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The Fibonacci Quarterly

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- Fibonacci Sequence
- Rsa Algorithm
- Lab Exercises Chapter 4
- Gould
- Sample_Questions_Aptitude.pdf
- SN-book9
- The general term of the prime number sequence and the Smarandache prime function
- Number Theory Problem Set 0
- 11-3
- RP-27: Formulation of Solutions of a Class of Congruence of Prime-Power Modulus of Higher Degree
- aux
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You are on page 1of 114

THE FIBONACCI ASSOCIATION

,&%^

,$>/

/g/^^m^J\%\

VOLUME 10

\ \

^ p ^ / /

NUMBER 4

CONTENTS

PART I ADVANCED

A Generalized Fibonacci Sequence .

The Coefficients of cosh x / cos x .

,_ , v = 0 (mod p)

. .

345

to a Theorem of Hermite with Extension to Fibonomials

. . .

.

Lawrence F. Somer

H. W. Gould

Zeckendorf

355

365

of Fibonacci Numbers . . . . . . .

Representations of Automorphic Numbers ,

Pell Number Triples

H.W. Gould

381

= d W n + 1 - CW Q .

375

* David Zeitlin

Ernst M. Cohn

397

403

Triangle with Generalizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #

Advanced Problems and Solutions

. . . . * . . * . *

Williams 405

Rex H. Shudde

413

422

PART II ELEMENTARY

Introduction to Patton Polygons

. . . . . . . . . . .

423

..

Ye Olde Fibonacci Curiosity Shoppe .

Elementary Problems and Solutions

OCTOBER

........

. . . . . . .

.

AndrewFeinherg

433

435

Brother Alfred Brousseau 441

1972

THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE FIBONACCI ASSOCIATION

DEVOTED TO THE STUDY

OF INTEGERS WITH SPECIAL PROPERTIES

EDITORIAL BOARD

H. L. Alder

Marjorie Bicknell

John L. Brown, J r .

Brother A. Brousseau

L. Carlitz

H. W. Eves

EL W. Gould

A, P . Hillman

V. E. Hoggatt, J r .

Donald E. Knuth

D. A. Lind

C. T. Long

M. N. S. Swamy

D. E. Thoro

T e r r y Brennan

Maxey Brooke

Paul F . Byrd

Calvin D. Crabill

John H. Hal ton

A. F . Horadam

Dov Jarden

Stephen Jerbic

L. H. Lange

J a m e s Maxwell

Sister M. DeSales McNabb

De W. Robinson

Azriel Rosenfeld

Lloyd Walker

Charles H. Wall

The California Mathematics Council

.St.

Mary's College 9 California. All checks ($6.00 p e r year) should be made out to the Fibonacci

Association or the Fibonacci Quarterly. Manuscripts intended for publication in the Q u a r t e r ly should be sent to Verner E. Hoggatt, J r . , Mathematics Department, San Jose State UNIVERSITY

San J o s e , CaJifi.

Drawings

should be made the same size as they will appear in the Quarterly, and should be done in

India ink on either vellum or bond paper.

The Quarterly is entered as t h i r d - c l a s s mail at the St. Mary 's College JPost Office, Calif. ,

as an official publication of the Fibonacci Association.

P. S. FISHER

Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas

and

E. E. KOHLBECKER

SvlcMurray College, Jacksonville, Illinois

Since the year 1202 when Leonardo Pisano originated the Fibonacci sequence, many interesting results have been obtained [4] a The sequence is usually defined

F 0u = 0

Fi1 = 1

F = F , + F 0

n

n-1

n-2

for n ^

2 .

C 0" - fr i)

In this paper we generalize the usual definition of the Fibonacci numbers and the m a t r i x r e lation., and exhibit some of the many relationships which hold for elements of the generalized

sequence,

Consider the following definitions for a generalized sequence.

Definition 1. The k

lowing conditions:

b.

ae

F nu = Fi1 = - = F, . = 0

k-1

Fk_x = 1

c,

and

F . = 0 for all i 2= 1

-l

k

= )

n

F

J

for n >

n-i

i=l

If we relax the condition as specified in p a r t a of Definition 1, we obtain the followingDefinition 2. A sequence whose m e m b e r s (denoted . ) satisfy the following two con

o r d e r Fibonacci sequence

a. F*. = a. for 0 < i ^ k - 1 where a. is an a r b i t r a r y number,

l

b.

F? = " y ^ F ... .

n

n

Z^J n - 1

i=l

the generalized k

o r d e r sequence*

337

338

[Oct.

Definition 3. A sequence which satisfies the following three conditions will be called an

r

a. A r = 0 for 0 < i < k - 2,

b. A

r-1

= A. ,

k-1

=1

c Ar = y vi i - 1.

n

/i=lJ

i ^ r - 1

for n ^ k .

n-i

In the following, the superscript of F. will be left off if it is clear from the context

that we a r e concerned with the k

Property 1.

= F ^

Property 2. F ^

order sequence.

= ^(k-l)

Property 3. F ^ k = 2 k - 1

+ X

f r

for all

k >

k > 2

X

k ^ 2.

r

th

Theorem 1. If A is an element in the r

auxiliary sequence of order

F. is an element of the corresponding k

o r d e r Fibonacci sequence, then

Ar = F + F - + + F

,i + F

n

n

n-1

n-r+1

n-r

Proof.

k,

and if

for n ^ k.

(1)

By Definition 1,

(2)

2Xi

2 ,

JCVX

i=0

and by Definition 2,

(3)

-SXJ

3=1

But since r is defined in the range 0 ^ r ^ k - 2 then there is an element A. . in (3) such

that k - Ji = r - 1 . F r o m the definition of A. we know

i

r-1

and all the remaining elements a r e zero.

k-1

Therefore

1972

339

yAr. = 2

3=1

Suppose that for k =s n ^ m the theorem is true s then for

n = m + l,

we will also

A r + A r + . . . + A1* ^ .

m+l-k

m

m-1

A r . - > A r

ni+1

ZmJ m + l - j

3=1

(4)

Am = F m + F m - 11 + - . . + F m - r

A

= F

- + F

0 + ... + F

m-1

m-2

m-r-1

m-1

A

=F

+ F

+ + F

r

m+l-k

m+l-k

m-k

m+l-k-r

and adding the columns we obtain

k

Zmmd

m - i + 1

i=l

ZmJ

m-j+1

j=l

3=1

= F

A

. + + \ ^ F

V F

r+1

3=1

_,- + F

+ ... + F

,m+1

m

m-r+1

m+1

Lemma 1, The following three identities hold for elements of the auxiliary sequences

for m 2: k and 1 < r ^ k - 2.

A,

B.

Co

-\ = F

m-1

m

- A'"1 = F

m

m

m-r

Ar - Ar , = -F

i + F

m

m-1

m-r-1

m

A

0

--

., -

ee

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

340

then

n-1

An1 - 1-

n-1

A1

n

"n+1

[Oct.

.k-2

n-1

^k-2

n

,k-2

n+1

n+1

"n+2

Qn =

F

n+k-4

F

n+k-3

F

n+k-2

A1

n+k-4

A1

n+k-3

A1

n+k-2

Ak"2

n+k-4

Ak~2

n+k-3

Ak"2

n+k-2

n+k-4

\r

n+k-3

n+k-2

n+k-3

F

*n+k-2

F

n+k-1

o r d e r sequence and

r

th

the A - a r e the corresponding t e r m s of the r

auxiliary sequence of that same o r d e r .

Proof. This theorem can be proved by induction on n. With n = 2, Q2 is

Q2 *

1 0

1 1 1 1

1 2

A*

4" 2 ',

F

*k-2

A1

k-2

F

*k-l

F,

A1

A

k-1

A}

k-2

k-2

Ak-2

A

k-1

k

A -2

k

k-1

"k+1

Qm+1 = Q . Qm .

m

But examining the effect of multiplying Q with Q , it is obvious that the first k - 1

rows

The k

row of Q

is

m

obtained by summing the columns of Q , which using definitions 1 and 3 produces the d e sired result.

Theorem 3. If n = k,

then

2L$Fi

n+k+l

k - 1 + 2l*<r lF n+i

i=l

i=l

2>.--rfr*Z

i=l

i*l

;i - D Fn+i

1972]

Proof.

th

341

Qx

(1)

i*l

^ Q

(2)

= (Q - I.) ^ ( Q 1 1 - I)

i=l

be

-(k - 2)

-(k - 3)

-(k - k)

-(k - 3)

-(k - k)

-(k - (k + 1))

-(k - k)

-(k - (k + 1))

-(k - k)

-(k - (k + 1))

k - 1

-(k - (k + 1))

1

(3)

-(k - (k + 1))

k - 1

^n+1

If we multiply the first row of (3) against the last column of Q

- Q we obtain the element

in the (l,k) position which r e p r e s e n t s the desired sum

2>.

i=l

Z*>

rrZ-(k-i-1)(Fn+i-Fi)

i =1

=l

i=l

k

k - 1

i=l

(4)

k

F

*rt

+ 2 +

1F

E r r E 1 F n"n+1

k TTE

i

+i-lT

i=l

i=l

i=l

iF

n+k+1

i=l

n+i

342

[Oct.

k

JLmJ n+i

i=l

for F

. -,

Using the method given in the proof of Theorem 3, it is obvious that an expression similar to that given in this theorem, can be given for the sum

F.+. -

for

1 < j - 1 < k

and

n> k

i=l

which is

Z-/

i=l

i+j-l

k - l / j

i=l

n+i

k - 1

Z-f

i=j

n+i

n

zLf

i=l

Proof.

k

F

ki+j

F

~ " T 2Lr * F n k + k - l " ^

nk+i-l "

i=l

i=j+l

n

] T Qki

(1)

i=l

We can obtain the desired sum

n

2^

i=l

ki+j

in the (k, j) position of the matrix representing the sum given in (1).

n

J ] Q k i = Qk[l+Qk

(2)

... + Q ( n - 1 ) k ]

i=l

= (Q k - I ) _ 1 Q k ( Q n k - 1)

k - 1

1972]

343

.k

- X

k-1

- X

k-2

X -

k-1

and since Q

always has a factor Q - I5 we can write

Q k _ 1 = (Q - I ) ( Q k _ 1 + Q k " 2 + . . . + Q + I)

However

Q

" l + Qk-2

+ eem + Q

Qk

therefore

Q k - 1 = Q k (Q - I)

and thus

(Q k - I ) " 1 Q k ( Q n k - I) = (Q - I)~ 1 (Q n k - I)

(3)

- I with the j

row of (Q - I)~

we obtain the

desired result.

Theorem 5.

k-2

+ A

F ,

=F

- F + F F ,,

m+n

m-1 n

m n+k - l Z m - l

i=l

n+i

Note.

If k = 2 then F

m+n

= F

-F + F ,-F

which is a well-known result of the

m-1 n

n+1 m

Proof.

Theorem 6.

If B is the matrix

'o

Fi

Aj

A!

.k-2

^0

...

Af

A^"

,k-2

F

A1

*k-2 Ak-2

F

A1

* k-1 ^ k - 1

K-2

.

A Li

k-2

Ak-2

k-2

Fi

F2

F3

k-1

Since

344

Oct. 1972

r

th

where the A. , (1 ^ r ^ k - 2) a r e the elements of the r

auxiliary sequence of o r d e r k9

and if Q~ is the matrix

n-1

"n-1

Anr

n+k--3

" n-fk-3

A

"n+k-2

then Q ~ B = Q~

Proof.

..

Fn

"

n+k-2

F

n+k- -2

n+k-l_

Theorem 2.

Using the results of Theorem 6 for the generalized Fibonacci sequence, it is possible

to obtain theorems for this sequence corresponding to Theorems 3, 4, 5. These corresponding theorems a r e stated here without proof.

Theorem 7.

n

E*.

" F n+k+l

,k + i k ^ r Z i ( F J n+1

i=l

Theorem 8. If 1 < j < k - 1, and if n >: k,

- F . ) for n ^ k.

l

i=l

then

IX+]

F ) +

F^X^nk+i " i

i=l

i=l

i=J

k-1

ZJ

ki

i=l

i ( F . _,. - F . ) - (k - 2 ) ( F , _,,,. - F. )

nk+i

I

(n+l)k

k

i=l

Theorem 9.

k-2

=F

m+n

F + F F

+ / /

m-1 n

m n+k+1

i=l

F ,.

m - 1 n+i

for

m,n ^ 1

nd

There are many known relations involving the elements of the usual or 2

onacci sequence. A partial list of these relations appear in [4].

izing many of these relations to the t e r m s of either the k

order Fib-

o r d e r or the generalized k

order sequence, the relations become quite involved; but in each case a corresponding formula holds in the more general situation.

[Continued on page 354. ]

^ 0 (mod p)

LAWRENCE E.SOMER

1266 Parkwood Drive, No. Merrick, New York

th

p-wp;

p

the p

Fibonacci number, and (5/p) is the Legendre symbol. Three different proofs of

this theorem a r e given in [1] , [ 2 ] , and [3].

My method of proof of this theorem is based on the restricted periods of generalized

Fibonacci sequences reduced modulo p and the existence of what I call Fibonacci groups

modulo certain p r i m e s .

Look at the congruence: a + ax = ax2 (mod p). This implies

(mod p).

Solving for

ax' ~

+ ax

x iff

= ax

5 is a

p) will generate the successive t e r m s : (1, x, x 2 , , x11, ) and we will have a Fibonacci group.

As an example of a Fibonacci group, solve x = (1 ^ 5)/2

(1 4 ) / 2

(mod 11).

We see

x =

(mod 11) = 4 or 8 (mod 11). If x = 4 (mod 11), we get the group (1, 4, 5, 0, 3)

In each case

each term is the sum of the preceding two t e r m s (mod 11) and is a constant multiple of the

preceding term.

Definitions.

reduced modulo p; Et = a,

H2 = b; H

{H } is periodic modulo p.

with (a,b) modulo p. That i s , fx(a, b, p) is the least positive integer n such that H

Also, let or (a, b, p) be the restricted period of {H } (mod P).

the least positive integer m such that H

= sH Q and H

+1

Thus, #(a, b, p) is

Let s(a, b, p) = s (mod p); s(a, b, p) will be called the multiplier of { H n ) (mod p).

Theorem 1. If the initial pair (a,b) of {H n } (0, 0), (a, a(l + \lb)/2),

\/"5)/2) (modp), then or (a, b, p) = a(l9 1, p),

s(a, b, p) = s ( l , 1, p),

or (a, a(l -

and ti (a, b, p) =

M(l 1. P).

Proof.

p from

Ft

to F ^ ^

(mod p) as a consecutive pair of t e r m s .

pair determines each term that follows and precedes by the recursion relation, and each

G. F . S. is periodic modulo p.

345

346

One can continue this process until all the p

, ,

E 0 (mod p)

[Oct.

We shall

Lemma 1. Any linear combination of two G. F. S. f s yields a G. F . S.

Proof.

rG

( H }, be two G. F. STs.

Let ( G } ,

L

nJ '

nJ

Then

- + sH - + rG + sH = r(G - + G ) + s(H - + H ) = rG ,- + sH ,- ,

n-1

n-1

n

n

n-1

n

n-1

n

n+1

n+1

Now, we can express any pair of t e r m s (a,b) as (b - a):

(F 0 , F t ) + a ( F l s F 2 ) = (b - a)(0,1) + a ( l , l ) = (b - a , a ) f J J j .

Lemma 2. F o r all G. F . S. ( H } ,

(I

Proof.

W,l,p)+l>

a(l,l,p)+2)

Let a(l, 1, p) = n.

(F

s(l,l,p)(a,b);

a = H1?

b = H2 ,

Then

njFn+l)

~ s(l,l,p)(F0,

Tt)

and

(Fn+1, Fn+2)

by definition.

s s ( l , l , p ) ( F 1 , F2)

(modp),

But

n+1 n+2

n ' n+1

n+1' n+2

= (b - a J s d . l . p X F o . F i ) + ( a ) s ( l , l , p ) ( F i , F 2 ) = s ( l , l , p ) ( a , b )

(modp).

This proof is exactly the same as that for Lemma 2. It is interesting to note that this

corollary implies that length of a Fibonacci group ^ /i(l, l , p ) .

Lemma 3.

If b ^ a(l ^ 5 ) / 2 ,

(Note that if

(a,b) =

(F 1? F 2 ) = (1,1), then b ^ a(l +. \H})/2 (mod p) since this implies that N/ 5 = +1. (mod p),

which is false for p ^ 3.)

Proof. Assume that this assertion is false for some { H } ,

Let a ( a , b , p ) = n. By Lemma 2, n < f l : ( l , l , p ) .

(H

n+l' n+2

Let F

"

where

Then

s a

( ^ , p ) ( a , b ) = (b - a ) ( F n , F n + 1 ) + a ( F n + 1 > F R + 2 )

- = x-FA = x and F

b ^ a(l */5)/2.

= y-F 2 = y; x ^ y since n

<

a(l,lsp).

(modp) .

Then

1972]

H

n + 2 _ s(a,b,p)b

Hn+1

s(a,b,p)a

b

a

(b

. _ , , s 0 (mod p)

p-w/p)

347

- a ) F n + l + aFn+2

(b - a ) F n + a F n + 1

( b - a ) F n + 1 + aFn+2

(b - a)x + ay

" (b - a ( F n + 2 - F n + 1 ) + a F n + 1 " (b - a)(y - x) + ax

(mod

,

P>"

Thus,

b

a

bx - ax + ay

by - ay - bx + 2ax

,

, .

< m o d P> '

(a,b) = (0,0) o r (a,b) = (0,k), k ^ 0 (modp).

and if (a,b) = (0,k),

- ) =0

(mod p).

If a E 0, then

Since the

residues modulo p form a field, there a r e no divisors of 0 and a multiple of the Fibonacci

sequence will have the same restricted period.

tradiction.

If H

The congruence

lb _

bx - ax + ay

a " by - ay - bx + 2ax

.

^

b 2 (y - x) - ab(y - x) - a 2 (y - x) = 0 (mod p) .

contradiction.

Q. E . D .

Corollary.

With the help of the three lemmas and their corollaries, Theorem 1 is now proved.

We are now ready to prove the main theorem that

F _/ 5 / D \ =

(mod p).

Of the p 2

one pair

(0,0)

forms the trivial sequence (0, 0, 0, ) . We will now look at the p - 1 p a i r s remaining.

If (5/p) = 1, then there a r e two solutions to the congruence: x = (1 \fE)/2,

can form two Fibonacci groups.

and we

(p - D / k j ,

(i = 1, 2). If we count the k. non-zero multiples of each group, there will be 2(p - 1) p a i r s

of t e r m s in some non-zero multiple of a Fibonacci group.

That leaves

p 2 - 1 - 2(p - 1) =

(p - l ) 2 p a i r s remaining.

We will say that two restricted periods belong to the same equivalence class if some

pair of consecutive t e r m s of one restricted period is a non-zero multiple of a pair of another

restricted period reduced modulo p.

multiples of each restricted period.

p - 1 non-zero

348

periods of length a ( l , l , p ) .

lence c l a s s e s :

, g , , s 0 (mod p)

Oct. 1972

(p - l)(k) or(l,l,p) = (p - l ) 2 ,

and af(l,l,p) = (p - l ) / k .

no divisors of 0 (mod p), only t e r m s which are multiples of (p - l ) / k will be E 0 (mod p).

In particular,

. = 0 (mod p).

Excluding the trivial pair (0,0), there a r e p 2 - 1 - (p - 1) p a i r s which a r e not m e m b e r s of

multiples of Fibonacci groups (mod p). Then p(p - 1) = (p - l)(k) a ( l , l , p ) , and # ( l , l , p ) =

p/k.

= 0 (mod p).

Thus, or(l,l,p) = (p + l ) / k ,

and F

+1

s 0 (modp).

as one which satisfies the recursion relation: J

Q. E. D.

- = aJ

+ bJ

-; a , b positive integers. In

accordance with the notation of Robert P. Backstrom [ 4 ] , I will call the Fibonacci-like s e quence beginning with (l,a) the p r i m a r y sequence.

If b ^ 0 (modp),

then by the r e c u r -

b ^ 0 (modp),

Thus, if

= 0 (mod p). It should be noted that only in multiples of a p r i m a r y sequence will all but a

finite number of p r i m e s (excepting possibly only those p r i m e s that divide

b) divide some

We can form a Fibonacci-like group analogous to the Fibonacci group by solving the

congruence: be + acx = ex 2 (mod p) for x; x = (a ^ a 2 + 4 b ) / 2 .

As an example of such a

1, if p = 17, then a solution of x = (1 \ / 1 3 ) / 2 = (1 8)/2 (mod 17) is x = 13 mod 17,

and this gives r i s e to the Fibonacci-like group (1, 13, 16, 4).

