VOLUME 10
NUMBER 2
CONTENTS
PART I  ADVANCED
Fibonacci Search with ArbitraryF i r s t Evaluation. . . . .
Fibonacci Primitive
R o o t s . . . . . . . . .
L Carlitz 157
PART II  ELEMENTARY
Fibonacci Magic Cards.
The Lambert Function .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. . .
Function Theorem .
. .
J. A H. Hunter 2 0 1
. .
.' .
1972
213
A. P . Hillman
V. E. Hoggatt, J r .
Donald E. Knuth
D. A. Lind
C. T. Long
M. N. S. Swamy
D. E. Thoro
W I T H THE COOPERATION OF
T e r r y Brennan
Maxey Brooke
P a u l F . Byrd
Calvin D. C r a b i l l
John H. Halton
A. F . H o r a d a m
Dov J a r d e n
Stephen J e r b i c
L. H. Lange
J a m e s Maxwell
S i s t e r M. DeSales McNabb
D. W. Robinson
A z r i e l Rosenfeld
Lloyd W a l k e r
C h a r l e s H. Wall
The California M a t h e m a t i c s Council
All s u b s c r i p t i o n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e
should be a d d r e s s e d to B r o t h e r
All c h e c k s
Alfred
($6.00 p e r y e a r )
should be sent to
All m a n u s c r i p t s
should be typed,
doublespaced.
Authors
ABSTKACT
The Fibonacci search technique for maximizing a unimodal function of
one real variable is generalized to the case of a given first evaluation. This
technique is then employed to determine the optimal sequential search technique for the maximization of a concave function.
1.
INTRODUCTION
is called
unimodal ,
if there are x s x E [ a , b ]
If x > x ,
If x < x ,
[x,b].
The definition of unimodality is chosen so as to guarantee that
113
114
FIBONACCI SEAECH
[Feb.
(1.3) Whenever a unimodal function f has been evaluated for two arguments
xt
In other words, x
Interval of Uncertainty.
Kiefer [3] has asked the question of optimally conducting this search,, and
answered it by developing his well known Fibonacci search.
The Fibonacci search gives a choice of two arguments for which to make
the first evaluation. But what happens if by mistake or for some other reason
the first evaluation took place at some argument other than the two optimal
ones? How does one optimally proceed from there?
In this paper, we shall therefore ask and answer the question for an optimal sequential searchplan with given arbitrary first evaluation. The resulting technique is applied to improving on Fibonacci search for functions known
to be concave. The technique may also be of interest in the context of stability of Fibonacci search in the presence of roundoff e r r o r s as studied by
Overholt [6] and Boothroydt [l] (see also Kovalik and Osborne [4]).
2. LENGTH OF UNCERTAINTY
In what follows we assume that a = 0 and b = 1.
Furthermore, we
shall permit zero distances between two arguments of evaluation, interpreting each such occurrence as evaluating the (not necessarily unique or finite)
derivative of the function f. A more careful analysis would take into account
the smallest justifiable distance between arguments (Kiefer [ 3 ], Oliver
and Wilde [5]).
1972]
By
L k (x),
0<x<l,
we denote the length to which the interval of uncertainty (1.4) can surely be
replaced by k evaluations in addition to a first one at x. Extending a r e c u r sive argument due to Johnson [ 2 ] , we obtain
(2.1)
where
.(HI). M f
Proof. Let y denote the first function argument over which we have
control. If x ^ y ^ 1, then the two possible intervals of uncertainty are
[ 0 , y ] and [ x , l ] .
upper bound for the length of the interval of uncertainty after the remaining
k  1 evaluations is given by
(2.2)
yL k
4)
bound
(2.3)
Whether
[0,y]
(1  x)L k
*(Hi)
The
116
FIBONACCI SEARCH
Nk(x) : = ^ m a x j x L ^ f )
. (1 
[Feb.
^ ( f f  f ) }
S k (x,y) : = max
f^ifrH^^fj.
we have
M, (x) = min S,(x,y),
x^y^l
(2.4)
Therefore,
k<x>y)
k ( 1  y. i  x ) .
Hence
L0(x) = 1 .
We then have
1972]
(2.5)
L t (x)
For k ^
= max
{1  x,x} = J 1
2, we c l a i m (Fig* 2):
1 x
F
(2,6)
L k (x)
=
x
;
"k+1
F 2 = 1,
0 < x
<
"k+2
for
V5
F4 = 1 ,
for
k+1
x
where
 x
x
F 3 = 2,
k
=
F
k+2
L
f r
2 *X
.
for
k+1
k+2
k+1 _
_ = < x < 1 ,
"k+2
F 4 = 35
"
k =
k2
+ F
k1
a r e
Fibonacci n u m b e r s .
U(x)4
F r o m (2.5),
118
FIBONACCI SEARCH
4)
(1  x)L t
y  x
[Feb.
< J}
lj
y  x
for
(x,y) e Bt : = 0 < 1 
1  y
for
(x,y) G B2 : = \
< 
\\
by (2.4) and
= l  y .
(1  y, 1  x) G At H B2 .
A2 Pi B2 : S2(x,y) = maxjx, 1  yf = ^
y ^ 1 I x "
The sets A, and B. are represented in Fig. 3. They are triangles formed
by the line segments marked A. and B., respectively, and the corresponding opposite corner of the square. The feathered lines are the minimum lines
with respect to constant values of x, i.e., if proceeding vertically the intersection with the feathered lines marks a minimum.
defined to be the value of this minimum.
The function
Hence
If J * x
By (2.1) we then have finally
M,(x)
is
1972]
119
yl
A2
Ai
1
i
<X
si
yx
v
y
Bi
""
^
^
X
X
,'iy
B2
I
X
/
/
01
Fig. 3 S2(x,y)
4 " * if 0 ^ x ^ \
x
lf
L2(x) =
3 
 2
1  x
if
< x
if
o x
for
F, 1
(x,y) E A t : = 0 < f < ~ ^
y
*k+l
for
(x,y) E A2 :
5^5
F
k1
for
(x,y)EA3: = 
x
F,
for
J ^
F
k
kl
y L k
 ^ )
We have
* <,
y
k+1
(x 5 y)E A4 : = = r ^  ^ f ^ 1
y
^k+1
120
FIBONACCI SEARCH
I^JL
f0r
1  Y << 1 M
(X,y) B l : = 0 < ifZ
for
tor
(x v) G Bo =  ^
<
[x,y) t i 5 2 .
k+1
for
(x,y) G B j : =  ^. ^=J
k+1
k1
(1  x)L,
fc.^)
[Feb.
L:^
" X <
_

k+1
k1
?
k
I
2
for
(x,y) B 4
= _
_ ^ * ^ *
*k+l
ing r e g i o n s , we u s e (2.4).
Ai H BA : S (x,y) = m a x P ^ A
AA H B 2 : S k (x,y) = m a x j ^ ,  p r ^ f
( k
k11
(1  x ) F k _ x ^ (1  y ) F k + 1 i
^LzJE
"
= iL^JE
since
( x >y)
E B
2 gives
= (1 
xjF^
k1
and t h e r e f o r e (y  x j F ^
 (1  v ) *kV i1 ^ (1  y ) Fk+1
. + 1  (1  y)F.k  1, = (1  y)F. .
Ax H B 3 : S k (x 5 y)
A 4 O B 4 : S,(x,y)
= max ^
f
= max ^
g i v e s 1  x ^ 2(1  y)
A 2 H B 2 : S k (x,y)
, ^ L ^
=
k1 )
, i^Z
or
g i v e s 2x ^ y
T^
(*kl
or
, ^*
*kl)
x ^ y  x
since
(x,y) E B 4
y  x ^ 1  y ,
1
= max.^ *_ , ^  y
k1
*kl
A 2 0 B 3 : S, (x,y) = m a x
ILlJL
k1
max jx, 1  y
k1
^
*kl
since
(x,y) G A 2
1972]
and since
(x,y) E B 4
gives
since
l a t t e r gives xF f e + y F k _ 1 ^ F ^
A 3 H B 3 : S (x,y)
rk1
A 3 O B 4 : S. (x,y) = m a x
(
k1
(1  x ) F k < (1  y ) F k + 1 ,
+ yF.+1 ^
F,
= m a x  ^  ^ , ^LZJLI
(x,y) G A 2 gives
xF,
121
= Zf^
*kl
*kl
, jr^l = jr 2 k J
k
and t h e r e f o r e
since
^x'^
ives
(y  x ) F k = (1  x ) F k 
(1  y ) F k * (1  y ) F k + 1  (1  y ) F k = (1  y ) F k  1
~ y
= ^= m a x {x s 1  y}
k )
k
A 4 H B 4 : S k (x,y) = max j ^  ,
? k
decreases
which s e p a r a t e s B$ from
B2s
(2.8)
*k+l
^ ^
F k+l
Elimination of y yields
It
[Feb.
FIBONACCI SEARCH
122
A2
A3
v i/3 w y2
Fig. 4
k+1
k1
(2.9)
1  y
1  x
_
Fk+1
Fk + l
Elimination of y yields
k+2
1972]
123
1/2.
cal through x with the two feathered l i n e s (2.7) and (2.9) a r e potential m i n i ma.
Y
*kl
and
F
*k+l
F
*k
~~ F
*k+l
M. (X;
k W
for
k+i
0 < x < v.
F o r v ^ x < 1/3 locally m i n i m a l points a r e to be found on line (2.9)
and in the a r e a w h e r e
gives x F k + 1 > (1 
S, (x,y)
)Fk_1
a s s u m e s the value
x/F.
.
Now
x >
or
F
*kl
F
k+1
Thus
Mk(x) = p
for v < x < 1/3.
F o r 1/3 < x < w only the line (2.9) i s i n t e r e s t i n g , and
M k (x)
still
t a k e s the value
1  x
F
F o r w ^ x ^ 1/2
k+1
"
124
FIBONACCI SEARCH
[Feb.
T h u s , finally
(2.11)
" x
F
k+1
F
for
0 < x <
k+2
M k (x) =
^
for
*k
<
< 1
k+2
(2.12)
M k (x)
for
0 <
M k ( l  x)
for
x <
L k (x)
3.
< x < 1
SEARCH STRATEGY
evaluation at x EE [ 0 , 1 ] ,
realizes
L, (x).
evaluation in addition to x.
of the
first
1/2,
a task which
S, (x,y)
=
k ,J
since
F
*k+l
T h i s n o n  u n i q u e n e s s i s not s u r p r i s i n g .
