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Source: Journal of Asian History, Vol. 4, No. 2 (1970), pp. 136-168
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(Case Western Reserve University)




aftera centuryof Mongol
Ming China was eager to be self-sufficient
trade, considered mercantile
relations as tribute missions,and at the same time, perhaps not even
consciously,feareddependence on other states. Some modern scholars
and that she used
maintain that China was economicallyself-sufficient
the barbarian demand for Chinese goods as a political device rather
than for economic gain. T. F. Tsiang, whose views have been widely
publicized by his student John Fairbank, points out "on China's part
the permissionto trade was intended to be a mark of imperial bounty
and a means of keeping the barbarians in the proper state of submissiveness."1 1 will show how this view offersan inadequate explanation
of China's desire, despite her scorn for commerce,to pursue the tea
and horse trade.
The Chinese bred horses but they recognized that "the horses of
distant lands, usually to the West or North,and even of theirnomadic
enemies near at hand, [were] quite franklysuperior."2 Being larger,
faster,and hardierthan Chinese horses,the foreignsteeds were ideally
suited for warfare. Even a cursorylook at China's horse policy prior
to the Ming indicates her eagerness for foreign horses. In the first
dynasty, the Shang (1523 B.C. - 1028 B.C.), the Kings apparently
sent militaryexpeditionsto obtain horsesfromtribes on the periphery
* For a list of abbreviations,
and bibliography
unitsof measurement
p. 166.
1 Quoted in JohnFairbankand Ssu-yüTeng, "On the Ch'ingTributary
System,"HarvardJournalofAsiaticStudiesVI, (1941),p. 140.
2 H. G. Creel,"TheRoleoftheHorseinChineseHistory,"
, LXX, 647-672, (1965),pp. 655-656.

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of the Chinese heartland.3Such expeditions must have been common,
for horses seem to have been plentifulas evidenced by the skeletons
found in Shang tombs. The appointment of Ma , military officials who cared for horses, and the widespread use of chariots also
attests to the prevalence and importance of these animals. In the
Chou (1027 B.C. - 256 B.C.), the practice of buryingsacrificialhorses
increased- as many as 114 horses were buried in the Hsin-ts'un site.4
Horses were also extremelyvaluable in warfare(i.e. cavalry), hunting,
and transportation. During the chaotic last centuries of the Chou
culminatingin the foundingof a centralized empire under the Ch'in
(221 B.C. - 207 B.C.), the worth of the horse in combat was amply
demonstrated.Nor is it an accident that the new victorious dynasty
derived fromwesternmostChina and used West Asian horses extensively.
Han Wu-ti (140 B.C. - 87 B.C.) was the most famous early Emperor
to recognize the superiorityof Central Asian horses and consciously
set out to import or expropriate them. When the King of Ferghana
refusedto comply with Wu's request for horses, Wu sent a large and
costly military expedition under Li Kuang-li to gain the 'bloodsweating" horses that he coveted.5 The costliness of the enterprise
deterredfutureEmperors fromusing this method to obtain horses.
The barbarian invasions followingthe fall of the Han (A.D. 220)
and the T'ang (A.D. 907) dynasties demonstratedthat China needed
horsesifshe wereto survive.The period ofMongol control(A.D. 12601368) was even more instructive,forthe Chinese recognizedthat "the
Mongols were able to establish theirempirebecause of theirabundance
of horses . . . Having established the empire, they were unable, from
the imperialcentrein China, to acquire enough horsesto back a regular
and realistic horse policy which would have given then the necessary
mobilityalways to act successfullyagainst rebels and retain the unity
of the empire."6
3 L. C. Goodrich,
A ShortHistoryoftheChinesePeople(3rd.ed., New York,
1958),p. 16.
4 ChengTe-k'un,Archaeology
in China (Vol.II), (Cambridge,
China, p. 205; ChengTe-k'un,Archaeology
in China (Vol.Ill), (Cambridge,
1963),ChouChina, p. 77.
5 HomerDubs, Historyof theFormerHan Dynasty(Vol.II), (Baltimore,
1944),p. 132.
6 S. Jagchidand C. R. Bawden,"Some Notes on the Horse Policy of the
Yüan Dynasty,"CentralAsiaticJournal
, X, (1965),p. 264.

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801.9 The intensive agriculturepracticed by the Chinese leftlittle land available forpasture. 87. while the T'ai-p'u ssu conducted semiannual inspection tours checkingthe size. the Yüan-ma ssu was responsibleforthe pasture areas set aside by the government and for the rearing of horses.12His plans were not completely implemented. 19. Ming shih (hereafter MS).few competent breeders were available and one Emperor was forced to assign criminalsto the Yüan-ma ssu. XXI.WangAn-shihattempted to procure horsesby orderingeveryfamilyin the Northto raise one war horseforthe See JohnMeskill(ed. p. 75.138 MORRIS ROSSABI When the firstMing Emperor took the throne.).88. T'ai-tsungshih-lu . China was unable to procureenough horses for her Empire. Even the meagre acreage allotted to the Yüan-ma ssu was constantlyreduced to meet the demands of the farmers.p. ton. 60.11In 1504 Yang I-ch'ing. pp. 17a. Heath and Co. 1918. and the T'ai-p'u ssu. (1958).pp. pp. 801 (Yang's proposalswillbe discussedat somelengthlater). 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .17a.and so in the 7 Here I am usingthe terminology devisedby CharlesHuckerin his article of the "Governmental Dynasty.13a.In 1409.Following he organized both the Yüan-ma ssu a policy of self-sufficiencey. a leading advocate of reformin the horse administrationof the Ming. weight. wrote a memorialdeploringthe conditionof the Yüan-ma ssu and requesting that its pasture land be expanded and that more and better trained personnel be assigned the important duty of breeding and tending horses.op. (Bosgovernment. 669.pp. Though their functionswere frequentlysimilar. p. in the province of Shensi the Yüan-ma ssu had twenty-fourpasture areas but by the end of the fifteenthcenturyit maintained only six of these. 1963). therefore.10In addition to the land shortage.DuringtheSung. 8 Ming shu (hereafter MShu). 1325.all (Pasturage Office) under the aegis of the Ministryof War for the purpose of breeding horses. and color) of these horses and reporting negligent officialsand breeders to the Ministryof War which either finedor arrested them.. 1-66.152 on Wed. 42.pp. 12b. 10Kansu ťung-chih."HarvardJournalofAsiatic Ming Organization Studies . p. 12MS 75. 11STC 42. WangAn-shih:PracticalReformer?.17b. This content downloaded from 185. 9 Creel.and physical condition (includingthe eyes. C.8 Despite these measures. cit.D.2. 66. Shensiťung-chih STC). (hereafter 16b. one of his vital tasks. teeth.32. with four branch offices.p.was to insurea steady supply of war horses.

16MS 332.17 In addition. 17JohnFairbankand Ssu-yüTeng. 3829.Preliminary the 1368 1644 . This content downloaded from 185. 1655. 1583. 3833." HJAS.whowas keptas a prisoner by Tamerleadersin two of theseembassies.and Fu An.220.wereprominent I am currently ofCh'en'swork. the Chinese governmentincurred enormous expenses in 13Chinain theSixteenth : TheJournalsofMatthew Ricci.p.(NewYork. sent embassies to the Central Asian states.32. however.sent tributeonly once everyfiveyears duringthesixteenth century.pp.p. (1941).2. Theyhave countlesshorsesin theserviceofthearmy. "On the Ch'ingTributarySystem.1953).See MS 332. In 1518.Thosewhich theymakeuse ofin dailylifeare all geldingsand consequently quietand goodtempered. For example. the Emperors. at workon a completetranslation 15 Ta Minghui tien(hereafter TMHT ). 2. SeriesA.1610 Century Louis 13. see Schuyler ofDragonRobes by theMingand Ch'ing Camman. III .the Emperors rewarded them with valuable goods such as silk and silver. lane. 112.the authoroftheHsi-yüfankuochili. of History Ming Dynasty ChengtuStudia SericaMonograph."Sinologica .16 was for Central Asian tribute mission successful.p. one of whose objectives was to stimulate these states to offer horses as tribute. 193. policy nearly every mentioned in the Ming shih and Ming shih-lu offeredhorses to the Emperor.152 on Wed.p.p.forexample.Hami. (1953). 157. As a result. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the CentralAsian state most closelyrelatedto China."Presentation CourtforDiplomaticPurposes. donated tribute irregularly and the number of horses they presented was not fixed. VI. 1948. Most of these states. "the mostimportant sourceforthesituationin CentralAsia duringtheearlyMingperiod"(Wolfgang Noteson theImportant ChineseLiterarySourcesforthe Franke.but theseare so degenerateand lackingin martialspiritthattheyareput to routevenbytheneighing oftheTartars'steedsand so theyarepractically uselessin battle. (translated by Gallagher). 60).For theuses ofthe dragonrobein diplomaticrelations. .p.15They were particularly generous to Arab ambassadors who might present themwiththe famedArabian steeds. No.THE TEA UND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 139 late sixteenth centurywe findthe Jesuit Matthew Ricci commenting that:13 TheChineseknowlittleaboutthetamingortraining ofhorses. especially Hung-wu and Yung-lo. the Cheng-te Emperor bestowed upon the King of Mecca the four-claweddragon This robe. Because China was unable to raise her own horses. 14Ch'enCh'eng. they could not be relied upon to provide a continual flowof horses.246. an item rarely given to and highly prized by foreigners. 135.14When foreignenvoys presentedhorses.