As before, any a r b i t r a r y Fibonacci-like sequence is the linear combination of two p r i m a r y sequences.

is a p r i m a r y sequence, then

Let a2 + 4b = k.

o(!i)-

to the one above, we can prove the theorem: J _,, / , = 0 (mod p) if { J } is the p r i m a r y

sequence.

If a ^ 0 (modp), b = 0 (modp),

x E (a Nla2 + 4b)/2 = (a + N/ a 2 ) / 2

we see that x = a or 0 (modp).

(mod p) ,

[Continued on page 354. ]

(l,a)

will be

J.M. GANDHI and V.S. TAMEJA

Department of Mathematics, Western Illinois University, Macomb, Illinois

1.

S?

by the generating

function

oo s x 2 n

cosh x _ Y ^ 2n

cos x

Z J

(2n)t

n=0

(1)

1 ;

The coefficients

[l],

[ 4 ] , [5], Gandhi and Ajaib Singh [ 6 ] 9 Krick [7], Raab [8] and Salie [9],

[2], Gandhi

In the present

(2)

S 4 n + 2 = 52 (mod 100)

for

n> 0

2.

<3>

4n+2 = 2 . r i 4 r ) ^ r + l 2 2 r S 4 n + 2 - 4 r

r=l

24n+1

Assume that (2) is true for any n > 0 and we shall prove that it is true for n + 5. Since S 6 ,

Si 0 , , S 4 n _ 2 = 52 (mod 100), and S2 = 2, Eq. (3) yields

n-1

S

4n + 2 *

52

E

(^r

r=l

J ("1)r+l22r

^

'

(mod 100)

n

52 'E

(4n4r

) ("Dr+122r +/ 4 n 4 t

) (-if+^fr

- 5 2 ] + 2 4 n + 1 (mod 100).

r=l

Since n > 0, the second t e r m on the right is divisible by 100 and therefore

349

350

n

4n'

5 2

s (** 2)<

>:i~.:'H-D"12

2 r

*24

+ 1

r=l

n

n

2 2>

Dr ^+ V ^ 1 + 2 4n+1

o 4 >;'( f4 V

s* i104

4 ; ) (\ -(i->

(4)

r=l

4r

/4n + 2 \

2 > *(** , + 2 \ ( - l ) r + 1 2 2 r

E

r =A

l

24n+1

(mod 100)

2A + 2 4 n + 1 (mod 100)

where

2) ( - i )

/,: )

- E (*"*

4

A = >:

r=l

22t

and Q8 = +1, where i = \ P L

r f l

Now

,4n+2

(1 +WX)

4n+2

x~^ / 4 n + 2\ r

r j

2J

(

r=0

and

.4n+2

(1 - ox)

4n+2

v ^ /4n + 2\ ,

= 2^ I

lXr

J (-1)

w x

r=0

Adding these two expansions we get

(5)

(1 + a)x) 4 n + 2 + (1 - cox)4114"2

In (5) replace x by

(6)

NPTX

/4n + 2 \

E

r=0

yi

22r x 2 r

to

(1 + N I - I M X ) ^ 2 + (1 - NT-lo>x)

liaid 4n+2 = \y ^* A n + 2 \ (,_ n1 ,) r uu2 r

L , [ 2r J ^

r=0

Adding (5) and (6) and letting x = \f2 it is easy to see that

x2r

1972]

(7)

A = 1 - \ [(1 + u ^

+ (1 -

^)4n+2

(1 +

+ (1 -

351

N/ZrNg)

^^2)

4n+2

4 n + 2

A = 1 - *. [(2 + D 4 n + 2 + ( " D 4 n + 2 + W 4 n + 2 + (2 - D 4 n + 2 ] = 1 -{ [(3 + 4 i ) 2 n + 1 + (3 - 4 i ) 2 n + 1 - 2 ].

Using this expression for A, Eq. (4) becomes

(8)

S^^

= 3 - 4 - [ ( 3 + 4 i ) 2 n + 1 + (3 - 4 i ) 2 n + 1 ] + 2 4 n + 1

(mod 100) .

a

TC+20

Proof.

Trivial.

24n+1

(9)

24(n+5)+1

(mod 100) .

(10) ^{(3 + 4 i ) 2 n + 1 + (3 - 4 i ) 2 n + 1 }

H O + 4 i ) 2 n + 1 1 + (3 - 4 i ) 2 n + 1 1 }

(mod 100) .

It is easy to see that the above congruence holds for modulus 4 hence we need to prove that

(3

4i)2n+1

(3 - 4 i ) 2 n + 1 ,

(3

41)2n+11

(3 - 4 i ) 2 n + 1 1

(mod 25) ,

or

(11)

(3 + 4 i ) 2 n + 1 {(3 + 4 i ) 1 0 - 1 }+ (3 - 4 i ) 2 n + 1 {(3 - 4 i ) 1 0 - 1 } - 0

(12)

(3 + 4 i ) 1 0 - 1 = 4(3 - 4i)

(mod 25)

(3 - 4 i ) 1 0 - 1 = 4(3 + 4i)

(mod 25) .

and

Let

(13)

(3 + 4 i ) 2 n + 1 = c + id,

(3 - 4 i ) 2 n + 1 = c - id .

/2n +

{ 2r

E

r=0

x

l \ 32n+l-2r(_1}r

'

(mod 25) .

352

[Oct.

and

32n+l-(2r+l)(_1)r

r=0

Proof.

c =

j(-2)2n+1-2r(-Dr

- i>L; Ii :2r: ;+: I T

(mod 5>

/ 2 n + l \ 0 2 n + l - 2 r / 1Nr

2

(-1)

.

, _

(mod 5)x

r=0

'

I

E

r=0 >

2r J

*

(1 - 2 i ) 2 n + 1 H- (1

2i)2n+1

5 = (1 + 2i)(l - 2i)

and hence

c = 0 (mod 1 + 2i),

which is not true and hence c ^ 0 (mod 5). Similarly it can be proved that d ^ 0 (mod 5).

Moreover from (13) we have

(14)

c 2 + d2 = ( 2 5 ) 2 n + 1 E 0 (mod 25) .

Since c ^ 0, d ^ 0 (mod 5) it is easy to see that (c,d) = 1 and hence there exist a number a such that

(15)

ad

(mod 25) .

(16)

3c + 4d = 0

(mod 25) .

(b) a = 18

(mod 25).

prove that condition (a) can only be satisfied and thus will reject condition (b).

(b) is satisfied, i. e. , c = 18d (mod 25) or

(17)

3d

(mod 5) .

1 + a2 = 0

We then

Assume that

1972

(1 - 2 i ) 2 n + 1

(1 H- 2 i ) 2 n + 1

353

(mod 5) .

2i

D

^ .,2n+l , /n

-2n+l

</n 3 _ ^0i )

+ (1 - 021)

( m o d 5)

Substituting these expressions in (17) it can be easily proved that (17) will not even hold for

modulus (1 + 2i) or (1 - 2i). Hence (17) is impossible and condition (b) cannot be satisfied.

Therefore condition (a) has to be satisfied and hence c = 7d (mod 25). Using this congruence we find that (16) is satisfied and hence we have proved the truth of (10).

results and (9), from (8) we get S 4 n + 2 = S 4 n + 2 2

and therefore S 4

+22

(mod 100).

But S

Using these

= 52

(mod 100)

= 52 (mod 100) and hence if (2) is true for n > 0 it is also true for

up to S

n = 1, 2, 3,

4. Also using (3) we verify that S22 = 52 (mod 100). Thus by the usual method of induction

(2) has been established.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank P r o f e s s o r L. Carlitz, whose helpful comments were instrumental in removing some e r r o r s in our results.

REFERENCES

1.

136.

2.

3. J. M. Gandhi, "The Coefficients

pp. 185-191.

4. J. M. Gandhi, "The Coefficients

5. J. M. Gandhi, "Sixth Interval Formula for the Coefficients of cosh x / c o s x," C o m m u n i cated for Publication.

6. J. M. Gandhi and A jaib Singh, "Fourth Interval Formulae for the Coefficients of cosh x /

c o s x , " Monatshefte fur Mathematik, Vol. 70 (1966), pp. 327-329.

7. M. S. Krick, "The Coefficients

of cosh x / c o s x , "

37-40.

8. Werner Raab, "Teilbarkeitseigenschaften verallgemeinerter Tangential-koeffizienten,"

C r e l l ' s Journal, Vol. 241 (1970), pp. 7-14.

9. H. Salie, "Arithmetische Eigenchaften d e r Koeffizienten einer Speziellen Hurwitzschen

P o t e n z r e i h e , " Wissenchaftliche Zeitacheift d e r Karl-Mark-Universitat Leipzig 12.

Jahrgang 1973, Math. Naturwiss. Reihe, Heft 3, pp. 617-618.

354

Oct. 1972

REFERENCES

1. G. P. Mostow, J. H. Sampson, and J. P . Mryer, Fundamental Structures of Algebra,

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963.

2. D. C. Murdoch, Linear Algebra for Undergraduates, John Wiley and Sons, New York,

1957.

3.

4.

2 , " Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1963, pp. 65-67,-Vol. 1, No. 2, 1963, pp. 61-68.

[Continued from page 348. ]

If a = 0, b ^ 0 (modp),

one on will be E 0 (mod p) and this sequence will satisfy the theorem since

J

If a = 0, b ^ 0 (modp),

,. / , = J = 0

p-(k/p)

p

(mod p)

F .

'

p-1,

the

I will close the paper by investigating which t e r m s of p r i m a r y sequence a r e divisible

by the prime 2. If a,b a r e both odd, we obtain the repetitive sequence

J

= J

(mod

(1,1,0,-)

and

2)

2+l

'

If a is odd and b is even, then { J } is a Fibonacci-like group (mod 2) and we get

If a is even and b odd, we get the sequence ( l , 0 , l , 0 , l , 0 , - - )

and J ? = J ? + 0 = 0

(mod 2).

If a,b a r e both even., we obtain the sequence ( 1 , 0 , 0 , 0 , * ) and J 2 = 0 (mod 2).

Note. The Fibonacci group was pointed out to me by Stan P e r l o , currently a graduate

student at the University of Michigan.

REFERENCES

1. John H. Halton, "On the Divisibility P r o p e r t i e s of Fibonacci Numbers," Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 3, O c t 1966.

2. D. W. Robinson, "The Fibonacci Matrix Modulo m , " Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 1, No.

2, Apr. 1963, pp. 29-37.

3.

Ed. ,

4.

Robert P . Backstrom,

5. Burton W. Jones, The Theory of Numbers, Holt, Reinhart and Winston, New York, 1964,

pp. 76-84.

^^o^o^,

TO A THEOREM OF HERMITE WITH EXTENSION TO FIBONOMIALS

H.W.GOULD

W. Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

1.

INTRODUCTION

Henry Mann and Daniel Shanks [4] have found a new n e c e s s a r y and sufficient condition

for a number to be a p r i m e .

made by moving each row in the usual Pascal a r r a y two places to the right from the previous

row.

k = 0, 1, , n,

nth

Divisibility Property if each entry in the column is divisible by the corresponding row number.

Then the new criterion is that the column number is a prime if and only if the column has the

Row Divisibility Property.

Column Number

0

0

1

13

14

15

10

10

15

20

15

21

35

35

21

28

56

10

11

12

16

17

18

19

2

3

4

5

1 4

6

7

8

9

Row

Number

The Displaced A r r a y

We wish to show h e r e that by relabelling the a r r a y it is easy to relate the new criterion

with a theorem of Hermite on factors of binomial coefficients.

displaced Fibonomial a r r a y .

cients is treated.

355

356

2.

[Oct.

THEOREMS OF HERMITE

(2.1)

^

(m

and

<">

where

Srri7Hr|(n)

(a,b)

and b.

(2.3)

L

-pr-j

--7 = 0

a. D. c.

mod T r;

? , where a + b + + c = m .

^a, D, * * , c)

These theorems have been used in many ways to derive results in number theory.

For

0

for each k with 1 ^ k ^ p - 1 provided that p is a p r i m e .

proofs of Wilson T s criterion and F e r m a t ' s congruence.

n + 1

Catalan sequence, is of considerable importance in combinatorics and graph theory, and the

r e a d e r may consult the historical note of Brown [l] for details.

F o r the sake of completeness we wish to include proofs of (2.1) and (2.2) to show how

easily they follow from the Euclidean algorithm.

By the Euclidean algorithm we know that there exist integers A and B such that

(m,n) = d = mA + nB .

1972]

357

Therefore

ri (m - l)(m - 2) fan - n + 1)

/m\

, /m - l\ _

mE ,

f|()

as stated in (2.1). This is essentially Hermite f s proof [3, 415-416, Letter of 17 April 1889],

Similarly, there exist integers C and D such that

(m + l , n ) = d = (m + 1)C + nD .

Rearranging,

d = (m - n + 1)C + (C + D)n .

Therefore

, m(m - 1) * (m -

L =

W c + ^ ^ C + D j c ^ F . a n l n t e g e r ,

(m - n + 1)F ,

so that

m

n + 1 I (m\

I

\[n)

The usefulness of Hermite ! s theorems suggested to me that one might get p a r t of the

results of Mann and Shanks from them.

3.

Leaving the a r r a y arranged as before, it is easy to see that we may restate the condition of Mann and Shanks in the form

358

(3.1)

[Oct.

( n

)

\k - 2ny

for all integers n such that k / 3 ^ n ^ k / 2 . If we take all entries in the a r r a y other than

the binomial coefficients to be z e r o , we can say n for all n. M

By Hermite's theorem (2.1) we have in general

(n,k - 2n)

for all integers 2n ^ k ^ 3n.

I (k - 2n)

Equivalently,

) = nE ,

^ k - 2n)

for some integer E.

Let k = p r i m e .

\ k - 2n J

The case n = k offers no difficulty since we are only interested in k / 3 ^ n ^ k / 2 .

The

n

y k - 2n J

when 2|k or 3|k so one must consider p r i m e columns that occur for k of form 6j + 1.

4.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

5

6

10

15

1

4

10

20

1

5

15

1

6

row:

1972]

359

(4.1)

I \^2k + i y

for every

k = 0, l f

-H("i k )Again, Hermite ! s theorem (2.1) is the clue for the proof that n - k is a factor when

2n + 1 is a p r i m e .

n - k

(n - k5 2k

J ^2k + i y

TTj

Equivalently ?

n

(n - k, 2k + D (( 22k

k '++ k1l j)

2(n - k),

i. e. ,

E.

Suppose

n - k j 2n + 1,

2n + 1 = p r i m e .

==

((nn

k)E

'

If n - k | 2k + 1,

then n - k.J 2k + 1 +

5.

"

aS

2k + l )

desired

"

QUESTIONS

It would be of interest to see whether (2,2) implies any similar r e s u l t s . We find in gene r a l that

and

/ro\

(5 2)

'

n - 3k

j / n - k \

(n - k i- i, 2k *1> I ( 2 k + i j

In (5.1) let n - 3k j (n - k + 1, 2k + 1 ) .

But n - 3 k | n - k + l

f0r

n ^

i ^-

- 1

* -S-

Then n - 3k | n - k + 1 and n - 3k | 2k + 1.

n - 3k J 2k + 1.

360

[Oct.

If then 2k + 1 = prime we again find that n - 3k must divide the binomial coefficient,

and

this gives us

(5.3)

2k + 1 = prime

implies

n - 3k

( "

(2k V*l )1

f01 all

for

n ^ 5k + 1 .

It is easy to find examples of composite 2k + 1 such that n - 3k is not a factor of the binomial coefficient; e.g. , take k = 7 and n = 24:

vT(s)

Other possibilities suggest themselves. Letting n - 3k | (n - k + 1, 2k + 1) gives again

n - 3 k | n - k + l whence also n - 3k j 3(n - k + 1) - (n - 3k) o r n - 3k | 2n + 3. If we then

take 2n + 3 = prime we again obtain a useful theorem.

It seems clear from just these samples that the theorems of Hermite can suggest quite

a variety of divisibility theorems, some of which may lead to c r i t e r i a similar to that of Mann

and Shanks. Whether any of these have any strikingly simple forms remains to be seen. One

possibility suggested by (2.2) is that

/n + k - l \

(n + k,k) f"

k " I = nE

divides

("i-1)

Result (5.3) is related to a theorem of Catalan [2, p. 265] to the effect that

ml n! J (m + n - 1):

provided (m,n) = 1.

Finally we wish to recall that some of the results here a r e related to a problem posed

by Erdos (with published solution by F. Herzog) [6] to the effect that for every k there exist infinitely many n such that

Catalan sequence).

(2n)!/nl(n + k)i

k = 1 yields the

In fact Erdos claimed a proof that the set of values of n such that this

6.

FIBONOMIAL TRIANGLE

It is tempting to try and extend the primality criterion to a r r a y s other than the binomial.

Consider the a r r a y of Fibonomial coefficients ofHoggatt [7] displaced in the same manner as

the a r r a y of Mann and Shanks:

1972]

0 1 2

0

3 4

7 8 9 10

11

12

5 15

13 14 15

16

361

17

18

19

1

1

1

1

1

2

1 2

2' 1

1

5

8

13

15

8 40

60

40

1 13

104

260

260

104

21

273

1092

34

21

34

Here the Fibonomial coefficients are defined by

F F n n-1

F F

*k*k-l

where F ,- = F

n-KL

+F

n-k+1

= 1

n-1

From

the above sampling, as well as from extended tables, one is tempted to conjecture that a column number is prime if and only if each Fibonomial coefficient in the column is divisible by

the corresponding row Fibonacci number.

(6.1)

k - 2n

(6.2)

w:

"m

u

1n

of integers A

coefficients by

(6.3)

In/

1M

n n-1

n-k+1

Vk-i- i

with h

= i

362

[Oct.

A

(6.4)

(ATA)

m' n

(A 1 , A ) = d = CA ^ + DA = C(A ^ - A ) + (D + C)A

m+1' n

m+1

n

m+1

n

n

can be applied only if also

m+1

o r something close.

m-n+1

| 2n

| n

F

a r e integers.

n+1

etc.

theorem such as

(6.5)

k = prime

implies

(6.6)

(A , A k _ 2 n ) = 1

when

k = p r i m e , and

F o r the Fibonacci numbers this is easy because of a known fact that in general

(6 7)

<V V

Thus we have

(F , F, _ 2 ) = F /

= F(a,b)

v so that for

k = prime

The Fibonomial displaced

a r r a y criterion then parallels the ordinary binomial case studied by Mann and Shanks.

Quite a few standard number-theoretic results have analogues in the Fibonomial case.

7.

Although we have just indicated that divisibility theorem (2.2) does not hold in general

for the generalized binomial coefficients, we now show that it does hold for the Fibonomial c o efficients.

1972]

363

F

" m-n+1

(7.1)

(F

m+l' V

We need to observe that (a - b,b) = (a,b). This follows, e. g. , from an easily proved

stronger assertion that

Let (F

- , F ) = d.

lemma,

(F

m+l' V

F

(m+l,n) =

(m-n+l,n)

n> =

xF

m-n+l

Therefore

m -n1

m-n+2

F F n . . . F1

=

n n-1

1

Jm.

<n

y / n - l

= E,

some integer,

- we obtain

E-F

m-n+1

' il

whence F

,, / d is indeed a factor

m-n+1

A s a valuable corollary we get the fact that the Fibonomial Catalan numbers a r e inte-

gers; this follows at once from (7.1) by setting m = 2n, and noting that

(F

- , F ) = 1,

so that we have

(7.2)

n+1

generated by

2n

UL

n+l

is the exact analogue of the familiar Catalan sequence 1, 1, 2, 5, 14, 42, 132, 429, 1430,

4862, 16796,

generated by

(n + 1)

A brief history of the Catalan sequence is given in [1]. A nice proof of (6.7) is given in [9].

364

Oct. 1972

It is not known whether there exist infinitely many Fibonacci numbers which a r e p r i m e s ,

but we may easily obtain congruences which such p r i m e s satisfy.

Let F

be a prime number.

m

(6.2) we obtain:

Then

(F

(8.1)

then

F J ^ l f o r l ^ n ^ m - l .

If F m = p r i m e ,

, F ) = 1 for

n

1 ^ n ^ m - 1.

Thus from

Now, it is known [10] that

(8.2)

(_1)k(k+l)/2

k=0

j m

--l_k

0>

^ 2

'

This &

generalizes such relations as F ,- - F - F . = 0, F 2

- 2F 2 - 2F 2 . + F 2 n = 0,

a+1

a

a-1

a+1

a

a-1

a-2

'

etc. See also Hoggatt [7]. Brother Alfred gives a useful table [10] of the Fibonomial coefficients up to m = 12. Identity (8.2) may be used with (8.1) to obtain an interesting congruence; for every t e r m in (8.2) is divisible by F

last terms.

