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and

Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

and

Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

PROEFSCHRIFT

ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor

aan de Technische Universiteit Delft,

op gezag van de Rector Magnificus prof.ir. K.C.A.M. Luyben,

voorzitter van het College voor Promoties

in het openbaar te verdedigen

op maandag 22 maart 2010 om 15.00 uur

door

civiel ingenieur

geboren te Amersfoort

Prof. dr. ir. J. Blaauwendraad

Samenstelling promotiecommissie:

Rector Magnificus,

voorzitter

Prof.dr.ir. J. Blaauwendraad,

Prof.dr. A. Metrikine

Dr.ir. P. Liu

INTECSEA

ISBN 978-90-5972-363-4

Eburon Academic Publishers

P.O. Box 2867

2601 CW Delft

The Netherlands

tel.: +31 (0) 15 - 2131484 / fax: +31 (0) 15 - 2146888

info@eburon.nl / www.eburon.nl

Cover design: J.H. Hoefakker

2010 J.H. HOEFAKKER. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing from the

proprietor.

Acknowledgement

The majority of the research reported in this thesis was performed at Delft University

of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences under the supervision of

my promotor Prof. Johan Blaauwendraad in the Section of Structural Mechanics.

I am deeply indebted to Prof. Blaauwendraad for the journey we have travelled so far

together. I am really proud that I have been able to work with such an excellent mentor,

who in turn has been a challenging sparring partner and the source of much valuable

inspiration over these last few years. I am especially thankful for the chance to teach

students together with him on the application of shell theory, which has been of crucial

importance in my understanding of shell behaviour and in the focus of my research.

I am very grateful to Carine van Bentum for her valuable contribution to the

development of the computer program as part of her graduation project.

I would also like to thank my family, friends and colleagues at INTECSEA and the

Delft University of Technology for their interest, encouragement and support. Special

thanks go out to my colleague Pedro Ramos for the numerical simulations to validate

the computer program and to Frank van Kuijk for his help during the creation of the

cover design.

I am sincerely grateful for the sacrifices my parents have made and the possibilities

they have offered me. Dear Mother, I am sure that Dad would be as proud of this result

as you are!

Mirjam, my gratitude to you is beyond words. Your continual sacrifice, endurance and

cardinal support throughout these years have been truly admirable. At last I hope to

devote more time to you and our wonderful daughters, whom I daily thank for

enriching my world.

Utrecht, February 2010

vi

Table of Contents

Acknowledgement

Summary

Samenvatting

List of symbols

1

Introduction

1.1

Motive and scope of the research

1.2

Research objective and strategy

1.3

Outline of the thesis

1.4

Short review of the existing work within the scope

2

General part on shell theory

2.1

Introduction to the structural analysis of a solid shell

2.2

Fundamental theory of thin elastic shells

2.3

Principle of virtual work

2.4

Boundary conditions

2.5

Synthesis

2.6

Analysis by former authors

2.7

Proposed theory

3

Computational method and analysis method

3.1

Introduction to the numerical techniques for a solid shell

3.2

The super element approach

3.3

Calculation scheme

3.4

Introduction to the program CShell

3.5

Overview of the analysed structures

4

Circular cylindrical shells

4.1

Introduction

4.2

Sets of equations

4.3

The resulting differential equations

4.4

Full circular cylindrical shell with curved boundaries

4.5

Approximation of the homogeneous solution

4.6

Characteristic and influence length

4.7

Concluding remarks

5

Chimney Numerical results and parametric study

5.1

Wind load

5.2

Behaviour for a fixed base and free end

5.3

Influence of stiffening rings

5.4

Influence of elastic supports

6

Tank Numerical study

6.1

Introduction

6.2

General description of large liquid storage tanks

6.3

Load-deformation conditions and analysed cases

6.4

Content load cases

6.5

Wind load cases

6.6

Settlement induced load and/or deformation cases

v

ix

xiii

xix

1

1

2

3

4

7

7

10

21

26

28

32

42

51

51

53

60

60

64

65

65

66

68

71

84

89

92

93

93

94

112

137

149

149

150

151

155

159

166

vii

7

Conclusions

Appendices

Literature

Curriculum Vitae

169

175

245

250

List of Appendices

Appendix A

Results from differential geometry of a surface

177

Appendix B

Kinematical relation in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates

183

Appendix C

Equilibrium equations in curvilinear coordinates

185

Appendix D

Strain energy and Laplace-Beltrami operator

187

Appendix E

Expressions and derivation of the stiffness matrix for the elastostatic

behaviour of a circular ring

191

Appendix F

Ring equations comparison

199

Appendix G

Semi-membrane concept

203

Appendix H

Solution to MK and SMC equations

215

Appendix I

Back substitution for MK and SMC solutions

223

Appendix J

Program solution for influence of stiffening rings

233

viii

Summary

Since the considerable effort in the development of rigorous shell theories dating

back to the early twentieth century many approximate shell theories have been

developed, mainly on the assumption that the shell is thin. With the development of the

numerical formulations and the continuously increasing computing power, a gradual

cessation of attempts to find closed-form solutions to rigorous formulations has taken

place. This has led to an increasing lack of understanding of the basic and generic

knowledge of the shell behaviour, the prevailing parameters and the underlying

theories, which is obviously required for the use of numerical programs and to

understand and validate the results.

Objective and scope of the research

This research project intended to combine the classic shell theories with the

contemporary numerical approach. The goal was to derive and employ a consistent and

reliable theory of shells of revolution and to present that theory in the context of

modern computational mechanics. The aim of the project was to derive an expeditious

PC-oriented computer program for that by reshaping the closed-form solutions to the

rigorous shell formulations into the well-known direct stiffness approach of the

displacement method. The objective was to conduct a generic study of the physically

and geometrically linear behaviour of the typical thin shells of revolution, i.e. circular

cylindrical, conical and spherical shells, under static loading by evaluating both the

closed-form solution to the thin shell equations and the output of the computer

program.

This research concentrated on the behaviour of circular cylindrical shells under

static loading while accounting for the axisymmetric, beam-type and non-axisymmetric

load-deformation conditions. Due to required effort identified during the development

of such a program for circular cylinders and upon inspection of the sets of equations for

conical and spherical shells, it has been decided to fully focus on circular cylindrical

shells as a first, but complete and successful step towards more applications.

Review of the first-order approximation theory for thin shells

Based on previous work, it was envisaged to employ the so-called Morley-Koiter

equation for thin circular cylindrical shells. The Morley-Koiter equation fits in the

category of the first-order approximation theory, viz. only first-order terms with respect

to the thinness of the shell are retained, resulting in an eighth order partial differential

equation. To understand the assumptions and simplifications, which are introduced to

obtain such a thin shell equation, the set of equations resulting from a fundamental

derivation for thin elastic shells is reproduced. The formulations for thin, shallow, nonlinear and cylindrical shells by some former authors are discussed and, as a result of

the comparison, a set of equations for thin elastic shells within the first-order

approximation theory is proposed. This set comprises kinematical and constitutive

relations that are complemented by the equilibrium relation and boundary conditions,

which are derived by making use of the principle of virtual work. To arrive at a

consistent and reliable theory of shells of revolution, the expansion of the strain

ix

description that adopts the changes of curvature has been considered and, while

simultaneously approximating the constitutive relation, the combined internal stress

resultants of the boundary conditions are congruently approximated.

Computational method and expeditious PC-oriented computer program

The concept of generating the stiffness matrix of shell elements on basis of closed-form

solutions was already proposed as early as 1964 by Loof. Since then little effort with a

similar approach has been reported and to date the method has been employed only to

study axisymmetric structures subject to loads that are also axisymmetric with respect

to the axis of symmetry of the structure.

For shells of revolution with circular boundaries under general loading, the

numerical procedure to be performed by a digital computer is described. This approach

avoids the shortcomings of most existing element stiffness matrices and attempts to

minimise the number of elements needed to model a given problem domain. Similar to

the conventional method, the first and crucial step is to compute the element stiffness

matrix but for the super element, this is synthesized on the basis of an analytical

solution to the governing equation. The precise formulation of the classic approach is

reshaped into the well-known direct stiffness approach of the displacement method

enabling the calculation of combinations of elements and type of elements while the

valuable knowledge of the classic approach is preserved. In addition to the

conventional transition and end conditions, the method enables implementation of

stiffening rings, elastic support, prescribed displacement and various load types. Based

on the proposed solution procedure and with the mentioned functionalities, an

expeditious PC-oriented computer program has been developed using the Fortranpackage in combination with graphical software. The formulations that are

implemented in this program are based on the approximated solution to the MorleyKoiter equation for circular cylindrical shells.