according to the Ming shih. Kitto explains.p. translatedas "Fronhsüeh-pao tierHorseMarketsin theMingDynasty"in JohnDeFrancisand E -tuZen Sun . of culturethanthe term"barbarian"usuallyimplies.pp. 32.Sino-Jürced baden. 3807.ssu (Horse Trading Office)was created in the twelfth century to supervise this trade.20 A tea-horsetrade had existed as early as the Sung (A.32.1955). Chinese forces confiscated domestic animals. was necessary for the survival of the state. 1403. in fact. p. received little attention. 19See the articleby Hou Jen-chih. 3923and TMHT 153. Several times. but the latter has.2. (WiesSerruys."The Greekword 'barbaros'does not mean 'barbarian'in the modernsense. it is not a termof This content downloaded from 185. barbarian horses were traded forChinese silver and silk and on the northwestan extensive tea-horse trade developed. 3800-01. F. 17b. The Ch'a-ma. ChineseSocial History inhorsetrading. the Chinese lost their own precious horses to the barbarians. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .it forsookits prejudice against commerce and allowed merchantsto play a dominant role in the horse trade. Trade. 21Sungshih167.Often. 861-879.19The formerhas been studied by modern scholars. On the northeasternborder of China.Shirin(1966).21It encouraged the barbarian merchants22to exchange their horses fortea.but as the dynasty declined and its need forhorses became desperate. 960. this trade was controlledby the governmentwith minimal participation by merchants. Yen-shan-ť angpieh-chi89. porcelain.D. 183.pp.see also used such as salt and were modities. The major dependable source for horses was trade. Another occasional source of horses was booty captured in war.pp.In thispaper.the word is used in its originalmeaning.p.237. Trade was conducted in the 18MS 330. 3802. Yen-ching (1938).pp. WangShih-chen.1279).).152 on Wed.18b.p.anotherimportant Surprisingly RelationsDuringtheYung-loPeriod. "Ming-taiHsüan Ta Shan-hsisan-chen ma-shihk'ao".As few as 630 horses at one time and as many as three hundred and fortythousand on another occasion.140 MORRIS ROSSABI providing for the upkeep of tribute envoys and it was in the best interestsof the Empire to finda cheaper way of obtaining horses. which has been consideredby modernscholars repugnantto Chinese officials.p. 309.1424. 20A notableexceptionis Tani Mitsutaka's"Mindaichamaböekino kenkyû" [A Studyof Tea and HorseTrade in the MingDynasty"]. See Henry enough. MS 330.Forthis. In the beginningof the dynasty.18But again such bonanzas were infrequent. D. sourceofhorseswas Korea. (Washington. 733-751. 2139. 22I do notuse theterm"barbarian"to malignordeprecatetheconglomerate formanyofthemenjoyeda higherlevel oftribesand groupson China'sborders. with few exceptions.332. Othercom(eds. 1956).

1368.Kuo-li pei-ching cKi-kan(1925).so as to limit contact betweenthe Chineseand the barbarians and to allow maximum controlby the government. 1955)p. 216. withno sympathy Chinacutsoffthesebenefits alive?" JohnFairbank whatcan the barbariansrelyuponto keepthemselves and Ssu-yüTeng.p. 556. The barbarians coveted tea for several reasons: it remained freshlonger than other beverages such as koumiss. but also as a potent means of pacifyingthe unruly barbarians.China'sResponsetotheWest:A Documentary . the foreigncountriescannotget alongfora singleday withoutthem. 25.Land ofthe500 Million. reducing the barbarian demand for tea and the attraction of the tea-horsetrade. 843. [PenguinBook. it contained fewerimpurities than water.24Theoretically. withholdingtea would render them docile. The Ming shih relates that without tea the barbarians would be "afflictedand therebyill" and should they trespass upon the border lands of China.1964). whenused. (NewYork. The policyof attempting bariansby denyingthem cherishedproductsprevailedinto the nineteenth Lin Tse-hsüin hisfamousletterof 1839to QueenVictoriaassertsthat century. (Cambridge. 7).. in the sixth at Ho-chou." (The Greeks . thereis nota singlethingwhich "Ofall thatChinaexportsto foreign countries. 1839Survey 1923.see George Cressey.152 on Wed. pp.The system worked for a time but as the governmentdeclined and lost its monopoly on tea. 320. does not meanpeoplewholive in caves and eat their meat raw. "barbarian"is a convenient did borderof Chinawho commonly termforthe peopleson the northwestern notspeakChineseand whomtheChinesecalledby thatname. D. 539. This content downloaded from 185.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 141 fifthmonth of the year at T'ao-chou. 1935)Vol. A. and in the seventh at Hsi-ning. 618. RobertHartwelllists she-huik'o-hsüeh ta-hsüeh a numberof Sung sourceson the tea-horsetradein his A GuidetoSourcesof ChineseEconomicHistory .If then forthosewhoareto suffer. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .If you did not speak Greekyou werea 'barbarian'. The Ming followed the example of the Sung in attemptingto use the governmenttea monopoly not only as a way of obtaining horses..2. It meanssimplypeoplewho make noiseslike 'bar bar' insteadof talkingGreek. In thiscase. Is therea singlearticlefromChina or ofbenefit forexam? Take tea and rhubarb.pp. 24MS 80.particularlyafterprolonged exposure to the cold. and it was a mild stimulant.1954).orofbenefit to people: theyareofbenefit is notbeneficial whenresold:all are beneficial. For theuse oftea amongmodern-day nomads. "Tsui-ch'uhua-fanch'a-mamou-ite ching-t'ung" (Earliest Tea-HorseTrade Betweenthe Chineseand the Barbarians).23The trading period was brief. wheneaten.p.All AboutTea. 23Li Shih-heng. 1951]p. Tea as a stimulant and as of medicinalvalue is discussedin WilliamUkers.the tea-horse trade was encouraged in times of loathingor contempt. (New to pacifythe barYork.32. (Chicago.217. countries whichhas doneanyharmto foreign ple. private merchants exported huge amounts of it.

This content downloaded from 185. 971.2. 4a. 37.p. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 844.30 After the tea was collected and packed. the government.according to Hung-wu. Tea and horseswere so inextricablyrelated that officialsrepeatedlyrequested that the tea laws and the horse administration be supervised by the same man. 27TMHT 37. If China was to secure an adequate supply of horses and remain strong. 685. T'ai-tsushih-lu70.152 on Wed.imposed a ten percent tax in kind on all tea.32. 342.p.Initially this was not difficultfor branches i 25MS 92.Mingshih. 28MS 80.26As a result.p. 3° TMHT . 844. 29TMHT . two of the largest tea producingareas in early Ming. 684. the need for horses was so great that this threat was rarely carried out.25 ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CWA-MA SSU Government control of tea was. The Emperor also ordered his soldiers to cultivate tea on idle land. in Chinese eyes.p.withthe exception of a small amount forthe producer's personal consumption.the tea trade had to be maintained. 37. the firststep in the creation of a rational and effectivehorse policy.20 Though the tea producers secured such privileges as exemption fromlabor service.4b. p. severe penalties were imposed on those producers who evaded the tax by selling tea illegally to merchants.pp. TMHT 37. 683. The soldiers divided up twentypercent of this tea and governmentofficialsreceived the rest.p. soldiers transportedit to the Horse Trading Office.p.p. In reality. The remainder. TMHT 153. in the fourthyear of his reign.862 chin fromHan-chung fu in Shensi.142 MORRIS ROSSABI peace but abandoned in times of war.29 Ming officialsfrequentlywarned the merchants and producers that private trading in tea was as much a crime as violating the salt monopoly. 2137. Hung-wu. Li Chieh. would annually collect approximatelyone millionchin fromSzechwan and 26. p. These penalties ranged from twenty lashings for a firstoffenceto confiscationof propertyand even death forrepeated transgressions. 26MS 80.was saved for governmentuse.27A Tea Tax Office(Ch'a-k'o ssu) with branches primarilyin Szechwan was created to levy and collect the fixed tea tax. 684.

They could also. with a special license (yu-ťieh). 31A goodaccountofthe originalbranchesofthe Ch'a-massu in Szechwan. II. cit. MediaevalResearches .zz A Tea Control Station (P'i-ch'aso). referredto as a surveillance agency by Charles Hücker. 7b. The Yung-ning Ch'a-massu was theonlybranchin Szechwan. the governmentavoided the tremendousexpense of lodging and feeding the barbarian traders on theirtrip throughChina.2.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 143 of the Ch'a-ma ssu were located in both Shensi and Szechwan.1956). 2138.p. Op. 843. Aside fromthe one millionchin of tea used by the government. They were accorded a set time limit.usually a year. purchase a smaller unit of tea (chi-ling).34The merchantsthen took the licenses to the tea plantations and received the specifiedamount of tea.See EconomicStructure HerbertFranz Schurmann. .the rest was sold to tea merchantsfordistributionwithinChina.32. 32See E. p.32Hung-wu failed to realize that if war broke out and the army could not be responsibleforthe tea.87. University This content downloaded from 185.and Kueichowis foundin Tani. MS 80.pp.31Since most of the barbarian horse traders were close to Shensi. all but one of the Szechwan branches were closed before 1400. He ordered his army in Szechwan to send the tea to the Shensi borderwherethe armyofthat provincecarriedit to the Ch'a-ma ssu. Yünnan. foreign 33 TMHT 37. The transport system created by Hung-wu was ill-advised and precarious. recorded the names. within which they had to sell their tea and returntheir licenses to the Tea Control Station for cancellation. p. 84. Merchants paid two hundred cash ( ch'ien) to the governmentand in returnreceived a license (yin) entitlingthem to one hundred chin of tea. family relationships. 266 forexamplesof government traders. and the number of yin allotted to merchants. Most of the one million chin produced in Szechwan had to be transported to Shensi fortrade. 193. Bretschneider.p. (Harvard oftheYuan Dynasty Press. 35 TMHT 153. 684.1888). p. Comparewiththe Yüan monopolysystem. 34 TMHT 37. fromEasternAsiaticSources expenditureon (London. both the monopoly and the transportationsystem would be endangered. 684. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .202.Vol.152 on Wed. By transportingthe tea to the bordersinstead of having the barbarians bring their horses to Szechwan.pp.p.35Merchants who delayed the returnof theirlicenses were liable to have their tea confiscatedby officials.. T^ai-tsung shih-lu55.