(8.3)

when F

If F

m

= p r i m e , then F m _ 1 = _ ( _ 1 ) m ( m + 1 ) / 2 p 1 * 1 " 1

r

a

a_m

(8.4)

If F m = p r i m e ,

(mod F

m

)

"

>

then F~* = _ ( _ D m ( m + 1 ) / 2 ( m o d

F^)f

>

2m+l

Lj = 1,

and

- = L + L _-.

If we apply the extended Hermite theorem (8.1) to this, we obtain:

(8.6)

If F 2 m + 1 = p r i m e ,

then

m

T T L k = 2 (mod F 2 m + 1 )

k=0

E.ZECKENDORF

liege, Belgium

F ,-

(1)

m

= y

J,

n+2

= F

s=0

It can be shown, if we allow negative values of the subscript n that

(2)

= (-l) 1 1 " 1 . F

F

-n

.

n

n+2

n+1

is called a "generalized Fibonacci sequence. " As soon as the values of any two consecutive

terms t

= p and t

(4)

=P-

s-l

"*

n-s

P -

l - ^ V -

1 , S

'

Note that the subscript n is assumed to run from -<*> to + o in the generalized Fibonacci

sequences as well as in the sequence of Fibonacci numbers.

a. Whenever t and t ,. have the same sign, all t e r m s t

(s ^ 2) a r e positive

n

n+i

n+s

o r negative and their absolute value increases with s.

Let us take, for example, the sequence t

(Since

tt = a and t2 = a2,

^ = 1,

1 + <sf 5

= |3 , where

365

366

[Oct.

b. If one of the t e r m s t

and t

& termshav^e alternated

sume that It

I n|

J n+1)

| n+2|

| n|

| n+l|

signs.

Let us take, for example, the sequence t = j3 , where n c (-**>, +) and ]8 is negative and smaller than 1: the t e r m s of this sequence have alternated signs and their absolute value tends to zero when n goes to infinity.

c.

if there is a term t ,- such that It , J > It I, both t ,., and t , 0 will have the same

n+1

! n+l|

I nj

n+1

n+2

sign. So t - will s t a r t an infinite sequence all of whose t e r m s are either positive or negative, with their absolute values increasing to infinity.

d.

such that It

Except the sequencex a

and 0

have those two infinite p a r t s ; the lower part with alternating t e r m s decreasing in absolute

value, followed by the upper part whose terms have the same sign and increase in absolute

value.

Let e denote any positive or negative real number.

e arbitrarily small, and for n large enough, in

= a-n + l-lf-1.

e.F

-n

^ a -n

>

On the other hand, a sequence where to = j3 and tj = jS1 + e ends with t e r m s i n c r e a s ing in absolute value, all of them being either positive o r negative: for

e arbitrarily small

t

= j3 n + c F

Ie F

j

n

at least one t e r m equal to 1. It is no loss of generality to assume t0 = 1. (Among Fibonacci

numbers, three (F - , Fj and F 2 ) are equal to 1: any may be the chosen t 0 . ) F o r these

sequences we may write t0 = 1, ti = q and (4) becomes

(5)

t s = Fs_x

q Fg

and

t_ s = ( F f l + 1 - q F g ) (-1) S .

In this paper, we intend to express the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, as sums of d i s tinct non-consecutive t e r m s of p r i m a r y generalized Fibonacci sequences and we shall obtain

1972]

367

We assumed t 0 = 1; all other t e r m s are still undetermined; they might all be p o s i tive o r negative or they might alternate in sign, and their values might increase o r decrease;

the r e c u r r e n t relation (3) will be the only rule. Thus their expression is of an algebraic n a ture; the value of to only has been fixed.

and in general, it is not possible to determine the sum of several given t e r m s , when the s e quence they a r e taken from is unknown.

The natural numbers will be constructed by successive additions of the unit t 0 .

precisely, two rules will be used, one for consecutive t e r m s , namely t + t

- = t

More

9

and

t e r m s , namelyJ 2 t

M

=t+(t

- + t 0 ) = t ,- + t r t .

x

x

x-1

x-2'

x+1

x-2

Two different notations are possible for a number N.

In the first one, let t

est subscript used in the expression of N. For each of these t e r m s and for all t e r m s b e tween t

and t

F o r convenience of reading,

we shall distinguish by punctuation the digit corresponding to t0 and arrange the other digits

in groups of four.

In the second one, the t e r m s involved in the expression of N only a r e listed as subscripts of the l e t t e r

t.

F o r instance, both

10.0100.0.1001.01

and

N = 23.

Later on, when arithmetical operations a r e performed, it may be convenient to avoid

the letter t,

2 = to + to = tj_ 9 _2

3

= ti,-2

= t 2 j _2 + to = t 2 j 0 , - 2

= t2,o,-2

t0 =

+

k,-2

t0 = t 2 + (tx + t_ 2 ) + t_2 = t 3 , - l , - 4

6 = t 3 s _ l 9 _ 4 + t0 = t 3 j l j _ 4

7

= t3,l,-4

= t 4 9 _4

These numbers are the groups of t e r m s belonging to the Generalized Fibonacci Numeration

(G. F . N . ) : they represent always the same number and they do not depend on the p r i m a r y

generalized Fibonacci sequence which has been chosen.

have this property.

368

[Oct.

We have first to explain how the joined Fibonacci t e r m s taken from various undetermined sequences can yield the same value when added up in a formula of the G. F . N.

The above formulas were constructed by successive additions of the unit t0 and, a c cording to (4) and (5),

(6)

to = F_! + q . F 0 = 1 .

Let us look for the part played by to = F_i = 1 and fy = q F t = q, respectively in the

construction of the numbers in the G. F . N.

Formula (6) consists of two p a r t s : the first p a r t ,

N when the t e r m s t

The p a r t played by t^ = q is

the value F .

n

Example a.

For t fl = F ^ ,

0; it is

are given

t ^ g ^ _ 4 j _ 6 = 23:

^ 3 , - 1 , - 4 , - 6 = T 5 + F 2 + F_ 2 + F_ 5 + F_ 7

= F7 + 2F5

according to (2) and

= F 8 + F 3 = 23 .

Example b.

F o r t n = F n > t 6 j 3 } _ 1 } _ 4j _6 = 0:

t 6 , 3 , - i , - 4 , - 6 = F 6 + F 3 + F_i + F_ 4 + F_ 6

= F 3 + Fj_ - F 4

= F 3 + FA + F 0 - F 4 = F 4 - F 4 = 0 .

We shall now describe the numbers in the G. F . N. The r e a d e r is advised to construct

the table of the first 50 natural numbers represented by the subscripts of t. (This table can

also be found hereafter.)

in the same column of the table when they a r e involved in the expression of several numbers.

Description of the numbers in the G. F. N. Every number is built from one or more

independent groups of t e r m s .

a) the t e r m to = 1,

b) the symmetric p a i r s with even subscripts (e.g., t 2 , _ 2 , t 4 j - 4 , ) These pairs

stand for the numbers 3, 7, 18, , that is the Lucas numbers L 2 . One or more symm e t r i c group (e. g. , t 6 , 0 ,-6

tSj4j_4j_8).

form the saturated symmetric groups ( e . g . ,

-.

(Actually, the sum of a symmetric pair and of the corresponding saturated symm e t r i c group gives r i s e to the next symmetric pair: t 6 j _ 6 + t 6 j 4 j 2 j 0 , -2, -4, -6 ~ ^8, -8 )

1972]

B.

369

with a positive odd subscript u(t u ) and the lower one with negative and even subscript u + 1

^-(u+1)^ 8

^e

intermediate

a) In the typical asymmetric group, all intermediate t e r m s have negative odd subscripts following one another without gap from

to t .

These numbers a r i s e by

to

to = t i s _ 2 ;

t4s29os-2,-4

to = t 5 j _ l s _ 3 s _ g .

subscript.

, the intermediate t e r m

zn, zn z, , zn

places the t e r m with negative symmetric subscript:

+

^,-1,-3,-5,-7,-10

t492,0s-29-4

t0

By ad- rezn-rl

^ 9 , 5 9 - 1 s - 3 9 - 7 9 - 1 0

The intermediate t e r m s of the usual asymmetric group are the next ones: t - ,

^ 3 '

"

^(11-2) "

c) In the altered asymmetric group, the presence of an intermediate t e r m with p o s itive even subscript coincides with the suppression of the t e r m s of odd and lower subscript

(hi absolute value). To change an asymmetric group to such an extent, one has to add the

asymmetric saturated group, immediately p r i o r to the new t e r m with even subscript:

til, 9,-1,-3,-5,-7,-12

C.

t5s 3,1,-6 =

tl l s

9j 6j

_7? _12

of an asymmetric group:

t6,-6

^,1,-4

t5j3,lJ_4,-6

Usually, nothing of this type occurs with asymmetric groups: the presence of the intermediate t e r m s prevents it. Yet in the altered asymmetric group, the interval between the

new t e r m with even subscript and the t e r m s with negative subscripts left over, this interval

may be adequate for another group of t e r m s :

t 9 , 6, - 7 , - 1 0

^4,0,-4

t 9 j 6, 4, 0 , - 4 , - 7 , - 1 0 *

when we have identified a number of the G. F . N. , we have to find out its precise value.

370

[Oct.

each t e r m as we did with Fibonacci numbers.

The difficulty in r e -

Let us try to estimate these formulas by another method involving the t e r m s with nonnegative subscript.

a) We did assign to to the value 1 and to the symmetric p a i r s the values 3, 7, 18,

, which are those of L 2 , L 4 , L, , in the sequence of Lucas numbers. Let us relate

these values to the t e r m s with positive subscript

t 2 , t 4 , t 6 ,

in these p a i r s .

Then we

may disregard the t e r m s with negative subscript and all the symmetric groups will be c o r rectly estimated.

b) Is it likewise possible to estimate the asymmetric groups?

1. Let ti = 1, t 3 = 4, t 5 = 1 1 ,

L8,

L 5 , ; these values were already assigned to the symmetric saturated groups; they

are an underestimation for the typical asymmetric groups obtained by adding the unit

t0 to the symmetric saturated groups.

2. An intermediate term with positive subscript is substituted to the one with n e g ative subscript by adding a symmetric saturated and thus correctly estimated

group. Hence the underestimation of the asymmetric group p e r s i s t s .

3. When an underestimated asymmetric group is altered by adding an asymmetric

saturated group that is likewise underestimated, an intermediate t e r m with positive

and even subscript appears: this t e r m makes up for the two underestimations of one

unit t 0 .

As a matter of fact, the values L l 9 L 3 , , L 0 _1 have been assigned to the

t e r m s with positive subscript fy, t 3 , , t

with even subscript,

t . Now, L ?

to the new t e r m

- (Lx + L 3 + + L 2 _. ) = L 0 = 2.

Therefore, the altered asymmetric group is correctly estimated and the foreseen estimation of the number N is possible.

i.

to the value 1; to the next t e r m s fy, t2* t 3 , ,

ii.

It remains to add one unit to the sum of these estimations when the number

N contains an unaltered asymmetric group. A single one only can exist in

the expression for the number N. Therefore, this unit depends on the t e r m

with lowest positive subscript: when this subscript is odd, the unit has to be

added.

to find such an expression.

59 = t 8 + t 5 + 1

to c o r r e c t the underestimation.

1972]

371

t 8 belongs to the symmetric pair t8 8; t 5 belongs to the typical symmetric group t 5 _j _3 _g6

Hence the formula: t 8

87 = t q + 11

_4 _3 _6 _8 .

We cannot use t 5 : 5 being odd5 one unit more would be needed to

c o r r e c t the underestimation,

F o r the same reason, we cannot use

87 = t 9 + t 4 + 4

t e r m s is not allowed.

87 = t9: + t 4 + t2 + 1

The l a s t unit has to be t0

87 = t 9 + t 4 + t2 + t 0 .

t 9 and t 4 belong to the altered asymmetric group t9

4 -5

Remark.

to : h ^ d

belong to the

t 9 j 4 j 2 s o,-2j-5s-7j-io

An

investigation of the numbers in the G. F . N. will show one more peculiarity of this numeration:

t 0 does never follow directly a t e r m with odd subscript.

THE FIRST 50 GENERALIZED FIBONACCI NUMBERS. List of Subscripts.

1

1. .

21:

-2

-6

-2

22:

.0

-2

-6

2 .

-2

2.3:

4.

2 .0

-2

24:

25:

-4

26:

, 4

-4

27:

. 4

6

7

10

12

5.

13

5.

1.

.0

-6

2 .

-2

-4.

-6

1. .

-2

,4

-2

-4.

-6

-2

-4

30: 7

2 . 0.

-2

. ,-1

1.

-1

-6

32: 7

-3

. -6

33: 7

5.

2 .0

-3

. -6

35: 7

16

5.

17

5.

-3

.-5

1.

-3

.-5

-3

.-5

.0

-3

.-5

31: 7

-4

-3

.0

15 :

-4.

,4

34: 7

-2

. -6

1.

-3

20 6

-6

28:

2 .

19

-6

-4.

29:

5.

-4.

-4

14

-6

-6

-4

18

-4.

-4.

.0

2 .

11

-4

-1

-1

1.

.-5

-1

.-5

1.

-6

36: 7

1.

-6

37: 7

.0

-6

1. .

-6

38: 7

39: 7

..

-2

.-5

-6

40: 7

2.0.

-2

.-5

.-1

.0

1.

-2

.-5

.-5

-2

.-5

372

41: 7

5.

42: 7

5.

43: 7

5.

44: 7

5.

45: 7

5.

-3

-8

46

1. .

-3

-8

47

. .

-3

-8

48

.0.

-3

-8

49

-8

50

-1

. . -1

Oct. 1972

It is expected that many other interesting and novel consequences follow from the extended Hermite theorems (6.2) and (7.1) giving arithmetic information about Fibonacci, Lucas

and other similar numbers.

REFERENCES

1. W. G. Brown, "Historical Note on a Recurrent Combinatorial P r o b l e m , " Amer. Math.

Monthly, 72(1965), 973-977.

2.

L. E. Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers, Vol. 1, Carnegie Institute, Washington, D. C. , 1919. Reprinted by Chelsea Publ. C o . , New York, 1952.

3.

4. Henry B. Mann and Daniel Shanks, "A Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Primality,

and its Source," J. Combinatorial Theory, P a r t A, Vol. 13 (1972), 131-134.

5. G. Ricci, Sui coefficienti binomiali e polinomiali.

6.

7. V. E. Hoggatt, J r . , "Fibonacci Numbers and Generalized Binomial Coefficients," F i b onacci Quarterly, 5(1967), 383-400.

8. H. W. Gould, "The Bracket Function and Fontene-Ward Generalized Binomial Coefficients with Application to Fibonomial Coefficients," Fibonacci Quarterly, 7(1969), 2 3 40, 55.

9. GlennN. Michael, TfA New Proof for an Old P r o p e r t y , " Fibonacci Quarterly, 2(1964),

57-58.

10.

11.

5(1967), 73-74.

ibid. ,

HARALDNIEDERRE1TER

Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois

It was shown by L. Kuipers and Jau-shyong Shiue [2] that the only moduli for which the

Fibonacci sequence \ F }, n = 1, 2, ,

powers of 5. In addition, the authors proved the Fibonacci sequence to be uniformly d i s t r i b uted mod 5, and they conjectured that this holds for all other powers of 5 as well.

note, we settle this conjecture in the affirmative.

In this

onacci sequence attains values from each residue class mod 5 , and each residue class

occurs with the same frequency. The weaker property of the existence of a complete residue

system mod m in the Fibonacci sequence was investigated e a r l i e r by A. P. Shah [3] and

G. Bruckner [1]

Theorem.

The Fibonacci sequence

{ F } , n = 1, 2, * ,

is uniformly distributed

Before we s t a r t the proof, let us collect some useful preliminaries.

It follows from a

n

k

Therefore it will suffice to show that, among the first 45 elements of the sequence, we

find exactly four elements, or, equivalently, at most four elements from each residue class

mod 5 . It will also be helpful to know that, for j ^ 1, the l a r g e s t exponent e such that

5 e divides (2j + 1)1 satisfies (see [4]):

00

(1)

-i^r]

i=l

*-

E a f i = a-fL<i

i=i

i=0

t

\ /

r~t-s

r

s

verified by comparing the coefficients of x in (1 + x)

= (1 + x) (1 + x) .

We proceed by induction on k.

ready shown in [ 2 ] . Now assume that, for some k ^ 2 and every integer a, the congruence

k-1

k-1

F = a (mod 5

) has exactly four solutions c with 1 < c ^ 4 5

. If n is a solution

k

k

k-1

of F s a (mod 5 ), 1 ^ n ^ 4 5 , then F = a (mod 5

), hence by periodicity:

n

k-1

n = c (mod 4-5

) for one of the four c f s . We complete the proof by showing that each

k

value of c yields at most one solution n. F o r suppose we also have F

= a (mod 5 ),

373

374

k

lr-1

1 < m ^ 4-5 , m = c (mod 4 . 5 v ), and WLOG n > m. Then, in particular,

k

k-1

(mod 5 ) and n = m (mod 4 e 5

). Using the well-known representation

1

where ( 1 = 0

00

Oct. 1972

F

= F

= 2

5=0

'

for r > n, we a r r i v e at

k-1

j=0

k-1

V

]=o

4.5^"!

^

Since 2

= 1 (mod 5 ) by the E u l e r - F e r m a t Theorem, we get

k-1

k

^V >( ^l L, \) \ - -( ($\

, ^ ) - , .0 (mod 5 )

(3)

2j+l

^ ((!)-(-)) - g (" 1 %

?.,)

We look at 5J ( n ~ m ) . F r o m (1) we see that cancelling out 5Ts from it against 5-* leaves

* 1 '

k-1

at least one power of 5 in the latter number. Since there i s a factor 5

in n - m , we

get the desired divisibility property. Thus, from (3), we a r e left with the term correspondk

k-1

ing to j = 0: n - m = 0 (mod 5 ' ) . Together with n = m (mod 45

), this implies n -s

k

m (mod 4-5 ) or n = m.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to thank Prof. L. Kuipers for drawing my attention to this problem.

REFERENCES

1. G. Bruckner, "Fibonacci Sequence modulo a prime p = 3 (mod 4)," Fibonacci Quarterly,

8 (1970), No. 2, pp. 217-220.

2.

N u m b e r s , " Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp.

3. A. P . Shah, "Fibonacci Sequence Modulo m , " Fibonacci Quarterly, 6 (1968), No. 2, pp.

139-141.

4. I. M. Vinogradov, Elements of Number Theory, Dover Publications, New York, 1954.

5. D. D. Wall, "Fibonacci Series Modulo m , " Amer. Math. Monthly 67 (1960), pp. 525-532.

LAWREWCE KUIPERS and JAU-SHYOWG SHSUE

Southern Illinois University, Carhondale, Illinois

theorems of this paper we need the following lemmas (see [2] ).

Lemma 1. Every Fibonacci number F,

1, 2 f . - .

Lemma 2.

(F , F ) = F ,

v where (x,y)

denotes the &greatest common divisor of

J

m n

(m,n)

the integers x and y.

Lemma 3. Every positive integer m divides some Fibonacci number whose index does

not exceed m 2 .

Lemma 4. Let p be an odd prime and f- 5. Then p does not divide F .

Proof of Lemma 4. According to [ 1 ] , p. 394, we have that either F

divisible by p. F r o m the well known identity F

-F

- or F

- is

distributed mod m where m ^ 2 is an integer, provided that

..Jim ~ A(N, j , m) =

J

N-+ N

m

N, that a r e congruent to j (mod m).

Theorem 1. Let { F } (n = 1, 2, ) be the Fibonacci sequence.

Then { F } i s

Proof.

Let all F

(n = 1, 2, ) be reduced mod 5.

1, 1, 2, 3, 0, 3, 3, 1, 4 , 0, 4, 4, 3, 2, 0, 2, 2, 4, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3,

, --

Obviously, this sequence is periodic with the period length 20. Now evidently

^ i r n ^ A . A(N, j , 5) = |

for

j = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ,

Theorem 2. Let { F } (n = 1, 2, ) be the Fibonacci sequence.

Then { F } is not

Proof.

This follows from the fact that the sequence of least residues of { F } is 1 , 1 ,

0, 1, 1, 0, - . .

375

376

Theorem 3. Let { F } (n = 1, 2, ) be the Fibonacci sequence.

[Oct.

Then { F }

is

Proof.

positive integer t ^ p such that F, = 0 (mod p). We may suppose that t is the smallest

positive integer with this property.