General solutions to the circular cylindrical shell equations

The proposed set of equations is formulated for circular cylindrical shells with circular

boundaries and the resulting single differential equation has been derived. An

approximation of this exact equation is introduced to arrive at mathematically the most

suitable equation for substitution with the same accuracy, i.e. the Morley-Koiter

equation.

The exact roots to the Morley-Koiter equation have been obtained and, albeit being

surplus to requirements, the presented solution is a unification of former results by

other authors. To progress towards generic knowledge of the shell behaviour based on

closed-form solutions, approximate roots have been derived for the axisymmetric,

beam-type, and non-axisymmetric load-deformation conditions. The associated

characteristic and influence lengths have been derived and discussed to facilitate

insight in the prevailing parameters of the shell response to the respective loaddeformation conditions.

Design formulas, based on closed-form solutions to the Morley-Koiter equation and an

equation derived by the semi-membrane concept, and numerical solutions obtained by

the developed program are provided for long circular cylindrical shell structures, i.e.

long in comparison with their radius (for example industrial, steel chimneys).

The design formula that describes the stress distribution at the fixed base of long

circular cylindrical shells without stiffening rings subject to wind load has been

derived, which is a marked improvement of the existing formula that is based on the

Donnell equation. This formula relates total membrane stress xx ,total to the beam

stress xx ,beam .

For the specified wind pressure distribution around the cylinder, this formula reads

2

a a

xx ,total = xx ,beam 1 + 6.39 1 2

l t

in which the radius, length and thickness of the shell are represented by a , l and t ,

respectively, and denotes Poissons ratio of the shell material. Alternatively, this

equation can be written as

xx ,total

2 a

= xx ,beam 1 + 6.39 1

l2

New design formulas, which describe the effect of (centric and eccentric)

stiffening rings and elastic supports (in the axial and planar directions), are presented

such that the respective influence is represented by inclusion of an additional factor in

the formula for the fixed base case without stiffening rings.

The formula for the case with stiffening rings reads

4

a

2

xx ,total = xx ,beam 1 + 6.39 1 r

l2

in which the stiffness ratio r represents the ratio of the bending stiffness of the

circular cylindrical shell only to the modified bending stiffness of the shell (with the

contribution of the ring stiffness per spacing).

It has been concluded that, in case of an elastic support to a long circular cylinder,

only the axial spring stiffness has to be taken into account. The formula for the case

with axial elastic supports reads

4

a

2

xx ,total = xx ,beam 1 + 6.39 1 xn

l2

in which the normalised stress ratio xn is introduced, which depends on the respective

factors and mode numbers of the load and the parameter x , which in turn is mainly

described by the geometrical properties of the cylinder and the ratio of the axial elastic

support to the modulus of elasticity.

xi

From the comparison with the numerical results, the range of application of the

improved and new design formulas has been obtained within which a close agreement

is observed. These formulas have been shown to be applicable to cylinders for which

the characteristic length l2 is larger or equal to its radius. For ring-stiffened cylinders,

the formula has further been shown to be applicable to cylinders with ring spacing

shorter than half of the influence length of the long-wave solution for circumferential

mode number n = 2 .

Numerical study of short circular cylindrical shells (tanks)

For short circular cylindrical shells (lengths in the range of 0.5 to 3 times the radius),

numerical solutions have been presented with the intention to demonstrate the

capability of the developed program to model the shell of large vertical liquid storage

tanks. Additionally, tentative insight into the response of such tank shells to the

relevant load and/or deformation conditions is provided, which is obtained by several

calculations (for the response to content or wind load or due to full circumferential

settlement) and by comparison with the insight as obtained for the behaviour of the

long cylinder.

Conclusions

This study has focused on a thorough analysis of the behaviour of circular cylindrical

shells with the following main results:

o The first-order approximation theory for thin shells and the various approaches

discussed in the literature have been reviewed and a consistent set of thin shell

equations has been proposed. On basis of the proposed set, the Morley-Koiter

equation has been identified as being the most suitable single differential

equation for deriving closed-form solutions.

o On basis of these closed-form solutions, an expeditious PC-oriented computer

program has been developed for first-estimate design of long and short circular

cylindrical shells, e.g. chimneys and tanks.

o In the literature, a design formula for the stress at the base of a chimney

subject to wind load has been developed by combining a solution obtained on

basis of the Donnell equation with finite element analysis. On basis of the

closed-form solutions to the Morley-Koiter equation, this formula has been

confirmed. As an advantage of the new solution, the design formula is

generalized with respect to the wind pressure distribution around the chimney.

o The above mentioned design formula has been extended for the influence of

elastic supports at the base of the chimney.

o The above mentioned design formula has been extended for the influence of

stiffening ring properties and spacing along the chimney.

o The range of application of these formulas has been conclusively and

conveniently obtained by comparison with results obtained with the developed

computer program.

xii

Samenvatting

Sinds de aanzienlijke inspanningen in de ontwikkeling van strenge schaaltheorien

die teruggaan tot het begin van de twintigste eeuw zijn er veel benaderende

schaaltheorien ontwikkeld, voornamelijk op basis van de veronderstelling dat de

schaal dun is. Door de ontwikkeling van de numerieke formuleringen en de continu

toenemende rekenkracht is er geleidelijk mee gestopt om voor strenge formuleringen

oplossingen in gesloten vorm te vinden. Dit heeft geleid tot een toenemend gebrek aan

begrip van de fundamentele en algemene kennis van het schaalgedrag, de dominante

parameters en de onderliggende theorien. Dat is een spijtige ontwikkeling omdat juist

dat inzicht vereist is voor het gebruik van numerieke programmas en om de resultaten

te begrijpen en te valideren.

Doel en reikwijdte van het onderzoek

Dit onderzoeksproject beoogde om de klassieke schaaltheorien te combineren met de

hedendaagse numerieke benadering. Het aanvankelijke doel was het afleiden van een

consistente en betrouwbare theorie van omwentelingsschalen en deze theorie te

presenteren in de context van de moderne numerieke mechanica. Het project beoogde

de ontwikkeling van een snel PC-georinteerd computerprogramma door de

oplossingen in gesloten vorm voor de strenge schaalformuleringen te herstructureren

en onder te brengen in de bekende aanpak van de verplaatsingsmethode. De

doelstelling was de uitvoering van een generieke studie van het fysisch en geometrisch

lineaire gedrag van de meest voorkomende dunne omwentelingsschalen dat wil

zeggen de cirkelcilindrische, conische en bolvormige schalen onder statische

belasting door de beoordeling van zowel de oplossing in gesloten vorm van de dunne

schaalvergelijkingen en de uitvoer van het computerprogramma.

Het hier gerapporteerde onderzoek is afgebakend tot het gedrag van

cirkelcilindrische schalen onder statische belasting, waarbij drie specifieke

belastingstoestanden zijn betrokken: axiaalsymmetrie, liggerwerking en asymmetrie.

Gezien de inspanning die tijdens de ontwikkeling van een dergelijk

computerprogramma voor cirkelcilinders vereist bleek te zijn, en na beoordeling van de

sets van vergelijkingen voor de conische en bolvormige schalen is het besluit genomen

het onderzoek volledig te richten op cirkelcilindrische schalen als een eerste, maar

volledige en succesvolle stap naar andere toepassingen in de toekomst.

Terugblik op de eerste-orde benaderingstheorie voor dunne schalen

Op basis van eerder werk was de aanwending van de zogenaamde Morley-Koiter

vergelijking voor dunne cirkelcilindrische schalen beoogd. De Morley-Koiter

vergelijking past in de categorie van de eerste-orde benaderingstheorie waarin alleen

eerste-orde termen met betrekking tot de dunheid van de schaal worden meegenomen,

hetgeen resulteert in een achtste-orde partile differentiaalvergelijking. Om de

aannames en vereenvoudigingen, die tijdens de afleiding van een dergelijke dunne

schaalvergelijking ingevoerd zijn, te kunnen begrijpen is de set van vergelijkingen

gereproduceerd die uit een fundamentele afleiding voor dunne elastische schalen volgt.

De formuleringen van enkele eerdere auteurs voor dunne, licht gekromde, niet-lineaire

xiii

en cilindrische schalen worden besproken en, als gevolg van de vergelijking, een set

van vergelijkingen binnen de eerste-orde benaderingstheorie voor dunne elastische

schalen is voorgesteld. Deze set bestaat uit kinematische en constitutieve betrekkingen

die gecomplementeerd worden door de evenwichtsrelatie en randvoorwaarden, welke

door gebruik te maken van het principe van virtuele arbeid zijn afgeleid. Om tot een

consistente en betrouwbare theorie van omwentelingsschalen te komen is de

reeksontwikkeling van de rekbeschrijving op basis van de krommingveranderingen

beschouwd en, onder gelijktijdige benadering van de constitutieve relatie, zijn de

gecombineerde interne spanningsresultanten van de randvoorwaarden overeenkomstig

benaderd.