A-tuan. 6b.p.Min-chouis Kansu's Min-hsien. led to the retreat and dispersal of the barbarians and to the disruptionof the tea-horsetrade. asaThgKan-chouCKa-massu was activeonlysporadically in thetea-horse trade. Hsi-ning trading primarilywith the Uighur tribes of Ch'ü-hsien.Sporadic raids by these two powers.32.Chuangarebasedon Chung-kuo ku-chin langis Kansu'sP'ing-fanhsien. existedpriorto 1383. 48.Ho-chou. This content downloaded from 185.36 Border officialswho abetted the smugglersin any way were also punished though usually not so severely. 86Li Kuang-pi. We do notknowwhentheT'ao-choubranchwas founded.144 MORRIS ROSSABI Still more severe punishments were reserved for merchants who exported tea illegally to the barbarians.2. and Han-tung in the Ch'ing-hai (Lake Kokonor) region.It musthave p.see Tani. ti-ming 38For an enlightening discussionofall thebranchesofthe CKa-massu.forin thatyearit was mergedwiththeHo-choubranch. no mercy was shown towards smugglers. An-ting. as we shall see. Four major branches were founded to fulfillthis task.Identifications ta tz'u-tien.Ho-chouis Kansu'sTao-hohsien. Ho-chou and T'ao-chou tradingwithtribesorganized into the Hsi-fan and Pi-li militarydistricts. cit.the CKa-ma ssu in Shensi was the only organizationlegally empowered to carry on the tea-horse trade.pp. T'ao-chouis Kansu's Lin-t'anhsien.It was founded in 1413.butwasabolishedin 1442andwasnotreestablished until1563. Kan-chouis Kansu's Chang-ihsien.152 on Wed.380 None of these groups could compete in wealth. Capital punishmentwas prescribed for those who smuggled tea outside the borders of China. land. In Hung-wu's time.49. 4b. 6b. 252. a relative by marriage. In effect.Chung-yang Ya-hsü-ya(1943). Hsi37 ning (transferredfrom Ch'in-chou) in 1397. and power with the Oirat Mongols who were their neighborsto the northeast and the growing Moslem state of Turfan to the northwest. 3b. T'ao-chou sometime prior to 1383. was established as early as 1374. 155. It resumeditsindependent existencein 1411. Each branch officeof the Ch'a-ma ssu traded with the barbarians in its own area.executed for this offense. Branches of the Ch'a-ma ssu were also foundin Min-chouand Chuanglang thoughbetween themthese handled less than one thousand horses a year. 37 T'ai-tsu8hih-lu93. The most important. p.pp.Hung-wu had Ou-yang Lun. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .38Many texts do not even mention the latter because of their relative insignificance..Op. p. and Kan-chou in 1413. Hsi-ningis Ching-hai'sHsi-ninghsien. 88. T'ai-tsungshih-lu88.89."Ming-tai hsi-ch'ai-mak'ao"[Examination oftea-horse trade betweenMingand theWest].

Hung-wu and his successors were obviously worried about this development. rise to speculation about theireffectivenessand honesty. As I have already stated. of 9 a rank) and a Surveillance Vice Commissioner(Fu-shih. 3796.p. that these ill-paid and low ranking officialsmightfor a fee have been willing to overlook the activity of smugglers.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 145 The Ch'a-ma ssu was staffedby a Surveillance Commissioner( Ta shih. Their position at the bottom of the civil hierarchy.p. There is no doubt that the governmentfavored and initiated the tea-horsetrade. cit.p. a second eunuch reached Ho-chou with 300.the ninth.000 chin of tea and traded with other barbarians forover 10.pp. tea. this is not unusual. This content downloaded from 185. Periodically Hung-wu and Yung-lo issued gloomy edicts promisingsevere punishments for such illegal activities.the barbarians enjoyed a 39MS 75. MS 330.Emperors sent Messengers(Hsing-jen) and Censors (Yü-shih) to patrol the borders and to reporton officials who condoned and participated in acts of smuggling. 42MS 330.89. 3932.2.42 In 1392. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as these pronouncements failed to deter corruptofficials. of 9 b rank) and the local branches also were assigned a Commander (Ssu-ling) and an Assistant Commander ( Ssu-cK eng) . In 1375. 15b. It was perhaps the same attitude that motivated them to appoint eunuchs as directorsofthe MaritimeTrade Superintendencies( Shih-poťi-chu ssu) in southeasternChina. 689.40Later. 41 TMHT 37.32. TMHT 37.39I have found no sources describingthe division of power among these various officials. 802. if not probable. an attitude springingfroman antipathytowards commerceand a beliefthat highofficialsshould not demean themselves in the market place.000 horses.I have also been unable to uncover the names of any officialsof the CKa-ma ssu. 40STC 42. T'ai-tsushih-lu100.152 on Wed.however.p.43Apparently.. p. lb. though the Chinese recognizedthe need fortrade they were continuallyscornfulof it. 691.which were immediatelyturned over to border officialsfor defense purposes. 48Wang. but since they belonged to the lowest. Hung-wu sent the eunuch Chao Ch'eng with silk.41 Why the Chinese Emperors chose low ranking and underpaid officials to work in the Ch'a-ma ssu is difficultto understand. and other valuable products attractive to the barbarians to Ho-chou to trade for horses.rank of the civil bureaucracy. 3796-3797.Op.p. It is at least possible.

. If successful. 47Li Chieh. 3925. (December10. p.146 MORRIS ROSSABI good cup of tea. In 1389. p.op.45Theoreticallythese restrictionswould reduce the likelihood of smuggling both by barbarians and Chinese and would maximize governmentcontrolof trade.op.805. Only after some effort were the Chinese able to induce the barbarians to engage in trade. 1935).was conducted on Chinese terms.343. For a similarsystemthat was used withthe Southeast Asian states.21 to Ho-chou. comparing their tablets with those stored in the Ch'a-ma ssu. the government would be assured a regular supply of horses. In 1397. and trade was conducted. 844. 342.p.p.pp. According to the Ta Ming hui tien. Most of the horses were sent to frontiergarrisons: the mares were transported to the pasture areas of the Yüan-ma ssu forbreeding. cit.101. 971. The prices of the horses and the number to be traded were also determined by the Chinese.Uchida Naosaku. T'ao-chou 3. 45MS 80.see Wang Huai-chung(trans). Wang. If the barbarians had access to smuggled tea. seventy chin for average horses. Nevertheless. and Hsi-ning 3. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .47By keeping prices stable. 16a. the price of tea would go down and the horse-tea price ratio would be upset.051as the annualnumberof horsesinvolvedin thetrade.050.705 48 horses. Ho-chou received 7.32. 16 to Hsi-ning.050. 92. 32. prices for horses had fluctuatedfromfortyto eighteen hundred chin per horse. 688.48Earlier.op. 48 TMHT 37. Hung-wu ordered the Ch'a-ma ssu to pay one hundred and twenty chin for superiorhorses. 46MS 92. cit. If the barbarian tablets were genuine. STC 42. the government annually expected to use approximately one million chin of tea in exchange for fourteen thousand horses.and 4 to T'ao-chou. p. Yang I-ch'inggives 14. a total of 13. This content downloaded from threeyears a Court officialcalled on the barbarians. It could maintain these prices only by curbing the private export of tea.. 44Tani.. and fiftychin for inferiorhorses. OriginalJapanesearticleis in Shina Kenkyü(1935)."Ming-taite mao-ichih-tu"[TheSystemofCourtTributeand Tradein theMing ch'ao-kung Shih-huo Period]. once initiated.152 on Wed. he proceeded to trade Chinese tea forhorses. cit. and the few remaininggood horses were donated to the Emperor. Hung-wu sent Li Ching to give the top half of 41 gold tablets (chin-p'ai hsin-fu) to the barbarians and the bottom to the various branches of the Ch'a-ma ssu. 91.p.p. depending on the demand. their demand forit would be reduced.

the Horse Trading Office. called upon the merchants to substitute for the soldiers as tea agents. one branch officepaid eighty thousand chin of tea for seventy horses. Yung-lo initiallydemonstratedgreaterinterestin winningthe hearts of the northwesternbarbarians so "that all countries.. Trade expanded with each passing year. 247.49Hungwu was apparently able to impose the severe restrictionsneeded for an effectivetea-horse trade. Four agencies.op.89.p.16a. cit.. The system was effectiveduring the early Ming and by the middle of Hung-wu's reign. II.51 Border officialsalso took advantage of Yung-lo's laxity and traded with the barbarians. 844. His five large scale militaryexpeditions against the Mongols created 49STG 42.8a.Vol.even the most distant. p. and transportedit fromthe Szechwan to the Shensi border. were created to facilitategovernmentcontrolof the trade. by 1384 they received 560.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 147 This elaborate system of trade required a major effortfrom the Chinese government. Wang. When war and famine caused soldiers to be diverted from the tea trade.152 on Wed. 50Bretschneider. and later the Tea Censorate.32. Government storehouses preserved the tea for as long as three years while waiting for trade. was stabilized and operatingto the satisfaction of both the governmentand the barbarians.p.the Tea Control Station.the Tea Tax Office. 3932. far beyond the maximum of one hundred and twenty chin established by Hungwu. cit. 7b. an average of over one thousand chin per horse. the government.Governmentsoldiers cultivated idle land. 61MS 80.50He relaxed the prohibitionson private tea and caused the Gh'a-ma ssu to pay more for horses. op. adulterated tea. packed tea. The Government was eager to pursue this venture. Early in his reign. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Yung-lo apparently understood this when he was about to embark on his Mongol campaigns.2. 15b. should acknowledge his supremacy" than in following the harsh policies of his father.52 China could not continue in this way for long because Chinese tea was being consumed with little gain. pp. by 1390 the number increased to 7060. In 1378 the Chinese received 469 horses fromHan-tung. This content downloaded from 185. occasionally using coarse.p. 3830. MS 332.000 horses were acquired by the Chinese.pp. and by 1392 over 10. 62 T'ai-tsung shih-lu39.

