio-atarm
wentoff. Buthewas
wearing
hisspacewalk-man.
Hedidn,theara thing.
zoometresawayfromthe station,cathysuddenly
realised
that shehadforgottento ctosethe
stationexitdoor'Shemustgo back.shepressed
the motorcontrolon thefrontof hersuit.There
wasno response.
shepressed
it again.Nothing.
At that moment,
lookingback,shesawthe
space
stationshehadjustleft ro[[overandshethoughtsheheard
u ,.*ur echoing
out intothe
darkness.
Hereyeswidened
in horror.
Andthenshesawthe tiqht.
F r cL r t{F9: Li qht i n spce

2t5

CHAPTER 13

when the studentshavereadthe text and


shownthat theyhaveunderstoodit by an..
comprehensionquestions,we can then
askthem to ,"y."n", ir,.hink happens
ner:
is the light?what hashappenedto rhe
spacestationand why?The objectis to
get
rhe:__
creativewith languageand with their response
to the text.
we now askthe studentsto list things
that peopledid that were.bad,or.notsensib.,
write them on the board (seeFigureroj.
a) Rosewas rude to Cathy.
b) Cathy didn't look at the record book.
c) C athy di dn'ttel l the oth
was soins'
d) Rooieisnorea tne rea;::;;^,i;:.'"
e) fim switohed offhis radio.
t),
Ao anhinq about the captains cail.
!i.y latt,
g) Mifoh wao wearing hie epacewalk-.nan.
h) Calhy didn'r close the st ation
exit door.
FtcuR E l o: S pacesenl ences

we then askthe studentsif they can make


a sentenceabout eventa) usingshouldnot
tc,
the sentenceRosieshourdn'tha.vebeen
rude to cathy.we may writeshourd(not)
have
t
on the board'we then encourage
studentsto makesentences
aboutthe other,silly,ac:
using the sameconstruction.we may get
studentsto come .rp to trr" board and r,r.ri:.
sentences
so that the board endsup looking like Figure
rr.
a)
b)
c)
)
e)
f),

Ro a e wa sr u d e to C athv.
Cathy didn't look at thi recor book.
Ca r h yd id n ' tte llth e oth
wao soins'
Rosii iqnor" th" ,";::;:r^,i,;:.*
lim owitched off his radio.
T,i,mdidrft do anything aboutthe
captains call.
fl Mrch was wearing his spaoewalk_man.
h) Cathy in't close ihe siation
exit door.

Sbe stnouldq'l

have beer rude lo Callny.


ha_ve /oore/
q ehe ru-lr/
6oo.
S-he sho"l,/ have lalJ the olhe.s
where she was qc,/ ,.
tlne
s,ar|An't l*te
(,q",
i2vr1x2d,te ,"d, w^, rAe sho,{d^' f !ra_we sw;+cj.ec{
of+ l.is" r ti.
tni"ld^hue
due lomethrzg alout tt.
7
He, shou!ln't
have, bep,n vt2lrinq
his spcerr:.<,
lrhe shorrid hove closed
+h exi+ Joo"She

shoqd

FrcuRE
1t:Students,
responses
If students are having trouble pronouncing
any ofthe parts of the sentences,we
may n.r, _
those parts and possibly have students
repeat them either chorally or individually.
For
exam...
may focus on /'Judav/ and /'Judntev/'
showing r,o." ,h. prr.ur", ur. ,r..rr"d
and contractecl.
students are now in a position to
tell ,ri.s
i" the past which they sho' _
shouldn't have done (I shoulelhave
"r,ni"g,
done my homework
in time/I shoulcln,thave left th; .
unlocked)'perhaps after you have told
personal stories to demonstrate what
is expected.

B Discoveringgrammar
In the followingexamples,
studentsareencouragedto work out for
themselves
how langu:_
forms areconstructedand used.They
then go on to do exercises
usingthe languagether.h*
uncovered'It is highly possiblethat they
hau. s"".r the lung.rag.before,of course,
bur :may be the first time they havestudied
it properly.