. Now there does not exist a positive integer q with kt < q < (k + l)t (k = 1, 2, )

such that F

= 0

(mod p), which can be seen as follows. Let there be a q with the aforementioned p r o p e r ty, then by virtue of Lemma 2, we would have

(F

kfV

= F

(kt,q) =

(m

d P>"

(kt,q) = (kt, kt + r) = (kt,r) < r

< t.

A(N, 0, p) =

where

-r?i'*'

with 0 < r < t.

Then

A(N, 0, p) = ILz_

and therefore

- L . A ( N , 0, p) = i - j L

so

N

^ - A ( N . P> = T

(t

P)

for any prime p ^ 2 and f 5. Hence { F } is not uniformly 'distributed mod p for any

prime p

>

2 and ^ 5.

not uniformly distributed mod m for any composite integer

Then ( F } i s

m > 2 and m ^ 5

(k = 3,

4, ) .

Proof.

[Continued on page 392. ]

GERALD EDGAR

Boulder, Colorado

(where n ^ 2, m ^ 2) to be a sequence of length mn in which each of the integers

1,2,

3, , m occurs exactly n times and between any two occurrences of the integer x there

a r e x entries.

and 4 1 3 1 2 4 3 2

3 1 2 1 3 2 for

m= 3

n-sequence if n > 2 .

No perfect

Lemma 1, below.) It will be proved here that no perfect n-sequence for m exists if m = n,

m = n + 1, or m = n + 2 (except for the perfect 2-sequences for 3 and 4), extending the

result slightly.

In a perfect n-sequence for m,

x ' s in the sequence.

if x is an integer and 1 ^ x ^ m,

then there a r e n

Hi

the left,

1, 2, 3, , mn.

M

integer x .

Let

p(x,i) n mean

occurrence of the

let

p(x,l).

Example.

P 2 = 4,

p(4,2) = 11,

etc.

and 1 ^ i < n,

and P

is meaningful

if l < x ^ m.

In a perfect n-sequence for m

(1)

p(x,i) = P

+ (x + l)(i - 1)

<n)

(2)

p(x,i) = p(x, i - 1) + (x + 1) .

Theorem 1. There is no perfect n-sequence for n.

Proof. Assume such a sequence exists.

Also

p(n,n) = P n + (n + l)(n - 1) = P n + n2 - 1

so that P

must be 1.

n

It is impossible that

1 < P

- ^ n;

otherwise

meaningful and

377

p(n - 1, P

-)

and p(n, P

-)

are

378

[Oct.

p(n - 1, P . ) = P - + n P - - n = p(n,

P .)

F

*

' n-1

n-1

n-1

' n-1

using (1) and P

= 1.

same position.

It is impossible that n + 1 ^ P

p(n - l , n ) ^ n 2 + 1,

-, otherwise

position is n .

Now 1 ^ n - 1 ^ n (since n ^ 2) so that P

contradiction.

Theorem 2. There is no perfect n-sequence for n + 1, except the perfect

2-sequence

for 3.

Proof. Assume such a sequence exists.

n(n + 1) = n2 + n

entries.

then p(n + 1, n) = n 2 + n,

the last

Then there a r e

Also,

p(n + 1, n) = P n + 1 + n2 + n - 2

so that either P n + 1 = 1 o r P

= 2. If P

= 2,

position, but since a perfect sequence taken in r e v e r s e o r d e r is still a perfect sequence, this

case is symmetrical to the case

- = 1.

- = 1 need be

considered.

It is impossible that 1 < P

p(n, n) ^ n2 + n + 1.

It is impossible that

1 ^ P

It is impossible that n + 1 ^ P

= n + 1.

- ^ n - 1; otherwise

p(n - 1, P

- + 1) = p(n, P

- - n) = p(n, P

p(n - 1, n) ^ n 2 + n + 1.

-).

- - n). It

possibility is P _- = n.

It is impossible that l ^ P

< n - 1; otherwise

n-^

p(n - 2, P

It is impossible that n ^ P

n 2

+ 1) = p(n - 1, P n _ 2 ) .

:^2n - 1; otherwise

p(n - 2, P

It is impossible that 2n ^ P

- n + 1) = p(n - 1, P

n 2

n 2

- n + 1) .

^ 3n - 2; otherwise

n u

p(n - 2, P

It is impossible that

n 2

- 2n + 1) = p(n - 1, P

= 3n - 1; otherwise

2

n 2

- 2n + 2) .

It is impossible that

3n ^ P 0 ; otherwise p(n

- 2,n) :> n + n + 1. If n f 2, then 1 ^ n - 2 ^ n and P 0

v

n-2

' ~~

'

n-2

is a positive integer, a contradiction. The only possibility i s therefore n = 2.

1972]

F r o m these two theorems some patterns can be seen.

379

lowing lemmas.

Lemma 1. In a perfect n-sequence for m , if l ^ n - r ^ m ,

P

n-r

^ mn - n 2 + n r - r + 1.

Proof.

If P

>

then

^ n r + in - r + 1.

Lemma 2. In a perfect n-sequence for m , if P

and P

- a r e meaningful, then i t

is impossible that

(3)

(4)

Proof. Assuming (3) to hold (with i ^ 1), we have

(5)

P x + 1 + (i - l)x + (2i - 2) ^

(6)

Px

P x 2= P x + 1 + (i - l)x + (i - 2) + n.

(7)

P x + 1 + (i - l)x + (i - 1) ^

(8)

Px

P x ^ P x + 1 + (i - l ) x + (2i - 3) + n.

(9)

1 < P x - P x + 1 - ix + x - 2i + 3 < n ,

(10)

1 < Px - Px+1 - i x + x - i

+ 2 < n .

FixiaJly, we have

(11)

p(x, P x - P x + 1 - ix + x - 2i + 3) = p(x + 1, P x - P x + 1 - i x + x - i

+ 2),

380

Oct. 1972

which is meaningful by (9) and (10). But (11) is obviously false, hence (3) cannot hold if i

Corollary to Lemma 2. If P

and P

for some i ^ 1,

+ ix + 2i

or

for some i ^ 0.

Theorem 3. There is no perfect n-sequence for n + 2, except the perfect 2-sequence

for 4.

Proof.

P n + 2 are (case I) P n + 2 = 1,

Case I.

for P

+1

Pn+2

= 1

"

a r e (case IA) P

Case IA.

+1

- = n + 1.

n, n + 1, and 2n + l .

But P

- = n + 2.

= 1 is impossible; otherwise

a r e 1, n - 1,

p(n,l) = p(n + 2 , l ) ;

(case IA1) P

= n - 1,

Case IA1. P

3n.

n-2

(case IA2) P

= 2n - 1.

n

But n even is impossible; otherwise

is impossible; otherwise

- are n - 2 , 2 n - l , 3 n - l ,

n-1

p(n,n/2) = p(n + 2, n/2); so n is odd; P

and

=

= 3n - 1 is

- = 3n is impossible; otherwise

Therefore P

P

= n - l

is impossible; otherwise

= 4n - 2 is impossible;

na

HA

p(n - 2, (n - l)/2) = p(n, (n + 3)/2) ;

P _

Therefore

This first case indicates the methods used.

other c a s e s a r e :

[Continued on page 392. ]

The

H.W.GOULD

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

My dear fellow, n said Sherlock Holmes, as we sat on either side of the fire in his

r e s e a r c h l i b r a r y at Baker Street, "combinatorial identities a r e infinitely stranger than anything which the ordinary mortal mind can devise. If we could fly out of that window hand-inhand, hover over some of the r a r e geniuses of mathematics, however, and peep in at the

queer formulas boiling in their b r a i n s , the strange relations and inverse connections, vast

chains of implications, we should see some very singular and ineluctable identities.

over, they form a beautiful order.

!

More-

literature a r e so numerous and diverse that I must quite agree with my old friend John

Riordan [17, p. v i i ] who has often spoken of the protean nature of combinatorial identities.

He has said that identities are both inexhaustible and unpredictable; and that the age-old

dream of putting o r d e r in such a chaos is doomed to f a i l u r e . "

n

placed on novelty and abstraction and the history of the subject is quite often laid entirely

aside. A good detective of identities, however, r e m e m b e r s and r e t r i e v e s numerous facts

from the d i s a r r a y of identities.

As unofficial adviser to

formulas, none perhaps more strange than those formulas discovered by the infamous P r o fessor M o r i a r t y . "

Holmes had now risen from his chair, and was standing before one of the enormous

bookcases in his l i b r a r y , a l i b r a r y reputed to be filled with case histories of every binomial

identity ever brought to trial.

He began speaking:

" P r o f e s s o r Moriarty first gave his formulas in the form of a dual pairs

k=0

and

n

(9\

(2)

-P

V1/

2n

VP

Z A 2 p + 2k^

+ k

\ -

/ 2 n - P \ 92n-2p

k j"57p(

381

J2

382

[Oct.

I am indebted to E. T. Davis [7, p . 71] for calling them to my attention. Davis writes in a

footnote that "We shall call these the identities of J a m e s Moriarty, since we do not know any

other source from which such ingenious formulas could have come.

l e m , ' The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes.

to an old combinatorial detective! I may say that I have also changed his summation v a r i able from

T f

He continued:

23] has given them in a few lines.

As you know

"At the age of twenty-one in 1867 this remarkable man had written a treatise

on the binomial theorem which had a European vogue. On the strength of it and b e cause of certain connections his West of England family possessed he won the mathematical chair at one of the s m a l l e r English universities.

magnum opus a work for which, despite his l a t e r infamy, he will be forever famous.

He became the author of f The Dynamics of an Asteroid'. "

It i s c l e a r from the further r e m a r k s given about this monumental work that a genius such as

Moriarty could be responsible for formulas such as (1) and (2). P r o f e s s o r Davis, in a l e t t e r dated 29 July 1963, told me how elusive he found the proofs of (1) and (2) and could find

no explicit reference in the l i t e r a t u r e . Actually there are many references, as will be clear

in the l i s t given below.

Moriarty was a m a s t e r of disguise, and here we do find Riordan's r e m a r k about the

protean nature of the identities pertinent.

fabric.

(3)

S(-0C)-M

> . i : : ; ] i : i = r";Fi22n"2p

k==p

and

(4)

E

> IZ

/2n\/k\

n_/2n - p\,

=

k=p

and in this form they appeal more to my experienced eye. As a m a t t e r of fact two slightly

m o r e general such formulas may be found in [12] where formulas (3.120) and (3.121) a r e as

follows:

2)

|V-)0p- (v)

1972]

383

and

[n/2]

(i)0p-(V)^

(6)

I first came upon (5) and (6) while studying elementary matrix theory.

determine the n

I was trying to

n _ n

n

(7)

M - I

,n-l _ ji-1

M-lj^

|M|I,

iMl-ttt,.

(s oOn the other hand, by successively multiplying M times itself, one is led to conjecture and

prove by induction that in fact

(8)

M11 = M ^

k=0

[]

|M|I

t2rl~2i

'

(-i)k|M|k(n-k-2W+t2)

k=0

[n/2]

o)

.

j n

n 2j

j=0

t n+l

_ ^n+1

k_k

, t2 * tt .

Separating out the even and odd index t e r m s in the binomial expansion it i s easy to obtain

y / n

l\k.

(1

^ z ) n + 1 - (1 - N ^ ) n + 1

384

[Oct.

IV2]

k=0

[n/2]

'

k=0

. k

' j=0

[n/2]

[n/2]

j=0

k=j

v\ M

/ v\

,n+l

E^EU^Y*)X

[n/2]

Lxx/*j

Lxx/^j

[n/2] ,,

j=0

k=j

E.^E (it1! 0

(10)

/\

.n+1

" 4

t2 " tj

ttt 2 = - x ,

we may apply (10) to (9) when % + t2 = 2, and the result by equating coefficients of powers

of x is the identity

n/2]

Efr^p-^V)

which i s precisely formula (5) above. A natural companion piece may be found, and I use

what I call an even and odd index argument to do this.

Indeed, write

: ==

S

Now

\2kj

[n/2]

- ^(

+

i++li

\^2k + 1 /

).0)'

\Zk

l)

so that we have

[n/2] .

[n/2]

[n/2],

. .

g(i)B-5(.*M-(-0O)

Look at the second sum on the left: If n is odd [n/2] = [(n - l ) / 2 ] ; but if n is even [n/2]

= [(n - l ) / 2 ] + 1. It follows readily that we have proved

1972]

[n/2]

385

g (i)(l) - ^ - ^ - ^ ( V ) - ^ ('-}->)

in other words, we have proved formula (6) above.

The above proof was first obtained by me in the year 1950. It may o r may not be o r i g inal, as it is very difficult to guarantee originality 9

study of trigonometric identities. In the disguised forms (3) and (4) you will also find them

in such studies.

Glocksman and Ruderman [10] gave inductive proofs of (5) and (6).

They

have an interesting footnote calling attention to a pending Sherlock Holmes tale about these

strange relations of Professor Moriarty, so that my present r e m a r k s are long overdue.

Trigonometric proofs are implicit in Bromwieh [5, Chapter 9 ] . Such proofs a r e bound

up with the well-known expansions

[n/2]

(11)

cosnx =

J^

f

(

1)3

(

*

i=0

j" ) 5"T3

2n

~2j~1 (cosx)11"^

'

and

[n/2]

( 12 )

^IVx

= Z

j=0

(-l)J(n:J)22n-2j(cosx)n-2J

V

/

See also Deaux [8] who works in r e v e r s e , using (6) to prove (11).

n replaced by n / 2 , was posed by Andre [l] and the solution given in 1871 by one M o r e t Blanc suggests that this may be one of Moriarty's French disguises.

dently unaware that the summation (6) could be done in closed form, as he c a r r i e s the sum

around consistently in unsummed form.

Valle [11], r e s t a t e s the author's formula in our form somewhat like ( 1 ) . . . but note a few differences.

Fred. Schuh

[18] again gives something equivalent to (9) and obtains our formula (1) in only a slight v a r iation,, Singer [19] rediscovers a special case of the companion to (9) involving the coefficients

^(V)

using formula (6), and cites Netto's famous Combinatorik [16].

The formulas in Netto [16, pp. 246-258] are taken from Father Eagen f s valuable t r e a tise [14, pp. 64-68], It is curious to note that Netto attempts to c o r r e c t some of Hagen f s

formulas and introduces further e r r o r s where e r r o r s sometimes did not appear.

The basic

386

[Oct.

J is a polynomial of degree n in x,

whence

striking formula (number 17) of Hagen, as being a linear combination of the o t h e r s , which it

is not.

Hagen T s formula (17) was the motivation of over 25 papers by me since 1956, that

formula tracing to 1793 and one H. A. Eothe. A full discussion of the e r r o r s in Hagen and

Netto must, however, await another time.

The connection of our formulas with Fibonacci-type polynomials and numbers should be

c l e a r because of formula (9) and the well-known formula

[n/2]

EC;')k=0

where F

- = F

n+1

ther evidence of this connection, Lind [15] has written to me of the following m a t t e r .

fi(x) = 1,

f2(x) = x,

f + (x) = xf

^ (x) + f (x),

Let

It is

known that

\flx2- + 4

What is m o r e ,

v>- zK'-j-1)***1

J=0

i=0 \

'

ii^X)-^tn

work pays off.

Our detective

It shows that Moriarty is implicit in all the literature about Fibonacci poly-

As for further references in accessible l i t e r a t u r e , one should examine ex. 5, pp. 209210 of Vol. 2 of Chrystal [6]. What is done there is to use an expansion on p. 202 for t 2 + fy

1972]

387

(instead of what we used in (9) above, thereby being a Lucas approach instead of a Fibonacci

approach). ChrystaTs formula may be written in the form

, 4 m r

slight disguise.

Moret-Blanc f s solution to Andre's problem [l] finds something equivalent to our (5) as

the coefficient of x

in the s e r i e s expansion of

(1 + x )n"+ l ,'' i / l

- - \ - ^

Netto's proof of the formula in the form (same as in [11] and [13])

(13)

/p + s\ /

2p + m

m-1 / m + p -

l\

(i - xr2PJ(i -

(14)

T-TT)TP

= (1 " ^

Our formula (1) of Moriarty then follows by changing s into k and putting m = 2n - 2p + 1.

A similar argument goes for the companion which he gives and which is of course equivalent

to (2) h e r e .

In our sleuthing of these old r e s u l t s we have come a c r o s s one very old appearance in the

literature of a Moriarty type formula in the form (6). The date of this case is 1826, a long

time before the historic Moriarty appeared.

l i e r source, being an evil and crafty genius. In any event, Andreas von Ettingshausen, in his

surprisingly modern book [9] gives the formula (page 257)

"

<s ()(,%)-^(v)2""*"1

388

[Oct.

mation, and the indices of summation a r e arranged differently than modern form, but otherwise it is precisely the same formula.

still today being rediscovered.

f J o r I I used by Euler.

Some historians have stated (Cajori notably) that the year was

1*827 in another book by Ettingshausen, however the c o r r e c t item appears to be the 1826 book.

We come now to a modern chapter: INVERSION. A good detective would not earn his

pay if he did not make adroit use of inversion of s e r i e s .

ist, and we can do no better for the time than refer the r e a d e r to the excellent discussion by

Riordan [17] for information on inverse s e r i e s pairs of many types.

It is easy to prove by the use of the orthogonality relation

*T,

that

(16)

^ j ' k=r

1 1

' , lf<W

V /

g<r>.

if and only if

(k)

2k=r( - 1)k (r)^

V /

= f(r)

The proof is nothing but inverting o r d e r of summation and using the stated orthogonality (cf.

Riordan [17], p. 85).

Taking

f(k) = <-D k ( 2 * k ++ l )

and

g(r)

=^

( ~^) ,

(17)

S-"k(nik)(J)'-*-w'(LVi)

Similarly, choosing

= [] ,

1972]

389

, m - [|] .

as)

ffl

z^^y^i*

k k ^ - ^r{) -

I have not noticed any significant appearance of these relations in the literature until now r e lation (17) has been found by Marcia Ascher [2] who has given an inductive proof.

Naturally

Here Holmes rested and then concluded his story by saying that all of these relations

a r e in. turn special c a s e s of much more beautiful ones, which must await another time and

place.

ADDENDUM

It may be of interest to show that two well-known Fibonacci formulas

ffl

19

< >

z(v)

n+1

k=0

and

<20>

n+1

H/

Yk

n\-^# n + 1 \

lr=0 \

may be derived, the one from the other, in either of two ways: by use of (5) or by use of (17).

We also need the binomial theorem.

We have first, using (5) of the generalized Moriarty,

[n/2]

[n/2]

2k n

[n/2]

k=0

*

[n/2] .

j=0 \

k=0

j**"

J

/k=0N

' >

'

[n/2] .

j=0

and the steps a r e r e v e r s i b l e , showing (19) and (20) equivalent via (5).

390

[Oct.

[n/2] ,

r=0

[n/2]

[n/2]

n+1

'

[n/2]

L"/2] /

r=0

k=r

/ \

2k

_k_

...

k=0

X

x

'

rr=0

= 0 *V /'

[n/2]

[n/2]

k=0 ^

k=0 *

and again the steps a r e reversible, showing (19) and (20) equivalent via (17). Similarly it is

possible to use the Moriarty and inverse Moriarty relations to show other equivalences.

Thus relations (6) and (18) may be used precisely as above to show that the formulas

(21)

/ ,n - k (

k=0

V

and

Z(i)'

(22)

k=0 >

are equivalent.

Here L

- = L +L

-,

1-

= 2n"

/

with L 0 = 2, LA = 1, define the Lucas numbers.

Another similar equivalence which follows from use of (5) or (17) is the p a i r of combinatorial identities

ffl

(23)

yr^fn

- x \ / n - kY n-2k _ /2n - 2 x \

l-v( k )

and

[i] / n

E

JH(

(24)

+ l \ / n - x + j \

\ *)

/2n - 2x\

)"( )

1972]

no

[t]

(25)

391

E^k(nk+k)(nkk)^2

= 2 ^(^(Stl)

[n/2]

\ /

/ \

k=0

3

22k

X

k=0

/ \

REFERENCES

1. De'sire Andre', Question 966, Nouv. Ann, de Math,, (2)8(1869), 561; Solution by MoretBlanc, ibid. (2)10(1871), 514-515.

2. Marcia Ascher, "A Combinatorial Identity,' 1 Fibonacci Quarterly, to appear.

3. William S# Baring-Gould, Sherlock Holmes of Baker Street, The Life of the World's

F i r s t Consulting Detective, Clarkson N. Potter, New York, 1962.

4.

Florentino Briones, "Une nouvelle methode pour calculer des alternantes au sens de

Tchebychef," C. R. Acad. Sci. , P a r i s , 254(1962), 4417-4419.