III.generaltrendsmaybe perceived.a highpointis reachedwiththe collectionof 1.. 94. Tani arguesthata morelogicaltimeforthestoprestrictions pingwouldbe afterthe burningof the ImperialPalace in 1421. pp.For this.98. XV.3b. this in the previousyearto bolsterthe seemshighlyunlikelyin viewofhis efforts on tea smuggling. He reimposed prohibitionson tea smuggling and reinforcedthem with the threat of a death sentenceforviolators. 81-88." extremely suggestive.and by 1488. In 1421. Yung-lo acted to revive the tea-horsetrade.and The figures forthetea tax duringtheMingarealso by 1422.852chinis collected. 3a.p." . 155 159)butthetax never exceedsthatafterCheng-te's reign. 54 TMHT 37."Chinesische im durch die 15.these figures. .439. MS 80. Yung-lostoppedthe tallysystemin 1416. by 1426.315. seeWolfgang Franke. frühen Jahrhundert.53 In 1408. the Chinese were less expansionist. the gold tablet system was temporarilysuspended and was only reinstated in 1435.000chin. most of which could be supplied only by the tea-horsetrade. Van der Sprenkelin his "Population StatisticsofMingChina.808chinof tea. Yung-lo's strenuous efforts. 289.54In 1415 he set up furtherrestrictions by sendingfourMessengersa monthfromthe thirdto the ninthmonth of the year to curb the illegal outflowof tea. This content downloaded from 185.514.311chinoccursunderCheng-te (1506a 1521)as resultofYangI-ch'ing-sreforms (seepp.a comparatively meager630.op. p. falsification.see Tani. 688.56Only when this number began to 53Fora 1417. pp.A slightriseto 113.Though.In thiscase.In 1415.32. Accordingto TMHT .65 It is difficultto determine how this interruption affectedthe trade. cit. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .152 on Wed.617.199. TMHT 37.148 MORRIS ROSSABI a need for war horses. 689.pp. thegeneraltrendin Yung-lo'sreignfrom1415on is a tremendous increasein the numberof horses. the Empire was relatively peaceful.845. but probably the reduction of governmentcontrol that this act representedreflecteda decline in the number of horses acquired by the Chinese. ranging fromtotal population(used by O. (1953).because of copyists'errorsand perhapsdeliberate cannotbe particular instances. see Van derSprenkel'sintroductory remarksin the above article. Furthermore.997.For this. AfterYung-lo's death. 55 T'ai-tsungshih-lu120. roseto 1. 844. Mongolei Sinologica Feldzüge (1951-1953).thefigure is only89. had led to a significant increase in the number of horses. 56The Shih-lugivesunderthetwelfth monthoftheyearstatistics.the numberis 310. B.pp.326)to salttax.meant to conveythe economicperformance of the Empire.A steadydeclineis apparentafterYung-lo'sreign 1413. pp.especially from 1415 on. and the need for war-horses was consequently diminished.

He captured and devastated Kanchou and Ninghsia and forced many of the barbarians involved in the horse trade to seek refugein China while others driftedto remote areas of Inner Asia."Yü Ch'ien. and in preventingunscrupulous officials and merchantsfromtrading with the barbarians. 857. 1398. As a result. but also disrupted the officialtransportationof tea. In 1448 the Chinese eunuch Wang Chen tried to underpay Esen for his horses. 94.68His early raids were primarilydirectedagainst the northwesternborder.but not forlong. XI."Monumenta Staatsmannund Kriegsminister pp.claimingthat his envoys had not been properly received by China.1435) returnto the gold tablet system and seek to set rigid governmentcontrolsto rehabilitate the tea-horse trade.32. Esen's invasions not only destroyed the gold tablet system.It shouldbe notedthatEsen's disputewithWangChenwas only the last in a seriesof unpleasantincidentsthat beganwiththe Oiratchief's ofOirats conquestofHami in theearly1440'sand thatmarredtherelationship and Chinese. (1946).the governmentwas severelylimitedin determiningthe groups that could trade with the Chinese. About fiftyyears later.Kuan-chung tsou-i.2.THE TEA UND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 149 decline in 1435 did the Hsüan-te Emperor (1426.p.4b. Without them.see WolfgangFranke. Yang I-ch'ing was amazed to find a barbarian chief who had in his possession a tablet and was aware of its function.1457. he embarked upon a series of raids on China which culminated in the capture of the Chinese Emperor.57Shortlythereafter.152 on Wed.59 Although a few of these tablets were preserved. the Oirat chief.pp. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . infuriating the Oirat chiefwho vowed revenge. This content downloaded from 185. were scattered and for the most part destroyed.100. the sole binding element in the teahorse 1449 dealt a damaging blow to the tea-horse trade. 4a. For nearly a decade Esen had engaged in a horse trade of his own with China. THE DECLINE OF THE TEA-HORSE TRADE The invasions of Esen (Yeh-hsien). in fixing the price of tea and horses. 58For a good accountof this episode. the gold tablets. The army which was *7MS 81. Serica. 69Yang I-ch'ing. He and his successor triumphed.they were rarely used in trade again.

Paradoxically Esen's invasions accentuated the need for horses while simultaneouslypreventingtheir acquisition by the Chinese. The army was unable to fightand transporttea forthe tea-horse trade at the same time. the Chinese used commoditiesotherthan tea to trade forhorses.the tea-growersin Szechwan had no choice but to collaborate with the merchants.and the government. after 1470. tea merchants obtained a greater share. Because the governmentno longer demanded a million chin of tea from Szechwan.686. it would have led to a disastrous outflowof China's silver. 62 TMHT 37. during the fifteenthyear of his reign. 18b. There had been periodic famines in Shensi but Esen's assaults on China and the influxof Chinese soldiers in the area markedlyincreased the need for grain. This content downloaded from 185.60The rest of the tea tax was convertedinto paper money and silver. was unable to controlit.62 In 1479. 43. who originally investigated but now administered many 60STC 42. Consequently. Possibly the barbarians desired tea more than silver or perhaps the Emperor realized that had this policy continued for long. 18a.32.If they refusedto cooperate.61The government transportedgrain to relieve Shensi. Tea smugglingflourished. as I shall show. cit..althoughmany ofthese effortswere.p.busily engaged in protecting itselffromthe Oirats. and the Cheng-ťung Emperor reluctantly ordered that the amount of tea collected and transportedby the army fromSzechwan and Shensi be reduced to half the fixed quota .pp.p.For example.2. Even before these invasions the army had difficultyin fulfillingits obligations.undoubtedly. From 1467 to 1470Ch'eng-hua convertedthe tea tax to silver to buy horses. Finally Esen's invasions created another problem that indirectly affected the tea-horse trade. Ch'eng-hua in desperation ordered the Censors. theirtea would not be distributed and would spoil. 61Ibid. 685. Ch'eng-hua's reign (1465. followinga precedentset in early Ming times. disruptedthe tea-horse trade. an effortwhich.. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .150 MORRIS ROSSABI needed to repel Esen's forces could not be spared to carry tea. Tani. makeshift. Some sold tea legally for internal consumptionwhile others saw a great opportunityfor quick profitin satisfyingthe barbarians' desire fortea.op.152 on Wed.1487) witnessedthe firstattempts to deal withthese problems. p. In any case.less than one half a millionchin. Ch'eng-hua discontinued the practice.

