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Experiment No.

5
TEST OF SMALL STEAM GENERATOR
Course Code: MEP510L2
Course Title: ME lab 3
Section: ME51FA2
Leader: Enriquez, Vincent F.
Members :
Erfe, Mark Leonard B.

Program: BSME
Date Performed:
Date Submitted:
Instructor: Engr. Nelson D. Dela Pea Jr.

Maramba, Jose Eric A.

Santos, Mhon Patrick A.


Baluyot, Jan Kenneth E.
1. Objective:
The activity aims to demonstrate the operation of steam generator.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
2.1 Explain fundamental principles of boiler capacity and its measurement.
2.2 Operate and test the boiler according to prescribed operating and test standards.
2.3 Collect and measure the required data for testing and calculations.
2.4 Use the proper reference materials, tables and charts in making an engineering
representations and diagrams.
2.5 Develop professional work ethics, including precision, neatness, safety and ability to follow
instruction.
3. Discussion:
Steam Generators are used in both fossil-and nuclear-fuel electric generating power plants. The most
modern steam generators produce high-pressure (2400 to 3500 psia, 165 to 240 bar) superheated steam,
the exception being pressurized-water reactor steam generators, which produce lower-pressure (1000 psia,
70 bar) saturated steam. The steam is invariably used in a Rankine cycle. Steam generators represent by
far the greatest energy source for power plants in the world today. Boilers are generally classified as (1)
firetube or (2) watertube, depending on what passes thru the tubes, fire tube if the hot gases pass thru the
tubes and water tube if the water passes thru the tubes.
General Requirements in the operation of the steam generator:
Boiler water-level The first duty when taking over a boiler-room shift is to make certain the pipe, fittings
and valves between the water glass and boiler are free and open by blowing down the water column and
water glass and noting the promptness of the return of water to the glass.

The most important rule The most important rule for the safe operation of boilers is to maintain the proper
water-level at all times, and as constant a level as conditions will permit. If water is not visible in the water
glass, shut the boiler off immediately until a safe water-level has been determined.
Low-water and feedwater controls The low-water cutoff is the most important electrical/mechanical device
on your boiler for maintaining a safe water-level. If a low-water condition develops, it could very well result
in an overheating and explosion of your boiler. The low-water cutoff should be tested at least weekly.
Low-water cutoff, evaporation test (steam boiler) While the boiler is in operation, shut off the feedwater
pump and monitor the boiler water-level. The low-water cutoff should shut down the burner before the water
level goes out of sight low; if the burner does not shut off, restart the feedwater pump before the water level
goes out of sight low and immediately troubleshoot the low-water cutoff to determine the cause of failure.
The boiler must be under constant attendance by a properly licensed engineer at all times during this test.
Low-water cutoff, slow drain test (steam boiler) While the boiler is in operation, shut off the feedwater
pump and slowly open the bottom blow valve to drain the water from the boiler. The low-water cutoff should
shut down the burner before the water level goes out of sight low; if the burner does not shut off, restart the
feedwater pump before the water level goes out of sight low and immediately troubleshoot the low-water
cutoff to determine the cause of failure. The boiler must be under constant attendance by a properly
licensed engineer at all times during this test.
Firing Aside from the standpoint of economy, maintain the fire as uniformly as possible to avoid an
excessive rate of combustion, undesirable variations in temperature and possible explosions. The
destructive force in a boiler explosion is caused by the instant release of energy stored in the water as heat.
Water gauges Keep all connections and valves clear. Test by blowing down the water glass and water
column regularly. Gauge cocks or tri-cocks should also be blown regularly.
Safety valves The safety valve is the most important valve on the boiler. Safety valves prevent dangerous
over pressurization of the boiler. Safety valves are installed in case there is failure of pressure controls or
other devices designed to control the firing rate. All safety valves should be kept free of debris by testing the
safety valve regularly. This should be done when the steam pressure is at approximately 75 percent of the
safety-valve set pressure. Safety and safety-relief valves on low-pressure boilers should be tested at least
quarterly, this is in accordance with the National Board Inspection Code.
Blow-down valves The concentration of solids in the boiler should be measured and the boiler blowndown
at such intervals as necessary to maintain established limits. Blow-down valves are placed at the lowest
point of the boiler for the purpose of blowing sediment or scale from the boiler. They should be maintained
in good working order and are to be opened and closed carefully when used.