1972]
125
F.k
F
*k+l
F
(3.1) If 0 < x < .   , then any of the two (k  l ) s order Fibonacci
k+1 V l
points in the interval [ x , l ] is an optimal evaluation point
yi
F. .
xF. + F. .
k1
k1
M  x)v = k
+, 
 (1
* k+1
* k+1
F.
y2
' k
+ , ^ _
* k+1
xF,  + F.
/(1 
v
X)
k1
k
~
* k+1
In both intervals v < x < 1/3 and 1/3 < x ^ w, the optimal solution
y is unique.
F
F
ki
k
(3.2) If ~^= < x ^ =
then the optimal evaluation point y is the
* k+1 * k1
*kl
st
first (k  1)
order Fibonacci point of the interval [x, 1 ] .
Finally, if w ^ x ^ 1/2,
interval.
F
(3.3) Let =
< x ^ ^>. If y0 is such that x is the second (k  1)
orA
*kl
der Fibonacci point in [0, y0 ], then all points in [1  x,y 0 ] are
optimal evaluation points.
The following rule will always yield an optimal solution:
(3.4) Theorem. An optimal search strategy after an arbitrary first evaluation at x0 E [a,b] is as follows.
con
126
FIBONACCI SEARCH
[Feb.
(ki)
[x,d].
(ii) If x lies between the two (k  i )
(k  i)
onacci point in [ c , x ] ,
We shall refer to any sequential search strategy in keeping with (3.1, 2,
3), in particular the rule described in Theorem (3.4), as
(3.5)
every
time an interval of uncertainty has been based on the results of prior evaluations, he is consulted, and as a result of this consultation, the interval of uncertainty may sometimes be further reduced (remaining an interval) without
additional evaluations. One cannot expect, however, that the remaining evaluation point (if there is any) is in optimal position within the new interval of
uncertainty.
In this case, there is a question whether the additional information
should be accepted.
1972]
127
Thus all we
have to show is that we do not worse by proceeding form [ c , d ] than from any
other interval [c*,d*]
then
x E [ c* , d* ] . Working on the latter interval, the best we can guarantee in r e maining steps is reducing the uncertainty to
d*  x
F
i+1
X 
C*
(d*  c*)L J
for
for
C*
d*  c*
d*  x
F
X
C*
for
i+1
^ x  c *
0A <
d*  c*
i+1
(=:Ii)
i+2
x  c* _ 1
2
* " *
i+1
I < x " c* <
2
d*  c*
Fi + 2
"i+1 _ x  c*
F
d* ^F < 1
*i+2
C*
and
;{&) * " ^ f f  )
(d*  c*)L
(=: h)
(=: Is)
(='k)
128
FIBONACCI SEARCH
is immediate.
[Feb.
the o t h e r s follow by s y m m e t r y .
Let
u* : = d*  c*
x  c* ,_ T
^
E Ii
ii : = d  c .
F
x  c _ T x  c* ^
i
G I2 :
*
= ^
u
u
*i+2
,
and
and
implies
 x
u*
>
Thus
d *  x
F
X 
C* ,_
u*
gives x  c ^
G Ii
d  x.
>
and
x  c* ^
F
X  C ^ _
 E I3 : x  c >
Thus
d*  x > x  c *
F
~
F
r
r
i+l
i
JL^
x  c
F
E k
>
~"
x  c
F
i
JL^
>
"~
d  x
F
i
I4 : F  + 1 * F i
Thus
d*  x
F
i+1
^ xc*
~~
F
i
>
x  c
F
i
>
~~
x  c
F
i+1
as
1972]
and
129
E I3 : x  c >
g i v e s x  c > d  x Thus
x  c* ^
F
x  c ^
F
d  x
F
_Z^El4:Fi
u
and
Thus
x  c* ._ x  c
F
F
i
i
~"
_ x  c
F
i+1
, TT
~~ C
*i+
implies
d*  x
<
i1
*i+l
Thus
d*  x ^
xc*^
F
i+1
x  c
F
i+1
Suppose x <
is c e r t a i n l y b e t t e r than
130
FIBONACCI SEARCH
[Feb.
A spy is called
(4.3)
almost unpredictable
which
results from the evaluation pattern, the spy has the option of reducing it only
to an interval [c,d] which contains [c*,d*].
(4.4) Theorem.
able spy is to heed his advice and to proceed from the interval of uncertainty
so achieved by modified Fibonacci search with respect to the remaining evaluation point if there is any.
5. CONCAVE FUNCTIONS
We shall see that a "spy" is available if the unimodal function to be maximized is known to be concave.
A function f : [a, b] > R is
(5.1)
concave
in [a, b] if
f(Ax + jxy) > Af(x) + ULf(y)
holds for all x,y E [ a , b ] , A ,p. > 0 and A + JLL = 1. The function is
(5.2)
strictly concave
if
f(Ax + ]ULy) > Af(x) + jLLf(y)
holds for all x,y,A^L which are as above and satisfy in addition x f y and
A, jut > 0. We state without proof that
1972]
131
P. : = (x.,f(x.)),
j
x. < x. ,
i
of the graph
G(f) : = (x9f(x)) : x E [ a , b ] } .
and let L.. be the straight line through P., P.. Concavity implies that the
graph of f does not lie below L.. in [ x . 9 x . ] and not above L.. in the r e mainder of the interval
[a,b].
with
and
f(x2) > f(x.) s
i = 1, 2,
are known, then that part of the graph G(f) that lies above [x l 9 x 3 ] is contained in the union of the two triangles A* and A2 formed by
L 12 ,L 235 L 3 4, respectively.
f.
L01,LI2JL23
and
Therefore
(5.4) a maximum of f must lie in the intersection of AjA2 with the horizontal through P 2 .
(Fig. 5)
132
FIBONACCI SEARCH
Fig. 5
X)
x2
X3
[Feb.
X4
The information that the function f is concave can thus be used in o r der to reduce the interval of uncertainty.
In order to complete the description of the proposed search method for
concave functions, a few more conventions are necessary. At the ends of the
interval [ a , b ] , we pretend that the function has value QQ and if it has been
evaluated there, we pretend that there are two values for the same abscissa,
one of the values being infinite.
a < Xo <
Xl
1972]
133
Interval of
Uncertainty
b = x4
For x. with i ^ 0 9 4 9
we have finite function values f(x.) 9 whereas f(x0) and f(x4) are possibly
infinite, provided x0
more that
a or x 4 = b5 respectively,,
We suppose further
134
FIBONACCI SEARCH
Feb. 1972
xt < x,
f(x2)  f( Xl )
0 < 6 <
x2  X !
Then the new interval of uncertainty taking concavity into account will be of
the form [ c , d ] ,
where
6(x  xt)(x2
X +
 x)
I x 2 )  f( Xl )  6(x2  x)
>
 x)
5(x2  x1)2
 6(x2  xt)
In
other words, the contribution of concavity beyond unimodality becomes arbitrarily small as f(x) approaches f(x2) from below, without assuming it.
The symmetric argument can be carried out for x2 < x ^ d and x < x 3 .
This then will establish concavity as an almost independent spy.
[Continued on page 146. ]
1.
INTRODUCTION
(1.1)
S = PS , + QS . + RS Q
n
n1
^ n2
n3
w h e r e P , Q,
(n 2s 4),
Su0 = 0S
and R a r e a r b i t r a r y i n t e g e r s .
{J'}i
when
= 0,
S2 = 1,
and
and
S3 = P s
{K } 5
when
S* 1,
S2 = 0,
when
St = 0f
S2 = 0,
S3 = Q ,
{L } ,
and
S3 = R
It follows that
Kt = J 2  J i ,
K2 = J 3  P J 2
and for n ^ 3,
* P a r t of the substance of a t h e s i s submitted in 1968 to the U n i v e r s i t y of New
England for the d e g r e e of B a c h e l o r of L e t t e r s .
135
136
SOME P R O P E R T I E S O F
(1.5)
[Feb.
= QJ  + R J 0
^n1
n2
,
'
and
(1.6)
LQ = B J ^
T h e s e s e q u e n c e s a r e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of those d i s c u s s e d b y F e i n b e r g [ 2 ] , [ 3 ]
and Waddill and Sacks [ 6 ] .
2.
GENERAL TERMS
If the a u x i l i a r y equation
x 3  Px 2  Qx  R = 0
h a s t h r e e d i s t i n c t r e a l roots 3( suppose that they a r e given by # , j 3 , y .
Accord:
According
to the general theory of r e c u r r e n c e r e l a t i o n s , J
can be r e p 
r e s e n t e d by
(2.1)
Jn
where
and
C =
(a  y)(j3  y)
(A, B and C a r e d e t e r m i n e d by J j , J 2 ,
and
J3.)
The f i r s t few t e r m s of { J } a r e
L
nJ
(Ji) = 0, 1, P , P 2 + Q, P 3 + 2PQ + R,
P 4 + 3P 2 Q + 2PR + Q2 .
1972]
137
[n/2]
i=0
j=0
a .. = a  . . + a 0 . .  + a i
mj
nl,i,j
n25i?jl
n3,il,j
.
noj
and
a .
nio
For example,
J5
= a 3 0 0 P 3 + a 3 0 1 P Q + a310R
= T>3
P d + 2PQ + R .
=
!
E
i=0
[(n2)/3]
i=0
[(nl)/2]
' E
j=0
[n/2]
j=l
VM,,^ 3 ' 2 ^
138
SOME PROPERTIES OF
n1
[n/3]
[(n3)/2]
Z^
i=l
L^j
j=0
[Feb.
n3,il,j
By using the techniques developed for secondorder recurrence relations, it can be shown that
(2.4)
(P
R  1) ^
Jr = Jn+3
(1  P ) J n + 2
(1  P  Q)J n + 1  l .
r=l
It can also be readily confirmed that the generating function for { j } is
oo
(2.5)
2JnxI1
= x2(1
n=0
3. THE OPERATOR E
We define an operator E, such that
E J
(3.1)
n+l'
and suppose, as before, that there exist 3 distinct real roots, a, fi9y of the
auxiliary equation
x3  Px 2  Qx  R = 0 .
This can be written as
(x  a)(x  j3)(x  y) = (x2  px + q)(x  y) = 0 ,
where
p~#+j3
P  y ,
1972]
139
and q = aft .