21 6

T EAC H IN G GR AM M AR

Example 5: Comparative adjectives

Language:
Age:
Level:

wondformation;
comparativeadjectives
any
elementary,/pre-intermediate

.:: this example,studentshavelistenedto a dialoguein which peoplehavebeencomparing


::ings. Before moving on to make their own sentences,
the teacherwants to draw their
,:tention to the waythat we makeadjectivescomparative.Shecould havedonethis by giving
:rles,or perhapsjust by ignoring suchtechnicalinformation and hoping that studentswould
:otice'the variouspossibilities.Instead,shechoosesto put them in pairs and givethem the
: iercisein Figurerz.

Look at this!
old -> older
new --) newer
light -+ lighter
big -+ bigger
thin -+ thinner
noisy -+ noisier
silly -+ sillier
expensive --> more expensive
beautiful -+ more beautiful
Now work these out!
a) How do we make one-syllable adiectives into
comparative adjectives?
b) Why are brg and thin different?
c) What has to change when we make words like
noisy and sil/y into comparative adlectives?
d) What is different about expensiyeand beoutifult

Whv?
FrcuRE12:Work it out

'. len they havefinished,shechecksthrough the answers,making surethey understandthat


:.e-syllable
words which end with a vowel and a consonantdouble the last lette that -y
-:.omes -l and that longerwordsareprecededby morebut otherwisestaythe same.
She now moves on to a practice exercise.For
. .:mple, she can put a group of words (seeFigure
. on the board. One student draws an arrow
-::\reen any two of the words and the other
--dentshave to come up with sentences,such as
- : :lephant is bigger than a spider, A cat is cleyerer

el ephant

crocodite

mouse I
.!,

dog

ft:

'Jh'

Fl cuR E 13:A ni mal compari son

-;,ra dog.
There are two potential problems with the way the start of this sequenceasked students
Jiscover facts about comparative adjective forms. Firstl it is not always easy to give a
:rplete grammatical picture. The exerciseabove,for example,does not give all the necessary
217

cHAPTER 13

rnformationaboutcomparativeforms.Therearenoirregularoneshere(likego
od_bettarethereexamplesof wordsthat
aremadecomparativeby either
_er
taking
or
beingpre.: by more(e'g' creverin many spoken
varietiesof the language).secondl
it is not neces
: _-

,t",; *"rorencouragi'r
i:ffffi'fffl';:ffffi:'JllX';3j:*:"::*-oi
:
especialrv

here,
theru.,gu[.,ur.s
theyare
investigating::H,l;;JrT:fitJJ::.t,
Example8: Rulesand freedom

Language:
Age:
Level:

*'h. -

functions- expressingobligm
acan't/ have to,/ m ust /a Itowed
adult
Intermediate

In this examplefrom an intermediate


coursebook,the studentsaregoing
to look at oblis::
language,someof which they
may haveuf.*ay comeacrossseparately.
The teachingsequencestartswhen
studentsdiscusswhat rulesirrey
would expectr. -in placessuchasairports,bars
and pubs,beaches,
hospitals,libraries,etc.They then
loo, _
(see
Figures

;Jlff::11'ffi::::tt"'

,0,'uni,5)
and,"y'"r'.*
ir,"f*oura
expect
tosee
:-:-

FicuRE 14:Signs (a) from New


cuxing EdgeIntermurrate by
S Cunningham and p Moor (pearin
.."iir" i,al
FrcuRE15:Signs (b) from New
Cutting EdgeIntermediate
by S Cunningham and p Moor
(PearsonEducationLtd)

Now that studentsareproperly


warmedup and engagedwith the
topic,theyareaskedto lt, .

::filji,1ff::,i;ll,?,*'iro.say

whici,ign,,tl,,ces
a_ei,". .ig.,..16)appry
to___

Finall asa resultof all thepreparation


work theyhavedone,theyhaveto put
theunderlin.:
words from Exercise3 (Figure,ol
i., the .or.

oncetheteacher
ias checked
thatrhe

218

;il:i)o-pr.t" theanalr,.
chart' shecan get them to do
'fi'#:ffiIi::'"
a fill-in exercise.where
they huu" to ir.riminate between
to,don'thaveto,shourd,shourdn't
,.: ,
unaorrii"n t ailowed.Theythen
make
their
own
senten,:
aboutwhat the rulesarein praces
from the first exercise(airport,
barsand pubs,etc.)and re.:
them out to their colleagues
who haveto guesswheethey are
talkingabout.