Starting fires in a boiler Before starting fires in a cold boiler or restarting a fire that may have been
accidentally extinguished, the entire fireside of the boiler must be thoroughly ventilated (purged) with the
dampers open to remove unburned gases before attempting to relight the fire. Attempting to start a fire in a
boiler with unburned gases is the most common cause of boiler furnace explosions.
Boiler-room requirement A current proper engineers license and log shall be posted in the boiler room. It
is the responsibility of the owner and the engineer to make sure the boiler is inspected annually.
Hot-water systems These systems are equipped with expansion tanks for the expansion and contraction
of the water as the temperature varies.
Firing cycle, power burners The burner will start when the aquastat or pressuretrol calls for heat. The
breeching damper will open and the draft fan will purge the combustion chamber. The main gas or oil valve
will be energized when the pilot or ignition is proved.
Repairs Any excessive overheating or burning, and any major repairs, must be reported to your boiler
inspector.
Classification of boilers High-pressure boilers are boilers operating at a steam or other vapor pressure in
excess of 15 psig, or a water or other liquid boiler in which the pressure exceeds 160 psig, or has a
temperature greater than 250 degrees Fahrenheit. Others are low-pressure boilers.

Cut-away view of fire- tube boiler

4. Materials and Equipment:

Mini steam boiler


Automation unit
Sling Psychrometer
Digital gas analyzer
Hydrometer
Graduated cylinder, (1000 ml)
Log sheets
Steam tables and charts
Personal protective equipment
Thermometers

5. Procedure:
The object of this test is to determine the efficiency, the evaporation per pound of fuel, and the cost of
evaporation for a steam-boiler unit. The analysis of heat losses, or "heat balance," is also required
(see ASME Test Code, Table S-2-b).
1. Ensure all group members have sufficient knowledge in properly handling and operating the
instruments. Refer to the instructor and/or assigned technician when required.
2. Wear your personal protective equipment at all times.
3. The team leader or test foreman should assign his team members' specific station to log test data
with log sheets on hand and get the test under way as soon as possible. He should pay particular
attention to the conditions prevailing at the beginning of the test and see that the same conditions
prevail at the end of the test. This applies particularly to the fuel bed and fires, the water level, the
rate of feeding water, the rate of steaming, and also to the steam pressure, the draft, and the
temperature conditions.
4. Determine the air properties inside the boiler room at 10-minute intervals. Record and plot the
data.
5. Ensure enough supply of fuel and water supply. Fill the condensate tank by opening the entrance
valve to a level above the minimum. For reference, mark this level on the sight glass.
6. If water is present in the boiler, mark the water level at the boiler sight glass for reference. Start the
feed water pump and fill the boiler to level a little above the minimum on the sight glass (2/3 level
is recommended).
7. Record the decrease in water level in the condensate tank sight glass. This will be used in
computing the amount of water charge to the boiler. Record the feed water temperature.
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8. When oil or gas fuel is used and the fuel is metered, the temperature and pressure of the fuel at
the meters must be included in the data. Check the fuel oil level in the fuel tank. Mark this level as
reference for fuel consumption.
9. Determine the specific gravity of the fuel and calculate its heating value according to ASME
formula.
10. Prepare and install the automation unit at the steam header. Set the data collection default at 10
minute intervals. Encode the Instructor and technician names as required. Monitor the boiler
pressure closely. Bear in mind to start collecting data as soon as the boiler pressure reaches 40
psig.
11. Set the boiler to 50 psig and 10 psig difference. Open the fuel line and ignite the burner. (Ask for
assistance from instructor or technician in charge). Record the start-up time. Readings are to be
taken at 10 minute intervals except when the instructor directs otherwise. Readings should always
be taken in the same order or sequence, and the order of reading should be indicated on the log
sheet. Each observer will prepare his own log sheet before the test is started, keep it in good form,
sign and hand it to the test foreman at the end of the test.
12. Close the main steam valve to allow the pressure to build up. Closely monitor the pressure gauge.
13. When the pressure starts to develop, open the steam main valve to check if steam comes out of
the steam line. This must be done for safety. Immediately stop firing the boiler if the steam main
line is clogged and inform the instructor or technician in-charge.
14. Close the steam line valve to allow boiler to develop minimum pressure. Record the steam
pressure and temperature. Mark the level on the fuel tank and record the time.
15. The ASME Test Code recommends that a boiler test should preferably be:
For coal fired - 24 hours long when coal is used, either hand or stoker-fired. Where operating
conditions do not permit a 24-hr test, 10 hours is prescribed as the minimum length of test, or
what the combustion is less than 25 lbs of coal per square foot of grate surface per hour, the
test should be continued until a total of 250 lbs per square foot of grate has been burned.
For pulverized coal - the minimum is reduced to 6 hours and for oil or gas fuel to 4 hours.
Although the present test may not meet the Code requirements as to duration, it should be
made as long as the time will permit. The main difficulties in the way of obtaining accuracy in
short tests are those involved in securing the same fuel-bed conditions and the same water
level and steaming rate at the end as at the beginning of the test.
In a short test, therefore, exceptional care should be exercised in regard to these details
because of the heat-storage capacity of the setting, the boiler should be operated under test
conditions for some time before the test is started. The Code specifies that this preliminary
equalizing period shall be at least 3 hours.
16. Close the fuel oil line and switch off the burner.
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17. Allow the steam pressure to drop to zero before closing the steam main valve.
18. Upon completion of data gathering, stop the automation unit, making sure that data collected is
stored in the hard drive. Print a hard copy. Data from the automation unit, when used in
computation and diagram must be marked and cited accordingly.
6. Data and Results:
Form 5a. Steam Boiler Test - Preliminary Data
Location: ROOM A-201
Kind of Boiler: Steam Generator
Manufacturer: Bruciatori Baltur
Number of tubes:

31

Diameter of tubes:

47.7 mm

Length of tubes:

183 cm

Diameter of Drum:

14 in

Length of drum:

183 cm

Water heating surface:

6.8558 m2

Superheating Surface:

2.0444 m2

Kind of fuel:

Diesel

Form 5b. Fuel Analysis


Baume gravity, deg (liquid fuel)

27.30oC

Heating value at standard conditions

34.5 lbs/hr

Cost of fuel per kg

44800 KJ/KG

Form 5c. Results of Steam Boiler Test


A. Average Pressure, Temperature
1. Steam Pressure, gage

200 Psig

7. Feed water Temperature, C

102C

2. Barometer, mm-Hg.

760

8. Flue gas Temperature, C

600C

3. Steam Pressure, abs.

214.7 Psia

31C

4. Steam Temperature, C

130C

5. Steam Quality, %

43 %

9. Boiler Room Temperature,


dry bulb, C
10. Boiler Room Temperature,
wet bulb, C
11. Moisture per kg air

6. Degrees Superheat

8.62oc

29C
0.1919 kg/s

B. Hourly Quantities
12. Fuel as fired per hour
13. Water evaporated per hour
14. Factor of evaporation

10.584
kg/hr
N/A
1.0947

15. Equivalent evaporation per hour

756.2625

16. Units of evaporation per hour

N/A

C. Horsepower
17. Boiler Horsepower Developed

51.8934 Hp

18. Boiler Rated Horsepower

10 Hp

19. Boiler Efficiency

52.26 %

21. Equivalent Evaporation per kg fuel

71.4535
lb/hr

D. Evaporation
20. Actual Evaporation per kg fuel

N/A

E. Combustion Data, Flue Gas Analysis, Boiler Outlet


22. CO2, %

24. O2, %

N/A

23. CO, %

N/A

25. N2, %

N/A

28. Cost of Fuel for 1000 kg


equivalent evaporation

N/A

F. Cost of Evaporation
26. Cost of Fuel for 1000 kg actual
evaporation

N/A

Time (mins)

Column Level (in)