The r e c u r r e n c e r e l a t i o n
J
= P J 1 + Q J 0 + R J 0
n1
^n2
n3
can then be e x p r e s s e d a s
(E 3  P E 2  QE  R ) J
=0
(replacing n by n + 3)
or
(E 2  pE + q)(E  7) J n
(3.2)
= 0 ,
which b e c o m e s
(E 2  pE + q ) u n = 0
(3.3)
or
n+2
^ n+1
^ n
if we l e t
(E
 r ) j n = un
w h e r e {u T is defined by
(3.4)
un+2
= p u n + 1  qun,
(n > 0),
u 0 = 0,
i^ = 1
In o t h e r w o r d s ,
(3.5)
un = J n + 1  y j n
{ j }
140
SOME P R O P E E T I E S O F
[Feb.
In p a r t i c u l a r ?
u 2  u . u ,_, = q
H
n
n1
n+1
(3.6)
becomes
T h i s gives us
<3'7>
" Wn1>
^K
" W n  1 > = ^
= u
 + yJ r
n1
n1
= u  + y(u 0 + J n )
fV
n1
n2
n2
= u i + y u 0 + y 2 (u 0 + J 0 )
n1
' n2
'
n3
n3
then
(3.8)
Jn = X ^ " V l
r=l
4.
USE O F MATRICES
1972]
Q
0
141
R'
R" 2 "Ssl
_SJ
PR
J4
K4
RJ3
s2
rs
sn n~ ,l
s n
[_ n2
(4.1)
n3
R" f
s2
SiJ
'S3]
A gain j since
j
P2 + Q
=
PQ + R
J5
K3
RJ2
J2
K2
RJi
(4.2)
s =
R" n

=
n+2
n+1
n+2
n+1
K
RJ
n+l
RJ
RJ
n1
The c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e t e r m i n a n t s give
n+2
(4.3)
(detS)
= R
nfl
J
K.
n+2
RJ
RJ.
n
RJ.
n1
n+1
n+1
[Feb.
SOME P R O P E R T I E S O F
142
n+2
J
n+1
K
K
RJ
'n+2
RJ
n+1
K
n
n+1
n+1
R
n+1
RJ n  1
n+1
n1
n2
n1
and
n+2
(4.4)
n+1
J
n+1
J
n1
n2
n2
n1
which i s analogous to
(4.5)
n1
u*  u  u ,n
n1
n+1
In the m o r e gen
e r a l c a s e , we g e t
n+3
S =
~n
n+1
n+2
n+2
L n+1
n+1
n1
and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e t e r m i n a n t s a r e
n+3
n+1
n+2
n+2
n+4
n+1
n1
= R
n1
s3
sA
s2
s2
s0
^n
n=0 n! '
^Jl
JLt
n=0
n! '
ZJ
n=0
^
n!
1972]
143
ll
12
13
21
22
23
32
33
3I
with a t r a c e
P = a u + a 22 + a 33 ,
det X = R ,
and
Q =
i,j=l
For example,
"a
X =
0 / 3
0
0"
0
s a t i s f i e s the conditions.
The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c equation of X i s
A3  PA2  Q X  R = 0
and s o , by the C a y l e y  H a m i l t o n T h e o r e m [ 4 ] ,
X 3 = P X 2 + QX + RI
Thus
(i ^ j)
[Feb.
SOME P R O P E R T I E S O F
144
X 4 = P X 3 + QX 2 + R X
= (P 2 + Q)X 2 + (PQ + R ) X + P R j :
X n = J X2 + K X + L I
~~
n ^
n ^
n ^
(4.6)
(4.7)
where
eS =
i +
^ , x
A x
..
iy
I is the unit m a t r i x of o r d e r 3.
Substitution of (4.6) into (4.7) yields
(4.8)
es
= x^yji
^ *4 n!
n=0
xy^
~ L^j
n=0
n!
^L^j
n=0
n!
(4 9)
"
X _
"
^
2f
Al
6
(S  A2D(X  A3I)
(At  A2)(Ai  A3)
'
Ai 5 A2, A3
(4.10)
e
E
{eAjL(A3  A 2 )X 2 + e X l (A  A  ) X + eAlA2A3(A3  A 2 > l }
A,A 2 ,A3
=
_ _ _ _
_
_
(Ai  A2)(A2  A 3 ) (A3  Ai)
By c o m p a r i n g coefficients of X
1972]
eAi(A3A2)
Z
nT
n=0
\T^
n=0
145
e X l
A2A3(A3  A2)
TTcxt  A 2 )
REFERENCES
1.
X
R. B a r a k a t , "The M a t r i x O p e r a t o r e
and the L u c a s P o l y n o m i a l s , "
J o u r n a l of M a t h e m a t i c s and P h y s i c s , Vol. 4 3 , 1964, pp. 332335.
2.
M. F e i n b e r g ,
Fibonacci  T r i b o n a c c i , "
Fibonacci
Q u a r t e r l y , Vol. 1,
4.
227.
1965, p. 141.
5.
H. W. Turnbull and A. C. Aitken, An Introduction to the T h e o r y of C a n onical M a t r i c e s , New Y o r k , D o v e r , 1 9 6 1 , pp. 76, 77.
6.
146
Feb, 1972
FINALREMARKS
From the proof of Theorem (5.6), it is apparent that the proposed search
strategy for concave function is "min sup" rather than
words j the problem is not well set.
Tf
min max. f?
In other
for concave functions to decrease the uncertainty in the value of the minimum
than in its location.
A similar argument as was used for proving (5.5) can be employed to
show that for each e > 0 and each positive integer k there is a concave
function for which the reduction of uncertainty by optimal search is improved
byless than over unimodal search. In general, however, the improvement
will be drastic, in particular if the function is well rounded, so to speak, and
has a maximum in the interior.
REFERENCES
1. J. Boothroyd, "Fibonacci Search Algorithms in Theory and P r a c t i c e , "
Unpublished paper, 1967.
2. S. M. Johnson, "Best Exploration for Maximum is Fibonaccian," the Rand
Corporation, RM1590, 1955.
3. J. Kiefer, "Sequential Minimax Search for a Minimum," Proc. Amer.
Math. Soc. , Vol. 4, pp. 502506, 1963,
4. J. Kowalik and M. R. Osborne, Methods for Unconstrained Optimization
Problems.
Determinants provide an unusual means of discovering identities involving elements of any Fibonacci sequence.
tionship believed to be new provides the derivation of several series of identities for Fibonacci sequences.
1. THE ALTEKNATING LAMBDA NUMBER
First is displayed the theorem which provides the foundation for what
follows. Only 3 x 3 determinants are discussed here, but the theorem is
given in general.
Theorem.
a.. + (~l) i + j k
Then
det A* = det A + k(det C)
where C = ( c . ) is the (n  1) x (n  1) matrix given by
c . = a.. + a., ., + a., . + a. .... .
i]
i]
i+l,jM
i+l,]
1,3+1
Proof. Successively replace the k column by the sum of the (k1)
th
and k
columns for k = n, n  1, e e e , 2* Then successively replace the
k
(k  1)
and k
row for k = n, n  1, *, 2.
row by the sum of the (k
The resulting determinant is
an + k
a21 + a1A
a31 + a21
an + a12
at2
a13
Gil
C22
21
i2
147
= det A + k(det C)
[Feb.
148
bk
c+k
dk
e +k
f k
g +k
hk
i +k
Definition,
We a g r e e to call
l a m b d a n u m b e r of A ,
a + b + d + e
b + c + e +f
d + e + g + h
e + I + h + i
+ k
det C
of the t h e o r e m the a l t e r n a t i n g
denoted by X (A).
l~L2
T2
wn =
T 2
n+1
n+2
T2
T 2
L
n+1
2
L n+2
n+3
n+2
L
n+3
n+4
w h e r e each e l e m e n t i s the s q u a r e of a L u c a s n u m b e r
L 1i = l ,4
L2 = 3 , L
= L
for
L , u s i n g the usual
+L
A a (W*) =
Since
1,
2(l)
n+2
n+1
F 2 + F 2 0 + 2F 2
n+2
n+1
p2
+ F2
+ 2F2
^ n+1 * n+3 ** n+2
n+1
+ F2 n + 2F2
n+3
n+2
2
2n+2
2n+3
2n+3
F
+ F
+ 2F
^n+2
* n+4 ^ n+3
2n+4
=5
1972]
n+1
149
4 ,
n+1
det(5W*)
n = d e t W n + (i) 4 9 A (5W*)
a n
= (l) n 25 3
fH 2n
A
(2,1)
H2n+1
H2
n+2
H 2n+3
H2
n+1
n+2
H2n+21
n+3
2
H n+4 J
H . n H , + H
n+2
n+1
n
H2 = q9
~H2
3?
"Hn+49
~ H n+5 #
Column
exchanges
show that
det A =  det A ,., ,
n
n+1
so increasing the subscript by one in A
terms of p and q9 and using elementary algebia* This method of calculation for 3 x 3 determinants whose elements are squares of Fibonacci numbers was given by Fuchs and Erbacher in [4].
[Feb.
150
= 2(l) n D J
X a (A n ) = 5(q2  pq  p 2 ) 2 = SD^
detC
(2.3)
[2
n
[2
n+3
H2
n+1
H2
n+4
[2
n+6
H2
n+7
n+2
2
Hn+5
n
(l)n64T>su
H2 Q
n+8
X (C ) = 160 D 2
H
n n
H . H  $
n+1 n1
detR
W =
(2.5)
det S
n+lHnl
HH
n+2 n
n+3Hn+l
n+3Hn+l
n+4Hn+2
n+5Hn+3
n+4Hn+2
n+5Hn+3
n+6Hn+4
5D^
n+lHnl
n+2Hn
n+3Hn+l
n+4Hn+2
n+5Hn+3
n+6Hn+4
n+7Hn+5
n+8 H n+6
n+9Hn+7
X a (S n ) = 160 Dfj
Since
(  l ) n + 1 3 D3
H
= (l)n+196DI
1972]
n =
n+lHnl
n D
151
H '
F o r e x a m p l e , to find
detCn
= detSn
(irDHAa(Cn)
64(l)nD3H = d e t S n +
detS
=
n
(~lfDE(16QD2E)
(~l)n+196D3
ri
A l s o s notice that
8H
n+2
The identity
n+6 =
8H
n+4 "
(2.6)
det B
H2
n+2
H2
"n+4
n+2
H2
n+4
H2
n+6
n+4
2
Hn+6
,
n+2
n+6
H2
n+12
n+8
+ 1 3 D J]
H
H2
n+10
H2
n+14
H2
n+16
n+4
n+8
= (l)n18I^
(l)n21133D
H
(18) (1)
as given in [ 6 ] ,
152
[Feb.