TEACHING

GRAN,tMAR

Wh ich s g n so n p a g e .lj 2 d o th e fol l ow i ng rel ate


to ? Cr o ss o u t th e se n te n ce ( s)th a t are not true
ab o u t e a ch sig n .
o

You qqp use your credit cord hcre.


You &uq! use your creciitcord here.
You'vqget te use your creclitccrclherc.

l)

You !quJ!r{t smoke in the smoking oreo.


You'te_ollowedte smoke in the smoking oreo.
Ybu eqn smoke in the smoking oreo if yor wdnt.
Yb u m u stn ' t le o veyo u r m o b ile o n .
You qslXr!use your moltile.
You shouldn't leove your mobile on.
Dogs qle rl]o!!<1.
Dogs <rc rrot slla\^rqd.
You hcve to be coreful of the wer pornt.
You dq4 t hqyelq be coreful of the wet point
You ought to be coreful of the wet pornt.

. . " i .::1-.: ,r,.,

,.
.:... .

Put the underlinedverbs from exercse3 in the


correct
category.
1 l t i s necessaryhtt' (ri ot) to
2 l t i s not necessary
3 l t i s OK /permi tted
ci r
4 l t i s not OV permi tted
5 l t sa good i dea/the correctthng
i t s not a good i dea/ not the correctthi ng
F IG U R E 17

C Practisinggrammar
Example7: Where am l?

ilR
{L

Language:
Age:
Level:

present continuOus[passimple]
younger learnens
elementany

This activity is designedto get studentsmaking


sentencesusing the present continuous. (lt
also be used to practisethe past simple.) It has a
slight game element becausethe other
'an
students have to guesswhat the speakeris talking
about.
we tell students to think of a place they'd really
rike to be (e.g.a beach,a night club, on
:he sports field)' They should keep their choice to
themselves.Nw we tell them to imagine
:hey are in this placeand we ask them to look around
them and write down three things that
:hey can seeusing the presentcontinuous (e.g.at
a football game;A lot of peopleare shoutmg.
\ tnan is blowing a whistle.someoneis kicking a bail.).while
they are doing this, we can go
:ound the classmonitoring their progressand suggesting
alternativesor prompting students
'.iho can't think
what to write.
one student now comes to the front of the class,
readsout his or her sentencesand then
't s Where am I? The other students try to guess.
one of the advantagesof the activity done in this way
is that students are give' time to think
'rp their present continuous sentencesrather than having to produce
them spontaneously.
3ut of course'we could do it as a quick-fire game,
too, ir tnis is appropriate.
we don't have to use the present continuous. Students
could ialk about a place they went
reality or an imagined place) and make sentences
in the past simple about what
.:
!:t]n.::"
:ney
saw there.

072

'se,^^dnoJ8 JIaI ut l'ols Sutlsaalut


uI slq} }noqe {le} uel
^aql
aql ila} uaq} puE sdno8 lleIIIs
}ser
ar{}
ssell
Jo
aqr
- q1 teq.^a
sluapnls arp {se uer reqrea}
"(eut
'seseanul
: :sa .{1:n1Jo salro}s reruts '(ue ^:"{ 1-'J]Jl
sl puPl sltll Jo uogtlada
'(ll a8ed aas)InJdlaq 'oi'*"'it'
s'uorur5 3u111ar
Jlaql's;ql op laql 1*ll .t{'ng "{lols
qll^'\
aq}
fuo1s
'buang
pue
:; -r1.rvr.or{
euop a'req'(aql uaLL\\
ut.{rols'q, in'oo1 uer '(aqt'slq}
aq]
urege
-:: ruo,eroJaq
ooq
rleql asoll noousluapnls
raqlo q'n' " pu' srooq
pu uo.,,ls io tol' aq]
aql
qlrm ('(e'u
Jrns
aql aroJaqsraulred Jlaqt
q8norql
aql
qr'^
'ssll agt
'"oB "q'n'r
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"'un
aures eql p""1"pt"'
pastro8aler pue) sq-ral
ueql
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:
'
s.uouls:81auncl{
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u"tli pu' daqra6 oi euoqo
p"'[''"q
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rr ual
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s aql u 6u1st
alam salem aql Pue