Numerieke methode en snel PC-georinteerd computerprogramma

Het genereren van de stijfheidsmatrix van schaalelementen op basis van oplossingen in

gesloten vorm werd in 1964 reeds voorgesteld door Loof. Sindsdien is er weinig

inspanning met betrekking tot een soortgelijke aanpak gemeld en tot op heden is de

methode slechts toegepast om axiaalsymmetrische structuren te bestuderen onder

belastingen die ook axiaalsymmetrisch zijn met betrekking tot de symmetrieas van de

structuur.

Voor omwentelingsschalen met cirkelvormige randen onder algemene belasting is

de numerieke procedure beschreven die door een digitale computer uitgevoerd moet

worden. Deze aanpak vermijdt de tekortkomingen van de meeste stijfheidmatrices van

bestaande elementen en beoogt om het aantal elementen dat nodig is om een bepaald

probleemdomein te modelleren tot het minimum te beperken. We noemen zulke

elementen super elementen. Net als in de standaard eindige-elementenmethode (EEM)

is de eerste en cruciale stap het berekenen van de stijfheidsmatrix per element, maar

voor het super element is deze synthese uitgevoerd op basis van een analytische

oplossing van de heersende differentiaalvergelijking. De precieze formulering van de

klassieke theorie is omgevormd tot de bekende aanpak van de verplaatsingsmethode

hetgeen het mogelijk maakt om combinaties van elementen en type elementen te

berekenen, terwijl de waardevolle kennis van de klassieke theorie bewaard is gebleven.

In aanvulling op de conventionele overgangsvoorwaarden en eindvoorwaarden maakt

de methode de implementatie van verstijvingsringen, elastische ondersteuningen,

voorgeschreven verplaatsingen en verschillende soorten belasting mogelijk. Op basis

van de voorgestelde oplossingsprocedure en met de genoemde functionaliteiten is, met

behulp van Fortran in combinatie met grafische software, een snel PC-georinteerd

computerprogramma ontwikkeld. De formuleringen in dit programma zijn gebaseerd

op de benaderde oplossing van de Morley-Koiter vergelijking.

Algemene oplossingen voor de cirkelcilindrische schaalvergelijkingen

De voorgestelde set van vergelijkingen is voor cirkelcilindrische schalen met

cirkelvormige randen geformuleerd en de daaruit voortvloeiende enkele

differentiaalvergelijking is afgeleid. Een benadering van deze exacte vergelijking is

ingevoerd om te komen tot de mathematisch meest geschikte vergelijking voor

terugsubstitutie met dezelfde nauwkeurigheid, dwz de Morley-Koiter vergelijking.

xiv

deze expressies de vereisten overtreffen is de gepresenteerde oplossing een unificatie

van eerdere resultaten van andere auteurs. Om te komen tot generieke kennis van het

schaalgedrag op basis van oplossingen in gesloten vorm zijn de benaderde wortels

afgeleid voor de drie eerder genoemde specifieke belastingstoestanden

(axiaalsymmetrie, liggerwerking, asymmetrie). Bijbehorende karakteristieke lengtes en

invloedslengtes vergemakkelijken het inzicht in de parameters die het schaalgedrag in

de betreffende belastingstoestanden bepalen.

Parametrische studie van lange cirkelcilindrische schalen (schoorstenen)

Ontwerpformules zijn verstrekt voor cilinders die lang zijn in vergelijking met hun

straal (bijvoorbeeld industrile, stalen schoorstenen). De formules zijn gebaseerd op de

oplossingen in gesloten vorm van de Morley-Koiter vergelijking en van een

vergelijking die is afgeleid met behulp van het semi-membraan concept. Ook

numerieke oplossingen hebben een bijdrage geleverd.

De ontwerpformule voor de spanningsverdeling aan de onderkant van lange

cirkelcilindrische schalen zonder verstijvingsringen onder windbelasting is afgeleid.

Deze is een duidelijke verbetering van de bestaande formule die op de Donnell

vergelijking gebaseerd is. De formule relateert de totale membraanspanning xx ,total aan

de spanning xx ,beam volgens de liggertheorie. Bij de gebruikte winddrukverdeling rond

de cilinder luidt de formule

2

a a

xx ,total = xx ,beam 1 + 6.39 1 2

l t

vertegenwoordigd en de dwarscontractiecofficint van het materiaal weergeeft

(Poisson verhouding). Deze vergelijking kan tevens geschreven worden als

4

a

xx ,total = xx ,beam 1 + 6.39 1 2

l2

Nieuwe ontwerpformules worden gegeven voor het effect van (centrische en

excentrische) verstijvingsringen en elastisch ondersteuningen (in axiale en

omtreksrichting). Het effect is beschreven met een extra factor in de formule voor de

spanning onderin de schaal bij afwezigheid van verstijvingsringen. De aangepaste

formule luidt:

4

a

xx ,total = xx ,beam 1 + 6.39 1 2 r

l2

waarin r de verhouding is tussen de buigstijfheid van alleen de cirkelcilindrische

ringstijfheid per afstand).

xv

Voor het geval van een elastische ondersteuning van een lange cirkelvormige

cilinder hoeft alleen de axiale veerstijfheid in rekening gebracht te worden. De formule

luidt

4

a

xx ,total = xx ,beam 1 + 6.39 1 2 xn

l2

de respectieve factoren, het aantal golven (in omtreksrichting) van de belasting en de

parameter x ; deze is op zijn beurt vooral beschreven door de geometrische

eigenschappen van de cilinder en de verhouding tussen de axiale elastische

ondersteuning en de elasticiteitsmodulus.

Uit een vergelijking met numerieke resultaten is het toepassingsgebied van de

verbeterde en nieuwe ontwerpformules verkregen. De formules zijn van toepassing op

cilinders waarvoor de karakteristieke lengte l2 groter dan of gelijk aan de straal is. De

formule voor ring-verstijfde cilinders is van toepassing voor cilinders met een

ringafstand korter dan de helft van de invloedslengte van de lange golf in de oplossing;

bedoeld is de invloedslengte voor de belastingscomponent met twee golven in

omtreksrichting ( n = 2 ).

Numerieke studie van korte cirkelcilindrische schalen (tanks)

Voor korte cirkelcilindrische schalen (lengtes 0,5 tot 3 maal de straal) zijn numerieke

oplossingen gepresenteerd om de geschiktheid van het programma te demonstreren

voor het modelleren van de schaalwand van grote opslagtanks. Daarnaast is inzicht

verkregen in de reactie van dergelijke tankwanden onder de beschouwde drie

specifieke belastingstoestanden. Dit is bereikt op basis van verscheidene berekeningen

en door vergelijking met het inzicht dat verkregen is voor het gedrag van de lange

cilinder. Voor de berekeningen is gewerkt met de belasting ten gevolge van de

tankinhoud of winddruk; ook is de response op een varirende zakking langs de

volledige omtrek onderzocht.

xvi

Conclusies

Dit onderzoek heeft zich gericht op een grondige analyse van het gedrag van

cirkelcilindrische schalen met de volgende resultaten:

o De eerste-orde benaderingstheorie voor dunne schalen en de verscheidenheid

in aanpak in de literatuur zijn in een terugblik gevalueerd, en een consistente

set van dunne schaalvergelijkingen is voorgesteld. Op basis van deze set is de

Morley-Koiter vergelijking gedentificeerd als de meest geschikte

differentiaalvergelijking voor het afleiden van oplossingen in gesloten vorm.

o Op basis van deze oplossingen is een snel PC-georinteerd

computerprogramma ontwikkeld voor een eerste ontwerp van lange en korte

cirkelcilindrische schalen zoals bijvoorbeeld schoorstenen en tanks.

o In de literatuur bestaat een ontwerpformule voor de spanningsverhoging aan

de voet van een schoorsteen. Deze is tot stand gekomen door het combineren

van een oplossing op basis van de (niet nauwkeurige) Donnell theorie en

EEM-berekeningen. De formule is bevestigd met de Morley-Koiter theorie.