In (2.6) and (2.7) the alternating lambda numbers are not independent of
n and hence are not useful in what follows. The alternating lambda number
for (2.6) is interesting in that it depends upon the center element of B .
integers. But surprisingly enough, if enough terms are written, each sequence
has a subsequence of terms which alternate in sign as well as a subsequence
in which all terms are of the same sign. Since we want a standard way of
numbering the terms of these sequences in what follows, when we want the
characteristic number
D R = H2  H2Hi  H?
we
matrix A*n with elements from {Gn }. If there exist two integers x and k
such that
H2 + (l) n + 1 x = kG 2
n
'
n
then the alternating lambda number theorem and (2.2) provide
1972]
153
n+1
5k2 D2
Ur
If kD,, =
(jr
D TT9
Jti
Since 5
(3.1)
= D / 5 .
= { . . . , 13,  6 , 7, 1, 8, %  . . }
and
{ G n } = {...,
5,  1 , 3, 2", 5, 7, 1
or their conjugates
{H*} = {, 89 .1, 7, 6, 13, }
and
{G*} = { , 5,  2 , 3, 1, 4, 5, . . . }
H^ + (  l ) n + 1 4 4 = 5 ( ?
154
[Feb.
2z
" P
= z 2  pz  p 2 = (z  p)(z + p)  pz
= (5k  z)(3z)  2z2 = 15 kz  5z2 s 0 (mod 5)
follow.
=  D R / 5 for Et = 1, 29 , 79 , p s
In each case u s t = 0, 1, 2, ,
1972]
155
{H }
nJ
{GnJ}
(Hi, H 2 )
(Gjs G 2 )
25t(t  1) + 5
( 1 ,  2 + 5t)
(2t  1 , t)
25t 2  5
(2, 1 + 5t)
(2t, 1 + t)
25t(t  1)  5
(3,  1 + 5t)
(2t  1, 1 + t)
25t 2  20
(4 f 2 + 5t)
(2t, 2 + t)
25t(t  1)  25
(5, 5t)
(2t  1, 2 + t)
25t 2  45
(6, 3 + 5t)
(2t, 3 + t)
25t(t  1)  55
(7, 1 + 5t)
(2t  1, 3 + t)
25t2  5u2
(2u, u + 5t)
(2t, u + t)
(2u + 1, u + 5t  2)
(2t  1, u + t)
25t(t  1)  5(u2+ u  1)
nHn+2
1)n+lx
kG
n+l
If kD^ = D^j
G
<3'3>
Ur
JH.
5k D^,
then x = D , and we have the known identity
xl
H
H
nHn+2
<n+lnH =
n+1
(3 4)
VnKJ
+ (
"1)n+1VB "
6tf
n+l
'
kG
<** =
n+lGnl
Ur
JH.
3k D
Ur
 2D
Ur
X
Jti
5k2 D2
If Du = kD^, then x = DTT / 5 , and if k = 5, we have
II
(3.5)
Ur
H^
(D n D H / 5 = S G ^ G ^
REFERENCES
1. Marjorie Bicknell, "The JLambda Number of a Matrix: The Sum of its n2
Cofactors," The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 72, No. 3, March,
1965, pp. 260264.
[Continued on page 184.]
0 k (n) = 0 k (n  1) + 0 k _ 1 (n  1)
(n > k ^ 1)
together with
(2)
<Mn) = pta)
and
0fe(k) = 2 k ~ X
(3)
(k ^ 1) .
so that
00
]C p(n)xI1 = T l ( i xI1)
(4)
n=0
The object of the present note is to obtain a generating function for
0 k (n) 9
Put
*k w
{x$j)
Z A '(knv ) x n
n=k
= y^^k(x)yk
k=0
n k
^
0k(n)xny
n,k=0
158
A GENERATING FUNCTION
[Feb.
<Dk(x) = 2
k_1 k
x + Y^ ^ k ( n " 1]
\l ( n
"
1)}Kn
n=k+l
OO
= 2k
OO
+ x^*k(x )x
n=k
2*kl W
n=k
xn
= 2 k ~ 1 x k + xd^(x) + xct>k_1(x)  0 k _ 1 (k  l ) x k ,
so that
(1  x)*j(x) = x#o(x) ,
(5)
(6)
(1  x)<tk(x) = 2 k _ 2 x k = x<t>k_1(x)
(k > 1 )
It follows that
*(x,y) = 4>0(x) + ^ ( x j y + ^ * k ( x ) y k
k=2
OO
= W
We have therefore
(1  x)(t>0(x)
&>y) = l _ x  xy"
x2y2
+
(1  x  xy)(l  2xy)
+ x
* k _i (x) > yk
1972]
159
2. By means of (7) we can obtain an explicit formula for <J>, (x). Since
 x
1xxy
1
= /i
^
y \1  xJ
x
xkyk
_y
and
(1  x  xy)(l  2xy)
^
ife*^
r=0
r r
__ ^ ra\
(/ I
r +
^Lrn^i
s=0
k
ZLJX
I
Z#
k=0
.
2k"r
(1
r=0
it follows that
t^
9 kr2
r+1
r
(
: y
n
Moreover, since
<i)
Eq. (8) implies
kwE(ktr1)*'**~a("'k+r)
r=0
r=0
(k > 2 )
For k = 1, we have
160
A GENERATING FUNCTION
[Feb.
n1
0:l(n) = ^T P(n  r )
(10)
r=0
as is evident from (5)8
Replacing k by n  k in (9) we get
(11)
nk2
K
nk2
t\
\
"
^
/
n
k
+
r
l
\
,.
,
W =
p ( k r )x + V^ 20nkr2/k + r\
r=0 "
'
r=0
(n s> k + 2)
rk
*nk
Z^V
L,
( rJ
r=3
'
r=0
(12)
=
g /  k + r  l) p ( k _ r)
r=0
k+r 
sWl
r=0 ^
(3 < k < n, n ^ 4)
To show that (11) and (12) are in agreement, it suffices to verify that
nk2
V^
nkr2/k + r \
r=0
nk1
(13,
1 k+ ,
2'^"
( r )(V)(E:;)'(l:a')
r=0
nk2
*>4~(k+r,)(";,),(i')4(i>
r_0
Since
(n a k + 2)
1972]
161
nk2
y ^ xn"k~2 y ^ 2 n ~ k ~ 2 > 2 f k + r ^
i=k+2
r=0
oo
oo
= ^ ( ;
r=0 ^
) x
'
^ 2
n=0
(1  x) k + 1 (l  2x)
and
oo
k 2
ink~2
(1  x ) k + 1
(1  x) k
(1  x ) k _ 1
(1  x) k + 1 (l  2x)
it is evident that (13) holds
3. Put
^ = k=G
XA ( n ) y k '
so that
*o(y) = 1
*i(y> = 1 + y.
^2(y) = 2 + 2 y + 2y2
 D } y k + 2 11 " 1 y11
A GENERATING FUNCTION
FOR P A R T L Y ORDERED PARTITIONS
162
_.
*eD'
lq
Thus
(14)
^(y)
= p(n)  p(n  1) + (1 + y J ^ C y )
+ 2 n " 2 y11
(n s= 2).
F o r example!
^ 2 (y) = 1 + (l + y) 2 + y 2 = 2 + 2y + 2y 2
t/i3(y) = 1 + (1 + y)(2 + 2y + 2y 2 ) + 2V3
= 3 + 4y + 4y 2 + 4y 3
(15)
ifjn(l)
= p(n)  p(n  1) + 2 n ~ 2 + 2 ^ n  1 ( y )
(n ^ 2)
and
(16)
^(1)
(n > 2) .
REFERENCE
1.
C. C* Cadogan g
f?
On P a r t l y O r d e r e d P a r t i t i o n s of a P o s i t i v e I n t e g e r , "
1.
INTEODUCTION
(1)
(mod p) .
g3 = g2 + g
(mod p) ,
(3)
g4 = g3 + g2
(mod p) ,
etc.
F o r example j g = 8 i s one of the four p r i m i t i v e r o o t s of p = 11 (the
o t h e r s being 29 6 5 7),
(mod 11) a r e
1, 85 9 5 6, 4 5 10, 
(mod 11)
6 = 98,
4 = 98?
(mod 11) ,
but a l s o 5 m o r e s i m p l y , by
9 = 8 + 1,
6 = 9 + 85
4 = 6 + 9,
(mod 11) .
T h u s the n a m e : F i b o n a c c i P r i m i t i v e Root.
The brief Table 1 shows e v e r y p < 200 that h a s an F . P . R. , and e v e r y
such g satisfying
By incomplete induction (a
164
[Feb,
TABLE 1
E_
5
g
3
P
71
g
63
11
79
30
19
15
109
11, 99
31
13
131
120
41
7, 35
149
41, 109
59
34
179
105
61
18, 44
191
89
fine old expression seldom used these days), we observe the following properties, all of which are easily proved in the next section.
A9 Except for the singular p = 5, all p having an F. P. R. are = 1
(mod 10).
B.
(4)
gl
+ g2 = p + 1 .
2. ELEMENTARY PROPERTIES
The solutions of (1) are
(5)
g = (1 N/5")2 _1
(mod p)
p = 5, g = 3, or p = 10k 1,
For
since
=29,
the two solutions of (1) are g = 6 and 24, but since these are also quadratic residues of 29, they cannot be primitive roots, thus proving B.
product of the two solutions (5) is given by
The
1972]
(6)
gAg2  1
165
(mod p) .
gi 1
s (1)
then
.
gA + g2 = 1
(mod p)
(We do
not distinguish in this count whether p has one or two*) Then with TT(X) being
the total number of primes ^x, we
Conjecture: As x>oo,
(8)
^ H   ^~~ = 0,2657054465
where
00
(9)
/ * ix ) =
IJ fi1   F^T))
A =: M
is Artin ? s constants
0.3739558136
166
n u m b e r of p ^ x
[Feb.
having a a s a p r i m i t i v e r o o t , and if
a $ bn
(n >
1) ,
then
v (x)
*
~~ A .