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;r:il"il

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le
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snld alePatulalul
sndslnPe 6uno
sasuallsed

:la^al
:a6y
:a6en6ue1

alnluanpes,uotuls:g aduex3
fr uaravnc

TEACHING GRAMMAR

Example 9: Matching sentence halves

Language:
Age:
Level:

third conditional
adult
upper intermediate

Oneof the bestwaysof makingstudentsthink of sentence


constructionand sentence
meaning
ls to get them to match sentencehalves.Wecan do thisby giving them two lists that theyhave
'I rnatchup (seeFigurer9). This can be done in pairsor by studentsworking on their own.

lf Andrew hadn't got stuck in a


traffic jam

he would have been able ro


answer her call.

lf Beatrice had written down


th e na me o f hi s c om pany

ii

they wouldn't have been late.

lf Je d h ad n'r lo s t his m obile


ph on e

lf Mrs Wickstead hadn't


overslept

lf Pete r a nd Clar e hadn' t m is s ed


the b us

lf Ruth hadn't been feeling


extremely happy

iii he wouldn't have missed his


flight.
iv she would have been able to call
him at work.
v

she wouldn't have agreed to


marry him.

vi she wouldn't have been there


when the postman came.

FrcuRE
19:Matchingsentence
halves
- '.ieve the activity becomes much more enjoyable and interactive if we put
the sentence
- - -'.3s on cards.Each student then gets one card and has to walk around
the room until they
- -: :heir pair.Theyhave to do this without showing
their cards to other people, so they have
:.d them aloud and then discusswhich pairings are or are not possible.

Erampfe1o: Findsomeonewho ...


and other surveys

Language:
Age:
Level:

elementary
youngadultplus
any

-.i someone
who... is the namegivento an ever-popularmini-surveyactivity.In its simplest
-:r' studentsget a chart which asksthem to find the namesof various people
by going
- :nd the classand askingquestions(seeFigurezo). If they ask a classmateDo you
like
: -'lnte?and the classmatesaysno,they do not write down a name,but if the classmate
says
:heywrite down the nameand then moveon to the next question.
Find someone who...
r liKas ch.oco!te.
Ar

2 0l'Tet fioes fo rhe u'newn.


Z b,"nsllnee brofl*ers.

4 we+tt to bed lnte !.nst ,niVlnt,


S plays tlne
Vuitar.
FIGURE20: A simple Fittd someone who ... chart

221

CHAPTE R 13

Find someone
who ... canbe adaptedto suit any structure
or structures.For example,r._
makea-chart askingstudentsto find someone
who hasneverbeento rndia,ha, ul,,ru
music,hasnevereatenraw fish,hasarways
had coffeefor breakfast, *" can
alsogetsn
to write the questionsthemselves
"r..
to makeit more interestingfor them
or,
at
the
t
a term or semester,
we canfind out one interestingfact about
"gini
eachindividualstudent

thesefactsinto the chart(e.g.Findsomeone


whoisa keenswimmer,Findsomeorr
.
rho
pt,r.
orchestra,
etc.).The activitythusbecomesan excellent
wayfor them to getto know each,
Therearemanymini-surveysthat we
canusefo. gru--u, practicein thisway.
For er
we can construct(or haveour students
construct)u.ry.r.r-i". of lifestyleqr"rtion'
i
suchthingsas what trTr.d? you normaily
get up?what do you have breakfast?
Hot,,
for
cupsof coffeedo you drink in a day?
or, ir.". want studentsto practisepast
tenses,
the
designa questionnairein order to ask
when did you lastgo to the cinema?
who
rii,i .,
with? Wat wasthe nameof the
film? What did you think oithe film? etc.
Example11: perfectone liners