He orderedidle land to be reclaimed and placed under cultivationand refugees from border areas were settled in Shensi as tea growers. 353. He ordered all who smuggled over 500 chin of tea to be drafted into the army.).152 on Wed. 689.p. p. 64 TMHT 37. 66MS 80.For this.66However. A compromise was finallyeffectedpermittingthe appointment of Tea Censors who performed annual border inspections.66In 1467. In seeking more permanent solutions.The barbarians refusedto supply horses unless their demands were met. 2137.Official Between Chinaand Japan. He attempted to reimpose controls that the governmenthad abandoned after Esen's invasions.Perhaps he realized that this would not necessarily assure a steady supply of horses and was also only a temporarymeasure.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 151 functionsof the Ch'a-ma ssu ." en(ColumbiaUniversityPress. since they were not permanently assigned to the border.2. a practice many Emperors had already and would later condone. Ch'eng-hua was more successfulin increasingthe tea production of Han-chung fu in Shensi.32.seepages77.he triedto intimidatenegligentand corrupt officialsand merchants by appointing Censors to patrol the bordersand punish tea smugglers.Ch'eng-hua adopted the policies of his predecessorsand prohibitedthe exportation of private tea.67 63 TMHT 153. 1969). ChineseGovernment in Ming Times Administration. 845. they could not successfully eliminatethe smuggling. 67 TMHT 19.p.Ray Huang discussesthe difficulties .87. to trade for horses irrespectiveof regulations.88.see WangYi-t'ung. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 65He mayhavebeenthinking hereoftheroleplayedby Buddhistpriestsin Relations JapanesetradewithearlyMing. In his article"Fiscal Administration DuringtheMing in CharlesHucker(ed.63He urged the Censors to summon the barbarians forthe teahorse exchange and encouraged them to trade at their convenience and with no price limitations.p.1549. 1368. 3.All of those involved in this private trading including the barbarians were outraged and demanded that the Emperor appoint the relativelypermissiveMessengersratherthan the strictCensors to performthis function. inrevising countered thetax structure bythegovernment This content downloaded from 185.64He also refused to allow tribute-bearingMoslems and Buddhist priests to buy tea before returningto theirnative lands. He realized that the army could not be used to convey tea fromSzechwan to Shensi and decided to eliminate the transportationproblem by expanding tea production in Shensi itself. (HarvardUniversity Press.p.1953).

MS 80.000 chin ratherthan 1. Turfan."69 Ch'eng-hua applied the same principlesin Shensi.000. 299. MingSystemofMerchantColonigust6. ChineseSocial History . Ch'eng-hua chose the Tea Exchange ( K'ai-chung) system to deal with the famine problem in Shensi. Censors made annual inspectiontours but these were too cursoryto be effortwas made duringhis reignto increase the tea tax of Shensi..ultimately stabilized the tea-horse trade during his reign.32. 70 TMHT 37.see Ho Ping-ti."HarvardJournalofAsiaticStudies.308. the use of Censors to curb smuggling.Chineseborderofficialsand merchantseagerlysmuggled tea to the barbarians. tea production had risen to one millionchin per year or as much as had been produced in Szechwan.pp.Also.(1954).since the merchantsand officialstook the prize mounts. Tea continued to be taxed at the same rate of 26. The rise of Turfan in Central Asia exacerbated these problems. This content downloaded from 185.the private tea trade flourished. zation" in JohnDeFrancisand E-tu Zen Sun (eds. 838. According to the Ming shih.70 . chih-tu"in Yü-kung(Au"Ming-taite shang-t'un "The as 1 translated 15.the eliminationof restrictionson the None of Ch'eng-hua'sefforts horse trade.p.2.the increased production of tea in Han-chung fu.p.whichhad been a relativelysmall and peaceful. 135-136. 1936). compensatingthem with tea from the Ch'a-ma ssu.168.152 MORRIS ROSSABI Within thirtyyears. 300. pp.Only a paltry number of horses was obtained by the governmentand even these were inferior. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . One suspects that Ch'eng-hua had anticipated that much of this increase would wind up in the hands of the governmentas tax. Using salt instead of tea. 686.Taking advantage of the disintegrationof the gold tablet system. Finally. when the Hung-chih Emperor took the throne. this systemhad been initiated in 1370 to supply soldierson the Shansi border.ifnot docile88See Wang Ch'ung-wu. He ordered merchantsto send grain to the famine strickenprovince and to the soldiers on the border.152 on Wed."The Salt Merchants of Yang-chou. After Ch'eng-hua's death. Later the Hung-chih Emperor varied the procedure by selling tea to the merchantsforsilver which was then used to buy grain. "in this way the expenses of transportation will be economized and the supply of grain at the frontier will be sufficient. 69 Ibid.68Merchantstransportedgrain to the army stationed in Shansi and in returnreceived certificates(yin) entitlingthem to government salt. or the K'ai-chung system.p.000chin. 130.XVII.pp.). but surprisingly.

E. 71MS 329.MS 329. 3791.152 on Wed. Only with the return to the gold tablet system would China control 70a89-Index. Once again China needed war horses for her cavalry to meet the threat of force. accountsofthestruggles One. Ahmed. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .According to Li. cut offtrade and tribute missions.p. p.3296. In 1469.See Ney Elias (ed. New York. its Sultan Ali requested that the Chinese Emperor grant him the four clawed dragon robe.p. the exiled leader of Hami.). regarding Ali as arrogant. DenisonRoss ofMirza MuhammadHaidar.AfterAli's death in 1482.p. 231a. hoping to pressure Turfan into submission without resortingto military force. but the expedition was unsuccessful. Turfan refused to relent.the P'ing-fanshih-mo. Ch'enghua sent a missionled by Li Wen70aand Liu Wen to oust Ali fromHami. on several occasions. 3294. an area which was an extremelyimportantthoroughfarein the caravan trade between China and Central Asia.pp. recaptured Hami.II. working military by on an extensivestudyofthisperiodbased on thesetwosources.1505). and which the Chinese consideredstrategicto the defenseof theirnorthwesternlands.The Tarikh-i-Raahidi 1895. man Hsü the theother. and in 1488. But China had to remain on her guard and in fact. Li Tung-yang. 72a89-IndexII. 1970). clashed with Turfan's troops. 51. they used coarse tea and cheated the barbarians who became disenchantedand sent inferiorhorsesto China. had absorbed Lukchak (Liucenturyand ch'eng) and Karakhoja (Huo-chou) in the mid-fifteenth demanded that China recognizeher as a great Moslem power in Central Asia. One of Hung-chih's advisers.2. p. The Chinese. 226c. 3790. and Ma Wen-sheng Ha-michih.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 153 state in the early fifteenthcentury.72a urgeda restorationofthe gold tablet systemto procure the beasts.refusedhis demand.Mohammedan sourcesmakeno mentionofAli and cite a certainYunusKhan as Ahmed'sfather. and was recognized by the Chinese as its rightfulking.Praeger. This content downloaded from 185.(London. Dughlat. reprint:SourceBooks and Studieson InnerAsia. Hanshen. 72MShu 167. (trans.72 HenceforthTurfancast a shadow on Hung-chih'sreign(1488. Ali's son.Ali invaded and captured Hami. led an army of 1300 men. the firstyear of Hung-chih's reign.was written theH8Íng-fu by theWar Minister I am Chin. Li pointed out that the eliminationof the system in 1449 led to an increase in private tea in which the officialsand merchants had profited.).32.71treacherously killed Han-shen and reoccupied Hami. but the Board of Rites.Twoimportant contemporary betweenTurfanand Chinahave beenpreserved. In 1473.

845.73 In 1490.76 five million chin to merchantsin exchange for silver. He urged that the governmentcompromisewith the merchants.p.77 The prohibitionson the K'ai-chung system still left many problems unresolved.74Li and Hung-chihfailed to anticipate problemsin implementing these policies. Hung-chihrealized that the outflowof tea was subvertingthe tea-horse trade. Hung-chih was unable to find an effectivemethod of transporting high quality tea to the borders. 74MS 80.000 chin of tea. 686. kept the superiortea and presented to the Ch'a-ma ssu that of the lowest quality.000. 77Ibid. 73MS 92. which had been accumulated over a number of years from many regions of China. Hung-chih was compelled to use the K'ai-chung system to relieve Shensi.p.The merchants. 75 TMHT 37. and revive the tea-horsetrade.p. He relied upon the merchantsto convey any tea that he was fortunateenough to get and the merchantswere making good use of their leverage to insure great profitsfor themselves.. and in 1502 he decreed that the exchange of tea forgrain was prohibited. Thus in trade the governmenthad to be satisfied with inferiorsteeds.contraryto Li's expectations. The merchantswould receive 60% of the tea fortheirown private trade and the governmentwould obtain 400. He released 2.152 on Wed.000.000 horses. 76Ibid. They assumed that merchants would not take advantage of the compromise.permittingthem to transport tea to the Shensi Ch'a-ma ssu. the firstof which struckin 1494.he temporarily suspended the horse trade and released four million more chin to In 1501 he ordered officialsto sell four to private entrepreneurs.p. 971. to merchants who transportedgrainto the border.2.regain the trust of the barbarians. 686.000 chin transported) which would be exchanged for 4.. p. Li and Hung-chih also could not have foreseenthe onset of devastating faminesin Shensi. which was used to buy grain in Shensi. Hung-chih was unable to curb the merchants who met the barbarian demand fortea and so he could not tempt the barbarians with officialtea. 686.000 chin (40% of the 1.75In the verynext year.32. This content downloaded from 185. the Censor Li Luan advanced a proposal that was adopted by Hung-chih.MORRIS ROSSABI 154 her officialsand merchants. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