Het voordeel van de nieuwe oplossing is dat de ontwerpformule

veralgemeniseerd is met betrekking tot de winddrukverdeling rond de

schoorsteen. Hij geldt ook voor andere verdelingen dan gebruikt in deze

studie.

o Bovengenoemde ontwerpformule is uitgebreid voor de invloed van een

elastische ondersteuning aan de voet van de schoorsteen.

o De ontwerpformule is ook uitgebreid voor de invloed van verstijvingsringen

langs de schoorsteen (ringeigenschappen en onderlinge afstand).

o Het toepassingsgebied van de formules is overtuigend en doelmatig verkregen

door vergelijking met resultaten van het computerprogramma.

xvii

xviii

List of symbols

indices written as subscript with a specific range

in case of a single quantity with two indices, the following applies:

( i, j, k ) = (1,2,3)

first index denotes fibre orientation or surface,

second index denotes direction of subject quantity

in case of a single quantity with two indices, the following applies:

( , ) = (1, 2 )

first index denotes fibre orientation or surface,

second index denotes direction of subject quantity

generic notation

A

a

A, A 1

a

da

a

a

a

ah

ai

a

ac

ae

an

a

a...0

a...1

a...n

quantity on the reference surface or boundary line

matrix or vector with components A and its inverse, respectively

vector with components a

differential increment of quantity a

virtual variation of quantity a

quantity a at an edge

adjoint of quantity a

homogeneous solution for quantity a

inhomogeneous solution for quantity a

amplitude of quantity a

continuous expression for quantity a within the element

expression for quantity a at the edges of the element

expression for quantity a at the nodes connecting the elements

quantity a in the deformed state

quantity a for mode number n = 0

quantity a for mode number n = 1

quantity a for mode numbers n > 1

Chapter 2

S

xi , i

1 , 2

R

r

n

rectangular and curvilinear coordinate system, respectively

orthogonal curvilinear coordinates of the reference surface

coordinate in the thickness direction, viz. normal to the reference

surface

position vector within the shell space

position vector on the reference surface

unit normal vector of the reference surface

xix

( ds )

Po , P

g ii

Ai

1 , 2

R1 , R2

V

ds1 , ds2

dS1 , dS 2

dV

f

Ui

eii , eij

U

1 , 2

n

ui

1 , 2

u

11 , 22

12 , 21

1 , 2

11 , 22

12 , 21

ii , ij

G

E3 , 3 , G3

11 , 22

12 , 21

xx

point within the shell space and infinitesimal close point, respectively

metric coefficients along the orthogonal parametric lines

scale factors

Lam parameters of the reference surface

principal radii of curvature at the point on the reference surface

volume

differential lengths of arc of the edge of an infinitesimal element

differential areas of a strip on the edge of an infinitesimal element

differential volume of a layer within an infinitesimal element

scalar field

Laplace operator

displacements in the direction normal to the coordinate surfaces i

extension and shear components of the strain tensor, respectively

displacement in the thickness direction, viz. normal to the reference

surface

rotation in the 2 -direction of a fibre along the 1 -direction and

rotation in the 1 -direction of a fibre along the 2 -direction,

respectively

rigid body rotation about the normal to the reference surface

displacement components at the reference surface

rotation of a normal to the reference surface in the direction of the

parametric lines 1 and 2 , respectively

displacement components of the reference surface in the thickness

direction

normal strains of the reference surface

longitudinal shearing strains of the reference surface

transverse shearing strains

changes of rotation of the normal to the reference surface

torsion of the normal to the reference surface

normal stress and shearing stress components, respectively

modulus of elasticity, Youngs modulus

Poissons ratio

shear modulus

elastic constants specifically in the direction normal to the reference

surface

normal stresses

longitudinal shearing stresses

1 , 2

n11 , n22

longitudinal shearing stress resultants

transverse shearing stress resultants

bending stress couples

torsional stress couples

finite thickness of the thin shell

surface force vector per unit area of the reference surface

resultant components of the surface force vector

n12 , n21

v1 , v2

m11 , m22

m12 , m21

t

p

p1 , p2 , p

m1 , m2

f

S f , Su

u

Ep

Es

WP

WF

Es

Pi

Fi

1(1) , 1( 2)

(21) , (22)

f1 , f 2 , f

t1 , t2

Rn

e

s

p

B

B

Bij , Bij

D

12 , 12

edge force vector per unit length of the boundary lines

part of the boundary surface where the edge forces and edge

displacements are known, respectively

displacement vector

potential energy

strain energy

work done by the surface force vector

work done by the edge force vector

strain energy density function

components per unit volume of the external force vector

components per unit area of the boundary surface of the external force

vector

pair of edges of constant 1

pair of edges of constant 2

resultant components of the edge force vector

couple components of the edge force vector

point load at the corner of and in the direction normal to the reference

surface

strain vector

stress vector

load vector, viz. equal to the external surface force vector

differential operator matrix

transpose of the matrix B where the components are the adjoint

operators

components of the differential operator matrix and its adjoint,

respectively

rigidity matrix

alternative shearing strain angle quantities; shear strain and torsion of

the reference surface, respectively

xxi

n12 , m12

11 , 22

n11 , m11

n22 , m22

12 , 21

Dm , Db

v1 , v2

n12 , v1

shearing stress resultant and torsional stress couple, respectively

changes of curvature, alternative deformation quantities for 11 , 22

alternative stress quantities for n11 , m11

alternative stress quantities for n22 , m22

alternative deformation quantities for 12 , 21

extensional (membrane) rigidity and flexural (bending) rigidity,

respectively

alternative transverse shearing stress resultants for v1 , v2

combined internal stress resultants; the latter is similar to Kirchhoffs

effective shearing stress resultant

Chapter 3

, ,

u h , ui

Ch

c

u ( )

u ( )

i

A ( )

n ( )

n ( )

B ()

u , u

inhomogeneous part of the continuous stress quantity vector

i;e

Ae

f e , f i;e

Be

f prim;e

f tot ;e

Ke

f ext ;n

xxii

continuous displacement matrix

meridional, circumferential and normal to the reference surface,

respectively

also used as index for load, stress and strain quantities and rotations

of a shell of revolution

mode number equal to the number of whole waves of a trigonometric

quantity in circumferential direction

also used as (additional) index to denote parameters typically

depending on the mode number

homogeneous and inhomogeneous displacement solutions,

respectively

arbitrary constant of the homogeneous solution, h = (1, 2,3,...,8 )

vector containing the constants of the homogeneous solution

element displacement matrix

element force vector and its inhomogeneous part, respectively

element stress quantity matrix

element primary load vector

total element load vector

element stiffness matrix

external nodal load vector

f prim;e;n

f tot ; n

f e; n

K

f tot

total nodal load vector

nodal force vector

global stiffness matrix

global load vector

Chapter 4

Lij

orthogonal coordinates of a circular cylindrical reference surface

coordinate in the thickness direction of a circular cylindrical shell

displacements at the reference surface of a circular cylindrical shell

normal strains of a circular cylindrical shell

changes of curvature of a circular cylindrical shell

shear strain and torsion of a circular cylindrical shell, respectively

normal stress resultants of a circular cylindrical shell

bending stress couples of a circular cylindrical shell

longitudinal shearing stress resultant and torsional stress couple of a

circular cylindrical shell, respectively

transverse shearing stress resultants of a circular cylindrical shell

surface forces at the reference surface of a circular cylindrical shell

normal stress of a circular cylindrical shell; axial and circumferential,

respectively

longitudinal shearing stress of a circular cylindrical shell

resultants of the edge forces at a circular cylindrical reference surface

couple of the edge forces at the circular edge of a circular cylindrical

shell

combined internal stress resultants of a circular cylindrical shell;