Language:
Age:
Level:

past perfect continuous


any
rntermediate
to advanced

In this activit studentspractisethe


past perfectcontinuoustenseby making
senten
response
to promptsfrom the teacher'Theyare
requiredto usetheiimaginationsando
:
of humour and the exercise
is givenaddedenjoyrnentby beingdesigned
as
a
team
game.
The teacherdividesthe classinto small
teamsof two to four students.Shetells
the::
shewill be readingsentences
for which theyhaveto find upp.ofiur.
responses,
using
the
perfectcontinuous-she statsby giving
them a sentencesuchas when I got
,:
home
ras:
myJlatmatewasasreep
in thecarl.sh"uri, the class,i'g".r.rj
*hu, ..urorrsthey can th:::
to explainthis, and hopesto elicit sentences
like Weillsheha'dbeenlisteningto a prog,.;_
on the radioandfauen asreep,
or yes,welrthat,sbecause
shehad beentarkingto a hypne::i
her mobilephone,etc.
Now that the studentsunderstandthe idea
of the exercise,
shereadsout the senten;:
Figurezr' (some of the sentences
in a coursebook,such as the one about
Henry

perhaps'the blood-soaked
weddingcrothes,
maynot be appropriatefor all students.
'r. .,
may haveto comeup with sentences
of our own.)
a) when I cameto seeyou yesterday,
your cat wasin the fridge.
b) Canyou exptainwhy you bit my dog?
c) That w1s my new RottsRoyceyour son pushed
overthe ctiff.
d) you had broodatt overyour wedding
clothesafterthe ceremony.
e) you werethe onty one n the room before
the theft.
f) you had different cotouredsockson
tne otfrer Jay.'
g) Whydid HenryVIII havehis wife
AnneBoteynbeheaded?
FTGURE
21:sentencesfrom TheAnti-grammar Grammar
Bookby N Hall
and / Shepheard(pearsonEducationLtd)

The teamsare given a short time to come up


with a good explanationfor eachser:..-,
if they are correct androrappropriate,the teacher
u.,"uid,u poi.,t, but no t"u- .un ,. ,. ]
sentencethat hasbeenusedpreviously.
222

TEACHING

GRAMMAR

This game-like practice forces students to make sentencesusing a particular verb tense.Yet
by adding the element of surreal humour, it can provoke great enjoyment' And the best thing
many
bout it is that it requires no material or technology and can be slotted into lessonsat
different stages.

D Grammargames
.\s we shallseeon page349,manygamesfrom televisionand radio (and Samesthat people
play at home in their everydaylives)can be adaptedfor classroomuse.The following four
for learners.We hopethey (and
however,showhow we candesigngamesespecially
examples,
with
sameslike them) will engagestudentsand encouragethem to usethe targetstructures
enthusiasm.
Example12: Ask the right
- question

any
olderchildrenPlus
elementarY
Plus

Language:
Age:
Level:

Studentssit in two teams.Thereis a pile of cardsbetweenthem.On eachcardthereis a word


rr phrase(seeFigurezz).Thecardsarefacedown'
A memberof teamA picks up the first card and then hasto askthe other team members
:.uestionsuntil they giveexactlythe answerthat is written on the card-

F r cu RE 22: A nsw er cards

to think extremelycarefullyabout
-:e game,which is suitablefor all levels,forcesstudents
-.eexactconstructionof the questionsthey areasking'
Examplel3: Puttingsentencesback
togetheragain

Language:
Age:
Level:

comparativesand suPerlatives
youngleanners
intermediate

practising and testing syntax (see page :8:) is to give students sentences
--t)rnlnoll way of
eating
,::r the words in the wrong order, e.g. bananas/ don't / eating / I / Iike fot I don't like
'.:Jnas.But such word-ordering activitiescan be used in a more game-likeway' too'
he teacherprovides two setsof envelopes,eachnumbered r-rz (for example)' In each envelope
-::c lrethe words that make up a sentence.Both envelopesmarked r will have the same word
js (seeFigure 4),andthere will be nvo envelopesfor sentencenumber z and number 3, etc'
-