153b has moresourceson Yang..pp. 905. according to Yang. investigated Shensi's border problems. Yang demanded that new pasture lands be created and that nearby exposed towns ( cKeng) and forts( pao ) be built forprotectionagainst hostile barbarians. Also.A Chinese . (London. Li Kuang-pi.78 With his eightyears' tenurein Shensi and his study of horses during that time. attracted the attention of the Ch'eng-hua Emperor who assigned a tutor to instruct him. 50. At fourteenhe passed the provincial examinations (hsiang-shih) and at eighteenhe became a chin-shih.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 155 ATTEMPTS AT REFORM Yang I-ch'ing was the firstofficialto devise a comprehensivereform programof the Ming horse administration. He also requested an increase in the number of herdsmenin Shensi.32.. But in 1502 the War Minister Liu Ta-hsia recommendedthat Yang be appointed Left Vice Censorin-chief( tso fu-tuyü-shih) in Shensi with the power to directthe horse administration.pp. See HerbertGiles.op. cit.152 on Wed. would permit China to breed more of her own horses and lessen her dependence on the barbarians. Yang saw the necessity for more pasture land if China were to succeed in breeding her own horses and wrote memorialsto the Emperor urgingsuch an increase.51. the 89-IndexIII. cit. specificallythe horse administration.His father's death and the mourning period that followedtemporarilyimpeded his spectacular progressbut he regained his momentum shortly. Yang deservesa full-scale biography.2. p.906.9). Finally.Yang was born in Yünnan in 1454 but as a child moved to Pa-ling in Hunan where his father retiredfromofficiallife. Better trained personnel in the Yüan-ma ssu. pointingout that in earlyMingtherehad been 1220 herdsmenbut the numberhad gradually been reduced to 745. He stayed in Shensi for eight years and.p. 2303.and Tõyõrekishi Biographical Dictionary daijiten (vol.His knowledge was not put to use immediatelyas he was transferredto a post in Nanking. This content downloaded from 185.1898).He was a precocious child and. being inquisitive in nature. 79Li Kuang-pi. having qualified as a Bachelor (hsiu-ts'aiJ at a young age. Yang was well qualified to reformand perhaps invigorate the horse administration. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .p. 97 forbriefbiographiesof Yang. He was appointed an Assistant Surveillance Commissioner (an-cKa ch'ien-shih) in Shansi and then advanced to the Surveillance Vice Commissioner( an-cWa fu-shih ) in Shensi.79 78MS 198. 50. p.op.

156 MORRIS ROSSABI Yang's most importantwork on the tea-horsetrade was a memorial of over 6. However. their tea supply would be cut offand they would become ill and die. Yang's immensepersonal knowledge was evident throughoutthe memorial. 3.Furthermore he wanted to increase the number of Censors patrolling the borderto eradicate the "evil grass".6a. robbing and plundering the border areas. and furnisheda programdesigned to remedyits weaknesses. Under Yang's plan. he constantly referredto his own experienceswith border officialsand barbarians. 5a. Yang emphasized that the 80Included in a collectionof his memorialsentitledKuan-chungtsou-i. He had seen everythingwith his own eyes and was not the amateur who dabbles in many fields that one frequently encounters in Chinese history. pp. Though he stillinveighedagainst commerceand privatetrafficin tea. If the barbarians dared to rebel. asserted Yang. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Even such forcefulaction would not in itselfbe sufficientto reestablishproper relations with the barbarians.152 on Wed. stiffer officials punishmentshad to be meted out to smugglersand private tradingin tea had to be treated as a serious crime. China. This content downloaded from 185. private trading had made tea available to the barbarians and the Chinese government had been unable to obtain horses fromthem. China regulated the barbarians.80In it he presented a brief history of the trade.Yang's descriptionforthe corrupt .32.Because he knew the situation. needed to reinstitutethe gold tablet systemand to make clear the prohibitionson private tea. analyzed its currentproblems. He pointed out that the Chinese gained the barbarians' confidenceby supplying them with tea. he ultimately offereda plan that was dependent on the merchantsforits success.which stifledthe tea-horse trade. administration 81Yang I-ch'ingKuan-chung tsou-i .81Yang required officials to scrutinize merchant licenses and to confiscateforgeries. forfurther researchon thehorse Thiscollection providesexcellentopportunities in theMing. To pacify the barbarians Yang suggested strongpunishmentfor one or two of the tribes to set an example for the others. Yang began his memorialby brieflyexplainingthe relationsbetween China and the barbarians.2.he realized that the merchants had to be granted an importantrole in the tea-horsetrade. since the gold tablet system had been abolished. As a result the barbarians were willing to act as a bufferagainst hostile peoples in Central Asia. according to Yang. the barbarians lost their inhibitionstowards China.000 characters writtenin 1505. With this threat. Sated with tea.

Fifty Hang of silverwould be used to pay the merchantsforevery thousand chin of tea. Yang also outlinedthe tradingconditionson the border.THE TEA UND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 157 early Ming Emperors who cherishedlife and were not fond of killing considered tea smuggling a capital crime.2.32.a systemsupervised and controlledby the Chinese government. the government.Every three years trade would be conducted between the Ch'a-ma ssu and the barbarians who possessed gold tablets. 82Ibid.20b. The remainingtwo thirds or approximately four hundred thousand chin of tea would then be available forthe horse trade. In the second year the Emperor would send a proclamation in the barbarian language to the border tribesurgingthemto bringtheirbest horsesfortrade. Consequently.Yang envisioned a return to the systemthat existedunderthe firstEmperors. All private trading was forbidden.. the government received two-thirdsof the tea under Yang's system while it obtained only twofifthsfromthe K'ai-chung system. the Chinese would attack one or two of the recalcitrant tribes and in this way compel acquiescence.152 on Wed. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . He ordered rich tea merchantsin Shensi to buy five hundred thousand to six hundred thousand chin of tea annually though no single merchantcould obtain more than ten thousand chin.Later Emperors.pp.under his plan. He pointed out that. Yang advocated harsherpunishments. 19a. officialswould reward them generously with tea and would encouragethem to return. so that even those who smuggledas little as fouror fivechin were frightened. although both authorized merchantsto transporttea to the border. on the other hand.The only problem lay in transportingtea to the Shensi border and here Yang was compelled to seek an accommodation with the merchants.If the barbarians refusedto come afterthree pleadings. This content downloaded from 185. had been more lenient and as a result those smuggling fiftyor even five hundred chin were not afraid.The merchantsseemed to be the onlygroup capable ofundertakingthistask and Yang reluctantly turned to them. The merchants would carry the tea to the Shensi branches of the Ch'a-ma ssu which would sell one third of it locally for silver.82 Yang wished to emphasize that his proposals differedfrom the K'ai-chung system. 25 Hang for the tea and 25 Hang for packing and transportation. If the barbarians came. Moreover. All of these proposals were conventional. was the only agent empowered to sell tea to the barbarians.

401chin.83This compromisefailed to remedythe weaknesses of Li Luan's proposal of 1490 which also allowed merchants to transportand sell private tea and which. pp. 845.2.12. as merchanttrafficin tea expanded.158 MORRIS ROSSABI Apparently. Chin-chou hsien1. a low 26.29. the officialtea-horsetrade declined.32. op.making it 51. in order to obtain sorely needed horses. Again. 7b. This content downloaded from 185.China managed to collect 19. Though Yang's reformsinitially affectedthe tea-horse we have seen.862 chin. cit.152 on Wed.251 chin. 84Yang. Yang was again forcedto accommodate them.000 annually that were received a hundredyears earlier.Chinese merchantsbalked at this proposal and in 1506.pp.17b.10a.85Afterthat. Nor was Yang's other important proposal wholeheartedly implemented. Within a year the government relented and revised Yang's plan to gain the support and cooperation of the merchants.446chin:Shih-ch'uan chin: Tzu-yanghsien.since tea productionin Han-chung fu had increased to well over a millionchin.4.680 .Naturally they objected to government control of tea sales which Yang proposed.The new regulationsthat were introduced in the firstyear of Cheng-te's reign provided that merchantswould transporttea to the Shensi borderand in returnwould receive fiftypercent of the tea forprivate sale.765chin:Han-yinhsien.959chin.p. merchants used to their own advantage. The merchants could make greater profits from private selling of tea through the K'ai-chung system than in receiving a fixed amount of silver from the government. their influencewas feltonlybriefly. the governmentwas willingto go to extreme lengths in compromisingwith the tea merchants.000 horses a year and certainlypaltry compared to the 14.. the very next year.077 horses. 14b. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .In the firstfouryearsofhisprogram.8a givesthefollowing breakdown forthenewtax: Hsi-hsiang hsien. The Chia-chingHan-chungfu-chih3. 85 Wu-tsung shih-lu25.1.Because of the government'saction Yang's program came to nothing.S4í Nevertheless. Because Yang had been forcedto compromiseby allowing merchantsto transporttea and retain half of 83MS 80. pp. this was only a token rise in the tax and allowed much untaxed tea to flowinto private hands. less than 5. Yang asked that the tax be raised and the Hung-chih Emperor responded by doubling Han-chung fu's contributionto the government.He noted th^t Ch'eng-hua's effortshad led to a sharp increase in the tea productionof Han-chung fu in Shensi. 9b. Yet the area's tax on tea had not been adjusted and remained the same as under Hung-wu.