6. G. Chrystal, Algebra, Chelsea Publ. C o . , New York, Reprint, 1959.

7. H. T. Davis, The Summation of Series, Principia P r e s s of Trinity University,

San

8. R. Deaux, "Calcul de cos mx en fonction de cos x , " Mathesis, 69 (1960), 207-209.

9. Andreas von Ettingshausen, Die combinatorische Analysis, Vienna, 1826.

10. A. M. Glocksman and H. D. Ruderman, "Two Combinatorial T h e o r e m s , " Math. Teacher,

60 (1967), 464-469.

11. A. Gonsales del Valle, "Una relacion entre numerous combinatorios, obtenida como

consecuencia de un problema e l e c t r i c o , " Rev. Mat. Hisp. - A m e r . , (4)4(1944), 48-50.

Cf. Math. Rev. , 6 (1945)., 198.

12. H. W. Gould, Combinatorial Identities, A Standardized Set of Tables Listing 500 Binomial Coefficient Summations, Morgantown, W. Va. , 1959.

13.

E. G. -Rodeja F . , "On a Relation Between the Binomial Coefficients," Gac. Mat, Madrid,

13(1961), 3-5 (Spanish). Cf. Math. Rev. 24(1962), A3082.

392

Oct. 1972

where

we

then have that { F } is uniformly distributed mod p where p is some prime factor of

m,

Conjecture: The Fibonacci Sequence ( F } is uniformly distributed mod 5

(k = 3,

4, ) .

REFERENCES

1. L. E. Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers, I. , G. E. Stechert Co. , New York,

1934.

2. Verner E. Hoggatt, J r . , Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers, Houghton Mifflin Mathematics

Enrichment Series, 1969.

3. I. Niven, "Uniform Distribution of Sequences of I n t e g e r s , " T r a n s . Amer. Math. Soc. ,

98, 1961, pp. 52-61.

PERFECT N-SEQUENCES FOR N, N + 1, AND N + 2

IA1

n + 1

n+1 =

1

P = n - 1

n

n

n + 1

IA2b

n+2

1

1

IA3a

n + 1

2n + 1

IA3b

n + 1

2n + 1

2n

IB1

n + 2

IB2

n + 2

n + 1

11A1

n + 1

11A 2

n + 2

(I1B

(III

IA2a

n + 2

P -1

n- 3n

2n

Each of these c a s e s is impossible except lA3a and its m i r r o r image in case III which give

only the perfect 2-sequence for 4.

Applying these methods to higher cases would either disprove them o r produce examples.

REFERENCE

1.

F r a n k s . Gillespie and W. R. Utz, "A Generalized Langford P r o b l e m , " Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 2 (April, 1966), p. 184.

WICHOLASP.CALLAS

Office of Scientific Research, U.S.A.F., McLean, Virginia

An n-place automorphic number x > 1 is a natural number with n digits such that the

l a s t n digits of x 2 are equal to x (see, for example [ l ] ) .

In number-theoretic

notation,

3-place automorphic number is 625. A recent report [ 2 ] indicates that automorphic numbers

with 100,000 digits have been computed,

It is a simple m a t t e r to prove that automorphic numbers with any number of digits e x ist. F u r t h e r , if x is an automorphof n digits, then it follows that y = 10 + 1 - x is also.

In other words, n-place automorphic numbers occur in p a i r s .

accurate.

F o r example, the"two" 4-place automorphs are 9376 and 0625. If we accept the

convention that aleading zero is distinctive, then 0625 maybe considered a 4-place automorph

different from the 3-place automorph 625).

The purpose of this paper is to present the following representations for automorphic

numbers:

Theorem.

M\

(1)

y = x

t ^

, -vkf t + k - l \ /2t - l \

z, - I

k=0

), defined by

k

x

Mt + k J

/ \

t = 1, 2S 3, .

Moreover,

x

t

/2t\

(u - u 2 ) " du .

Remarks,

a.

b.

257] and in [ 2 ] .

c. Apparently (due to multiple-precision requirements on digital computers)

these representation formulas do not give any special advantage to their u s e r in computing

automorphic numbers with large numbers of digits.

major problems in appying these formulas.

d.

393

394

/ \

( r ( r - 1) . . . (r - k + 1)

(A =

\ /

kfe-D (i)

( 0,

(3)

. .

(-DkQ

Proof of Theorem.

"teg.rk/0;

(")-$(=<)

(6)

, v ^

mteger k

integer k < 0 ;

(k)=f(kll).

(5)

[Oct.

= (-Dn(r ^ ^

integers m k

> 5

integer n > 0 .

x = 0 (mod 2 n )

x = 1 (mod 5 n )

and

(7)

or

x

1 (mod 2 )

and

x = 0 (mod 5 ) .

k

X

qpI1

i C [ml ^ ^

m=0 V /

_m

where k =

1, 2, .

s

(8)

y = akx

such that

k=0

i s an tn-place automorph for any n-place automorph x.

),

p = 2

(9)

y = r (mod p

By replacing x

t-1

y = 2 A j fapn>

3=0

or

E r

5,

Then

r = 0

( m o d ptn> >

or

1 .

1972]

395

where

*"

A. =

3

k=j

Due to our assumption that y is automorphic for any automorph x, it follows that

A

= 6jjr,

j = 0, 1, 2, . - , t - 1 .

(10)

>

k = 0, 1, 2, , t - 1

If we choose s = 2t - 1, then the n e c e s s a r y conditions on the remaining

t coefficients in

2t-l

J] HJa, = & ,

2(^--J

(11)

k=t

j = 0, 1, 2, . . . , t - 1

defines a set of solutions of the linear system (11). Having proven this result, then y = r

(mod p n ) , i. e . ,

F i r s t , consider the c a s e s j = 1,

8B

", t - 1.

Let

2t-l

E^MM

So, by using binomial identities (4) and (5)

2t-l

S =

2l 1

2,

t-1

) 1

396

Oct. 1972

-(vJK'iH-v.v)

where

2t-l

T =

S<-"(k-tt:,,:i + i)

2t-l

5 (-1) j - i - 1

11

i-u^K [ k -*-Jt - j + i + ll

k=t+j-i-l

t-1

(-D^H+i+l /

t - j +l

k=t+j-i-l

with the first sum in the brackets equal to zero (by a special case of identity (6)).. Then, by

binomial coefficient identity (6) again,

1 1

(-v. ,- )

Hence T = 0, since i - j < 0. Therefore S = 0 for j = 1, 2, , t - 1.

In case j = 0,

S = (2t - 1)

(zt - 2\ X* (-DkA - A

k k

l -7

V'-VS

1 ,

N

'

k=0

'

i

B(t,t) = /

v W t t - vj^dv =

fa_

V'1)

and expanding (1 - v)xt-1 and integrating each t e r m yields

[Continued on page 402. ]

x.

=. dW

n+2

cW

ri+1

DAVID ZEITLIN

Minneapolis, Minnesota

1.

INTRODUCTION

(1.1)

W n + 2 = d W n + 1 - cW n ,

d2 - 4c ^ 0,

(1.2)

Z n = (a11 - b n ) / ( a - b)

(1.3)

V n = a11 + b n

(n = 0, 1, ) ,

(n = 0, 1, . . . ) ,

(n = 0, 1, ) ,

(1.4)

W

-n

If W0 = 0 and Wt = l s

W

= (WnV - W ) / c n

0 n

n

(n = 0, 1, ) .

= V , n = 0, 1, .

and

(1.5)

W n = W Q Z n + 1 + (Wx - dW Q )Z n

a second, general solution of (1.1)

(1.5), we now see that the product

bination of Z 2 , Z Z i n , and

n+1'

m n+1

(1.6)

where C ,

(n = 0, 1, . . . ) ;

with initial values Wff and Wf. Since W also satisfies

sequence, W W*, can be represented as a linear comZ 2 . We observe that

n

W n W n = Cja 211 + C 2 b 2 n + C 3 c n

(n = 0, 1, ) ,

(1.7)

(x - c)(x 2 - V2x + c 2 ) = 0 .

6

n

n

n n

solution of a second-order linear difference equation, and its representation is of interest.

397

398

2.

Theorem 1.

[Oct.

STATEMENT OF RESULTS

W2W2* - V2WiWf + c2W0W0* = 0

(2.1)

W n W* = ((WiWi* - (d2 - c)W 0 W 0 *)/d)Z 2n + W 0 W 0 *Z 2 n + 1 ;

(2.2)

and if P = W W*,

n

n n

then

(2.3)

P u.o - v o P ^.1

n+2

2 n+1

c2P

(n = 0, 1, ) ,

' '

'

and

P 0 + (P 4 - V 2 P 0 )x

l - V 2 x + c2x2

(2.4)

= V P^ xn,

^ 0 n

(V2 = d2 - 2c) .

acci number.

(2.2)

H H * = ( H l Hf - 2HH 0 *)F 2n + H o H J F ^

(2.5)

(since

= H l H l * F 2 n - H 0 H 0 *F 2 n _ 2

F

2n+1

= 2F

(2.6)

where

^ e e (2.1))

If H* = H n _ 1 + H n + 1 = G n , n = 0, 1, , then (2.6) i s satisfied and thus (2.5) gives

(2.7)

HnGn = H I G I F 2 A - H 0 G 0 F 2 n _ 2

(n = 0, 1, ) ;

H0G0 + (HiGt - 3H 0 G 0 )x

(2.8)

1 - 3x + x*

Remarks.

"

= > H Gx

n n n

n=0

Our special result (2.7) solves completely the problem posed by Brother U.

Alfred [ 1 ] , where ( 2 , 9 ) , for example, must stand for (H^, H*), and not, a s incorrectly

1972]

399

indie a

indicated

(H t , H 2 ). If H n = F n $ then G n = L , and (2.7) reduces to the well-known identity, F n L n = F 2 n ; and (2.8) gives

2 ^*

2n

1 - 3x + x2

3.

n=0

PROOF OF THEOREM 1

F o r n = 0, 1, and 2, Eq. (1.6) gives a linear system of three equations for the three

unknowns C j , C 2 , and C 3 . We readily find that C 3 = N / D , where D = cd(a - b) 3 fi 0

is

W0W* = Ct + C2 + C 3

(3.1)

(3.2)

WtWf = a 2 C t + b 2 C 2 + cC 3

(3.3)

W2W* = a4Ci + b 4 C 2 + c 2 C 3

and

1

WtW*

b4

W2W*

a4

W0W0*

F o r the sufficiency proof, we assume that (2.1) is true.

(3.1) by c

(3.4)

0 = _ab(a - b) 2 C 3

If C 3 = 0, then (see (1.6))

= W W* = Cli a 2 n + C 2 b 2 n ,

n n

*

n = 0, 1,

400

[Oct.

(3.5)

P n = C 2 (b - a ) Z 2 n + P0&

(n = 0, 1, . . . ) ,

(3.6)

P n = Cj(a - b ) Z 2 n + P 0 b 2 n

(n = 0, 1, . - . ) .

we obtain, respectively,

after simplification,

(3.7)

P n = [(P t -

+ P0a2n

(n = 0, 1, ) ,

(3.8)

P n = [(Pj - b 2 P 0 ) / d ] Z 2 n + P 0 b 2 n

(n = 0, 1, ) .

a2p0)/d]Z2n

(3.9)

2Pn =

[(2Pj - V 2 P 0 ) / d ] Z 2 n + P 0 V 2 n

- dZ

(n = 0, 1, . . . ) .

= 2Z

(3.10)

2 d P n = (2P t - P0(V2 + d 2 ) ) Z 2 n + 2 d P Q Z 2 n + 1 .

P n = [ ( P l - P 0 (d 2 - 0 ) / d ] Z 2 n

(3.11)

PQZ2n+1 .

Since P

= W W*, Eq.

(3.11) reduces to (2.2).

M

n

n n

2

If we set (E - VL2E + c 2 )W W* = Q , where E m A = A J , then (1.7) becomes

n n

n

n

n+m

(3.12)

(E - c)Q n = 0 .

(3.13)

= Kc 11

(K, a c o n s t a n t ) .

(3.14)

W J *

- V 0 W ^.W*

+ c 2 W W* = Q n c n ,

n+2 n+2

2 n+1 n+1

n n

^0

'

where

Q0 = W2W2* - V2W1W1* + c2W0W0* .

(2.3).

1972]

4.

401

COMMENTS

W

n+2 = 2 W n + l

If we choose

+ W

then

n'

n^

"^

ls

' 5>

12,

'" ^

where

F o r example, if

is P e l l ' s sequence.

{ Wn n f = {2, 3 9 8, 19, }

0

and set

n

n-1

n+1

then

{Wn} = {2, 10, 22, . - } ;

n 0

and since d = 2 and c = - 1 , we obtain from (2.2) in Theorem 1

(4.1)

W W* = 5Z Q + 4 Z 0 __, '

n n

2n

2n+l

where Z

(n = 0, 1, ) ,

'

'

is P e l l ' s sequence.

Using results of the author [2, p. 242], it seems reasonable that the conclusions of

Theorem 1 may be extended (properly interpreted) to p products of solutions of (1.1), where

p = 2, 4, 6, . . . F o r example, if P = W W*W**W***, where W , W*, W**, and W***

^

^

n

n n n n

n

n

n

n

a r e independent solutions of (1.1), then P satisfies a fifth-order linear difference equation

(see [2, (2.2), p. 242] whose characteristic equation is

1

(x - c 2 ) J7 (x2 - c 3 V.

(4.2)

3=0

ZJ

x + c4) = 0

Since

P n = C i a 4 n + C 2 (a 3 b) n + C 3 c 2 n + C 4 (ab 3 ) n + C 5 b 4 n ,

' 1

T l (E2 - c 3 V 4

j=0

(4.3)

E + c4)

F o r the case d = 4c, d / 0, it appears that (2.2) of Theorem 1 holds under (2.1).

Moreover, if 2Wi = dW0, then (2.1) holds for any a r b i t r a r y sequence

we have Z

= na ~ , n = 0, 1, . . . , in (2.2).

W*.

Since

a = b,

402

Oct. 1972

15. Douglas Lind, Personal communication of 24 June 1967.

16. E. Netto, Lehrbuch d e r Combinatorik, 2nd E d . , Leipsig, 1927.

17. John Riordan, Combinatorial Identities, Wiley, New York, 1968.

18.

kansvraagstukken, Niew Archief voor Wiskunde, (2)12(1918), 234-270.

19. Arnold Singer, "On a Substitution Made in Solving Reciprocal Equations, M Math. M a g . ,

38(1965), 212.

20. Valentino Tomelleri,

Sci. M a t . , f i s . , chim..

21.

Problem 3691, Amer. Math. Monthly, 41(1934), 395, posed by E. P . Starke; Solution,

ibid., 43(1936), 111-112, b y E . P . Starke, and note editor 1 s r e m a r k s .

[Continued from page 396. ]

t-1

'. = (V>

Hence y (mod 10

+ k

k=0 '

), defined by (8), with coefficients given by (10) and (12), is an

y

where

V2t - l\

t-1

t y ^ (-x) k (t

l\

i' rS^l k r

1

x

i

u ^ d

- n)"du = f

( 1 - xvj^dv

o

t-1

^ ft - l \ (-x)k

ZL/I k I t + k '

k=0

by expanding (1 - x v ) ^ 1 and integrating t e r m - b y - t e r m .

tion (2).

REFERENCES

1. Vernon deGuerre and R. A. F a i r b a i r n , "Automorphic N u m b e r s , " J . of Rec. Math. , Jul.

1968.

2.

3. Donald E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. II, Addison-Wesley, 1969.

ERNST M.COHN

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. 20546

Horadam [1] has shown that Pythagorean triples a r e Fibonacci-number triple s It has

now been found that Pythagorean triples a r e Pell-number triples as well.

The Diophantine solution for Pythagorean triples (x, y, z)

and z = p 2 + q 2 , where p > q.

is x = 2pq,

y = p 2 - q2,

q are of dif-

congruent to 1 modulo 4.

are

y - x = p 2 - q2 - 2pq = c

(1)

p - q = N/2q2

(2)

and

p + q = N/2p2 c

(3)

It may be noted in passing that all values of c for primitive triples a r e of the form 12d 1

and 12d 5, where d = 0, 1, 2, 3, e e .

this form a r e possible values of c, because this representation by means of three Pell numb e r s includes all odd numbers not divisible by 3.

Two characteristic identities of the Pell-number sequence,

(4)

Pn+2 = 2Pn+1 + Pn

(P = 0,

Pl

= 1)

and

(Pn+1 + Pn)2 - 2P^+1 = (-l)n+1

(5)

were used [3] to prove that Pell numbers generate all values for

(x, y, z) when c = 1.

Multiplication of (5) by a2 shows that Pell numbers also generate all values for

2

when c = a ,

c = 4, q

r e g a r d l e s s of primitivity.

= 2P ; c = 9, q

Thus, when c = 1,

= 3P , etc.

= P

and p

(x, y, z)

= P +^_;

When c = 2,

= P

- +P

and p

= Pn+2

etc.

n+1

n

n+1

n

n

n+1

n s

All other Pythagorean triples are represented by generalized Pell n u m b e r s , similar to

Horadam 1 s generalized Fibonacci numbers [ 4 ] , in such a way that a pair of equations is

associated with each value of c8

403

404

(6a)

or

*2n+l

= aP

n+1

2n+2

Oct. 1972

bP

and

(6b)

qM0

_ = bP ^ + aP

2n+1

n+1

n

^2n+2

where a > b. The value of p , associated with a given value of q, is obtained by replacing

n by (n + 1). It will be noted that the odd and even values form two distinct sequences.

Upon combining (2) and (3) with (6), we obtain

(7a)

(7b)

b ) P n + 1 + (a

2n+l

<Wl

(a

2n+2

V+2

(a + b ) P n + 1

b)P t i

a)P

(b

and

(8a)

2n+1

2n+l

(8b)

2n+2

2n+2

(3a

b)Pn+1

(a

b)P

(a + 3 b ) P n + 1 + (a + b ) P n

where the subscripts for p and q may be interchanged between (7a) and (7b) as well as b e tween (8a) and (8b) a s needed.

Since Pell numbers p r o p e r , and generalized Pell numbers for primitive solutions, a r e

alternately of different parity, and with p q odd for primitive solutions,

a b must be

odd in view of (7) and (8). All other possible values of a b also occur and give r i s e to nonprimitive triples.

Once obtained, all values a r e easily verified, and any oversight of a permissible value of c

becomes obvious by the absence of an expected pair (a,b).

tematic, analytical method of determining a priori either possible values of c o r their a s sociated pair o r p a i r s of (a,b), except for c = a2 and c =. 2a 2 , where b= 0.

Following is a table of the first 33 values for c, a,

giving

56

14

62

98**

103

17

23

28

31

63

68

112

11

113

73

119*** 8

34

11

119*** 10

41

82

124

46

126

3

7

2

47

92

127

5

4

94

*This also has the solution 7F~7

**This also has the solution 7 ( P * + 1 + P n )

136

10

49*

"ifc|4;"

of solutions.

WITH GENERALIZATIONS

H. C. WILLIAMS

University of Manitoba, Winnepeg 19, Canada

1.

INTRODUCTION

k lines of P a s c a l ' s

Triangle,

.1

...

0

0

C-1) (v)

2k

4k

column and n

0, 1, 2, , k - 1) and

F.

12 F i,n-j

row be F .

M,

i,n'

G = 0, 1, 2, , k - 1; |n| = k, k + 1, )

1=1

If k = 2.5 F~

= f , - , F= f , where f is the n

Fibonacci number; and if k = J3,

0,n

n+1

l,n

n

n

F

= L . and F r t

= K - , where L and K a r e the general Fibonacci numbers of

l,n

n+1

2,n

n-1

n

n

WaddiU. and Sacks [8], Also, F f e _ 1 h = fh k where the fQ fc a r e the k-generalized Fibonacci numbers of Miles [ 5 ] , and F A

U.

= U,

. and

a r e of use in polyphase merge sorting techniques (see, for example, Gilstad [3] and

rL9 n

Reynolds [6]).

The purpose of this paper is to investigate some of the properties of a more general

set of functions which include the functions F .

(i = 0, 1, 2, , k - 1 ) and several others

is n

as special c a s e s .

405

406

[Oct.

Let {c^, a2i * , % } be a fixed set of k integers such that

k

-nw \

k - 1 _*_

F(x) = x

has distinct zeros

- a^x

k-2

+ a2x

p 0 , Pi, , Pk_-p

, / i\k

+ ...

+ (-1) ^

k-1

p

i

l

Jl *A

d~j

j=o

(i = 0, 1, 2, , k - 1)

l

Finally, let

D =

Po

Pi

...

Po

Pi

Pi

...

Pi

k-l

P2

p

k-l

...

k-1

A = |D|.