I
an'i"0,
t m als

are

biggest

Pranet

elephants
FTGURE23: Cards for game enveloPe r

the

the

,27,
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e>lrusJolelueruluo] ,,(uEIN
'luapnls palue^pu Jo Jar{lEalter{frpasaJ
:ras aJour aql JoJ pauSrsaps{Jo,{\ 01 (slurod rgnads asar{l arrlre.rd
ro; sarlrunlroddo
Jo
'-o-rdpue slurod erurue8
Jo suorteueldxa aqrlsa8rprrnb raJJo or puet qlrq,^{) slJ^al
'-rllP sluapnls JoJ sauo uo;; a8uer.,(aq.sazrspuu saduqs_,(ueruur etuol $looq JerurJc

slooq JerurueJg l
'3uo1oo1 JoJ uo oB 1r1a1or
lou JeqruarueJlnq 'elqerofua ,,(arrsr punaq uorlsanbaug
'(ruea1Jaqroue ;o raul;ed p qrur asn 01 suorrsanb
u.,rloJreql errrm ol sluapnls
-::'-ral\;o) qlut suorlsanb eql ereur ol lue,u a,{\eeJeuruue8 Je^aleqMesooqr uf
a^A
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tno
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(ssar
llrsralru a8puqure3)
sl^p6ld pur r.rtno,tur
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sawogrwwarUaroIAI
ruo;paldepe<putqaq
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au6 rcl suorsanf:rz sdncrr
o1 TOAeJI Seurlauos noz{ op
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:.:.1(1anolr op ataqtl4) uorlsanb puoJes aqr roJ
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IIe re
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rseq sr U '(96 :166r sneg pue rJlnlo^ur)
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pluatu,,(sea
sanlorur'alurupBod
p
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luou paldepe,"*ne rrqj
elerpatuJexuto1 lauur6aq
snd slebeueal
suoqsenb pslJOSSe

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:eDy
:abenDue-1

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'efualuas l)eJJof r{lEa JoJlurod e s1a3uea] qlea pup


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oa,r1sla8 qsruu o} rueel lsJUar.lJ
rreoq eqt uo adolanuaaqt Jo requnu tueleJer er{l
,eq ppoqs
JJo ssor: laqt
tr {urql
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arard e uo u,r{op uenrr^\ pu oruaruesaqr pa8uer.rn",nnq Lupareqr
ueqr\\
ll sa{El puu '(JapJo ur uaql asooql 01 a^er{1,uop ,{aqt) adoa,ruauE slfelas
';- - trl >13q
- ' ::uol .'ear r{fea r.uo
}uapnls v 'ssell aqr Jo ruo{J aql le lnd are sadolarrua sald
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i,il

lil

er usravHc

T EAC H IN G GR AM M AR

-:rer describeeverythingthereis, the whole of the languageand its workings,whereasthe


The way
- .: aredesignedspecificallyto be of help to teachersand studentsof the language.
- . rich grammarrulesareofferedwill dependon the levelthe grammaris designedfor, of
-:.e, and,asa result,compromisesfrequentlyhaveto be madeabout the amount of detail
: :.rv want to give about a particulargrammar point. If we givetoo much detail,we may
.lse lower levelstudents;if we givetoo little, we may not be telling studentsthings they
---: to know.
.1:chael
Swan,a notedauthor of pedagogical
grammarmaterial(seeespecially
Swanzoo5a
- - ,j Exampler5 below), suggeststhat good grammar rules (for a pedagogicgrammar)
- --d exhibit simplicity,truth (becarsesome grammar rules are more 'true' than others),
'':: t becauseif a rule is unclear,it doesn'thelp anybody)and releyance
(becausethereare
. - , thingswhich neitherthe studentsnor the teacherreallyneedto know) (Swan1994).But,
- -irse,a lot dependson what it is we are trying to explain.For whereasthe ruleswhich
he drives,
- :::r the formation of the third personsingularof the presentsimple(shespeaks,
:;lre-r)may be fairly easyto state,the rulesfor the Lrseof someand any,for example,are
' --.','hat more complex.The questionthat grammar-focused
writershaveto askthemselves
- '.' tar they can simplify or complicateand still write information which will be useful
. - - ::'lrropriate.
:heir grammar practicebook for elementarystudents,Brigit Vine ElaineWalkerand
. . Elsrvorthdiscusstheuse
of alsn,sotne,anyandnowithcountableanduncountable
' ,:: seeFigurez5).