(10)
77 (X)
etc.
C o n s i d e r the p r i m e s in the
eight r e s i d u e c l a s s e s
20k + 1, 3 , 7, 9, 1 1 , 1 3 , 17, 19 .
Those in 20k + 3, 7, 1 3 , 17 cannot have an F . P . R.
F o r those in 20k + 1 1 ,
19 the factor
2(2  1)
in (9) must be deleted. This represented the probability that a i s not a quadratic residue and therefore could be a primitive root.
The factor
1
1
1
 5(5  1)
1972]
167
In (9) represented the probability that a Is not a quintic residue and therefore
could be a primitive r o o t
For
20k + 1,
16A/19
20k + 11
32A/19
20k + 3
20k + 13
20k + 7
20k + 17
20k + 9
20A/19
20k + 19
40A/19
As x> QO , the eight classes of primes are equlnumerous, and so (8) follows
from this table by averaging these densities* On the other hand, it is known
that the number of primes in
20k + 1,
20k + 9
will generally lag somewhat behind the other six classes since 1 and 9 are
quadratic residues of 20, cf. [5]. We therefore expect that the convergence
of F(x)/7T(x) to 27A/38 will be mostly from above.
The empirical facts are given in Table 2*
TABLE 2
X
F(x)
500
31
95
1000
46
168
0.3263
0.2738
1500
66
239
0.2762
2000
81
303
0,2673
2500
97
367
0e2643
F(X)/TT(X)
168
F e b . 1972
T h i s s e e m s thoroughly s a t i s f a c t o r y ,
It s e e m s likely that one could t r a n s c r i b e Hooley ? s theory [ 4 ] to the
p r e s e n t v a r i a n t , and t h e r e b y prove (8), a s s u m i n g a sufficient
Riemann Hypotheses.
n u m b e r of
4.
SEVERAL R E F E R E N C E S
It i s shown t h e r e that if
(11)
 gn
(mod p)
(12)
for s o m e fixed d i s p l a c e m e n t d.
(mod p)
If, now, one h a s the f i r s t d p o w e r s of g:
= cp + 1 ,
cp* = cp2 + cp ,
[Continued on page 1 8 1 . ]
We begin by defining
the function
(1)
(2)
^y = 2 k\ xki
A,
k=0
(3)
(1  X)" 1 = x k ,
k=0
and
(1
x ) ^ = ^(fjU)
k=0 X
(4)
Ak
1=0
170
\  v i (?) (4)
[Feb.
An = 1
A
k
= A
A
k1
/ 2 k  2\ / l \ k _ 1
\ k  l ) \ 4 j
lk1
2k
and if,
in
2kAk = Ak_x
(2k  l ) A k _ 2 .
A0 = 1
and
A, .
B, ,
k,
B k = 2 k . k! . A k .
(8)
2k
'
k!
k1
k 1
2 " ( k  1)1
(2k
k1
(k  1)! , we obtain:
B k = B k _ x + (2k  l)(2k  2 ) B k _ 2
c h a r a c t e r i z e the coefficients
T
all the B, s a r e i n t e g e r s .
B. .
2 " ( k  2)!
of k,
k2
k 2
1)B
B 0 = BA = 1,
completely
1972]
B2 = 7,
B 5 = 2,265,
171
B 3 = 27 ,
B 6 = 37,575,
B 7 = 390,915 ,
etc. We may summarize the results thus far derived in the following form:
_
(10)
+ 2x = 2 J \
T >
k=0
where
Bk = 2 k . k
'(")#
What struck the author as interesting was the fact that the sequence of
numbers B, appears in other power series, derived from generating functions of totally different form from (10).
Specifically, we will demonstrate that
oo
g(x) = e
(11)
du
=E k
2k+l
X
(2k + 1)!
k=0
and
OO
h(x) == tan
(12)
vvi
 x
(B )2
2k+l
(2k + 1)!
k=0
x 2 /2
= e
x 2 ^
x 2 /2 f
e
+ xe
I
u 2 ,
x 2 /2 ^
e
du = e
+xy
172
x /2
y" =  x e
. ,
+ xyf + y =  x e
x /2
x /2
+ xe
[Feb.
/i
2\
+ x^y + y = (1 + x*)y.
This is demon
r. x
2k+l
k=0
Negative powers of x are excluded, for otherwise g(x) would be discontinuous at x = 0, along with the first and higher order derivatives.
it is readily seen that g(0) = 0 ,
However,
We will use these conditions to develop a recursion involving the coefficients r, . If we differentiate the series expression for g(x),
as)
g'(x)
= j^(2k
+1)
\x2k'
k=0
k=l
(14)
2
<*
k=0
2)(2k
3)rk+1x2k+1 = rkx2k+1
k=0
r^*2"*1
k=l
r 0 = 6r l 5
(2k + 2)(2k + 3 ) r k + 1 = r R + r k _ r
if k = 1 , 2 , 3 ,
1
6 *
1972]
R^ = (2k + 1)! r, .
Rk+1
= R k + 2k(2k + l ) R k
But if we r e p l a c e k by k  1
c u r s i o n a s (9).
we obtain:
;
also 5
R0 = Rt = 1 .
we conclude that R, = B,
173
a r e identical to those of B, ,
for all v a l u e s of k,
established,
The proof of (12) i s s i m i l a r , though somewhat m o r e complicated.
We
_ B*.  B2k_
(17)
klBk2
 (2k  l) 2 (2k  2 ) 2 B  . _ 2
~~"2(2k
 l)(2k ^W
(18)
kBkl
k1
(2k
"
1)(2k
"
2)B
"
obtaining
klBk2
k+1
(4k2
obtained by i n c r e a s i n g the
s q u a r e s of s u c c e s s i v e
B, B, 
~,
2k
B. f s*
(19)
1)(B
2k(2k
1)B
kl)
Therefore, as before,
k=0
2k+l
Si
^k X
174
[Feb.
If we let
'
1
1 + X2
 X2
+ **.
1  X2
Differentiating again,
.. _ x(l + x 2 )(l  x 2 ) " 3 / 2  2x(l  x 2 )" 2
(1  x 2 )(xz' + z) + 2x2z
2 2
(1  x 2 ) 2
(1 + x )
From the first differentiation,
(1  X 2 ) " 2 = (1 + X2
{'  r^)
(20)
x2k+1
WV
zf =
x2k
zJ k Wn
k=0
**V
"
x2k+1
S k+i WTTy.'
k=0
1972]
valid for k = 0, 1, 2, 3,
80e
175
(1,1),
By application of Maclaurin ? s
formula,
?/
ex 2 / 2
2k
_ ^
1 k
/ f e ^u*
d u =^ vW1 )/_i^
x_,
Af '
k=o 2 ke
J
i
^
k=o
2k+l
* + 1)k!
2k
^ = Ec. x
k
k=0
where
k
2k+l
176
[Feb.
(99)
(22)
T* 
(2k + 1)l
(k\
(2^
k ~  T k  ~ 2 * I i)(2TTTy
z .
R.
k=:Q
tan"1X
(D
.
2k+l
k x
2k + 1
k=0
OO
(1
k
2k
 X ) 4 =  PA'i Vx/2)
2
k=o
Therefore,
h(x) =
2k+l
S da,kk Xx
k=0
where
M
\  ^
k
Z* 2k  2i + 1
i=0
0 2i
2
(23)
l}
1972]
177
p x
k<> = E
ljtywTI
If we differentiate 9
2 i
 * '  i 2
M>'(i)*
'
x
(25)
P k (x) = J
,
(1  u 2 ) K du
Pk0s/2") = ^ 2 /L/\
i=0
i I 2i + 1
/
(26)
B k &JJX
(lu^du
178
[Feb.
(28)
B k = 2kB k _ x + (  l ) k  &
Li
2kB
ki
(l) k (l35
(2k  1)) .
Ka
Recursion (28) may be expressed in the following alternative forms, depending on whether k is even or odd:
(28a)
B 2 m = 4 m B 2 m 4 + 135
B
(28b)
2m+1
(4m  1)
We may now prove (27) by induction. Let us first assume that (27) is
true for k = 2m, i.e. , B 2
by (28b), B 2
+
is divisible by 135
is divisible by 1.35
(2m  1).
Then,
+2
This e s 
it is therefore
we
1972]
179
OO
x2z
= E \i^
2k+l
!) (2)(2km+
1):
k=l
^ = E sk_2
(2k + 1)(4)
k=2
** = E w*
k=l
2k+l
m
(2k
(3)
+D
/Rv
+ 1)!
2kKL
^ ^
2k+l
l5)
v
c5z = V s . k  02(2k
 ^ + 1)1
" + l )'
(2k
k=2
_.
, .
2k+l
k=l
x6z
(ft.
2k + 1)(}
" = S k2<
2k+l
wnyr
k=3
(2k + 1)
(r)
represents
(2k + 1  (r  1)) = ^
r),
180
[Feb.
2k+1
_
^*
x
S
*** k+1 (2k + 1)! ~ Z J S k ( 2 k
k=0
k=l
1]
2k+1
(2)
(2k + 1)1'
2k+l
k=2
E W
...
+ 1)(My)
2k+l
x
W+TJ!
2k +
,.v
(6)
2k+l
4s
, ,
jfcnp. ~ E ki
(2k +1)(}
2k+l
Tsmjr
k=l
V^
2S
k2
(2k +
(4)
x2k+1
^>
(2TTTP. " E
k=2
"
2 k
k=3
k=2
3S
ki
(2k + X)
(2)
x2k+1
T^TTJi
k=l
s k (2k
x
 k=0
E
2k+l
+ 1)1
S0 = 0;
S2  6Si 2 4 S 0  1 8 S 0 Si = 0;
 S2 = 0 ;
if k = 3 , 4, 5, ,
S k + 1  (2k(2k + 1) + l ) S k  2k(2k + D Q ^ ^ !
+ (2k + l ) ( 4 ) ( ( 2 k  3)(2k  4) + 4(2k  3) + 2)S R _ 2 = 0 ,
where
Q k = (2k  l)(2k  2) + 4(2k  1) + 3 .