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

2.5
2.75
3.05
3.4
3.9
8.7
4
4.3

Steam Pressure
(Psi)
5
5
5
5
20
50
48
50

Steam Flowrate
(Li/hr)
61
61
61
62
353
355
335
355

Boiler Pressure
(Psi)
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200

Useful Terminologies and Table:


1. Heating Surface shall consist of that portion of the surface exposed to both the gases being
cooled and the fluid being heated at the same time, computed on the gas side.
2. Furnace Volume is the cubic space provided for the combustion of fuel before the products of
combustion reach any heating surface.
3. Equivalent Evaporation is the amount of water that would be evaporated from water at 212F to
steam at 212F by the same amount of heat as was actually absorbed by the water and steam
under operating conditions.
4. Factor of Evaporation is the ratio of the heat actually absorbed by 1 lb of water and steam to
970.3 BTU. It is therefore the factor by which actual evaporation is multiplied to obtain "equivalent
evaporation".
5. Boiler Horsepower corresponds to an equivalent evaporation of 34.5 lbs of steam per hour.
6. Rated Horsepower is usually determined on the basis of 10 square ft. of heating surface for watertube boilers and 12 square ft. of heating surface for fire-tube boilers.
7. Water Actually Evaporated is the water fed to the boiler less the water in the steam (corrected foe
leaks and blow down, if any).
8. Unit of Evaporation according to the Code is 1000 BTU absorbed by the steam per hour, and is
therefore thousands of BTU absorbed per hour.
It is to be noted that in accordance with the ASME Code, all calculations involving the fuel are carried out
on the basis of 1 lb of fuel, whether the fuel be solid, liquid, or gas.

Table 5a. Typical Boiler Efficiencies


Type of
Services

Fuel and
Firing

Central station,
Stoker
with
Pulverized coal
economizer or
air heater
Isolated
Stoker
station, large Pulverized coal
industrial,
Oil
institution, etc.
Natural gas
Small power or
Stoker
heating plant
Hand fired
Oil
Natural gas
Heating, large
Stoker
domestic plant
Hand fired
Oil
Natural gas

CO2 in flue
gas, %

Heat to Water
and Steam, %

13.5
14.0

Flue Gas
Temperature,
degrees F
375
375

12.0
13.0
11.0
9.0
11.0
9.0
10.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
6.0-7.5
4.6-6.0

500
500
500
500
600
600
600
600
450
450
350-450
300-450

77
80
80
80
73
63
75
75
63
55
75
65

84
85

7. Computation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data:


Baume = 140 / S.G @ 15.6
= 140 / 0.89 130
o
Baume = 27.30o
Qh = 51716 8393.8 (S.G)2
= 51716 8393.8 (0.882)2
Qh = 4487.66 kJ/kG
o

SH = 147o Tsat @ 0.345


= 147 138.38oC
o
SH = 8.62oC
m = pv = 1000 kg/m3(0.6909)
m=690.897 = m/t = 690.897 / 3600 s
ms = 0.1919 kg/s
Pdiesel = 882 kg/m3
m=pv
= 882 (12)(1/1000)(1/3600)
M=0.00294 kg/s (3600/1)
mf=10.584 kg/hr
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FE = hs hf / 2257 kj/ kg
= 2757.7 104.89 / 2257
FE = 1.0947
EE = ms FE
= 0.1919 (1.0947)
EE = 756.2625 kg/hr
Developed Hp = ms (hs-hf) / 9.81 kN/hp
= 0.1919 (2757.7 104.89) / 9.81
Developed Hp = 51.8934 Hp
Boiler Rated Hp = HAS / m2 / hp
= 10.5961 / 1.1
Boiler Rated Hp = 10 Hp
Effy. = ms (hs hp) / mfQh
= 0.1919 (2757.7 104.89) / 0.00294(44825.66)
Effy. 52.66 %
Equivalent evap per level = EE / ms
= 756.2625 (2.2046 / 1) / 10.584(2.2046 / 1)
Equivalent evap per level = 71.4524 lb / lb fuel
Based From the Data and results, the steam generated after 8 trials or 40mins is 50 psi at 130C
temperature.