similar to Kirchhoffs effective shearing stress resultant

rotation of a normal to the circular cylindrical reference surface in the

x -direction and -direction, respectively

components of a differential operator matrix

circular cylindrical shell

dimensionless parameters of the homogeneous solution for n = 0

dimensionless parameter used to describe a0 , b0

dimensionless parameters of the homogeneous solution for n = 1

dimensionless parameter used to describe a1 , b1

a

x,

z

u x , u , u z

xx ,

xx ,

x , x

nxx , n

mxx , m

nx , m x

vx , v

p x , p , p z

xx ,

x

f x , f , f z

tx

vx

x ,

a0 , b0

0

a1 , b1

1

a1n , bn1

describing the short edge disturbance

xxiii

an2 , bn2

n , n

lc

li

l

lc ,1 , lc ,2

li ,1 , li ,2

describing the long edge disturbance

dimensionless parameters used to describe a1n , bn1 , an2 and bn2

characteristic length of an edge disturbance

influence length of an edge disturbance

length of a circular cylindrical shell

characteristic length ( n > 1) of the short edge disturbance and the long

edge disturbance, respectively

influence length ( n > 1) of the short edge disturbance and the long

edge disturbance, respectively

Chapter 5

pw

0 ,.., 5

2xx n 5

0xx,nt 5

axial stress at the base of a circular cylindrical shell due to the mode

numbers 2 n 5 , i.e. the self-balancing terms of the specified wind

load

axial stress at the base of a circular cylindrical shell due to the mode

numbers 0 n 5 , i.e. all terms of the specified wind load

tensile axial stress at the base of a circular cylindrical shell

0xx,nc 5

nxx=1

axial stress at the base of a circular cylindrical shell due to the mode

number n = 1 , i.e. the beam term of the specified wind load

characteristic lengths of a circular cylindrical shell introduced to

describe the axial stress ratio of the self-balancing terms to the beam

term

influence length of the long edge disturbance specifically for n = 2

0xx n 5

l1 , l2

lin,2= 2

Ar , Sr , I r

ring

anSMC , bnSMC

SMC

n

Db ,mod

lr

kmod , mod

r

xxiv

factors per mode number of the wind load distribution

ring parameter of the long edge disturbance

dimensionless parameters of the homogeneous solution for n > 1

describing the long edge disturbance within the SMC approach

dimensionless parameter used to describe anSMC , bnSMC

modified bending stiffness, viz. the bending stiffness of the stiffening

rings is smeared out along the bending stiffness of the circular

cylinder

ring spacing, along which the ring bending stiffness is smeared out

modified dimensionless parameters

stiffness ratio of bending stiffness of the circular cylindrical shell only

to the modified bending stiffness of the shell

b, h

bf

width of the flange of a beam cross section

beff

leff

er

cylinder

axial, circumferential and radial spring stiffness, respectively

rotational spring stiffness

k x , k , k z

k

z

x ,mod

xn

z ,mod

zn

rotational elastic support parameter

combined circumferential and radial elastic support parameter

modified axial elastic support parameter

normalised stress ratio to account for influence of axial elastic support

modified combined circumferential and radial elastic support

parameter

normalised stress ratio to account for influence of planar elastic

support

Chapter 6

w

h

g

density of water

height of shell course in a tank wall

ratio of bending rigidity of the wind girder itself to the tank wall

hg , t g

Ig

u s ,max

auxiliaries

L, L

u, v

1 , 2

vectors

factors that account for the curvature of the parametric lines

i , i

q( x)

respectively

order of differential equation, identification of a cylindrical

subdomain

identifier for opposite circular edges

scalar function on the reference surface of a circular cylindrical shell

scalar functions for n = 0 , n = 1 and n > 1 , respectively

alternative surface load on a circular cylindrical shell

1 , n

i

a, b

0 , 1 , n

xxv

1 , 2

1 , 2

, ,

r

r0 , r1

s0 , s1

Sh

parameters used to describe 1 and 2

parameters used to describe 1 and 2

root in trial solution to characteristic equation

expansions of the large roots in case of parameter perturbation

small parameter in case of parameter perturbation

expansions of the small roots in case of parameter perturbation

arbitrary constants in case of a rewritten homogeneous solution,

h = (1, 2,3,...,8 )

solution, h = (1,2,3,4 )

dc

density

gravitational acceleration

xxvi

1 Introduction

1 Introduction

1.1 Motive and scope of the research

In the field of structural mechanics the word shell refers to a spatial, curved structural

member. The enormous structural and architectural potential of shell structures is used

in various fields of civil, architectural, mechanical, aeronautical and marine

engineering. The strength of the (doubly) curved structure is efficiently and

economically used, for example to cover large areas without supporting columns. In

addition to the mechanical advantages, the use of shell structures leads to aesthetic

architectural appearance.

Examples of shells used in civil and architectural engineering are: shell roofs,

liquid storage tanks, silos, cooling towers, containment shells of nuclear power plants,

arch dams, et cetera. Piping systems, curved panels, pressure vessels, bottles, buckets,

parts of cars, et cetera are examples of shells used in mechanical engineering. In

aeronautical and marine engineering, shells are used in aircrafts, spacecrafts, missiles,

ships, submarines, et cetera.

Because of the spatial shape of the structure the behaviour of shell structures is

different from the behaviour of beam and plate structures. The external loads are

carried by both membrane and bending responses. As a result, the mathematical

description of the properties of the shell is much more elaborate than for beam and

plate structures. Therefore, many engineers and architects are unacquainted with the

aspects of shell behaviour and design.

In practice, many shell structures are single or combined shells of revolution (also

referred to as axisymmetric shells) and often they are stiffened by rings. The research

in this thesis focuses on the analyses of these shell structures, which find their

application in industries involved with structures like, for example, pipelines, liquid

storage tanks, chimneys and cooling towers.

The considerable effort in the development of rigorous shell theories dates back to the

early twentieth century. These shell theories reduce a basically three-dimensional

problem to a two-dimensional one. Nevertheless, the analysis of shells with the aid of

such theories involves complicated differential equations, which either cannot be

solved at all, or whose solution requires the use of high-level mathematics unfamiliar

to structural engineers. Therefore many approximate shell theories have been

developed, mainly on the assumption that the shell is thin, and to obtain generic

analysis tools obviously some accuracy had to be traded for convenience and

simplicity.

Hence, it is not surprising that the development of the numerical formulations

since the 1950s has led to a gradual cessation of attempts to find closed-form solutions

to rigorous formulations. But, with todays availability of greatly increased computing

power (also since the mid twentieth century), completeness rather than simplicity is

given more emphasis.

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The drawback of the numerical methods is that they do not provide generic

knowledge of the shell behaviour and the prevailing parameters. Also the foundations

of the formulations that are used and thus their justification and validity are often not

completely understood, which has resulted in numerous finite element formulations

that work quite well for certain problems but do not work well in other problems. This

results from the sensitivity of the problem to the geometry and support conditions,

which characterises the complicated behaviour of shell structures under various loading

types. For the use of numerical programs and to understand and validate the results,

some basic knowledge of the underlying theories and the mechanical behaviour of the

structure is obviously essential.

These observations give rise to a need for a study that is not based on blunt

computer power but on the rigorous shell formulations obtained by the classic

approach. But, due to its highly mathematical character, this reappraisal is only useful

if this approach is combined with modern methods for handling complicated boundary

and transition equations in a stiffness method approach. Hereby a generic study of the

shell behaviour can be conducted by evaluating the solution to the general equations as

well as the output of the computer program.

This research project intends to combine the classic shell theories with the

contemporary numerical approach. The goal is to derive and employ a consistent and

reliable theory of shells of revolution and to present that theory in the context of

modern computational mechanics.

The contemplated set of equations concentrates on physically as well as

geometrically linear behaviour under static loading. A lot of basic and necessary

knowledge of this static and linear behaviour is lacking or not well understood and it is

this incomprehension that obstructs the shell analyst of gaining valuable insight into

the general shell behaviour.

This research not only focuses on the axisymmetric loading, but also on nonaxisymmetric loading, which means that for example a quasi-static wind load or nonuniform settlements can be studied. The results from the studies of both bending and

membrane dominated responses will enable a better evaluation and interpretation of the

results from finite element studies regarding the same and the more complete

behaviour.

With the proper set of equations as a starting point, the following successive steps are

performed. For cylindrical shells with circular boundaries, which are the most

frequently used in structural application, it is possible to obtain a closed-form solution

or at least an approximate solution (within the assumptions of the theory) to the

rigorous shell formulations. Already from these solutions, valuable insight is gained

into the type of response to each type of load and the prevailing parameters describing

this response. By reshaping the precise formulation of the classic approach into the

well-known direct stiffness approach of the displacement method, the valuable

knowledge of the classic approach is preserved. The aim of the project is to derive a

fast PC-oriented computer program for that. This is done using the Fortran-package in

2

1 Introduction

combination with graphical software and has resulted in a stable and well-working tool

that can be used by structural analysts for rational first-estimate design of shells of

revolution.

The approach of the displacement method enables the calculation of combinations

of elements and type of elements, which makes the use of an electronic calculation

device more sensible in view of the increasing number of equations. Next to that, it is

fairly simple to implement stiffening rings in the formulation and hereby the influence

of the number and size of these members on the shell behaviour can be studied.

Similarly, the elastic supports and prescribed displacements can be easily implemented

and various load types can be described. Combined with the generic knowledge from

the closed-form solutions, appropriate design tables, graphs and formulas are properly

presented using the suitable parameters.

Chapter 2 deals with the fundamentals of the theory, the results by former authors and

the proposed set of equations. In chapter 3, the numerical solution procedure for this

set is introduced and this not often applied procedure is clarified. The formulations for

circular cylindrical shells that are implemented in this computational method are

derived in chapter 4. The combination of the generic knowledge from these two

chapters with the numerical results from the computer program enables a parametric

study of the geometrical properties of the shell types. These numerical results and

parametric study for long circular cylindrical shells (such as industrial chimneys) are

presented in chapter 5, while chapter 6 presents the numerical study for short circular

cylindrical shells (such as storage tanks). The conclusions from this study and

recommendation for further application of the proposed method are discussed in

chapter 7.