We shall concern ourselves with the functions

(2.1)

A.

i,n

Po

p}- 1

00

i+1

Po

Po

Pi

k-1

Pi

01

i+1

Pi

k-1

Pi

i-1

k-l

*k-l

k-l

'

i+1

k-l

'"

k-lj

k-l

(i = 0, 1, 2, , k - 1) .

It i s c l e a r that

k-1

A

(2.2)

i,n

f EV?

(i =

0,1, 2 , . - . k - l ) ,

i=o

where c .

is the cofactor of p] in D.

define A.

to be z.

1972]

properties of A.

407

, have been dealt with in some detail by authors such as Bell [1] 9 Ward

(i = 1, 2, , k), {z. -

} is the general F i b -

Ki-x 9 n

Since matrix methods a r e advantageous in the treatment of the A.

functions, we in-

i9n

C =

"00

"10

"k-1 0

"01

"11

"k-1 1

l k-1

k-1 k-l_

0 k-1

C. = diag (c. o 9 c . r

' c i k-1 ) ,

i,k-l

1.0

Z

Z. =

l

i,k-l

n,r

i,2

i,k

%2k-2

i,k

01

,n+r

01

"k-1

,n+r

,n+(k-l)r

^n+fe-Dr

,n+(k-l)r

k-l,n

0,n

B

^0 s n+r

n9r

A

09n+(k-l)r

k-1,n+r

l9n+(k-l)r

k-l,n+(k-l)r

A.

i,n

A-i 9 n+r

^

B.

i,nsr

A

i9n+(k-l)r

3.

The A.

l9n+r

A.

i,n+2r

A.

i 9 n+(k-l)r

A.i,n+kr

i,n+kr

i,n+(2k-2)r

SPECIAL CASES

We

scribe several other special c a s e s . We first show the relation of the function F .

to A.

i,n

i,n

.th

Let H. (j = 1, 2, . . . 9 k) be the j

elementary symmetric function of 0O9 0 j ,

4>k_l9

then

408

[Oct.

k

+1

(3.1)

( 1 ) J +T

1 H A

=X)W

"

J i>n-j

3=1

A. j n

If

'[()-(->)]

i = ( - i r i m - L , 1 1

and a0 = aA = 1,

a = i, 2. ,k)

we have 0. = 1 + p. and H. = (-1) J + .

a. = 0 (I = 2, 3, , k - 1),

Hence,

k

=y^A.

A.

i,n

L-d

3=1

and

V

i,n

(0 <

(i)

i,n-j

i,

n <

k - 1)

thus, in this c a s e ,

A.

= F.

i,n

i,n

When k - 2, at = 1 - 2a, a2 = a2 - a - 1, SLQ = a,

-1,

and AQ

= afn + f ^ ,

A.

= fn

If ^

An

= 2n_1

0,n

n

where 9- is the n

Lucas number.

If

=0,

and

aA = 1, we have

5

a2 = " >

Hi = 1, H2 =

o = i = 1> we have

A,

= 2n"1f ,

l,n

n

equation

x2 - dy2 = 1 ,

(3.2)

ax = 0,

a2 = -d,

a 0 = xl9

at = yi ,

Then AA

= x and A,

= Jy , where (x , Jy ) is the n

solution of (3.2).

0,n

n

l,n

n

n n

When k = 3, we also have some interesting c a s e s . For example, if a = a2 = a% =

2 and a0u = -ai1 = aL2 = 1, we have Hi = -H 2 = H63 = 1 and AA

= UQ , A.

= -L . ,

*

0,n

3,n

l,n

n-1

AQ&, n = ^Q

j_i

=

K

.

If

(x

yi,

z

)

is

a

fundamental

solution

of

the

diophantine

equation

l9

A

o, n+i

n

(Mathews [4])

(3.3)

x 3 + dy 3 + d 2 z 3 - 3dxyz = 1 ,

1972]

and a0 = a2 = 0, az = d,

a0 = x l s

a! = y l s

a2 = z l s

409

given by

(A

0,n'

l,n>

2sn)

4.

(|n

0,1,2,...).

IDENTITIES

functions.

It

will be seen that each of these relations is a generalization of a corresponding identity s a t isfied by the Fibonacci numbers.

and f

to other Fibonacci num

n+m n - m

nm

b e r s . F o r the sake of convenience, we shall call these relations the addition, subtraction,

and multiplication formulas.

By (2.1),

where we denote by Bf

B. __,

= P

C.P f

i,n+m,r

n , r I m, r

the transpose of the matrix B. Since

CD = DC = I ,

B. ^

= P

C'D'C.DCP'

= B

Z.B!

;

i,n+m,r

n,r

I

m,r

n,r I m,r

hence,

A.

, = (AA A, AQ

. . A.

)Z.(A

A,

. . . A.

)?

i,m+n

0,n l , n 2,n

k,n l A0,m l , m

k,m

(4.1)

k-1 k-1

ZLJ z L r Z i s h + j

h=0 j=0

h,n

j,m

ByJ the definition of A.

it follows that

i,n

k-1

(4.2)

3=o

thus,

k-1

h ,m

p. 0.

r P ?*A.

3=o

k-1

/ k-1

]=o

\ j=o

410

[Oct.

H m A.

i,n-m

00

Po0o

i-1 ,m

Po 0o

,n

0o

i+l^ni

Po 0o

k-1 ,m

Po 0o

,m

0i

,m

pi(p1

i-1 ,m

Pi 0i

,n

0i

i-l^m

Pi 0i

k - 1 ,m

Pi 0i

i+1 , m

k-l.m

,m

,m

i-1 ,m

,m

By (4.2)

H m A.

i,n-m

(4.3)

k-1

y ^ -A.

*-J

3=0

0,]

j,i

2wZ0si+j-lAj,m

0,m

Z/o,i+j+lAj,m

'*'

Z/o,i+k-lAj, m

Z)Zl,i+j-lAj,m

l,m

Szl.i+|+lAj,m

'"

2 Z l , i + k - l A jj ,, m

5-XjAj,m

"'

2JZk-lJAJm

""X/Zk-l.i+3-lAJni-

k-l,mzJZk-l,i+j+lAj,m

' "SZk-l,i+k-lAj,m

i,n

Since

k-1

1 \ ^

A.

i,nm

^nm

1=0

A.

i,nm

/k-i

j=0

\h=0

k

i,nm

Z-/ii-i2 - ik- j = i

and ( j - l ) i . .

i.

z.

J> m i, s

= m;

1972]

We may easily evaluate the determinants of B

n, r

411

, and B.

by first introducing

i;ii) r

the matrix.

,n.

Q.

& (k-l)n

s (k-l)n

^(k-l)n

k-1

Now

0,0

k-l90

l9n

Ss-l.n

l,(k-l)n

Vl,(k-l)n

0,n

QnC =

A

0,(k-l)n

hence

lsn

k,n

l,2n

^k,2n

l,(k-l)n

^ k , (k-l)n

K\

Since

iPn,r| =

we have

(4.5)

n,r

n-1 9 r

l,r

^l,2r

^n-l,2r

%(k-l)r

nrl,(k-l)r

and

A

(4.6)

B.

i9n,r

H,2r

Hn|Z.|

n-l9r

l9r

A

.n-l,2r

l,(k-l)r

An - l ( k - l ) r

9

REFERENCES

1. E. T. Bell,

2. David E. Ferguson, "An Expression for Generalized Fibonacci N u m b e r s , "

Fibonacci

3. R. L. Gistad, "Polyphase Merge Sorting An Advanced Technique," P r o c . Eastern Joint

Computer Conference, Dec. I960.

4. C. B. Mathews, "On the Arithmetic Theory of the F o r m x 3 + ny 3 + n 2 z 3 - 3nxyz," P r o c .

London Math. Soc. , Vol. 21 (1891), pp. 280-287.

5. E. P . Miles, J r . , "Generalized Fibonacci Numbers and Associated M a t r i c e s , " Amer.

Math. Monthly, Vol. 67 (I960), pp. 745-752.

TRIANGLE WITH GENERALIZATIONS

412

iq?

ACM, Vol. 4 (1961), pp. 347-349.

7. E. S. Seimer, Linear Recurrence Relations over Finite Fields, University of Bergen,

Norway, 1966.

8.

Quarterly, Vol. 5 (1967), pp. 209-222.

9. Morgan Ward, "The Algebra of Recurring S e r i e s , " Annals of Math. , Vol. 32 (1931),

pp. 1-9.

10. H. C. Williams, "On a Generalization of the Fibonacci N u m b e r s , " P r o c . Louisiana

Conference on Combinatorics, Graph Theory and Computing, Louisiana State University,

Baton Rouge, March 1-5 1970, pp. 340-356.

[Continued from page 401. ]

REFERENCES

1. Brother U. Alfred, "Exploring Special Fibonacci Relations," Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol.

4, Oct. , 1966, pp. 262-263.

2. D. Zeitlin, "Power Identities for Sequences Defined by W n + 2 =

dw

n+1

- c W n , " Fibon-

[Continued from page 404. ]

REFERENCES

1. A. F. Horadam, American Math. Monthly, Vol. 68 (1961), pp. 751-753.

2. C. W. Trigg,

4. A. F . Horadam, American Math. Monthly, Vol. 68 (1961), pp. 455-459.

"ANNOUNCEMENT.*.

The Editor (who always parks in a Fibonacci-numbered parking space) noted the following in the latest publication of the Fibonacci Association, A P r i m e r for the Fibonacci Numb e r s : There a r e 13 authors, each of whom wrote a Fibonacci number of a r t i c l e s .

Each c o -

author has a Fibonacci number of articles with a given co-author. There a r e 11 a r t i c l e s with

one author, and 13 articles have co-authors.

Of the twenty-four a r t i c l e s , 13 a r e P r i m e r

a r t i c l e s , and 11 a r e not.

The P r i m e r , co-edited by Marjorie Bicknell and V. E. Hoggatt, J r . , is a compilation

of elementary articles which have appeared over the y e a r s . These articles were selected and

edited to give the reader a comprehensive introduction to the study of Fibonacci sequences

and related topics.

$5.00.

Edited by

RAYMOND E.WHITNEY

Lock Haven State College, Lock Haven, Pennsylvania

Whitney, Mathematics Department, Lock Haven State College, Lock Haven, Pennsylvania

17745.

results.

within two months after publication of the problems.

Proposed by Verner Hoggatt, Jr., San Jose State College, San Jose, California

H-195

1

13

22

34

56 16

7 11

38

89 145

27

65 16

22 1

(ii) Show that the rising diagonal sums are the convolution of

(F2n-l^=0

and

{^2,2)};=0

H-196

1 + ^5

T

413

where

414

and let A

-,

[Oct.

m = 0, 1, 2, ,

J

(b) Generalize the proposition in (a).

H-197 Proposed by Lawrence Somer, University of Hiin o is, Urbana, Illinois.

Let { i r } _

n

sion relationship:

t

(t)

u

n

Vu n -.i

Zi

i=l

Find

u

.lim

n

oo

(t)

n+1

SOLUTIONS

HYPER -TENSION

H-185 Proposed by L Carlitz, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Show that

(1 - 2x) n =

(-Dn"k ( n

k=0

^

where

2Fi[a,b;

+ k

k )

( 2 k k ) (1 - v ) n - k 2 F l [-k; n + k + 1; k + 1; x]

/ \

/

(y - z) r z s

(2r + 3s)!

r!s!(r + 2s)! ^

r,s=0

Now put y = u + v, z = v,

frv

1 ;

.2r+3s+l

y*

1 - y - z

so that

( 2 r + 3s)L

JLJ

r l s l ( r + 2s)l ,r.s=0

*

u

+

=

,2r+3s+l

v

'

1

1 - u - 2v

1972]

415

n=0

while the left-hand side

oo

oo

r s V 1 / -x\kf2r + 3s + k \ ,

U V

{ 1}

^

~

{

k

J(U

k=0

(2r + 3s)l

r l s l ( r + 2s)l

r,s=0

+ V)

It follows that

<u

>

L <

k=0

. x k / 2 r + 3s + k \

( 1] n

'

(2r + 3s)l U vr

J rl8l(r

2s)l

s ,

r+s=n-k

ixn-r-s

r+s<n W

(r + 2s + n)l

v^

.

k

(u + v)A n-k \7*

t l N n-k

( 1}

"

(s + n + k)l

s=0

k=0

(u +

vn-r-s

v)

k-s

u

s

v

'

Taking u = 1, v = - x , we get

M V --' Mk)tI

(1

k=0

" V)n_k ^ ^

n + k + 1; k + 1; X]

H-186 Proposed by James Desmond, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida.

u , +u = u ^ ,

n-1

n+1

F o r a prime p and integers n, r , s and t,

u

_, = U sp+t

^

np+r

show that

x(mod

^p) 3,

416

if p = 1 (mod 5) and n + r = s + t,

[Oct.

and that

U __, = ( - l ) r + t U ^

np+r

sp+t

(mod p)

^

if p = 2 (mod 5) and n - r = s - t.

We have from Hoggatt and Buggies, "A P r i m e r for the Fibonacci Sequence P a r t III,"

Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1963, p. 65, and by F e r m a t ' s theorem, that

F ^

np+r

L^d 1 1 1 l+r

i=0

n-1

n-1

p+r

n-1

p+r

(mod p)

v

F . ^ . = F. . F . + F . F . 1+3

l+l

j-1

F

for all n and r.

__, = F F

, + F ^ F F

+ F F

.F

np+r

r n-1

r+1 p n

r p-1 n

(mod p)

^

F _- = 0 (mod p)

and

= 1 (mod p)

and

=1

F

+i

- (mod p)

(mod p)

F

for all n and r.

__, = F F

+ F ^ n F

E F ^

np+r

r n - 1n

r+1 n

r+n

Then

(mod p)

v

'

Therefore

F sp+t

.* = F s+t

^ = F n+r

^ = F np+r

__,

(mod *p).

1972]

417

U = t L F + UnF n

n

I n

0 n-1

for all n. Therefore

np+r

l Fnp+r

+ U

0 Fnp+r-l =

lFsp+t

+ U

0FSp+t-l

S U

sp+t

< m o d P>

have

F . ^ . - F.L. = ( - l ) j + 1 F . .

i+J

13

i-3

for all i and j . Therefore

F np+r

^ = Fr Fn --1 - Fr+1

, - Fn + Fr Fn

^- Fn - 2Fr+1

, - Fn + Fr F

n - -1 + Fr+1

n

= F ^ - L F = (-l)r+1 F

(mod p)

F

r+n

r n

'

n-r

for all n and r . Thus

( - l ) r + t F _,. = ( - l ) r + t ( - l ) t + 1 F . = ( - l ) r + 1 F

= F __

,

v

sp+t

\ / \ /

n-r

np+r

s_t

(mod p) .

v

Hence

U

np+r

= U

lFnP+r

+ U

"1)r+t

l sP+t

0 FnP+r-l

(U F

+ U

B U

l(-1)r+tFsP+t

0Fsp+t-l>

V-l)'-1*-1

- <-1)r+tusP+t

( m o d

s p + t-l

P>"

FIBONACCI IS A SQUARE

H-187

Problem: Show that a positive integer n i s a Fibonacci number if and only if either

2

5n + 4 o r 5n2 - 4 i s a square.

Solution by the Proposer.

Let F 0 = 0, F 4 = 1, F

L ,- = L + L n be the Lucas s e r i e s .

r+1

r

r-1

(1)

(-I)" + F*r = F r + 1 F r _ 1

(2)

L r = F r + 1 + Fr_x

Subtracting four times the first from the square of the second equation, we have

L2

_ 4 ( - l ) r - 4F 2 = (F _,, - F - )2 = F 2 ,

r

r+1

r-1

r

whence

5F 2 + 4 ( - l ) r = L 2 .

r

r

418

[Oct.

I have two proofs of the converse.

F i r s t Proof.

2

l/2q ,

then p / q i s a convergent to the continued fraction for x, and that (Hardy and Wright,

- /

F .

r

Assume that 5n2 4 - m 2 .

is an integer.

we get k2 - kn - n 2 = 1,

l/n 2 = (k/n) 2 - (k/n) - 1 = [(k/n) - (N/5 + l ) / 2 ] [(k/n) + (\/5 - l ) / 2 ] .

Thus

| (k/n) - (s/5 + l ) / 2 | = 1/n2 | (k/n) + (^5 - l ) / 2 | .

Since 1 is a Fibonacci number, we may assume n ^ 2. Then

(2k - n) 2 = m 2 ^ 5n2 - 4 = 4n2 + (n2 - 4) ^ 4n2 ,

so 2k - n ^ 2n, whence k / n 2= 3/2. Thus (k/n) + (\/"5 - l ) / 2 > 2, so by the two theorems

quoted above, k / n = F

- /F

for some r ,

2

m + \/5n

m - N/5n _

"

2

*

2

n

l

'

r

_m+_ \ 5n

are integers in Q ( N / 5 ) ,

units.

and,

m -* V5n

It is well known (Hardy and Wright, p. 221) that the only integral units of Q(\/I>) a r e

Then we have

(m + ^ 5 n ) / 2 = x r = \2

where y = - 1 / x . Now x. + y

= L

and

(x r + y r ) + f L ^ ^ L N/5 ,

^5

1972]

419

(Xr - y r ) / ^ 5 = F r

(Hardy and Wright, p. 148).

Thus

| ( m + N/5n) = | ( L r + ^ 5 F r > ,

so n = F .

SUM SERIES

H-189 Proposed by L Carlitz, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (Corrected).

Show that

^

r9S=0

(2r + 3s)l

(a - b y ) r b S y r + 2 s

r l s ! ( r + 2s)l H _,

,2r+3s+l

'

(1 + ay)

,

, 2

1 - ay - by2

Put

1i - ax

a r - bx

m=0

so that

=E *

(1 - ax - bx )(l - y)

J

vni

n

y

'

m,n=0

(1 - ax - bx 2 )(l - x

-z

y)

m,n=0

(1 - ax - bx 2 )(l - x V )

~n

420

(*)

[Oct.

1 - ay - by 2

On the other hand, since

(1 - ax - bx 2 )(l - x~ y) = (1 + ay) - x(a - by) - bx 2 - x" y ,

we have

(1 - ax - b x ^ U

- x-V)"1 =

[^a-b^+bx^+x-Vl

vT, S

(r + s + t)l

(a - by) b y

r+2s-t

x

rlsltl

,- ^

xr+s+t+l

(1 + a

r,s,t=0

^

The p a r t of this sum that is independent of x is obtained by taking t = r + 2s. We get

E

r,s=0

(2r + 3s)l

(a - b y ) V y r 2 s

r .sI(r + 2s)l ,.. ,

v2r+3s+i

T

(1 +

ay)

I T ' S A MOD WORLD

H-190 Proposed by H. H. Ferns, Victoria, British Columbia.

Prove the f o l l o w i n g

2rF

= n

(mod 5)

= 1

(mod 5)

2 L

where F

and L

a r e the n

Fibonacci and n

Solution by the Proposer.

^\-

E (2kn+1) 5

k=0

197

2]

421

Hence

IT]

5k

x

k=l

'

Thus

2n

Let n - 1 = 4m + r ,

Fn = n

2

= 2

But

Then

2 4m

(mod 5)

= 2

(24}m

2 F

1

= n

(mod

5)

(mod 5) .

Hence

2rF

= n

(mod 5) .

2rL

= 1

(mod 5) ,

To prove

use

M

k=0

'

JUST SO M A N Y TWO'S

H-192 Proposed by Ronald Alter, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

If

3n+l

M1+J.

c

. s (%: JH

n

3=0

prove that

=

6n+3

. Ns

(N odd, n >0) .

n

Solution by the Proposer.

In the sequence

b

k-l "

3b

k-2'

(k

"

lj

i = b2 = D >

2 that divides

b.

if and only if k = 3

(mod 6), Also, by deriving the appropriate Binet formula, it follows that

422

[Oct.

^ i m - c - ^ i - -

Thus

k ^ 1

2

j=o

The desired result follows by observing

6n+3

6n+2

Editorial Note: Please submit solutions for any of the problem proposals.

We need fresh

blood!

REXH.SHUDDE

Waval Post Graduate School, Monterey, California

After tiring of using numerous quadratic functions as objective functions for examples

in my mathematical programming c o u r s e , I posed the following problem for myself: Design

a unimodal function over the (0,1) interval which is concave, has a maximum in the interior

of (0,1), and is not a quadratic function.

My first thoughts were to add two functions which are concave over the (0,1) interval

with the property that one goes to -o at 0 and the other goes to -o at 1.

My two initial

choices were log x and l / ( x - 1). The golden section search s t a r t s at the two points x t =

1 - (1/0) and x 2 = l/(p where 0 = (1 + N / 5 ) / 2 . After searching with 8 points, I noticed that

the interval of uncertainty still contained the first search point so I thought it about time to

find the location of the maximum analytically.

ued indefinitely with the search my interval of uncertainty would still contain the initial search

point.