a/an, some,any,no
somebreadandan orange.
i We'vegot sometomatoes,
We'vegot no biscuitsandno milk.
or anycheese.
i Wehaven'tgot any bananas
: Havewe got any eggs?Havewe got anyjuice?
Weuseo/anwithsingularcountablenouns(seeUnitz):
Wehaven'tgot a melon. We'vegot on orangeWeusesomewith pluralcountablenounsanduncountabte
nounsin affirmative
sentences:We'vegot sometomatoes. We'vegot somebread.
Weuse anywithpluralcountablenounsanduncountable
nounsin negative
s ente n c easn dq u e s ti o n s :
Wehaven't got ony banonas. Wehaven'tgot ony cheese.
Havewegot ony eggs? Havewegot ony orangejuice?
W eu s en o w i ths i n g u l aar n dp l u ra cl o untablnouns
e
anduncountabte
nouns,to
mean'not one/notany'.Weuseno with an affirmative
verb:
We'vegot no biscuits. We'vegot no milk.
Weusualtyusesone(notany)in questionswhenwe offersomething
to someone
or wh e nw e a s kfo rs o m e th i n g :
Wouldyou like some biscuits? ConI havesomejuiceT
:: -sr)lrand any from GrammarPracticefor ElementaryStudentsby B Vine E Walker and S Elsworth
(PearsonEducationLtd)

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pue auos qbnoql y
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Jatl l tul al ap oJaz P tP l re'suos

(ssarllrsra,rtu a8ptrque3),{qrre3rn
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'edaed eet41 to qnoue -ou lnq peeJq a,uro.s 1o6 ea,a14 v
:v
au,os
'ttP loN 'uaqllo
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alaa se sual puv
iv I
?aos o] aAPq no seuo AJp lng
'jlnts pup rale Je/lJo pu p6 uaql pue rrutato lai"
paau l eq] sueaq par-rpo 6ute1l
[a sn a r o ;a q p a le os aq o]

sulos
'6uqou J sraqJo pue sluno{E iel.luPlsqns 'a suapns
[sue;6 l uaP ns 1o 6ut4e]
'no,l to paLredat ]! l6 uec lePap

pasyoqf,ne

:sunou l unof,-uou
t , ] ] l M p U E S u n o u ] u no 3 e ln d q lr ivr p a sn u e l n Aq n o u a lo//P .sj /]oq]|.i ^5l 5P J}uo3arl osu.uo16uo.t5
pl!'p auros I
'das Laaau r puP lq1!U apq all] noqnottll au) pu'laq SutALc sem
lsu nou ]unol l enbutsql l m pasn uaqm i JE l n3l yeo
aneq sul oJ 6uors aq1
u r e l J a 3e , E u e u r l le sld llso u a l;o sJo u llo j 6 u o - tsa qt's6utueau l uaral 1l p
iue ataql aJV ''
saEesseut
uo
eq
auoqd-amsup
asaaq3 anilos a44 no Plno/v I
aqf
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'y'uesii pSunouo.tdst aulos ;o
6uol1s aAPq qJPa Aue pue auog
sur.oJpassallsun PaM pue 'passalls alP q3l[l 'sttuo;
- - r J IP a M e q l
suJol IeaM snsJa^ 6uol s :l un pup ao5i

:'.: I

('lua Pue atuos


'pesn
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spJolv\
aJB
aql JoJ17.pre 9z seJnSIcaas)
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((srel{lJeasara3en3ul
e JaJJo
Pue sreqfeel Surpnrut)
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pleuou'lseJluof uI
raue]
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.lerued l.1uo sr raJJoleql qtnrl eql q8noqt'slsa8gns ueMSIaPqlIW l3q1 stueuaJlnbaJ
roJ '(lllullads
:- j? \ela; pu llnqdurs'l1rrn1, eql lgslles ol reeddu leqJ'la^al slq] }e sluapnls
aql
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gr uardvH c

il

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'I'EACHING

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'il1

GRAMMAIT

-.irter
and McCarthy'sdescriptionsareclearlymore'truthful'than thosein grammarsdesigned
- i- lower levels,partly becausethey recognisethat strong and weak forms representdifferent
..urrrnaticalbehaviours for sotneand
any, but mostly becausethey explain everything in far
::,rre detail than lower-level gramr-narsdo. Potential users,however,would need to apply
:c' criteria of simplicity and cltrrit too, to see whether this exemplary modern grammar
::tched their own needsand level.