Introduction

CH1

General

part on

shell

theory

CH2

Conclusions

CH7

Computational

method CH3

Chimney

CH5

Tank

CH6

Circular

cylindrical

shells CH4

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

In 2001, Van Bentum started a graduation project, which embodied a part of the tasks

of the present research. The main goal of that project was to show that, on basis of the

closed-form solutions to the Donnell equation for circular cylindrical shells, an exact

(within the theory) stiffness matrix could be synthesized. The resulting report was

published 2002 [1]. As Donnells solution is only applicable to the load-deformation

behaviour for circumferential modes with at least two whole waves in circumferential

direction, the solution for the axisymmetric and beam mode were implemented using

an alternative solution. For the response to axisymmetric loads, a simplified Donnell

solution was adopted using the displacement normal to the middle surface as the only

degree of freedom. For the response to beam loads, the membrane solution was

employed. In a successive step, the possible incompatibility between this membrane

solution and the requirements at the edges was compensated by an edge disturbance

congruent with the solution for the axisymmetric mode.

Although these solutions were successfully implemented and the result for the

study of rather long cylinders subject to a wind load were very satisfactory, the

following drawbacks can be noticed. Firstly, the axisymmetric mode can be better

described by using two independent degrees of freedom by taking into account the

longitudinal displacement in axial direction. Secondly, the approach for the beam mode

is only valid for a cylinder with rather large length-to-radius-ratio. For shorter

cylinders, the membrane behaviour and the edge disturbance resulting from the

complete differential equation should be described simultaneously. Thirdly, as it is well

known that Donnells solution does not describe the ring-bending behaviour, a better

description in circumferential direction should be adopted for the lower mode numbers

of the self-balancing modes (the modes with at least two whole waves in

circumferential direction).

The present study is restricted to closed circular cylindrical shells like long

industrial chimneys and storage tanks. The differential equations also facilitate

calculating cylindrical roof shells, but this study refrains from this type of structure.

Substantial research in this domain was performed by A.L. Bouma, H.W. Loof and H.

van Koten in The Netherlands, which was reported in [2]. This research was based on

the Donnell equation that sufficiently accurately describes the behaviour of this

structural type.

The concept of generating the stiffness matrix on basis of the closed-form solution

was already proposed as early as 1964 by Loof [3]. A number of systematically and

efficiently structured calculation schemes were developed, be it restricted to certain

load-deformation cases per shell structure due to the state of the programmable

electronic machines and available programming procedures of that period.

A literature study showed that Bhatia and Sekhon [4] recently applied the method

to axisymmetric structures. In their first paper of a series, the method is introduced and

applied to an annular plate element. Three follow-up papers [5-7] focus on the

generation of exact stiffness matrixes for a cylindrical, a conical and a spherical shell

element, respectively. However, Bhatia and Sekhon did only employ the method to

axisymmetric structures subject to loads that are also axisymmetric with respect to the

axis of symmetry of the structure. Hereby, the problem is reduced considerably, but the

application is rather limited and important engineering problems cannot be modelled.

4

1 Introduction

To study the influence of, e.g., elastic supports, stiffening rings and various load

types on the behaviour of circular cylindrical shells, these can be implemented into a

computer program as described above. With the same objective, Melerski [8] derived

solutions for beams, circular plates and cylindrical tanks, especially on elastic

foundations, and included a diskette with the resulting software. However, for circular

plates and cylindrical tanks the application of the in other aspects general approach is

limited to axisymmetric load cases.

Another interesting approach, which has the objective to obtain insight into the

load carrying behaviour of cylindrical shell structures, is the semi-membrane concept,

which is able to deal with non-axisymmetric load cases. The semi-membrane concept

assumes that, to simplify the initial equilibrium equations, the circumferential strain as

well as both the axial and torsional bending stiffness may be equated to zero. The

resulting equation exactly describes the ring-bending behaviour, but it can only be

applied to self-balancing modes. As shown by Pircher, Guggenberger and Greiner [9],

this concept can be applied to, e.g., a radial wind load, an axial elastic support and an

axial support displacement. However, not all load cases or support conditions can be

described. Moreover, the semi-membrane concept is only applicable to certain loaddeformation behaviours of cylindrical shell structures. Closely related to the

simplifications, it should be allowed to neglect the influence of the part of the solution

described by the short influence length in comparison to the part described by the long

influence length. In other words, the cylinder should be sufficiently long in comparison

to its radius and the boundary effects should mainly influence the more distant

material.

The present research overcomes the above-mentioned drawbacks of the solutions

used by Van Bentum and extends the results of that and the other mentioned research,

which is limited to either axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric load-deformation

behaviour. Instead of the Donnell equation, the Morley-Koiter equation is employed in

the present research. This equation is probably the best alternative, as it overcomes the

inaccuracy of Donnells simplifications in its inability to describe rigid-body modes but

preserves its elegance and simplicity.

The Morley-Koiter equation can be derived by using a so-called first-order

approximation theory. To understand the assumptions and simplifications, which are

introduced to obtain such an equation for a thin elastic shell, the set of equations

resulting from a fundamental derivation for thin elastic shells are reproduced. Since

these are well established, similar derivations can be found in many textbooks, which

are referenced in the text. However, the derivation in this research is set up as a more

integrated treatment of concepts by various authors. The objective of this treatment is

to correctly and consistently introduce the assumptions and simplifications throughout

the derivation of (i) the differential equations and boundary conditions, (ii) the single

differential equation and its solution and (iii) the expressions for all quantities obtained

by back substitution of this solution.

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

This chapter deals with the fundamentals of the theory. The geometry of a thin elastic

shell is treated briefly and the equations that describe the shell behaviour are derived.

The formulations for thin, shallow, non-linear and cylindrical shells by some former

authors are discussed and as a result of the comparison a set of equations is proposed.

This set comprises kinematical and constitutive relations that are complemented by the

equilibrium relation and boundary conditions, which are derived by making use of the

principle of virtual work.

shell

2.1.1 Geometrical interpretation

The primary purpose of a structure is to carry the applied external loading. Every

particle of this structure is a three-dimensional object on its own. In spite of this,

structural engineers (almost) never use the three-dimensional theory of elasticity, but

they model the structural elements as lines with a finite cross-sectional area, which has

become customary in the theory of structures.

The structural purpose of shell elements is to span a finite space. As a result of this,

a description of the structural element by one line is not possible and the stress analysis

has to be established with the concept of a physical surface. An important difference

has to be made to this: plates refer to flat surfaces and shells refer to curved surfaces.

Describing it, the shell element is interpreted as a materialisation of a curved

surface. This definition implies that the shell problem is reduced to the study of the

displacements of the reference (or middle) surface and that the thickness of the shell is

small in comparison to its other dimensions. The geometry of the shell is thus

completely described by the curved shape of the middle surface and the thickness of

the shell. In structural mechanics this geometrical description corresponds to the one of

the beam with a rectangular cross-section; the course of the middle axis in combination

with the accompanying cross-section. The shell thickness is henceforth kept constant

for convenience, but the analysis method and considerations are also applicable to

shells with a varying thickness.

The above-mentioned schematisation does not require that the shell be made of an

elastic material. Since most shells are made of a solid material, it will further be

assumed that the material behaves linear elastic conform Hookes law.

2.1.2 Generalised Hookes law

The first rough law of proportionality between the forces and displacements was

published by Hooke. The generalisation of Hookes law assumes that at each point of

the medium the strain components are linear functions of the stress components and

that it is possible to invoke the principle of superposition of effects. For many

engineering materials, the relation between stress and strain is indeed linear and the

7

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

deformation disappears during unloading. Obviously any material has its elastic limit,

viz. the greatest stress that can be applied and removed without permanent

deformation. Beyond this limit, which is nearly equal to the proportional limit, the

material behaves both elastic and plastic.

In this thesis, it will further be assumed that the material behaves conform a

generalised Hookes law, because we are interested in the general behaviour of shell

structures, especially since for rational first-estimate design it is naturally not advised

to rely on the plastic range of the structural capacity.

The assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of the material seems plausible for

most structural materials since we are interested in the global behaviour of an entire

body. It is not our objective to study the very small portions of material, which must be

regarded as orthotropic, but the chaotically distribution of the orthotropy over the entire

body allows the natural interpretation of a homogeneous and isotropic medium.