Upon simplification, t h e s e r e s u l t s b e c o m e :
1972]
(21)
181
balid for k = 0, 1, 2 ,
If 6 i s a quadratic r e s i d u e of p ,
(modp)
In o u r c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
is
a p r i m i t i v e r o o t and g e n e r a t e s the q u a d r a t i c n o n r e s i d u e s a l s o .
REFERENCES
1.
Helmut H a s s e , V o r l e s u n g e n u b e r Z a h l e n t h e o r i e , S p r i n g e r  V e r i a g , B e r l i n ,
1950, pp. 6869.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Primes,"
7.
Emma Lehmer,
In preparing tables of residues for indices of primitive roots the following situation was noted for the modulus 109.
11
12
23
35
58
93
42
26
68
53
38
91
20
22
24
46
70
94
2
3
77
84
52
27
79
106
76
73
40
44
48
92
14
45
59
104
54
49
103
43
37
31
80
88
96
75
62
28
90
99
108
98
97
86
74
51
16
67
56
71
18
89
107
87
3
85
41
39
15
83
63
102
57
82
30
36
69
105
32
65
25
33
17
78
95
64
50
55
60
72
29
101
21
13
34
47
81
19
61
66
100
10
8
9
10
It is noteworthy from the early entries of the table that each succeeding entry
is the sum of the two that precede it. This relation can be verified for the
entire table if the sums are taken modulo 109. Clearly this is an unusual situation for a table of this kind. The questions that come to mind are: Is this
something very extraordinary? Under what conditions does a table of this
type have this Fibonacci property?
Since the entries in the table are residues of successive powers of some
quantity x, the conditions that must be fulfilled are two: (1) x must satisfy
the relation
182
Feb. 1972
= x
183
n , n1 ,
. x
+ x
(mod p)
This
means that p is a prime of the form lOn 1. The solutions of this quadratic congruence for primes of this type fulfill the first requirement.
It is
RIME
SOLUTIONS
11
19
45 8
5, 15
29
6, 24
31
13
41
19, 13
7, 35
59
34, 26
34
61
44, 18
44, 18
71
9, 63
50, 25
10, 80
63
79
89
101
109
PRIMITIVE R
8
15
7, 35
23, 79
131
11, 99
12, 120
139
76, 64
11, 99
120
184
104, 41
105, 75
181
199
13, 169
103, 79
138, 62
211
33, 179
229
239
41
28, 124
179
191
105
148, 82
16, 224
52, 190
224
241
251
134, 118
134
269
198, 72
198, 72
271
281
Feb. 1972
17, 225
38, 244
52, 190
255
The conclusion would seem to be that this phenomenon is not particularly uncommon and that there is a straightforward method of determining
additional instances of this type.
[Continued from page 156., ]
2. Marjorie Bicknell and Verner E. Hoggatt, J r . , "Fibonacci Matrices and
Lambda Functions/' Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 2, April, 1963,
pp. 4752.
3. J. E. Walton and A. F. Horadam, "Some Properties of Certain Generalized Fibonacci Matrices," Fibonjcj__^uaxterjy, Vol. 9, No. 3, May,
1971, pp. 264276.
4. Brother Alfred Brousseau, Problem H8. Solution by John Allen Fuchs
and Joseph Erbacher*
problems believed to be new or extending old results. Proposers should submit solutions or other information that will assist the editor.
To facilitate
Show that
r>s=0
(2r + 3s)! (a  b y ) r b S y r + 2 s
r!s!(r + 2s)f.
,.. ^ ,2r+3s+l
0 +y>
1  ay  b y 2
where F
and L
2rF
= n (mod 5)
2rL
= 1 (mod 5) ,
are the n
Fibonacci and n
H191
186
(a)
(2n + k)t
,nk
\? '<
2n+l /
x
Y* (2n + 1  3 T
l k
2k 2
gw
(b)
[Feb.
2k
'
n
y^
p
2n+1
'
(2n + 1 + k)!
2k !
n+lk
to w ^ 1  >
2n
( c)
>  m
[_
o
2^
I k] F*2k == FF2n
2>^; ,. Jf.^3/0L _ M
OI .f
k==0
2n+l
\ ^ /2n
Mv
where F
and L
k = 0
+ l\ 3 p
( k l ) ( 2 n
n
V1
denote the n
til
"
5nk
2k)I
(2n + 1 + k)!
iik
Fibonacci and L u c a s n u m b e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
SOLUTIONS
KEEPING THE
H176
Q's ON CUE
edited by G. H.
,
 1
2
4TT
 1
_,
3
6?r
e
,
 1
1
24
P r o v i d e a proof.
1
877 *
1972]
187
2m
mq
2m
1  q
T h i s s u g g e s t s a l o g a r i t h m i c d e r i v a t i v e of a p r o d u c t .
A suitable wellknown
product i s
00
Q0 = T T d  q 2m )
(i)
m=l
(See H a r r i s Hancock, T h e o r y of Elliptic F u n c t i o n s , p. 396, D o v e r ,
1958)
w h e r e (loc c i t p. 107)
q = exp (77K!/K)
(2)
F o r e x a m p l e , for the s i n e  a m p l i t u d e
27T h a s
function,
we have
sn(u + 4K + 2 i K T ) = sn u
and for the sine function,
sin (x +
2TT)
= sin x .
(3)
d$
K = J
is/l _ k
k*2 sm^cf)
fiin2
Vl
with modulus k.
Let K!, L,
f
and
f
Lf
respectively.
Q0
and
K.
On
[Feb.
QiQ 2 Q 3 = 1 .
and
i Qo
Q2
/K
Then
q12Q0 = 2 6 (kk'Wir
(4)

with k2 +k f 2 = 1 and i 2
+IT2
= 1.
(2 )
= e
and
(4<)
q?2Tl(lq2nm) = 2T(tf)^
If we divide Eq. (4) by Eq. (4T) and let n
Jt = kf and V = k
1,
we should get 1 = 1.
1972]
g i v e s a suitable f o r m in n only.
L = K!
(7)
189
and
L< = K .
(50
\ln
Equation (2) b e c o m e s
(2")
q = e
Tr/\ln.
TT/\JR
= e
(8)
_ e2irA/n)(1 _
4ir/^)(1 _
= n V 7 ^ 7 1 2 "(1  e0  2ir
' ^^
M l
6ir/^}
e47^n)(le67rNrn).
2e
1124
27r/Nin
x e
24n^n
(9)
4n/\ln.
x e
27TNfn
4n
47r/\Tn
4ir\fn
124
2ir\/n
24N/1I
1  e
T h i s r e d u c e s r e a d i l y to
.
47TNfn
1  e
190
[Feb.
1  24
m=l
(9')
m/(e 2 m W n  1)1 = *
1 24 ^
+ n
m=l
1
 l
2_+
 l e
3
 1
PARTITION
H177 Proposed by L Carlitz, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, (corrected)
= F k,
+ F
k,
"'
+ F
k rv
<r = 1 . 2 , 3 , . . . ) ,
where
h ^ k2 > . > k => 1
Show that
<F2nF2m> =
<F2n+iF2m> =
E F
(n
"
m)F
( 2 n F 2 m + l ) = <n "
2m
m)F
+ F
2m+l
2m1
( n fe m )
(n
"
m )
1972]
(3)
R (F
(4)
2n+lF2m+l > =
R(Fn+1)
(n
m)F
"
(n
2m+l
= R(F'2n) = F
191
m)
Oi^l).
2k
2k+4
2k+8
'''
+ F
(k
2k+4r4
X)
then
B(N) = k F 2 r  F 2 r _ x
1.
F
2k+l
2k+5
"
+F
( k fc X)
2k+4r3
'
Since
F
* 2 n 2m
+ F
2n2m+2
+ .
9 0
*2n~2m+6
+ F
(n ^
* 2n+2m2
l11
m)
m/
'
(n > m) .
Since
2n+lF2m
2n2m+3
2n2m+7
'' *
+ F
2n+2ml
(n
m )
'
it follows that
E (vF 0 ^F0
) = R(F0 FQ )
2n+l 2m
2n 2m
L7 CarlitZj " F i b o n a c c i R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , " F i b o n a c c i Q u a r t e r l y , Vol. 6, pp
193220.
192
[Feb.
where
H ^
*2
then
(*)
R(N)
and in p a r t i c u l a r if k
(***)
R (
Vkr^l
([i k r] " j B V k ^
'
+ F
kr.l^1>
+F k r ik r+ 2) .
i s odd, then
R(N) = R ( F k  1 + * +
krl)
Since
F F
=(F
+ F
+...+F
) + F
ir
r
r
2n 2 m + l
2n+2ml
2n+2m3
2n2m+3/
*2n2m
(n ^ m) ,
it follows from (* $ and (***) that
R (vF 0
F
,. ) = R(F / I
+ F.
+ + F . ) + (n  m  1) R ( F , _,,
2n 02 m + l
4m
4 m  4A
4'
4m+l
+ F5)
(nm)E(F4m
=
3.
(n
"
m ) ( 2 F
2 m
"
i4m_4
F
2m2)
...
= <n "
m)F
2m+l
<Q *
m).
Since
2n+lF2m+l
(F
2n+2m
+ F
2n+2m4
*''
+ F
2n2mH4*
+ F
2n2m+l
(n > m )
1973
193
R(F
2n+lF2m+l) "
R(F
+ F
2n+2ml
R(F
+ F
4m
2n+2m5
4 m  4 +  + F4)
= (nm)R(F4m
F4m__4
+ F
' ''
2n2m+3)
2n2m)
fe  m  D R O T ^ +
+ F5)
...
F4)
= (n  m ) F 2 m + 1
4.
(n > m) .
Since
ln+1 =
(F
4n
4a4

+ F
4>
we get
^211+1 > =
<F4nl
4n5
"
+ F
3)
<F4n2
4n6
"
+ F
3>
2n 
2n2 =
4n6
<n
2n1
S i m i l a r l y s since
2n =
4n2
** *+
we have
*F2n>
(n
2n1
X)
WHAT'S THE D I F F E R E N C E ?
H178
m + n j'
mJ
X)
194
Show that a
[Feb.
m,n
r
7 7
c. , a
j=0 h=0
, =0
(m ^ r 5 n ^ s) ,
m,n
r
/ C 5 2 c. , a
, = 0
(m ^ r, n > 0) ,
j=0 k=0
1. Assume that
r
(1)
V ] Y ^ c. . a
Lj
C~d j , k
. = 0
mj,nk
'
j=0 k=0
where c. , and r , s are independent of m,n.