* Douglas J. Wilde, Optimum Seeking Methods, Prentice Hall, Inc. (1964).

BROTHER L RAPHAEL, FSC

St. Mary's College, California

patient high school student with little or no sophisticated number theory. The ideas covered

a r e presented in a straight-forward fashion, with many proofs and extensions left for the

r e a d e r to work through.

left to those with interest to pursue m a t t e r s in the standard references on Fibonacci numbers.

In the following (*) designates assertions which must be proved or developed by the reader.

Drawing all the figures carefully is certainly essential to an understanding of what is going

on.

1. Choose a coordinate system (which is to say, use some convenient graph paper)

and draw any parallelogram

OA^Aj

2.

3.

*4.

so that OA

-A

is a parallelogram.

5. If we have been successful so far, we now have a set of points {Aj- where n is

any integer, positive or negative; we may consider these points as forming an infinite polygon A_ 2 A_ 1 A 0 A 1 A 2 A 3 o. e (Fig. 3).

Figure 1

Figure 2

423

Figure 3

424

[Oct.

6. This curious polygon has many properties which are somewhat surprising.

dently, A

is the midpoint of A A

Evi-

This p r o c e s s may be

7. But there is a more interesting and related result. In Fig. 1, a r e a O A ^ = \ a r e a

OAjA2Ao = a r e a A Q A - ^ ,

along the polygon we find that a r e a AiA2A3 = a r e a A2A3A4. In general then, a r e a OAoAj. =

area

n+

iAn+9'

&1 a

sense

area.

8. Vectors a r e now introduced to make calculations a bit simpler.

resented by the vector v n .

= v n + 1 + vn,

since by (3),

Let OA

0A

n A n + 2 A n + 1 i s a parallelogram.

9. The entire polygon is based on 0A|A 2 Ai, so in some way, the vectors

a r e fundamental.

be r e p -

v 0 and

vj

and F

In fact,

v 2 = vA + v 0

v 3 = v2 + V! = 2vi +

v0

v 4 = v 3 + v2 = 3vi + 2v0

v 5 = v 4 + v 3 = 5vi + 3v0

v

^ i + 5v 0 .

= F ,. + F . In short, we are able to write: v = F v. + F . v n .

n+1

n

n

n 1

n-1 0

*10. In the negative direction along the polygon, check that v

~ F

V- + F_ _-. v . .

F

-n

= (-l)n+1F

n+1 F v

and so we have v_ n = (-1)

( n i - Fn+lv0^

11. Using the coordinate system we set up in (1), we may assign coordinates

(f , g )

to the point A ; and, of c o u r s e , the vector v will have the same coordinates. Then, since

^

n

n

vectors are added coordinate-wise, we have:

f

n

= F L + F .fn

n 1

n-1 0

and

g = F g. + F n g n ,

n

n&l

n-l&0

&

*12.

Since our polygons seem to be deeply involved with the Fibonacci sequence, we

need a short detour to pick up some well known properties of this sequence.

<p = | ( l + ^5) ,

Let

1972]

Then F

- /F

425

As n becomes

large j F n + 1 / F n can be shown to approach <p as l i m i t As a result of all this we can write

that:

F

,

n+1

lim - = = w ;

n^co Fn

<P>

and that F

- cpF

> 0 and Y<zF - F , > 0 if and only

J if n is odd.

n r n - 11

n

n+1

13, Returning to the polygon, consider the slope of OA for large positive n, where

F

f - 0

n

F L + F , fn

n 1

n-1 0

n%

%n -

Vl^O

&1

Vl

&0

F

n

Tfi

+ f

n-1

As n becomes very large 9

14.

9 \

<?h

+g0

+ f

0 '

-n -

T^

^ ^ V l "Wo*

(-lHFnh

- Fn+1f0)

F ^ "

F

o

n

"

s1 - <pg0

f

i-^fo

15. Another way of thinking about (13) and (14) is to call the lines y = Mx and y = Nx

the asymptotes of the polygon (Fig. 4),

large n,

the polygon runs along the asymptote y = Mx in the positive direction, and along

*16.

It is easy to show that the asymptotes are distinct lines through the origin

form a triangle.

0.

426

[Oct.

= Mx

-NX

Figure 4

17.

totes.

Figure 4 suggests a more intriguing relationship between the polygon and its asymp-

fo go

d = f0gi - *igo =

*i

gi

Check to see that we may choose A0 and A4 so that d ^ 0, qft + f0 ^ 0 and ft -cp% 0.

A calculation shows that for positive n :

d(F n

ff

&

- Mf

n

- (pFn - )

n 1

"

cp fA + Q

n

=

n

n

depends on F

JO.

- cpF

n

JJ "

which is p o s -

i s alternately g r e a t e r

(f , g ) lie alternately above and below the line y

Mf . Hence, the vertices A

Mx.

n *18. A similar analysisn for g - Nf , g - Mf

and g - Nf

yields this result:

J

&

&

n

n ' & -n

-n

-n

-n

the polygon (its v e r t i c e s , at any rate) lies on alternate sides of the asymptote y = Mx, and

entirely on one side of y = Nx. This explains the

Tf

The

asymptotes divide the plane into 4 regions: one containing the even-numbered v e r t i c e s , another the odd ones, and the last two regions are empty.

19.

area

OAQAI.

determinant:

OAQAI

+2

equals

is given by the

1972]

1 0

427

fo go

fi

gi

- f i g 0 ) = f d,

as in (17).

a r e a , we must recall that lettering a triangle in the opposite sense changes the sign of its

area.

Hence we get:

d =

fo

go

fi

gi

= -

fo

go

fi

gi

f2 g2

n+1

1

(-I)'

f

n+1

&

g

n+2

n+l

n+2

(-D1

d =

for any n.

^n

n+1

n+l

*20. A little more digging around can give us even more curious r e s u l t s . F o r example,

confine attention to the even-numbered v e r t i c e s . These form an "hyperbola"-shaped polygon

with the obvious asymptotes (Fig. 5). It can be shown without much trouble that

i

in absolute value.

*21.

a r e a 0A

2n A 2n+2 =

area

2n A 2n + 2 A 2n+4

lA = 3F J Q - F .

n+^t

n+z

n

Check the situation for the odd-numbered vertices.

Borrowing a result

from analytic geometry again, we see that MN = - 1 in that case. This can be simplified to:

2

gi

g0g2

fnf;

0^2

= -1

A simple way (not the only way, of course) for this to happen is for g

the polygon with vertices (f , f

a r e clearly perpendicular).

= f _ 1 . This gives us

428

Oct. 1972

0-3

Figure 5

Figure 6

and A2 = (1,1) as in Fig. 6.

- ) so that A0 = (0,1),

Aj_ = (1,0)

d = F 00*0

F(

FiF_i

n+1

n-1

F

n+1

= (-I)"

24. Investigate all eight polygons based on unit squares at the origin.

in addition to polygon (23), we also have (F

F o r example,

25. This material reveals a great many properties of the Fibonacci-type sequences in

a very geometric and graphic fashion.

tions are immediately available.

REFERENCES

2. G. K. F . von Patton, Uber den unglaublichen kaninchenlichen Vielecken und demberuhmten Leonhard von P i s a , usw. Spass-Verlag, Bad Homberg, 1735.

3. L. Raphael, "Linear Recursive Sequences of Integers," (to appear), Fibonacci Quarterly.

BROTHER ALFRED BROUSSEAU

St. Mary's College, California

The basic idea of the algorithm to be presented in this paper may be illustrated by the

simple example of a t h i r d - o r d e r linear recursion sequence; 1, 4 ? 8, 2 1 , 67, 199, 568, 1641,.

4782, 13904, 40353, 117161, with a recursion relation of the form

T _ = aT + bT n + cT 0 .

n+1

n

n-1

n-2

The problem is to find a, b , c.

c + 4b + 8a = 21

4c + 8b + 21a = 67

8c + 21b + 67a = 199

L4;

Only three equations a r e needed to find a, b, and c; the fourth is introduced since it brings

out the fact that it must be a linear combination of the first three, the multipliers being in

fact the quantities a, b, c for the given sequence; that i s ,

L 4 = aL 3 + bL 2 + c L |

Hence we can ascertain that the sequence is of the third o r d e r by fact that these four relations

a r e linearly dependent and no smaller number has this property.

The algorithm that does both these jobs simultaneously is Gaussian elimination. Stripped

of the excess baggage we s t a r t with a matrix of quantities;

(la)

21

(2a)

21

67

(3a)

21

67

199

(4a)

21

67

199

568

Multiply the first set of quantities by -4 and the second by 1 and add to get (2b); multiply

the first set by -8 and the third by 1 to get (3b); multiply the first by -21 and the fourth

by 1 to get (4b).

429

430

(2b)

-8

-11

-17

(3b)

-11

31

(4b)

-17

31

127

[Oct.

Now use -8 in (2b) as the pivot value and eliminate -11 and -17 in (3b) and (4b).

(3c)

-145

-435

(4c)

-435

-1305

(4d)

This shows that there is a third-order linear recursion relation among the quantities we have

used in these equations.

To find the constants a, b , c, we have equivalently from

-435a = -1305

Then from

so that

(4c):

a = 3 .

(la), c + 4b + 8a = 21

, = 3T - 2T , + 5T 0 .

n+1

n

n-1

n-2

It can now be ascertained whether the remaining t e r m s are governed by this recursion

relation.

In general 8 given a linear recursion relation for which we do not know the o r d e r o r the

coefficients, we can proceed by Gaussian elimination until we find a row of z e r o s .

the n

If this is

row, then the o r d e r of the linear recursion relation is n - 1 . The coefficients can

F o r example, the sequence 5 2 7 , 110, 23, 5, 2, 5, 23, 110, 527, was obtained

as a fourth-order sequence. Is it a proper fourth-order sequence o r does it have a lowero r d e r factor which governs the sequence? We proceed to make our analysis.

(la)

527

110

(2a)

110

(3a)

23

(4a)

2

5

(5a)

23

23

23

23

110

23

110

527

1972]

(2b)

21

(3b)

105

(4b)

504

(5b)

2415

12075

105

504

2415

525

2520

12075

2520

12096

57960

57960

277725

(3c)

T _,, = 5T - T ,

n+1

n

n-1

As a more ambitious example 9 consider the sequence:

(la)

-8

-2

-2

(2a)

-8

-2

-2

9

1

-2

-8

(3a)

(4a)

-2

-2

-2

(5a)

-2

-2

(6a)

-2

-2

-2

(7a)

-2

-2

-8

-8

(2b)

-2

-2

-7

-3

(3b)

-2

-59

-18

41

(4b)

-18

-3

19

(5b)

-2

41

19

-24

(6b)

-7

-3

(7b)

-9

468

154

-332

58

-54

(4c)

154

-1

-142

19

-45

(5c)

-332

142

188

-62

18

(6c)

58

19

-62

-9

-9

(7c)

-54

-45

18

-9

-9

(3c)

(4d)

-3023

-1916

-5

-1593

(5d)

-1916

-2780

-1220

-1188

(6d)

-5

-1220

-947

-135

(7d)

-1593

-1188

-135

-891

431

432

(5e)

4732884

3678480

539136

(6e)

3678480

2862756

400140

(7e)

539136

400140

155844

(6f)

17876957904

-89384789520

(7f)

-89384789520

446923947600

<7g)

Oct. 1972

rela-

tion is T

= -5T + 4T - - 2T 0 + 4T - 5T A - T

x

n+1

n

n-1

n-2

n-3

n-4

n-5

A complication can a r i s e when there is a zero in a position at which the pivot should be

found.

The general procedure here is to take as pivot in a given column the first candidate

among the sets of coefficients that might serve as a possible pivot in this column.

The following example will illustrate the manner of proceeding. Let there be a sequence

of unknown order: 1, 2, 4, 8, 1 1 , 7, - 1 1 , -47, -94, -123, -76, 123, .

We s e t u p quan-

(la)

11

-11

(2a)

11

-11

-47

(3a)

11

-11

-47

-94

(4a)

11

-11

-47

-94

-123

(5a)

11

-11

-47

-94

-123

-76

(6a)

-11

-47

-94

-123

-76

123

-5

-15

-25

-25

(2b)

(3b)

-5

-25

-55

-75

-50

(4b)

-5

-25

-75

-135

-150

-35

(5b)

-15

-55

-135

-215

-200

45

(6b)

-25

-75

-150

-200

-125

200

The first pivot element in the second column occurs in (4b). So we c a r r y down (2b) and (3b)

and pivot on (4b).

(2c)

-5

-15

-25

-25

(3c)

-5

-25

-55

-75

-50

(5c)

-100

-450

-950

-1250

-750

(6c)

-250

-1125

-2375

-3125

-1875

[Continued on page 438. ]

V. E. HOGGATT,JR.

San Jose State University, San Jose, California

and

IV1ARJ0RIE BICKWELL

A. C. Wilcox High School, Santa Clara, California

As first noted by Hoggatt [ 1 ] , the results of the world championship chess match held

in Iceland this summer between Boris Spassky 9 U. S. S. R. s and Bobby F i s c h e r , U. S. A., were

heavily influenced by Fibonacci and Lucas numbers (underlined in what follows).

Fischer

started as a 5 to 2 favorite with the British bookmakers, and Jimmy "The Greek" Snyder in

Las Vegas j Nevada, gave Fischer 6 to _5_which was changed to <3 to 5> as reported in T i m e ,

August 21. After the first and second games, Fischer won all games whose numbers a r e

Fibonacci n u m b e r s , while all games numbered by Lucas numbers (apart from 3) were either

draws or wins for Spassky.

there were 8_ consecutive games where Fischer was 3^ games ahead of Spassky, and F i s c h e r

was 4 games ahead of Spassky when he won the match.

7_ wins for F i s c h e r and _3 for Spassky, with a prize split of 5/8 for Fischer and 3/8 for Spassky,

or, a gold ratio of 5> to 3.

There were _8 occasions when both s c o r e s were positive integers- After _5 of the games

!l

(i ii ~> -> 2!) koth s c o r e s were Fibonacci numbers and consecutive Fibonacci numbers in

4 of those cases; in :2 cases (3 and 7), both s c o r e s were Lucas numbers; in 8_ cases (1, 2_, 3>,

7_, 8_, 12, 13, 19 where there a r e 4 Luc as-numbered and _5 Fibonacci-numbered games

listed), the s c o r e s were each Fibonacci o r Lucas numbers.

Even when the s c o r e s were non-integral, all was well with Fibonacci. It is well-known

that there a r e several ways to round off numbers ending with 1/2.

and the other rounded down, in 8^ cases (4, _5, 6, 9, 10, 11., 18, 21) the scores will both be

either a Fibonacci or a Lucas number; in 31 c a s e s (4, _5, 21) the s c o r e s a r e both distinct F i b onacci numbers, being consecutive Fibonacci numbers in games j5 and 21_ and making Fibonacci numbers 2^ ways for the scores from game 4; in 5_ c a s e s (4, 6, 10, 1 1 , JL8) both s c o r e s

will be Lucas numbers with positive subscripts, being consecutive Lucas numbers in games

4, 11, and 18; in_3 c a s e s (4, _5, 6) both s c o r e s are both Fibonacci and Lucas numbers

for

both ways to round up and down. Notice that, in 3 cases (4, !5, 21), the scores a r e both d i s tinct Fibonacci numbers while in 4 other cases (6, 10, 11, 18) the s c o r e s are both Lucas

numbers. There were ^3 games (4, 6, 10, 11, 18^) after which if both s c o r e s were rounded up,

they would both be either (distinct) Fibonacci or Lucas numbers, and again 3; cases (4, J5, 6)

where both s c o r e s are both Fibonacci and Lucas numbers.

6, 9,, 14, 20) in which if both s c o r e s were rounded down, both numbers resulting a r e either

433

434

Oct. 1972

ping the fraction 1/2, yield 13 entries which a r e Fibonacci numbers, and IJ^ which a r e Lucas

numbers, made up of _7 distinct numbers; further, 8 a r e both Fibonacci and Lucas numbers,

while _8 a r e separately Fibonacci o r Lucas numbers.

which a r e each both Fibonacci and Lucas numbers for all ^ ways to round off the s c o r e s , and

a Fibonacci o r Lucas number of game numbers a r e underlined in each case listed in this p a r agraph.

There were 1 1 games where the scores were non-integral. Writing all non-integral

s c o r e s as improper fractions yields _8 Fibonacci only numerators and 1_ Lucas only n u m e r a tors and 1 which is both.

The ratio of the two scores equalled the ratio of two positive Fibonacci numbers after

7 of the games (3, 4, 5, 7, 13, 15, 19), while after 3 of the games (5, 7, _8) the ratio of the

s c o r e s was equal to the ratio of two Lucas numbers with positive subscripts.

After the _8

games 1, 2, ^, j5, 6, _8 13 and 21., the ratios of the s c o r e s are the ratios of two Fibonacci

numbers, and after the 7_ games 3, 4, 6, _7> 10, 11.* and IjS the s c o r e s a r e two Lucas numbers

if Spassky's score is rounded down and Fischer 1 s rounded up.

Note that game J5 fits all _5 c r i t e r i a given for non-integral s c o r e s . Lastly, there is e x actly one game, game 16, whose scores fit into none of the preceding patterns, again a F i b onacci count.

SCORES IN WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP CHESS MATCH

(Scoring: Win, 1 point; Draw, 1/2 point)

Winner

Game

Spassky

Fischer

Winner

Game

Spassky

Fischer

7

12

13

14

5-1/2

8-1/2

2-1/2

1-1/2

15

2-1/2

2-1/2

16

6-1/2

9-1/2

17

10

2-1/2

3-1/2

18

7-1/2

10-1/2

11

19

3-1/2

5-1/2

20

8-1/2

11-1/2

21

8-1/2

12-1/2

10

3-1/2

6-1/2

11

4-1/2

6-1/2

Making a different count, notice that, opt of 42 scores occurring, if fractions a r e d i s carded, Lucas or Fibonacci numbers occur 34 times while there are only 8_ occurrences of

non-Fibonacci, non-Lucas numbers, and, further, each score occurs a Fibonacci o r Lucas

number of times.

number of t i m e s .

[Continued on page 438. ]

AWDREWFEINBERG

Student Johns Hopkins Medical School

1.

INTRODUCTION

Plato believed that mathematics and logic were a necessary step in the pursuit of the

Good, but that an extra step of enlightenment was necessary to achieve it. This is illustrated

by the discussion of the divided line in the Republic,

m e n t s / ' [l] by first dividing the line (length a) into two unequal segments (ka and a - ka),

the shorter one near the top. He then divides each segment by the same proportion k,

he labels the segments as shown in Fig. l a .

and

the Good offered in the Republic (Fig, l b ) , where the line is itself an example of dianoia.

Now, the problem with the line is that, following o r d e r s , one cannot construct the second and

third segments unequal [ 2 ] . I leave the proof to the r e a d e r .

Platonists conclude that mathematics, symbolized by the line, while useful for d e s c r i b ing the Good, contains inconsistencies reconciled only by a higher perception.

In [2] is an

episteme ^

(knowledge)

doxa J ^ J

(opinion) ' |

dianoia (mathematics and logic)

pistis (belief)

eikasia (heresay)

| sun analogy

I Socrates (nous)

j l i n e analogy

| Timaeus (dianoia)

1 cave allegory

I Hermocrates (pistis)

ifch001

I learning

(b) Ways to Understand the Good

I Critias (eikasia)

The irreconcilability of mathematics and the highest good was a particularly sore a r e a

for Plato. Irrational numbers were a case in point.

embodied in many beautiful objects (the Golden Ratio appeared in many buildings of his day),

irrational numbers were without reason and impure.

435

436

[Oct.

In this dialogue, Plato describes the celestial orbs as consisting of the five regular

polyhedra, each of whose faces can be decomposed into the basic triangles which constitute

matter [3], He divides them up as shown in Fig. 2. The Pythagoreans divided the pentagonal

faces of the dodecahedron into 30 elementary scalene triangles [ 4 ] , as shown in Fig. 3a.

POLYHEDRON

pyramid

octahedron

icosahedron

cube

dodecahedron

FACE

(4)

(8)

(20)

(6)

(12)

ELEMENTARY

TRIANGLE

triangles

triangles ) & <6> 30-60-90

triangles

121 (4) 45-45-90;<

squares

Plato does not

pentagons

divide these.