2.1.3 Mechanical behaviour of elastic shells

This research focuses on thin elastic shells. A thin shell has a very small thickness-tominimal-radius ratio, often smaller than 1 50 . Due to its initial curvature, a shell is able

to carry an applied load by in-plane as well as out-of-plane actions. Similar to the

behaviour of plates and beams, the resistance of a shell structure is optimally used if

bending actions are minimised as much as possible. A thin shell therefore mainly

produces in-plane actions, which are called membrane forces. These membrane forces

are actually resultants of the normal stresses and the in-plane shear stresses that are

uniformly distributed across the thickness. The corresponding theory of this membrane

behaviour is called the membrane theory.

However, the membrane theory does not satisfy all equilibrium and/or

displacement requirements in case of:

Boundary conditions and deformation constraints that are incompatible with

the requirements of a pure membrane field, (b) and (c);

Concentrated loads (d); and

Change in the shell geometry (e).

(a)

Membrane compatible

(b)

Membrane incompatible

(c)

Deformation constraint

(d)

(e)

Concentrated load

In the regions where the membrane theory will not hold, some (or all) of the

bending field components are produced to compensate the shortcomings of the

membrane field in the disturbed zone. These disturbances have to be described by a

more complete analysis, which will lead to a bending theory of thin elastic shells.

If the bending field components are developed, it often has a local range of

influence. Theoretical calculations and experiments show that the required bending

field components attenuate and mostly this effect is confined to the vicinity of the

origin of the membrane nonconformity. In many cases, the bending behaviour is

restricted to an edge disturbance. Therefore, the undisturbed and major part of the shell

behaves like a true membrane. This unique property of shells is a result of the curvature

of the spatial structure. The efficient structural performance is responsible for the

widespread appearance of shells in nature.

2.1.4 Static-linear analysis of shells of revolution

Many shell theories have been developed to analyse the mechanical behaviour of shell

structures. To overcome the complexity of an exact theory assumptions are made

wherein the membrane theory is the most appealing. Because of its simplicity, the

membrane theory gives a direct insight into the structural behaviour and the order of

magnitude of the expected response without elaborate computations. But in the cases

where the membrane behaviour is not the dominant type of response, use is often made

of finite element packages.

The usefulness of the finite element approach for the initial design and analysis is

however doubtful and an intermediate approach between the contemporary and the

classic approach is recommendable. This intermediate approach is thus the main focus

of this study.

For shells of revolution with circular boundaries, which are the most frequently

used in structural application, the rigorous shell formulations have been well

established. Keeping in mind the objective of employing closed-form solutions,

attempting to investigate the linear models first seems to be the natural strategy. Hence,

the starting point is the analysis of the small deformation behaviour of shells of

revolution under static loading.

9

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The set of equations resulting from a fundamental derivation for thin elastic shells are

well established. Consequently, the expressions derived in this section are probably

well known but they are stated without accurate reference here for further use. Similar

derivations can be found, e.g., in the books by Kraus [10] and Leissa [11] and the

report by Hildebrand, Reissner and Thomas [12]. However, the following derivation is

set up as an integrated treatment and complement of concepts by various authors.

2.2.1 Kirchhoff-Love assumptions

On the basis of the assumptions Kirchhoff introduced with the purpose of deriving a

theory of a thin plate, Love [13] was the first to derive a set of basic equations which

describe the behaviour of a thin elastic shell. Generally referred to as Loves first

approximation this classic small deformation theory of a thin shell is based on the

following postulates, which are also known as the Kirchhoff-Love assumptions:

1. The shell is thin.

2. Strains and displacements are sufficiently small so that the quantities of

second- and higher-order magnitude in the strain-displacements relations may

be neglected in comparison to the first-order terms.

3. The transverse normal stress is small in comparison to the other normal stress

components and may be neglected.

4. A normal to the reference surface before deformation remains straight and

normal to the deformed reference surface and suffers no extension.

Before utilising these assumptions, it is useful to discuss their implications

individually.

The assumption that the shell is thin is inevitable for the other assumptions as these

are only appropriate if the thickness of the shell is small in comparison to the other

dimensions. The thinness of a shell is often characterised by the ratio of the thickness

to the radius of curvature, but no precise definition is available and suggestions differ

largely. For the present discussion, the thinness will be such that the ratio mentioned is

negligible in comparison to unity.

The second assumption is necessary to keep the equations linear and to be allowed

to describe all resulting equations in the initial configuration. This assumption also

implies that the first derivatives of all displacements are negligible in comparison to

unity.

The assumption that the transverse normal stress is negligible seems plausible for a

thin shell except in the vicinity of highly localised loading.

The last assumption is a continuation of the well-known Bernoulli-Euler

hypothesis and implies that not only the transverse shear deformation but also the strain

components in the direction of the normal to the reference surface can be neglected.

Flgge [14] states that conclusions drawn from the last two assumptions can only

be exact if the shell be made of a non-existent anisotropic material for which the

modulus of elasticity in the direction normal to the reference surface and the shear

10

modulus for the transverse shearing strains are infinite, whereas two of the Poissons

ratios (that take into account the lateral contraction of a material) are equal to zero.

However, it is obvious that for a thin shell the assumptions are acceptable so that

whatever happens in the direction normal to the reference surface of the shell, stress or

strain, is of no significance to the solution.

2.2.2 Mathematical description of a shell surface

To describe the curved reference surface of a shell it is natural to use a curvilinear

coordinate system that coincides with the lines of principal curvature, which can be

shown to be orthogonal. The derivation and proof of this feature and all the other

expressions in this subsection are exemplified in Appendix A, which contains parts of

the well-documented study of the differential geometry of surfaces especially when

applied to the mathematical description of a shell surface.

A surface S in the rectangular coordinate system x1 , x2 , x3 can be written as a function

of two parameters; viz. 1 , 2 , which are the curvilinear coordinates of the reference

surface. To describe the location of an arbitrary point within the two outer surfaces of

the shell a third coordinate is introduced in the thickness direction. The position

vector R to this arbitrary point is described by

R ( 1 , 2 , ) = r ( 1 , 2 ) + n ( 1 , 2 )

where r is the position vector of the corresponding point on the reference surface and

n is the unit normal vector.

2

The line element ( ds ) is calculated by taking the dot product of the differential

change dR in the position vector from a point Po to an infinitesimal close point P

within the shell space and hence is expressed by

2

2

2

2

(2.1)

( ds ) = dR dR = g11 ( d 1 ) + g 22 ( d 2 ) + g33 ( d )

where gii ( i = 1,2,3) are the metric coefficients along the orthogonal parametric lines.

These coefficients are defined by

A1 = g11 = 1 1 + , A2 = g 22 = 2 1 + , A3 = g33 = 1

(2.2)

R1

R2

where Ai are the scale factors, 1 and 2 are the so-called Lam parameters of the

reference surface and R1 and R2 are the principal radii of curvature at the point on the

reference surface corresponding to point Po . The Lam parameters and the principal

radii are related to the position vector and the unit normal vector by

12 =

r r

1 1

1

1 r n

=

R1 12 1 1

22 =

r r

2 2

1

1 r n

=

R2 2 2 2 2

11

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

There are three differential equations relating the parameters of the reference surface.

The two equations, which are known as the Codazzi conditions, are

1 1

1

=

,

R2 2 2 R1

1 2

2

=

R1 1 1 R2

(2.3)

and the third is known as the Gauss condition, which is given by:

1 2 1 1

1 2

=

R1R2

1 1 1 2 2 2

An infinitesimal element within the volume V of the thin shell is obtained by making

four cuts perpendicular to the reference surface, which coincide with a pair of

differentially spaced parametric lines of the reference surface, and the space that is then

limited by two surfaces that are d apart (at distance from the reference surface) is

the infinitesimal element. By evaluating the expressions for a line element (2.1), it is

obvious that the differential lengths of arc of the edges of the element are

ds1 ( 1 , 2 , ) = 1 1 + d 1

R

ds2 ( 1 , 2 , ) = 2 1 + d 2

R

(2.4)

and that the differential areas of a strip on the faces of the element are

dS1 ( 1 , 2 , ) = 1 1 + d 1d

R

dS 2 ( 1 , 2 , ) = 2 1 + d 2 d

R

(2.5)

Hence, the differential volume of a layer of the element bounded by these strips is

dV ( 1 , 2 , ) = 1 2 1 + 1 + d 1d 2 d

R1 R2

(2.6)

curvilinear coordinate system is a scalar differential operator defined by

f =

1 2 3 f 13 f 1 2 f

1 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3

as derived, for example, by Borisenko and Tarapov [15]. For the scalar field f that

acts on the reference surface within a shell space described by (2.2), the LaplaceBeltrami operator, which is further referred to as the Laplace operator, is given by

f =

1 2 f 1 f

1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

(2.7)

For a curvilinear coordinate system determined by the coordinate lines i , which are

assumed to be orthogonal, the metric coefficients along these parametric lines are

denoted by gii as shown in Appendix A. The displacements in the direction normal to

the coordinate surfaces 1 , 2 , 3 are represented by U1 , U 2 , U 3 respectively. By

applying the assumptions of infinitesimal deformations in this curvilinear coordinate

12

system as shown in Appendix B, the extension and shear components of the strain

tensor, eii and eij respectively, are obtained in the form

Ui

1 3 gii U k

,

i = 1,2,3

i gii 2 g ii k =1 k g kk

Ui

U j

1

gii

eij =

,

+ g jj

( i, j ) = (1,2,3) , if i j

i g jj

2 gii g jj j gii

Hereby the extension eii is defined as the relative elongation in the i -direction of a

eii =

fibre in the i -direction and the shear component eij is defined as half of the angle with

which the originally perpendicular i - and j -directions decreases.