pp. Department 88MS 330.In 1507.II.89 The success of I-pu-la and Mansur was disastrous to the tea-horse trade.From the earlysixteenthcentury on China also shiftedher attention fromthe Northwestto the Northeast. 27. Cheng-tefavored the Buddhists and granted foreignBuddhist priests the rightto export tea.the last serious effortto deal with the problemsof the tea-horsetrade. the entrepot of Central Asian trade with China. 88MS 80.87I-pu-la's invasions.152 on Wed.Many of them virtually disappeared fromthe Ming chronicles. 87For I-pu-la. the governmentwas presentedwith low quality tea by unscrupulous merchants and had difficultyin obtaining superior horses from the barbarians. seemed more potent than that fromthe Central Asian states or the barbarian tribes. dealt a blow to the barbarians involved in the tea-horse trade.p. Starting in 1509. while the ssa part ofthe problemmayhave beenthedivisionwithinthe government eunuchLiu Chinand Yang itself. op. Much of the Ch'ing-hai (Kokonor) area metthe same fate88.pp. The militarythreat posed by the ' 'Northernbandits. 1.In the next year Hami. 845.1521). XIX. Turfan was satisfiedwith its conquest of Hami and only occasionally attacked the northwesternboundary. This content downloaded from 185. Bretschneider.42." primarily Mongols. was evident that Yang's reforms. cit. "A StudyofDayan. the tea-horse trade and the administrationof the northwesternborder grew less and less effective. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . By the middle of Cheng-te's reign. pp. 197.29. An-ting and Ch'ü-hsien. surrenderedto Turfan's Moslem chiefMansur after fiftyyears of intermittentwarfare.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 159 it. endedwithYang's imprisonment.a strugglebetweenthe influential For this.see MS 198. 3800-3801. for many of the northwesternbarbarians were scattered and were unable to re-establishtheircommunities.2.pp.32. During Cheng-te's reign (1506. 2304. like those of Esen sixty years earlier. therefore. 89MS 329. trade was made even more difficultwhen the Mongol chief I-pu-la attacked the tribes on the northwesternborder.86This increased the private trafficin tea and decreased the barbarian demand for officialChinese tea.2305..see Sei Wada. were overwhelmed by I-pu-la's forcesand were cut offfromChina.pp.both areas supplying large numbers of horses. had been sabotaged by the government'sreluctanceto antagonize the merchantsor perhaps its inability to compel them to 85a accept Yang's program.198. In 1512." MemoirsoftheResearch oftheToyoBunko.3793. (1960).

p.152 on Wed. 80MS 80.p. would furthertarnish China's image. 238c. 234b. Emperor that the three year time limit between trading periods was 89a89-Index.160 MORRIS ROSSABI bandits in the northeast continued to raid the border.000 chin but by 1547 the figurehad climbed to one million chin?z Again in 1564 the Emperor ordered officialsto restrictthe quantity of tea to 500.000 or 600. This content downloaded from 185. M TMHT 37. To meet this threat. Famines on the Shensi borderled him to revive the K'ai-chung system that had been abolished by Hung-chih.p. The Censor Liu Lun89aproposed a complete prohibitionof private tea and a reinstitutionof the gold tablet system. MS 92. but the plan was quickly abandoned since the governmentwas apparently unable to muster the forces necessary to enforceit.92 While the Chia-chingEmperor attempted to establish government controlover the tea-horsetrade. •2 TMHT 37. In 1536 the Censor Liu Liang-hsiang948. p.2. 94TMHT 153.a motionthat was defeated by the Ministryof War which claimed that the gold tablets could be forgedby the barbarians and would go undetected by the few officialson the border.32. TMHT 153. the Chinese depended on horses provided by friendlynortheastern barbarians rather than by the northwesterntea-horse trade since transportinghorsesfromShensi to the northeastwould have been both time-consumingand expensive. the Ministryargued.III. 691. p. 971. He tried to limit the amount of tea released to merchantsto 300. 2137.94Merchants also benefitedfromanother of told the Chia-ching's orders.90 In 1551 the Emperor orderedthe creation of a k'an-hoor tally system which was similar to the gold tablet system and which had been used effectivelyby the Chinese in theirrelations with Japan and Southeast Asia. Ma89-Index. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Desperate effortswere made duringthe reign of Chia-ching(1522 1567) to reestablish the tea-horse trade.III.p. 687. This failure. but the merchantscould still engage in private trade in spite of these regulations. he was at the same time compelled to compromisewiththe merchantsand to defyhis own regulationsin other ways. 2137.p.p.91In 1552 the Emperor again triedto curb private tea by confiscatingstores of tea about to be smuggled out of the countryby foreignBuddhist priests. 846.000 chin.000 to 400.

the Censor Li Nan98ademanded prohibitionson Hunan tea. Chia-ching. ma-cheng 98MS 80. 86TMHT 153.p. the lowest figurethe governmenthad ever demanded. the Emperor demanded that harsh measures be taken against merchantswho kept their tea licenses and illegally used them more than once. and in many cases could not be classifiedas tea at all.though a few feeble and ultimately unsuccessful attempts were made to reimpose governmentauthorityover the tea-horse trade.152 on Wed. This content downloaded from 185. Chia-chingwas still calling on officials to prohibitmerchantsfromprivately selling tea forhorses. desperate for any exportable tea. 690.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 161 too long causing much of the tea to be imperialorder. Hsü admitted 95TMHT 37. Even morerevealing of the government'sfutileeffortsto controltea of a high quality was the debate over the inferiorHunan tea. merchants and a few officialsbegan exportingit to the barbarians. In the sixteenthcenturytea productionin Hunan grew more rapidly than in Szechwan and Shensi.p.convertedthe tea tax of Szechwan into silverwhichwas used to buy horses.p. orderedtea officialsto sell tea at any convenienttime to anyone and to avoid storingit in the CKa-ma ssu for more than two years.following Liu's advice. These problems seemed insurmountable. 846.He allowed them to sell seventy percentof the tea they transportedto the borderif they gave the governmentthe remaining thirtypercent. Noting its abundance and lower was in his words "false tea." The government.96 The Chinese governmentfaced the same problems throughoutthe sixteenth century.As late as 1561.97In 1571.98By 1585. 97Himng-cKao chi 12. and Chinese officialswere preoccupied with the northeastern border. assertingthat it was bitter. In 1569. 246c. p. The barbarians had scattered as a result of the attacks of I-pu-la and Mansur. rejected Li Nan's demands and instead adopted the proposal of the Censor Hsü Ch'iao. 2137. 12a.32.2.1619) recognized the futilityof these effortsat total control and again compromisedwith the merchants.p. the governmentwas unable to impose its will on the merchantsand gain a complete monopoly over the teahorse trade.injurious to the health. 98a89-IndexII. the Wan-li Emperor (1573. officials. In 1595.the teahorsetrade was not greatlystimulatednor were the merchantsdeterred fromsmuggling. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .95This relaxation of regulationswas a disappointment.

written This content downloaded from 185.see Kano Naosada. Even this final effortto increase exportable tea proved futile. by the end of the Ming "the tea laws. 73.thoughpubliclyscornfulof commerce.32."Chamabõekino shūmatsu.102 CONCLUSION The Ming Court.ssu never traded for as many horses as its Ming counterpart. 701. China desperately needed horses and could not affordto remain aloof fromcommercenor could she wait forthe barbarians to pledge obeisance to the Emperor. cit.the Ch'ing had conquered most of modern-daySinkiang and Mongolia where it had access to finehorses. Whibeck in 1965. As 99Loc.TõyõshiKenkyü(1963). 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . an act which made his proposal valueless.As a result. ignored both the weakness of Hsü's plan and the inferiorquality of Hunan tea. as the officialtribute system and traditional foreignrelations demanded. the Ming shih points out." Unfortunately.pp. 102For a briefaccountof the declineof the tea-horsetradein Ch'ing.Hsü did not specify any government agency for this task. The Ch'ing Court also discovered that Western Europeans and Russians coveted tea and that China could realize greater profitsfroma tea trade with these powers than with the barbarians on the northwesternborder."100 The Ch'ing also established a CKa-ma ssu and the first Ch'ing Emperor foundedbranches in the same six areas of Shensi as underthe Ming.3b.pp. 101Ch'ingshihkao 147."[OntheDwindling oftheTea and HorseTrade]. H. Minghuiyao 39. A.95.for.yp. See LungWen-pin.152 on Wed.a flourishingtea trade arose fromwhich China received silver forits tea. 100Ibid. Onelast effort was madeto revivethetea-horse tradewhen the eunuchLi Mou-ch'iwas appointedto supervise theCh'a-massu in Shensi. The its anxiety to obtain tea at any cost.p. He also agreed that much so-called Hunan tea was "false tea" but pointed out that the tea authorities could uncover any such deceit. 3a. See also thefineB.and the border defenses were all ruined.162 MORRIS ROSSABI that Hunan tea was bitterbut argued that ifit was mixed withkoumiss it did not lead to sickness.initiatedand nurturedthe tea-horse trade with the barbarians through a series of officialembassies in the Hung-wu period. Li's attemptsseemto havebeenunsuccessful.2.101Yet the Ch'ing Ch'a-ma.By the eighteenthcentury. the horse administration. essay at HarvardCollegeentitledTea System oftheCh'ingDynastybyB.