00
F(x,y) = J^
m/ffly
m,n=0
Then we have
(2)
Indeed,
1972]
195
_1
{(1  x  y)  4 x y H = (1  x  y ) " ) 1 ^
f
(
(1  x  y) 2 
2k
E
k=0
=
00
2k
E
k=0
oo
(xy)K
(1 " x  y)
n (X +
E
t
**>"
E
^n"
*>*
k=0
n=0
00
/ sk \~*
M
2^J
m,n=0
xm n
min(m,n)
\""*
m 5 n=0
2k + m + n
+
m
+ nn
m+n
(m + n)l
k! k! (m  k)! (n  k)t
m n
y
k=0
fm + n\ V^ / m \ / n \
\ m )L. [k){k) =( \
+ n
)>
i : cjikXjykF(x,y).
j=0 k=0
J / v,n * y
x:m n
j=0 k=0
Lmji
m,n=0
where
m=0 n=0
m,n '
196
[Feb.
b
= / c. , a
. ,
m,n
JLJ. j , k mj 9 nk
By (l)j we have
b
= Q
m,n
(m > r, n > r ) ,
so that
r
3)
<
X) E c j , k x 3 y
F(x
>y>
j=0 k=0
rl
xmyn
=y y b
1J
^d
m9n
m=0 n=0
oc s1
 y y
xL^
r  1 s1
xYyvb
b
m9n
m=0 n=0
Z^
JL*#
m5n
m n
x y
J
m=0 n=0
For fixed m 9 a
is a polynomial in n, hence b
is also a polyr
J
m9n
m9n
^ J
nomial in n. Similarly, for fixed n9 b
is a polynomial in m. Consequently, each of the sums
rl
oo
v^ ,
JLJ
m=0 n=0
oo s1
v^ ^ K
m n
m,n
Z ^ ZJ m 9 n
m=0 n=0
m n
^
2. Assume that
(4)
Y ] 7 c . ,a
i = 0
** ^ j 5 k mn,nk
j=0 k=0
Then as in 1 5 we have
[Continued on page 202. ]
(m ^ r 9 n ^ 0)
According to the wellknown theorem of Zeckendorf, if adjacent members of the Fibonacci sequence (1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13,
eBe
the same representation then each positive integer can be expressed uniquely
as the sum of one or more Fibonacci numbers* On the basis of this unique
representation theorem, each integer is associated with just certain Fibonacci numbers.
For example: 35 = 34 + 1; 51 = 34 + 13 + 3 + 1.
198
[Feb.
Card 4
5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 20, 26, 27, 2 8 , 39, 4 0 , 4 1 , 52, 5 3 , 54, 60, 6 1 , 62, 7 3 , 74,
75, 8 1 , 82, 83, 94, 95, 96
Card 5
8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 29, 30, 3 1 , 32, 3 3 , 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 6 , 6 3 , 64, 6 5 , 66,
67, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 97, 98, 99, 100
Card 6
1 3 , 14, 1 5 , 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 4 7 , 4 8 , 4 9 , 50, 5 1 , 52, 5 3 , 54, 68, 69, 70,
7 1 , 72, 7 3 , 74, 75
Card 7
2 1 , 22, 2 3 , 24, 2 5 , 26, 27, 2 8 , 29, 30, 3 1 , 32, 3 3 , 76, 77, 7 8 , 79, 80, 8 1 ,
82, 8 3 , 84, 85, 86, 87, 88
Card 8
34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 4 1 , 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 6 , 4 7 , 4 8 , 4 9 , 50, 5 1 , 52,
53, 54
Card 9
55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 6 1 , 62, 6 3 , 64, 65, 66, 6 7 , 68, 69, 70, 7 1 , 72, 7 3 ,
74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 8 1 , 82, 8 3 , 84, 85, 86, 87, 88
C a r d 10
89, 90, 9 1 , 92, 9 3 , 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100
CORRECTIONS TO A FIBONACCI
H.
10^ should
J.
needs
two
be
CROSTIC
102
1V+
I n d i a g r a m 0 81 s h o u l d
F 93 s h o u l d
be
G 81
b e E 93
L(z)
= E 7 ^ = E v>n.
i
n=l
where T
i
n=l
=^r^
oo
k=l
or to generalize:
Y * _ l _
T88:
k=l
J?
= ^5[L(2mi3)  L(4m/3)]
2km
*Konrad Knopp, Theory and Application of Infinite Series, Harper, New York,
199
200
Feb. 1972
_ _
.95
19.7372
(z)
4.7378
.90
14.4885
3.1728
.85
10.6987
2.0953
.80
7.9593
1.3565
.75
5.9724
.8513
.70
4.5224
.5066
.65
3.4550
.2720
.60
2.6605
.1130
.55
2.0615
.0062
.50
1.6035
.0645
.45
.40
1.2482
.1096
.9687
.1363
.35
.7464
.1493
.30
.5667
.1518
.25
.4211
.1456
.20
.3017
.1316
.15
.2035
.1103
.10
1223
.0817
.05
.0553
.0452
.00
.0000
L(z)
1
V""o
.5
Many populartype math teasers are based on the concept that may be
expressed symbolically as:
(X)(Y) = Y2  X2 .
Examples are:
34 68 = 682  342
216 513 = 5132  2162 .
The true algebraical representation, of course, is:
10X + Y = Y2  X2
Y having n digits including any initial zero.
have:
2230 047276
= 47276 2  2230 2
This proved
Solving for X,
201
202
10n
2 n
F e b . 1972
+ 4  1 0 2 n  410 n
+ N/510211 
4.10n
410
in the e x p r e s s i o n
i. e. ,
v
X
>
1 0 n ( V 5  1)
Hence
X / Y * (NT5  l ) / 2 ,
Y/X * (NT5 + l ) / 2
Fibonacci again!
It m a y be noted that with n = 6,
the g r e a t e s t value of
(giving the
00
j=0 k=0
r1
m=0
j=0 k=0
It follows that F ( x , y ) i s r a t i o n a l in x ,
Remark.
We note that a
00
00
n=0
again c o n t r a d i c t i n g (2).
in which a2 + b2 = c 2 .
a = u2  v 2 ,
a =
u 2  v 2 = 4x 4 + 8x 3 y + 4x 2 y 2  4XV3  3V4
II.
HI.
IV.
a + b = (2x2 + 4xy + y 2 )
V.
there is
40
41
29
28
57
1,624
1,625
169
168
337
56,784
56,785
203
204
[Feb.
985
984
1,969
1,938,480
1,938,481
5,741
5,740
11,481
65,906,680
65,906,681
33,461
33,460
66,921
2,239,210,120
2,239,210,121
= 6u   u rt ,
n1
n2
w h e r e u 0 = 1 and u t  5.
Since the g e n e r a t o r
u = x 2 + (x + y) 2 ,
it c a n be e x p r e s s e d a s the s u m of two s q u a r e s :
u:l =
l2 +
22 = 5
u2 =
22 +
5 2 = 29
u3 =
52 +
12 2 = 169
u4 =
12 2 +
29 2 = 985
u5 =
29 2 +
70 2 = 5741
u8 =
70 2 + 169 2 = 3 3 , 4 6 1
A s e x p r e s s e d in this m a n n e r , t h e s e r i e s of u T s f o r m s the r e c u r r e n t s e r i e s
ut =
I 2 + 22 = 5
u2 =
2 2 + (1 + 22) 2 = 29
u3 =
u 4 = 12 2 + (5 + 212) 2 = 985
u 5 = 29 2 + (12 + 229) 2 = 5741
u 6 = 70 2 + (29 + 270) 2 = 33,461
1972]
205
= 2uv + u2 + v2
(u2  v 2 )
U2 
V2
= (u + v)
=
U + V
(u  v)(u + v) = u + v
U U =
V =
V + 1
and
v = 2y(x + y) .
Since u = v + 1,
set
x2 + (x + y)2 = 2y(x + y) + 1 .
Then
=s/^
(symbolized by 1) and
y = \/2x 2  1
206
[Feb.
(symbolized by k).
Substituting
# ^
is integral for 1, 7, 4 1 , 239, .
fined as
r n = 6r n1  r n20 ,'
where rA = 1 and r 2 = 7. Substituting alternately the positive and negative
values of
+.
..Tar2
V ?1
Theorem:
[*\+k]
=F
nk k1
n+k'
'
'
where
a
1 7+T N/5

For k = 1,
k I] Fn+1 "
See [1, Thm. I l l ] . The Binet form for the Fibonacci numbers is
,n
"
^5
where
Thus
,
kr,
a
a
=
n+k
1 +
=
,n k
 b a
NT5
n+k
a
1NTS
and, , b =
x
, n k , n+k , ,n+k
 b a  b
+b
NT5
= a n + k  b n + k _, b n + k  b n a k
NT5
NTS
"fe4
= F ,.  b " 1 ~ " M 1= F M  b V
n+k
V K/F /
n+k
k
207
208
[Feb.
A GENERALIZED GREATEST
See [2],
Therefore,
a F n +77
2
The next step is to prove that
(i  **)
n+k
b F,
As
n>oo,
A.
bk(ak  bk)
(ba) k  b 2 k
N/"5
i  b2k
N/5
N/5
1  b
^5
lim
k oo
1  t)
N/5
N/5
N/5
Thus,
0 <
b F,
k
1 FX
Jk, k
k
b (a  bu x)
N/15
, . ,k
2k
(ab)  bu
N/5
i  b2k
N/5
1972]
and a s k i n c r e a s e s ,
2k
209
g e t s s m a l l e r rapidly and
2k
1  b'
\J5
b e c o m e s smaller.,
T h e r e f o r e , if
1  b
2k
N/5
2k
Thus:
2k
1 + b
N/5
N/5
If
2k
1  b'
< I
2
N/5
then
2k
1 + b
Since
\/5
N / 5  2 ^ , 2 k ^
N/5 i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.2361 9
and since
b2k
N/5  2
= b 6 = 0.055726
then c e r t a i n l y
2k ^
0 < b
N/5
 2
A GENERALIZED GREATEST
210
Therefore:
b k F,
bV
bV
2 '
we have
1 <
2
< i
*k
Since
I "bX * >
(i)
akF
n+k
\ 2
b V/
implies that
An+lj
> F
n+k '
kj
[Feb.