U si nggrammar books
-: rtl-rstudentsand teachersmay consult grammar books for a number of reasons.For example,
,..ttlentsn-raybe drafting or re-drafting a piece of written work and may want to check that
t.'r' are using some aspectof gramrnirr correctly.Alterr-rativela teacher,having noticed that
.tudent is n-rakinga lot of mistakesin one particular area,might tell that student to look up
:':c languagein a grammar book in order to understand it better.Perhapsa student getsback
: f.ieceof written homework which has correction marks on it highlighting grammatical
when the student is re-writing the homework, he or she can consult a pedagogic
-':'r)blems;
-:nlmar (such as the Canridge Gratnnnr of Ertglislrabove). But students can also work
:.:rough the explanationsand exercisesin self-studygrammars such as Gramffiar Practicefor
-.:rrrcntarySfudents,either on their own or becausea teachersetsexercisesfor homework or
,: classwork.Finall teachersoften usegraml-narbooks to checkgrannirr concepts,especially
hc-restudentsask difficult questionswhich they cannot answeron the spot, or where an area
) so conplex that they need to re-visit it from time to time to rernind themselvesof the full
--icture.Grammar books are also vital for the prepar;itiorlof rnaterials.
Example 15: Say and tell

Language:

venb complementationIsay and

falh

Age:
Level:

any
intenmediate
and above

\ student has got a corrected piece of homework back from the teacher.The teacher has
,inderlinedthe sentenceHe wos tired of peoplesayirrghim what to do.In the margin he has
\ ritten There is a problem here with the verb 'say'.Look at'Practical English Llsage',
pages 5o9
.;rrd5to,and re-write the sentencebeforethe nexf class.
When the student looks at PracticcLlEnglkh IJsage,she reads that both verbs can be used
rvith direct and indirect speechancl that -snrefers to any kind of speechwhereas tell is only
irsedto mean instruct or in.form.Cruciall she reads that sc is most often used without r
,-rr-rsonal
object (seeFigure z8).

97.4

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puod jeq V s6ott rlup ilelll eJV -r
(a4{leJFr#5

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(Jaqurnupai turll nq al u4apui ue)
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:sunou l unos l prnl o ql tM pue sunou l uno3_uou
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ir ! - - : :
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: retrJ

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6uo,r5
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[suerb l uapns 1o 6ure]
i 5un0u l uno3-uou
tsJa4lo qlriv\ slseJtuos au-rosu.r;o3buo.r5
-- ' puP sunou luncs ernd qrirt pasn uaqiv\ t46noua)o ilP
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aur puqaq utc sem pllqr auols ,
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: - : : . a f , e l s u P a u r { e r td lso r . ra u Jo sJo u .t- toEu
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euo4dtemsue at uo se6essaut iue ete41 atv .
aseaqa al.rros a\il no pnoy
:6 u r q a tr .:o1so rl uenb al rugapurup al estput sut"o1
eam aq1
- -

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1c
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surJDJ {pati.r snsJa\ buo.rs :lve

pup slo5'

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pue
lauqrrlN
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laeqrrlN lpql sluauraJrnbaJ

;-- :-r pue.{lnrTdrurs


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'(19 qsrpua^eJ Ileqsrel ) rrol t lqnuutatg


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aqt pue) sryapnlgltawawalg nl anltat
as
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aclrurd JBruruJD .
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p
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reqrg q '(rooz) p p rpe'Ig osle sr areqt pue'(elooz)
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--

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pue Surqteal
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sadruexa
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saIlFIllB

JBIIIIIIBJC

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lo paltl sa^4aH' se afueluas lJo.{\auoq aql elrJ^\-al uef aqs ,r,roN
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pt6 .ut.\lotil !ilt,t s.ililt.\l


ru* f.p{ff;
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u t u A \ u p i l 1 4 . ti l Pto t u p tl |,,\ .'r
i l q . l ,r t, r n r r r r t.r \,'n 6 .u D t\
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's;luuiH
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loq t
u no, rS ro) rrrnl)
q\
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,s,rl lil ilril t nillt n6
( tttt PIo, t . illgr urnt. a, )) ptw I . ttt8r il1 il I.
( qJ&rds JIp rlra l Uuq uouruol
rxu sr {8} 'qJods lrJrlpu! puc Jil'p qrr$ posn re ,rr por h qrog

asnpue6urueau !
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