In fact.editedby Wada Sei.teaching."China and CentralAsia. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as the government'spower waned and its demands became moremodest.* 103JosephFletcher. JohnPope.the Chinese rarely kept tea fromthe barbarians because theyneeded horsesand were reluctantto antagonize barbarian horse traders.2. a valuableJapanesetranslation withsome interesting shih-huo-chih notesconcerning the MS sectionon the tea tax.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 163 ProfessorFletcher writesin his recent study of Chinese relations with Central Asia." .TraditionalChina'sForeignRelations Press.They allowed merchantsto transportand sell tea privatelyon the border.I am grateful. . (Harvard (editor).officialsreducedthetea tax and merchantswereunimpeded in trade until the warehouses of the Ch'a-ma. However.Chineseofficialscould controlrecalcitranttribesby withholding tea.and studyingChinese.). This content downloaded from 185.a class they viewed with contempt. After Esen's raids and the sixteenth-centuryinvasions of I-pu-la and Mansur. The "tribute"embassiesand dealt with courtnot onlywinkedat counterfeit didnotrecognize theemperor's rulerswho. University * Aftercompleting thispaper.pp. however.Professor Joseph RichardGoodman. the Emperors and officialsabandoned the government monopolyof tea and compromisedwith the Chinese merchants. .103 "The earlyMingcourttook Chinesecommerceto the foreigners . mywifeMaryJanesomehowfoundthe timeto typeand editthe manuscript For thisand for and to prodme intoquestioning someill-founded assumptions.ChineseWorldOrder.I came acrosstheMinshishokkashi yakuchü oftheMingshih (2 vols. on thispaper. According to this theory. for example.32. .ssu were empty and the pasture lands and stables of China were without the prized barbarian steeds.1968).duringmyyearas a SmithsonianFellow.17. thecourtitselfeventooktheinitiative authority Thus the assertionby Ming officialsstill adhered to by some modern scholars that the tea-horse trade was solely a handy and inexpensive way of pacifyingthe barbarians is highly suspect.withthecourt'sfullknowledge.DirectoroftheFreerGalleryofArt." in JohnKing Fairbank. 216.and Paula Harrellfortheir FletcherofHarvardUniversity. I wishto thankProfessor JohnMeskillofBarnardCollege.Alongwithdomesticpursuits.initiallyimposinga sizable tax in kind.152 on Wed. muchelse. afterits resoundingdefeat by the Oirat chiefEsen.The only suspensionsof trade occurredwhen the Chinese governmentitself was unable to transport tea to the border as.I am also pleasedto acknowledge the aid of helpfulsuggestions Dr. andpromoted commerce.

164 MORRIS ROSSABI The Tea and HorseTradewithInnerAsia duringtheMing List ofChineseCharacters to MissLorettaPan. SeniorLecturerin Chinese.ļ ^ ^ ^ Li Ching Li Kuang-li This content downloaded from 185.152 on Wed. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions -^yír4'] .2.'if -W-| Hsi-fan ¿7 Hsi-ning ģj ch'eng Hsin-ts'un Ķ ^ chi-ling hsing-jen ch'ien Hsù Ch'iao An-ting ^ ch'a-k'ossu $-%$ s] ch'a-massu Chao Ch'eng ^ chin Huo-chou /j- Ch'in-chou -Mj chin-p'aihsin-fu Ch'ing-hai '% ^ j|- Ch'ü-hsien $ £ Chuang-lang ^ K ^ -W-1 I-pu-la k'ai-chung k'an-ho £.Columbia (I am grateful forwriting theChinesecharacters) University A-hei-ma fu-shih A-li A-tuan fsffy Ha-mi fļļ Han-chungfu ¿«j Han-shen an-ch'ach'ien-shih ''ķ- Han-tung ^ ķ Ho-chou .32.

-j¡ Yang I-ch'ing ^.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA Li Luan p'i-ch'aso ^ ^ Li Mou-ch'i Pi-li ^ Li Nan shih-pot'i-chüssu ^ Jķ Li Tung-yang ^ Li Wen tý. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions m- 165 .[ yü-shih Ou-yangLun feļļ '§¡> yu-ťieh Pa-ling g.2. liang ssu-ch'eng gļ ^ ssu-leng ¿1 ^ ta-shih ^ Liu-ch'eng ^ip t'ai-p'ussu fjjt^ Liu Chin %' jjļ» T'ao-chou -JLfļ Liu Liang-hsiang ^f.| Yeh-hsien ma ^ ^ Man-su-erh Min-chou ¿ ^ „>/.152 on Wed.ļ^ ifflp tso-futu yü-shih Liu Lun T'u-lu-fan ^ ^ ^ WangChen ^ ^ Liu Ta-hsia Liu Wen ^ .32. fjļ[ fáy fa fe yuan-massu pao This content downloaded from 185. % X.

1938).1937).95.30gramsor 1^ ounces. Li Shih-heng. "Ming-taiHsüan Ta Shan-hsisan-chenma-shihk'ao" (Frontier horsemarkets intheMingdynasty). 37.1963).al . 1368-1549.237. Li Kuang-pi.pp.CKingshihkao (Peking.166 MORRIS ROSSABI ABBREVIATIONS MS Mingshih MShu Mingshu STC Shensiťung-chih TMHT Ta Minglnuitien 89-Index CombinedIndicesto Eighty-Nine Collections of Ming DynastyBiographies(HarvardYenchingInstituteSinologicalIndex SeriesNo. ChangT'ing-yü.152 on Wed.Kuo-li pei-ching tahsüehshe-huik'o-hsüeh ch'i-kan(1925).Tõyõshikenkyü (1963).Chung-yang Ya-hsü-ya(1943). 47. 214. Hou Jen-chih. 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "Tsui-ch'uhua-fanch'a-mamou-ite ching-t'ung" (Earliestteahorsetrade betweenthe Chineseand the barbarians). 183. Fu Wei-lin.P'ing-fanshih-mo in Chi-luhui-pien(Shanghai.Yen-ching hsüeh-pao (1938). 24) UNITS OF MEASUREMENT1 chin Hang A catty.53.1928). This content downloaded from 185. Kansu ťung-chih (1737).32. p. LungWen-pin.. Worksin OrientalLanguages 1962. Hsü Chin.Mingshuin Kuo-hsüeh chi-pents'ung-shu (Shanghai.pp.1928). Li Ti. 1 Based on Wang Yi-t'ungOfficialRelationsBetweenChina and Japan.Approximately 586. Ch'enCh'engHsi-yüfan-kuo chihinKuo-lipei-p'ing ťu-shu-kuan shan-pen ts'ungshu (Shanghai.2."Ming-taihsi-ch'ai-ma k'ao" (Examinationof tea-horsetrade betweenMingand theWest).al. "Cha-mabõekino shùmatsu"(On thedwindling ofthetea and horsetrade). Li Chieh.Minghui-yao(Shanghai. 73.. fu-chih Han-chung (Chia-ching edition).219.One Hangofsilverequals Approximately 1000coppercoins.Mingshih(Taipei. Chao Erh-sun.pp. Mingshih(Yang-ming-shan.82grams(ora littleovera pound).1964). BIBLIOGRAPHY A.pp. Kano et.1956). 117.

Staatsmannund Kriegsminister."Chinesische Feldzügedurchdie Mongoleiim frühen15. Monumenta Serica(1946).Uchida Naosaku.1937.John.32. in China: ChouChina(Cambridge.Herbert.Schuyler..1964).. 193. Ta Minghui-tien ShenShih-hsing.1644) (Chengtu. 135. 32-37.1888). 1956). 1398.andTengSsu-yü.John.andTengSsu-yü..Wolfgang. fromEasternAsiaticSources(London. This content downloaded from 185.Kuan-chung Yang Shih-ch'iao.George. 1958).pp.1963). (1735). ChengTe-k'un. C.pp. Wang Ch'ung-wu.pp.John(ed.A GuidetoSourcesofChineseEconomicHistory 1368(Chicago. et.Archaeology in China: ShangChina(Cambridge.152 on Wed.L.Land ofthe500 Million(NewYork.and E-tu Zen Sun. ed.1457.1898). 18 Jun 2014 13:23:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Huang-cWaoma-chengchi in Hsuan-lan-ťangts'ung-shu (Shanghai. Fairbank."Sinologica(1951.." "Yü Ch'ien. ChineseWorldOrder(Cambridge.CombinedIndices to Eighty MingDynastyBiographies (Peiping.pp. D. 1963).Archaeology 1960).MediaevalResearches Bretschneider. Worksin WesternLanguages Emili.1941). Giles. pp.15.2. Preliminary fortheHistoryoftheMingDynasty(1368."Harvard JournalofAsiaticStudies(1941). et. 1968).122.672. Yü-kung(August6."On theCh'ingTributary System.pp. Franke.1894).861. T'o T'o.ChineseSocialHistory(Washington. B.1948).1965). Goodrich. G.Shih-huo (December10. WangHuai-chung(trans.Wolfgang.Robert."Mindaichamabõekino kenkyù"(A studyof tea and horse tradein theMingdynasty). Shensiťung-chih ShenCh'ing-yai.1939).Shirin(1966).John.88. DeFrancis. Tõyõrekishidaijiten(Tokyo. "Ming-taite ch'ao-kungmao-i chih-tu"(The systemofcourttributeandtradeintheMingperiod). (Taipei.(eds. Franke.A ChineseBiographical Dictionary (Shanghai. New York."Ming-taite shang-t'unchih-tu"(The Ming systemof merchant colonization).1953). Sungshih(Shanghai. Cressey.1955). Tani Mitsutaka. Yang I-ch'ing. 1."AmericanHistorical Review(April. "The Role oftheHorsein ChineseHistory. A ShortHistoryof theChinesePeople (3rd.THE TEA AND HORSE TRADE WITH INNER ASIA 167 Mingshih-lu(Nanking. ang pieh-chi(Taipei. A.1965).1935).202. 1936). 733.Japaneseoriginalin Shina-kenkyü (1935). .H. 81. Wang Shih-chen. Sources Noteson theImportant ChineseLiterary Franke. -Nine Collections Harvardof YenchingInstitute.. 91-101.)." Sinologica(1951 1953).879. Jahrhundert. Fairbank.Yen-shan-ť tsou-i(1816). Survey(Cambridge.). Fairbank.China'sResponsetotheWest: A Documentary 1954).).pp. 647. ChengTe-k'un.pp."Presentation CourtforDiplomaticPurposes. 1935).Wolfgang. 87. of DragonRobes by the Mingand Ch'ing Camman.

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