Fig. 2 The Celestial Orbs and their Constituent Triangles, Squares, and Pentagons

This decomposition provides the outline of the famous pentagram (Fig. 3b), the Pythagorean

symbol of recognition, meaning "Health" [5]. The heavy outline in Fig. 3a m a r k s a 72-72 0 36* isosceles triangle, the ratio of whose sides is the Golden Ratio, which is irrational [6],

The first four polyhedra describe the Sun, the Moon, and planets [ 7 ] , and comprise

collectively the Circle of the Different; but the dodecahedron, the Circle of the Same, is the

celestial sphere itself.

Zodiac [8]. Where the other orbs rotate at various intervals, the dodecahedron rotates e x actly once each day (actually the rotation of the earth). Plato gives the dodecahedron special

compliments.

Because of its diurnal regularity, it has Sameness and Supremacy and is Self-

He

says:

Now whenever discourse that is alike t r u e . . . is about that which is sensible, and

the circle of the Different, moving aright, c a r r i e s its message throughout all its

soulthen there a r i s e judgments and beliefs that a r e sure and true. But whenever

discourse is concerned with the rational, and the circle of the Same, running

smoothly, declares it, the result must be rational understanding and knowledge [9].

Plato contradicts himself. At the root of the dodecahedron is the Golden Ratio, which

is irrational and Platonically imperfect; yet Plato describes the dodecahedron as rational and

perfect.

The easiest explanation of this contradiction is that it is a Platonic aberration.

But I

think that Plato knew it all along, and that it is an attempt to show a flaw in Timaeus* argument.

1972]

3e

437

INTERPRETATION

not Plato speaking in this dialogue, it is Timaeusin fact, there are four speakers: C r i t i a s ,

H e r m o c r a t e s , Timaeus, and Socrates,

might be ranked as shown in Fig. l c .

The c h a r a c t e r s

heard from the old Critias, who heard it from Solon, who heard it from the p r i e s t of an ancient Egyptian province (an example of heresay).

story to Plato (belief).

the l a s t word.

Timaeus ! discussion is a model of dianoia. We Timaeuses might describe the world

in our mathematical t e r m s and point to the beauty of our models, but according to Plato, our

models have built-in contradictions.

tion of nature; and like the Line, it must contain hidden contradictions and imperfections*

Timaeus T mathematical construct, the dodecahedron, is superficially beautiful and rational,

but it contains hidden the Golden Ratio and its imperfect, irrational N/"5.

Now most of us probably do not see anything wrong with N/5; after all, i t ' s much neate r than e o r i. And I personally think mathematics is quite beautiful.

that mathematics cannot simultaneously retain its simplicity and achieve beauty, that mathematics alone is insufficient to achieve the Good, and that the Golden Ratio is the paradigm of

mathematics 1 aesthetic inadequacy, as shown by the dodecahedron.

We Fibonacci lovers can at least savor the knowledge that the great Greek genius spent

so much time thinking about one of our favorite numbers.

REFERENCES

1.

Plato, Republic; VI, Paul Shorey (trans.), The Collective Dialogues of Plato ? E. Hamilton

and E. Cairns (eds.), Princeton: Princeton University P r e s s , 1961, 509d.

P r e s s , 1954, p. 98.

3.

54d-55c.

4. Thomas L. Heath, The Thirteen Books of Euclid T s Elements, New York: Dover Publications, Inc. , 1956, Vol. 2, p. 98.

5. Ibid., pp 99. This is the answer to word "KM in Marjorie Bicknell, n A Fibonacci C r o s t i c , " Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 5, Dec. 1971, pp. 538-540.

The pentagram is

6. According to legend, Hippasus was struck down at sea for discovering the dodecahedron.

and thus introducing irrational numbers to the world.

7. Kepler published a model of these in Mysterium cosmographicum in 1595.

8. Plato, Timaeus, op. c i t . , 55cB

9. Ibid, 37b-c. The underlines are mine.

438

(2d)

(5d)

(6d)

-5

Oct. 1972

-15

-25

-25

-250

-750

-1250

-1250

-625

-1875

-3125

-3125

(5e)

0.

Back substituting in (2d), (3c), (4b) and (la), we find the coefficients in the recursion r e l a tion to be a = 3, b = - 4 , c = 2, d = - 1 , so that the recursion relation of the fourth o r der is:

T ^ = 3T - 4T 1 + 2T 0 - T .

n+1

n

n-1

n-2

n-3

Turning to the players and the match itself, F i s c h e r , who is now 2, won the U. S.

Junior Open Championship at age 13 and became an international grandmaster at 15, while

Spassky was 1_8, three y e a r s older than F i s c h e r was, when designated an international grandmaster.

match as having three p a r t s : games 1-5, opening, 5_ games; games 6-13_, middle, j$ games;

games 14-21, ending, _8 games. F i s c h e r ' s "poisoned pawn" bobble came on the _29

the first game, after Fischer had arrived _7 minutes late, while the 1_1

game was the key move in his first win.

move of

In conclusion, returning to the opening sentence of this paper, notice that every proper

noun has a Fibonacci number of l e t t e r s in the word (except for Fibonacci itself).

The odds were really in our favor since _11 out of the first 21_ integers a r e Fibonacci o r

Lucas numbers and of these 4 a r e even integers and 7_ are odd integers.

The factual information in this article was gleaned for the most part from Time Magazine and the San Jose Mercury-News.,

REFERENCE

1. V. E. Hoggatt, J r . , l e t t e r s , September J5, 8, 11, and 1J3, 1972.

JOSEPH LERCOLANO

Baruch College, CUNY, Mew York, New York

1. The problem of finding the "golden cut" (or section) of a line segment was known to

the early Greeks and is solved in Euclid II, 11 [1]: let segment AB be divided into two segments by the point G such that AB/AG : AG/'GB. Then G is the golden cut of AB,

AG/GB, the golden ratio.

and

CD and let s e m i -

c i r c l e s be drawn on the same side of CD, with CD, CK, and KD as diameters. The figure whose boundary consists of these semicircles is called a shoemaker's knife (see Fig. 1).

Figure 1

In this note, we will show how, given a golden cut G in a segment AB, we can, with the aid

of an arbelos, generate a golden cut on any segment with length smaller than AB, in a swift

and straightforward fashion.

the arbelos; however, we will also give a justification which conforms more with historical

criteria.

2. Let segment AB be given and let G denote the golden cut of AB. Let C be any

interior point of segment AB. The problem is to find the golden cut of segment AC.

Con-

struct a semicircle with diameter AB. Locate point D on the semicircle such that the d i s tance AD is equal to AC. Draw chord AD,

Denote the foot of the perpendicular by G?.

G to AD.

440

Oct. 1972

Claim.

Proof.

Draw chord BD Since angle ABD is a right angle, it follows that the t r i -

angles AGfG and ADB are s i m i l a r , from which it follows that AG r /G f D = AG/GB. Hence,

G' is the golden cut of AD9 which was to be shown.

ment AB such that AG n = AG', we have that Gn is the golden cut of segment AC.

Since angle AG'G is a right angle, it follows that the points A, G f , G determine a

semicircle.

Thus, we have the following corollary; let AD be any chord in the semicircle

with diameter AB. Let Gf denote the golden cut of AD. Then the locus of all such points

GT is a semicircle with diameter AG (G, the golden cut of AB).

It is easy to see that both the construction and above corollary c a r r y over with obvious

modifications if we reference everything at point B, rather than point A. Thus, if BD is

any chord in the s e m i c i r c l e , and H its golden cut, then the locus of all such points H is a

semicircle with GB as diameter.

The figure consisting of the semicircles with diameters

c o u r s e , an arbelos.

AB, AG,

and GB i s , of

Now we are ready to r e v e r s e the above procedure and deal with the

main problem: viz, to utilize the shoemaker's knife to effect golden cuts. Let AB be a given

line segment and G its golden cut.

AB,

AG, and

GB,

respectively. Let D be any point on the semicircle with diameter AB, and draw chord AD

intersecting the semicircle on diameter

AG at GT.

Then

G'

Figure 3

By drawing chord BD intersecting the semicircle on diameter GB at H, we see also that

H is the golden cut of BD. The argument for both these statements is the same as that given

above.

In light of the latter argument, it is reasonable that the arbelos in Fig. 3 should be

termed "golden. M To see that this terminology is in fact also historically justified,

observe

that the arbelos can be viewed as a continuous deformation of a right triangle, where the hypotenuse corresponds to the l a r g e s t semicircle and the legs to the smaller s e m i c i r c l e s . H i s torically [ 1 ] , a right triangle is called golden if the ratio of its legs is the golden ratio.

In

light of the above observation, it would be in keeping to t e r m the arbelos "golden" if the ratio

of its "legs" (i. e. , its minor semicircles) were the golden ratio. A simple computation for

our arbelos reveals that this is in fact the case; the length of the semicircle on AG is evi[Continued on page 444. ]

BROTHER ALFRED BROUSSEAU

St. IVlary's College, California

In the good old days when Jekuthiel Ginsburg was Editor of Scripta Mathematica, there

were many brief items of interesting mathematics, some with proof, some without, contributed by a wide variety of people. Some of these were labeled curiosities; others without being

tagged as such were evidently in the same category.

Fibonacci sequences.

Charles W. Raine [l] noted that if four consecutive Fibonacci numbers are taken, then

the product of the extreme t e r m s can be used a s one leg of a Pythagorean triangle, twice the

product of the mean t e r m s as the other, to give a hypotenuse which is a Fibonacci number

whose index is the sum of the indices of the t e r m s in one of the sides.

F 6 = 8,

F T = 13,

a = 8 x 34 = 272;

c = N/272

F8 = 21,

F o r example, if

F 9 = 34

b = 2 x 13 x 21 = 546 ;

+ 5462 = 610 = F 1 5 .

Harlan L. Umansky [2] following up on Raine 1 s idea extended the result to a generalized

Fibonacci sequence. The sides of the Pythagorean triangle in this case would be given by:

a

= TkTk+3;

2T

k+lTk+2;

b + T

L r

9eo

= Tk+1 + Tk+2

N/115 2 + 252 2 = 277 ,

while

b + T

22

= 252 + 5i == 277

92 + 142 = 277.

and

(F

+ F

n+6)Fk

F o r example, if n = 5, k = 4,

(F

n+2

+ F

n+4)Fk+l

n+3Lk+l

A note signed G. (evidently J. Ginsburg himself) [ 4 ] quoted the cubic relation given by

Dickson

n+1

n-1

441

3n

442

[Oct.

?3

- 3F 3 + F 3

= 3F0

n+2

n

n-2

3n

Thus for n = 5,

13 3 - 3 x 53 + 2 3 = 1830 = 3 F 1 5 .

Fenton Stancliff [5] (A Curious P r o p e r t y of aA1) showed the following arrangement for

finding the value of 1/89 = 0.011235955056 . . .

1/89 = 0.0112358

13

21

34

55

89

144

233

377

0.011235955056107

P . Schub

5F 2 + 4 ( - l ) n = L 2 .

n

n

2(F 4 '+ F 4

+ F 4 Q ) = (F 2 + F 2

+ F2 )

n

n+1

n+2

n

n+1

n+2

When n = 5, this becomes

2(5 4 + 84 + 13 4 ) = 66564

while

(52 + 82 + 13 2 )

= 66564

Royal V. Heath [8] noted that the sum of ten consecutive Fibonacci numbers is divisible

by 11 with a cofactorthe seventh of the ten quantities. The sum of fourteen consecutive F i b onacci numbers is divisible by 29 with the cofactor the ninth; etc.

Harlan L. Umansky [9] (Curiosa, Zero Determinants) offered the following.

s e r i e s a, d, a + d, a + 2d, 2a + 3d, etc. , if N

F o r any

placed consecutively in the columns of a determinant, the value of the determinant is zero.

Thus:

11

76

521

18

123

843

29

199

1364

47

322

2207

= 0

197

2]

443

These examples a r e sufficient to give the general flsivor of the contributions of those

days.

I believe there must be people today likewise who would be happy to express themselves

add the second to the result; the final answer is always a Fibonacci number. The same seems

to hold for any Fibonacci sequence starting with two values

a,b.

Another curiosity is the fact that the sum of the squares of consecutive Fibonacci n u m b e r s is always divisible by F 1 0 = 15. What about other sums of squares either of the Fibonacci sequence proper or other Fibonacci sequences?

This article is an invitation to our r e a d e r s to engage in the type of activity that used to

be featured by Scripta Mathematica.

as follows: A fact or relation that seems interesting and calculated to arouse intellectual c u r iosity which is offered without proof for the consideration of the r e a d e r s of the Fibonacci

Quarterly. If you want something to appear in this department, be sure to label it FIBONACCI

CURIOSITY.

REFERENCES

1. Charles W. Raine, "Pythagorean Triangles from the Fibonacci Series 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 , "

Scripta Mathematica, 14, 1948, p. 164.

2. Harlan L. Umansky, 433. "Pythagorean Triangles from RecurrentSeries,'? Scripta M a t h ematica, xxii, No. 1, March 1953, p. 88.

3e

Gershon Blank, "Another Fibonacci Curiosity (401)," Scripta Mathematica, xxi, No. 1,

March 1955, p. 30.

4.

Dec. 1953, p. 242.

5.

Fenton Stancliff, 323. "A Curious Property of a l l 9 " Scripta Mathematica, xix, No. 2 - 3 ,

June-Sept. 1953, p. 126.

6.

P. Schub, 237. "A Minor Fibonacci Curiosity," Scripta Mathematica, xvi, No. 3, Sept.

1950, p. 214.

7. G. Candido, "A Relationship Between the Fourth Powers of the T e r m s of the Fibonacci

S e r i e s , " Scripta Mathematica, xvii, No. 3-4, Sept.-Dec. 1951, p. 230.

8. Royal V. Heath, 229. "Another Fibonacci Curiosity," Scripta Mathematica, xvi, No. 1-2,

March-June 1950, p. 128.

9. H. L. Umansky, "Curiosa. Zero Determinants," Scripta Mathematica, xxii, No. 1, March

1956, p. 88.

444

Oct. 1972

AN INTEKESTING BOOK

A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF LIFE AND LIVING by Li Kung Shaw, Second Edition,

1972.

(Libreria Inglesa, P. O.

The Generalized Equation of the Golden Ratio

S + h = N/S 2 + S

(1)

which a r i s e s in Li Kung Shaw f s mathematical model of human life induces a new development

in that historically famous topic of mathematics and magic, the Golden Section Ratio.

S r e p r e s e n t s a m a n ' s service hours and h his work hours.

Here,

to be maximized.

The mathematical model begins with five basic assumptions and has d e -

Li Kung Shaw graduated from Chiao Tung University in Shanghai, China, in 1937, where

he had studied physics.

After three y e a r s of refugee life, he immigrated to Argentina where he practices operations

research.

M a r j o r i e Bicknell

MAKING GOLDEN CUTS WITH A SHOEMAKER'S KNIFE

dently (7r/2)AG, while the length of the semicircle on GB is (TT/2)GB.

REFERENCES

1. H. E. Huntley, The Divine Proportion, Dover, New York, 1970.

2.

PROGRAM OF THE NINTH ANNIVERSARY MEETINGS

FIFTH ANNUAL SPRING CONFERENCE AND BANQUET

Saturday, 22 April, and Sunday, 23 April, 1972

HARVEY SCIENCE CENTER UNIVERSITY OF SAN FRANCISCO

Sponsored by the Institute of Chemical Biology

INTRODUCTORY TOPICS

Elementary Sessions FIBONACCI OPEN HOUSE

Saturday, April 22, 1972

8; 30 Registration

9:00 WELCOME

George Ledin s Jr , University of San Francisco

9:15 FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS

Brother Alfred Brousseau, St. Mary's College, Moraga, California

10:00 THE GOLDEN SECTION AND THE GREEK CRISIS

G, De Chakerian, University of California, Davis, California

10:45 Question and Answer Period

11:00 Short talks to small groups to be presented by high school students*

Topics and speakers to be announced

11:45 A GENERALIZATION OF BEVERLY ROSS* PROBLEM

Brian Peterson, student, San J o s e State University, San J o s e , California

ADVANCED TOPICS

Research Session

Sunday, April 23, 1972

10:0 0 R egi s t r ation

10:30 REDUNDANCY: WHY TWO RABBITS ARE BETTER THAN ONE

Loran P, Meissner, Dept* of Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley

11:20 GENERAL LINEAR FIBONACCI AND LUCAS IDENTITIES

Rodney Hansen, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana

12:10 ALGORITHM FOR FINDING PRIME FACTORS

Capt. N. A. Draim, Ventura, California

2:15 SOME RESULTS IN GRAPH THEORY

Frank Harary, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

3:15 - THE ARITHMETIC PROPERTIES OF CERTAIN RECURSIVELY DEFINED

SEQUENCES David Klarner, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford University

4:15 SOME COMBINATORIAL PROBLEMS ON PERMUTATIONS

Leonard Carlitz, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

5:30 Cocktails

6:00 Dinner-Banquet

445

446

Oct. 1972

FIBONACCI MAKES THE SPORTS PAGE

The following appeared in an article clipped from the sports page (p. 51) of the San

"5 Homers in Sweep: COLBERT'S 13 RBIs

"Nate Colbert set a major league record when he drove in 1J3 runs on five home runs,

including a grand s l a m m e r , and a single in leading the San Diego P a d r e s to a doubleheader

sweep over Atlanta 9-0 and 11-_7- M

The article continues, stating that Colbert hit two homers in the first game and three

in the second, driving in five runs in the opener and eight in the nightcap.

Tf

In other games, Cleon Jones' single in the _18 gave the New York Mets a ^ - 2 win over

Philadelphia in the opener, but Steve Carlton's 1 1 t h straight win gave the Phils the nightcap,

4-1; Matty Alou's three hits sparked St. Louis to a _7-4 win over Pittsburgh; Joe Morgan's

two-run homer led Cincinnati to a J3-J. victory over Houston and Montreal edged the Chicago

Cubs, ^3-2, in ten innings.

"Colbert homered with two mates aboard in the first inning of the opener, singled home

a run in the third and added a solo homer in the seventh.

"In the nightcap, Colbert blasted a grand slam homer off Pat J a r v i s in the second inning

and hit a two-run shot off J i m Hardin in the seventh.

The r e a d e r is left to find his own Fibonacci and Lucas number counts.

If the P a d r e s

had scored 8 in the first game against Atlanta, and if Montreal had taken 11 innings, and Colbert had homered in the

8 th

the date would be either a Fibonacci or a Lucas number.

FIBONACCI NOTE SERVICE

The Fibonacci Quarterly is offering a service in which it will be possible for its r e a d e r s

to secure background notes for a r t i c l e s .

(2) Brief articles summarizing a large amount of r e s e a r c h .

(3) Articles of standard size for which additional background material maybe obtained.

Articles in the Quarterly for which this note service is available will indicate the fact,

together with the number of pages in question.

St. Mary f s College

Moraga, California 94574

The notes will be Xeroxed.

The price for this service is four cents a page (including postage, m a t e r i a l s and labor).

Edited by

A. P. HILLIVfAN

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

A. P. Hillman, Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque,

New Mexico 87106. Each problem or solution should be submitted in legible form,

prefer-

ably typed in double spacing, on a separate sheet o r sheets, in the format used below.

Sol-

Contributors (in the United States) who desire acknowledgement of receipt of their contributions are asked to enclose self-addressed stamped postcards.

B-238

Can you guess WHO IS SHE? This is an easy simple addition and SHE is divisible by

29.

WHO

IS

SHE

B-239

Let p ^ O ,

q^O,

u0 = 0, % = 1 and u

U|

<. V =

|k|

- = pu + qu

- U

n n-1

, . - / U - U 0 U, ,

n-k+1

(n > 1).

Put

In)

,

U U

12

< ft t- =

1.

|0|

Show that

(*)

B-240

2 )

k-

n)

7F3

n+2

B-241

(0 < k

k + 1

3F

F3

n+1

+2F

+3

is an exact divisor of

F3

If 2 F 9

-F9

- - 1 and 2 F 9

447

448

r

*2n

O c t 1972

2n-lJ?2n+l

-<?4?

Prove that

/ n \

(!)

( ' - ) - '

F m+1

B-243

Prove that

( s H n 1 ) ',"m+1

for infinitely many values of the integers m, n,

ERATTA FOR

A CHARACTERIZATON OF THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS

SUGGESTED BY A PROBLEM ARISING IN CANCER RESEARCH

Please make the following changes in "A Characterization of the Fibonacci Numbers

Suggested by a Problem Arising in Cancer Research" by Leslie E. Blumenson, appearing

on pp. 262-264, Fibonacci Quarterly, April 1972.

Page 263, line 11: F o r "N 2 = 2 , n read "N = 2" ;

Page 264, fourth line from bottom of page: F o r

Page 264, Eq. (6): For "+" read "" ;

Page 292, Eq. (7): For "+" read "." .

M M

read "" ;

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