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8. Conclusion and Recommendation:


OBJECTIVE: The activity aims to demonstrate the operation of steam generator.
According to the Philippine Mechanical Code a Steam Generator is a closed vessel intended for use
in heating water or for application of heat to generate steam or other vapor to be used externally from it.
Generally this experiment will help us students understand the principle behind the steam boiler, how it
operates and its auxiliary devices.
ILO:
2.1 Explain fundamental principles of boiler capacity and its measurement.
The basic working principle of a steam boiler is simple. The boiler is essentially a closed vessel where
water is stored inside, then fuel is burned in a furnace and when the fuel is burned hot gasses are
produced. These hot gasses come in contact with the water inside the vessel where the heat of these hot
gases transfer to the water and consequently producing steam in the boiler. Lastly, this steam is piped to
the turbine which is the device that converts steam energy to electrical energy.
2.2 Operate and test the boiler according to prescribed operating and test standards.
Based on our observation while doing the experiment we have observed that the most important rule
for safety in operating the boiler is that proper water level should be maintained at all times when running
the steam boiler, when the water is not visible inside the water glass we have to shut down the boiler as it
could result in hazardous situations.
2.3 Collect and measure the required data for testing and calculations.
On this experiment we have conducted 8 trials or 40 minutes on the boiler and the maximum pressure
it produced is limited to 50 psi at 130C temperature.
2.4 Use the proper reference materials, tables and charts in making an engineering representations
and diagrams.
In this report we have used the Philippine mechanical code as a reference basis for standards in a
steam boiler. Also we have included in this report charts that represents the pressure and temperature of
the boiler.
2.5 Develop professional work ethics, including precision, neatness, safety and ability to follow
instruction.
When performing this experiment we have developed good work ethics by team work and good
cooperation, precision and neatness while taking datas and most of all safety while doing the experiment.

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Conclusion:
According to the Philippine mechanical code a steam system comprises steam generation, distribution
and utilization. It includes fuel, combustion, air, feed water, combustion system, steam quality and
efficiency. The principle of a small steam boiler is simple. Water is stored inside the boiler, then fuel is
burned in a furnace and when the fuel is burned hot gasses are produced. These hot gasses come in
contact with the water inside the vessel where the heat of these hot gases transfer to the water and
consequently producing steam in the boiler. Lastly, this steam is piped to the turbine which is the device
that converts steam energy to electrical energy. The most important rule in operating the small steam boiler
is that proper water level should be maintained at all times when running the steam boiler, when the water
is not visible inside the water glass we have to shut down the boiler as it could result in hazardous
situations.

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9. Assessment Rubric:
T I P - V PAA 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES


RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE
BEGINNER
ACCEPTABLE
PROFICIENT
1
2
3

Laboratory Skills
Manipulative Members do not
Skills
demonstrate needed
skills.
Experimental Members are unable to
Set-up
set-up the materials.

Members occasionally
demonstrate needed
skills.
Members are able to
set-up the materials
with supervision.
Members occasionally
demonstrate targeted
process skills.

Members always
demonstrate needed
skills.
Members are able to
set-up the material with
minimum supervision.
Members always
demonstrate targeted
process skills.

Process
Skills

Members do not
demonstrate targeted
process skills.

Safety
Precautions

Members do not follow


safety precautions.

Members follow safety Members follow safety


precautions most of the precautions at all
time.
times.

Members do not finish


on time with incomplete
data.

Members finish on time


with incomplete data.

Work Habits
Time
Management/
Conduct of
Experiment
Cooperative
and
Teamwork

SCORE

Members finish ahead


of time with complete
data and time to revise
data.
Members do not know
Members have defined Members are on tasks
their tasks and have no responsibilities most of and have
defined responsibilities. the time. Group
responsibilities at all
Group conflicts have to conflicts are
times. Group conflicts
be settled by the
cooperatively managed are cooperatively
teacher.
most of the time.
managed at all times.
Neatness and Messy workplace during Clean and orderly
Clean and orderly
Orderliness
and after the
workplace with
workplace at all times
experiment.
occasional mess during during and after the
and after the
experiment.
experiment.
Ability to do
Members require
Members require
Members do not need
independent supervision by the
occasional supervision to be supervised by the
work
teacher.
by the teacher.
teacher.
Other Comments/Observations:

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=
x 100%

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