1972]
211
Also, since
(i "%)  >
Therefore, combining (i) and (ii), we obtain
Fn+k
^ <= akFn + 2
i < Fn+k
^ +1
or
rakF
[
n
2J
= F
.
n+k
REFERENCES
1. V. E. Hoggatt, J r . , Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers, Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston, 1969, pp. 3435.
2. V. E. Hoggatt, J r . , John W. Phillips, and H. T. Leonard, J r . , "TwentyFour Master Identities/' The Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 9, F e b . , 1971,
pp. 25.
REMARK
With the aid of an ingenious programmer, Galen Jarvinen, it seems
reasonable that
[a\
[a\
! ] = L n*
I] = Hn+k
212
Feb. 1972
a = 8x2 + 4xk  3
b = 48x4 + 32x3k  32x2  12xk + 4
c = b + 1
a + b = (4x2 + 4xk  l) 2
b + c = (8x2 + 4xk  3)2
u = y  ( a + b + 1) .
the
base indices (written in scale 10 notation) are also the reverses of each other.
Examples of single and double backtoback relationships are:
73 10 =
3722
16982 = 961 28
Table 1 gives all solutions for integers that have 2, 39 or 4 digits in
base10 notation. The reader may feel tempted to find examples with 5 or
more digits. Table 2 lists some of the known double backtoback examples 9
leaving a wide open field for the computingminded enthusiast.
For single backtobacks we concentrated on finding reverses for base10 cases. Without that restriction there would be an unlimited number of examples 9 such as:
7413 = 4722
3526 = 5 3 ^
If A, B 9 C9 9 9 represent the digits of an integer N9 in base b notation 9 we seek relationships of the form:
* Mound Laboratory is operated by Monsanto Research Corporation for the
Atomic Energy Commission under Contract No. AT331GEN53.
213
214
BACKTOBACK
(1)
[Feb.
(2)
(A)(B)10 = (B)(A)b
or
(3)
10A + B = bB + A
(4)
checked and confirmed as complete with a HewlettPackard 9100A programable calculator this taking barely two minutes. The same calculator d i s covered all the 4digit cases in less than 90 minutes.
The problem of solving Eq. (2) may appear formidable, but there are
limits which reduce the amount of numerical work.
32 = 1024.
we
for 2, 4, 5, and 6 digits would be 82, 21, 17, and 15, respectively.
Finding solutions for double backtobacks is more complicated since
both the representations and the bases must be in reverse relationship.
If
1972]
BACKTOBACK
SINGLE
215
Table 1
BACKTOBACKS
2Digit
13 1 0 = 31 4
21 1 0 = 12 1 9
23j.o = 32 7
28
61i0 = I655
62 10 = 26 2 8
4 1 1 0 = 14 3 7
63 1 0 = 36 19
42 10 = 24 1 9
71io = 1^64
73 1 0 = 37 22
81 1 0 = 18 7 3
31io =
13
43io = 34 13
46 1 0 = 64 7
82 10 = 28 3 7
51 1 0 = 1546
53 1 0 = 35 16
83
38
25
84 10 = 48 1 9
i0
86 10 = 68 1 3
91 1 0 = 19 8 2
93i 0 = 39 28
3Digit
190 10 = 091 2 1
774 10 = 477 1 3
371 1 0 = 173 1 6
834 10 = 438 1 4
441 1 0 = 144 1 9
882 10 = 288 1 9
445 i 0 = 544 9
912 1 0 = 219 2 1
511 1 0 = 115 2 2
9 6 1 1 0 = 169 2 8
551 1 0 = 155 2 1
4Digit
(5)
0801 1 0 = 1080 9
3290 10 = 0923i 9
1090 10 = 0 9 0 %
5141 1 0 = 1415 1 6
1540 10 = 0451 1 9
7721 1 0 = 1277 1 9
2116 10 = 6112 7
9471 1 0 = 1749 1 9
(A)(B)(C)
(M)(a)(b)(c)...(m)
= (M).. (C)(B)(A)(m)...(c)(b)(a)
tion with a 2digit (in scale10) base would involve the equation
216
(6)
BACKTOBACK
[Feb.
A [ ( a ) ( b ) ] 2 + B[(a)(b)] + C
= C[b)(a)] 2 + B[(b)(a)] + A .
F o r e x a m p l e , if A = 1,
B = 6,
C = 9,
a = 8,
b = 2 , we have:
All those in
Some of the s i m p l e r
c u r r e n t e m p h a s e s on m o d u l a r a r i t h m e t i c in the s o  c a l l e d "new m a t h e m a t i c s . T t
Table 2
SOME DOUBLE BACKTOBACKS
051 9 1 = 150 1 9
144 73 = 441 3 7
169 82 = 961 2 8
508 43 = 805 34
If t e r m s in p a r e n t h e s e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s single " d i g i t s " in the given b a s e we
m a y have e x a m p l e s such a s :
(1) (12) (7)3!
(7)(12)(1) 13
1972]
BACKTOBACK
217
= (30)(20)(12) 47
= (33)(10)(17) 46
(18)(30) (45) r4
= (45)(30)(18) 47
(21)(40)(41) 64
n
V
c. , a
= 0
(m + n > 0) .
j=0 k=0
with a 00 ^ 0.
We may define c, ,
jK
m, n
by means of
00
m,n=0
L a t e Acknowledgements,
j 9 k=0
H173.
C o m m e n t a r y on H169.
The t h e o r e m i s false.
Let a = F ^ + 2 ,
b = c =
F
We have
ad
2n+1' d = F2n T h u s f r 0 m F m + l F m  l " F m = ^ ^
" bC
=  1 , while ab + cd = ( F 2 n + 2 F 2 n + 1 + F 2 n F 2 n + 1 ) = F 2 n + 1 L 2 n + 1 = F 4 n + 2 .
so that F ^ + l
= F ^ F ^
CONTRADICTION.
and tf + 1
Solutions should
= H
 +H
Prove
that
FlH3
B228
+ F2H6
F3H9
FnH3n = FnFn+1H2n+1 .
Proposed by Wray G. Brady, Slippery Bock State College, Slippery Bock, Pennsylvania.
218
Feb. 1972
n = ^
219
Proposed by Wray G. Brady, Slippery Rock State College, Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania.
and L
to
(l) k L F . + (l) m L. F
+ (l) n L F.
= 0 .
n mk
k nm
m kn
B230
Proposed by V. Hoggatt, Jr., San Jose State College, San Jose, California.
Let {C } satisfy
Cn+4
^  2Cn+3
^o  Cn+2
^ + 2Cn+1
_,, + Cn
=0
and let
G
Prove that {G
L J} satisfies G . = G . + G M .
n
n+z
n+1
n
B231
Proposed by V. Hoggatt, Jr., San Jose State College, San Jose, California.
satisfies the
= H
n+2
+ H
n+1
as the Fibonacci sequence but may have any initial values. It is known that
H
nHn+2 "
n+1 = ^
220
[Feb.
n+2
n+1
Proposed by V. Hoggatt, Jr., San Jose State College, San Jose, California.
Let
F 0u = 0, Fii = 1, F +2
^ = F +^l + Fn , Lu0 = 2, L,
1 = 1, L ^
n+2 = Ln+1. + Ln .
n
n
Prove both of the following and generalize:
(a)
F*
= 3F*
 F3 = 2 (  l ) n
n+2
n+1
n
(b)
L*
= 3L*
 L2 = 1 0 (  l ) n .
v
n+2
n+1
n
n+2 
3H
n+l
+ H
2(l) n + 1 (H?  H l H o  H) ,
where
H 0 = H ,, + H ,
n+2
n+1
n
n = 0, 1,
Thus,, (1)
s F and (b) for H = L .
& gives (a) for H
n
n
n
n
1972]
221
Also solved by Richard Blaze/, Herta T. Freitag, Ralph Garfield, J. A. H. Hunter, C. B. A. Peck, A. G.
Shannon, and the Proposer.
FURTHER GENERALIZATION
B209 Proposed by V. Hoggatt, Jr., San Jose State College, San Jose, California
In the paper quoted in B208, there is given Eq. (3el) on p 245 which
states that
(1)
where
n+2
n+1
<2>
K+ 2  6 P U
+p
i = 2(  1 > n+1
Since
%+2
2 (
Vl
+ Q
(3)
Q^ +2  6Q^ + 1
< = 4(l) n .
Also solved by Herta T. Freitag, Ralph Garfield, A. G. Shannon, and the Proposer.
222
[Feb.
Let Fi = F 2 = 1 and
^ = Fn+1 + F .
P r o v e that
S > 803/240,
where
 * * *
Solution by Peter A. Lindstrom, Genesee Community College, Batavia,New York.
C o n s i d e r the finite s u m S ,
n'
where
Sn = (1/Ft) + (1/F2) + . . .
+(1/Fn)
+ 4*
55
and hence 240 S^ > 803.
+ 2 ^ + 151+
* 89
144
1Z
233
'
be the n
Solve the r e c u r r e n c e
D _ = 2D + F 0 J / l
n+1
n
2n+l
subject to the initial condition D 4 = 1.
1972]
223
Composite of solutions by Herta T. Freitag, Ho//ins, Virginia, and R. Garfield, College of Insurance,
New York, New York.
The condition D 2 = 3 i s u n n e c e s s a r y and is indeed false since the r e c u r r e n c e gives D 2 = 2DA + F 3 = 21 + 2 = 4.
By w r i t i n g a few t e r m s in the D sequence it i s e a s y to show that
D
n+1
2nD1 + 2 n
F 3 + 2n
F 5 + + 2F0 , + F r
2nl
2n+l *
2n+2
Give e x a m p l e s of i n t e r e s t i n g functions
f(m,n)
(One e x a m p l e i s f(m,n) = m n
and
n(n  l ) / 2 .
g(n)
E P S Editor 1 s Note.
f(m,n)
Solver
Proposer
mn
Herta T. Freitag
mn
Herta T. Freitag
g(m)
()  mto  l)/2
m(m + c)/2,
g(m)g(n)
 1,
2mn
John W. Milsom
3mn(m + n)
Phil Maria
^ (
constant
John W. Milsom
constant
log(m!)
224
Feb. 1972
Let T
Then the subsets can be divided into two types, those with p absent
= F
l0
n+2
= T
n1n
+ T
n2
the n
Lucas number.
Also solved by Sister Marion Belter, Herta T. Freitag, and the Proposer.