By substituting gii = ( Ai ) from (2.2), we get:

2

e11 =

1 U1 U 2 A1 U 3 A1

+

+

A1 1 A2 2 A3 3

2e12 =

A1 U1 A2 U 2

+

A2 2 A1 A1 1 A2

e22 =

1 U1 A2 U 2 U 3 A2

+

+

A2 A1 1 2 A3 3

2e13 =

A1 U1 A3 U 3

+

A3 3 A1 A1 1 A3

e33 =

1 U1 A3 U 2 A3 U 3

+

+

A3 A1 1 A2 2 3

2e23 =

A2 U 2 A3 U 3

+

A3 3 A2 A2 2 A3

(2.8)

In the case of the adopted coordinate system, the substitutions 3 = for the coordinate

and U 3 = U for the displacement in the direction of the normal to the reference surface

are made.

By definition the in-plane shear angle 2e12 is defined by:

2e12 = e12 + e21 = 1 n + 2 + n

Hereby the angle 1 is the rotation in the 2 -direction of a fibre along the 1 -direction

and the angle 2 is defined correspondingly. The angle n is the rigid body rotation

about the normal to the reference surface, which is taken positive according to the

right-hand rule.

The introduction of the rotation n is similar to the procedure that is well known

for a plate element. For that geometry, the shear strain is found by describing two

changes of the straight angle in the respective directions. These changes are then split

in a symmetric part (the shear strain) and a skew-symmetric part (the rigid body

rotation). This is exactly the procedure that is applied above.

Therefore, it is remarkable that this procedure is not widely applied in describing

the deformation of a shell element. Sanders [16] does introduce the rigid body rotation

n , but on a reverse consideration, which is discussed in subsection 2.6.3.

13

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Following the above-mentioned procedure the shear angle 2e12 expressed by (2.8)

is also described by

2e12 =

A1 U1 A2 U 2

+

A2 2 A1 A1 1 A2

U A1 1 U 2

1 U1 U 2 A2

= 1

+

n +

+ n

A1 A2 2 A1 1

A2 2 A1 A2 1

e12 = 1 n =

e21 = 2 + n =

U1 A1 1 U 2

+

n

A1 A2 2 A1 1

1 U1 U 2 A2

+ n

A2 2 A1 A2 1

From the definition e12 = e21 it is obtained that the rigid body rotation n is equal to

n =

A U

1 AU

1 1

+ 2 2

2 A1 A2 2

1

To relate all components of strain to quantities of the reference surface the fourth

assumption of Loves postulates has to be employed.

The first part of that assumption which requires that a normal remains straight is

satisfied when the displacements are linearly distributed through the thickness of the

shell. Hence, the displacement components are represented by

U i ( 1 , 2 , ) = ui ( 1 , 2 ) +

U i

( 1 , 2 ,0 )

U i

is

The second part of the fourth assumption requires inextensibility of a normal to the

reference surface, which implies that normal strain vanishes. By substituting A3 = 1

from (2.2) into (2.8) for the normal strain, we get

e33 =

U 3 U

=

3

and hence

U1

and

U 2

are equal to the respective rotations of the normal from its initial position to its

position after deformation. So, the rotations 1 and 2 are introduced, which denote

the rotations of a normal to the reference surface in the direction of the parametric lines

1 and 2 , respectively.

14

As a consequence of the above, the displacement components are represented by

U1 = u1 + 1

U 2 = u2 + 2

(2.9)

U = u

To relate the strain components to the displacements of the reference surface, the scale

factors (2.2) and the representation of the displacement components (2.9) are

substituted into (2.8). Making use of the Codazzi conditions (2.3) we arrive at the

following six expressions of the strain components related to ten deformation

quantities.

e11 =

e12 =

1+

R1

1

1+

R1

2e1 =

( 11 + 11 )

e22 =

( 12 + 12 )

e21 =

1+

R1

( 2 )

1

1

1+

R2

1

1+

2e2 =

R2

( 22 + 22 )

( 21 + 21 )

1

1+

R2

(2.10)

( 2 )

2

The ten deformation quantities are separated in four strains of the reference surface

denoted by 11 , 22 , 12 and 21 , in four changes of rotation of the normal to the

reference surface denoted by 11 , 22 , 12 and 21 , and in two transverse shearing

strains denoted by 1 and 2 . The ten deformation quantities of the kinematical

relation are related to the reference surface displacements by

1 u1 u2 1 u

+

+

1 1 2 2 R1

u 2 u

1 u

22 = 2 + 1

+

2 2 1 1 R2

11 =

12 =

1 u2 u1 1

n

1 1 2 2

1 u1 u2 2

+ n

2 2 1 1

1 u u1

+ 1

21 =

1 1 R1

21 =

1 1 2 1

+

1 1 2 2

1

22 = 2 + 1 2

2 2 1 1

11 =

12 =

1 2 1 1 n

1 1 2 2 R1

(2.11)

1 1 2 2 n

+

2 2 1 1 R2

1 u u2

+ 2

2 2 =

2 2 R2

21 =

The fourth assumption also requires that a normal remains a normal to the reference

surface, which implies that the transverse shear deformations are neglected. By setting

the expressions for the transverse shearing strains 1 and 2 equal to zero, we arrive

at the expressions for the rotations related to the other displacements of the reference

surface, which become

15

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

u1 1 u

R1 1 1

1 =

(2.12)

u

1 u

2 = 2

R2 2 2

As stated in subsection 2.1.2 homogeneity and isotropy of the material is assumed and

the objective of the Kirchhoff-Love assumptions for a thin shell is to relate all

expressions to the behaviour of the reference surface within this material. Next to this,

whatever happens in the direction normal to this reference surface, stress or strain, is

assumed to be negligible in order to simplify the analysis. So, assuming homogeneity

of the material, isotropy with respect to the reference surface and elastic symmetry with

respect to the normal to that surface, the generalisation of Hookes law for a thin shell

is set up starting from

e11 =

( 11 22 ) 3 33

E

E3

e22 =

1

( 22 11 ) 3 33

E

E3

e33 =

33 3 ( 11 + 22 )

E3

E3

2e12 =

1

12

G

; 2e13 =

1

13

G3

; 2e23 =

1

23

G3

where the normal strains eii and the shearing strains eij are related to the normal

stresses ii and the shearing stresses ij . The material properties in the directions of

the parametric lines on the reference surface are represented by Youngs modulus E

and Poissons ratio , which describe the linear elasticity and the lateral contraction,

respectively. The shear modulus G is related to these material properties by

G=

E

2 (1 + )

The elastic constants with the single index 3 relate to the material properties in the

direction normal to the reference surface.

To fulfil both that 33 = 0 (see the third assumption of subsection 2.2.1) and that e33 = 0

(see the fourth assumption) is not possible unless it is assumed that, in the direction

normal to the reference surface, the modulus of elasticity E3 is infinite and the

Poissons ratio 3 is equal to zero. As stated in subsection 2.2.1, these assumptions are

acceptable if the shell is thin.

Also based on the fourth assumption, the transverse shearing strains are set equal

to zero for a thin elastic shell, but the transverse shearing stresses are not necessarily

zero. This implies that G3 is assumed to be infinite so that these stresses do not

produce any deformation.

16

Introducing the above-mentioned assumptions, the two-dimensional Hookes law

for thin elastic shells becomes

1

( 11 22 )

E

1

e22 = ( 22 11 )

E

1

2e12 = 12

G

e11 =

E

( e11 + e22 )

1 2

E

22 =

( e22 + e11 )

1 2

12 = 2Ge12

11 =

(2.13)

which describes a plane stress state as a reduced form of the constitutive relation.

The stress resultants and the stress couples of these stresses are the normal stress

resultants n11 and n22 , the longitudinal shearing stress resultants n12 and n21 , the

transverse shearing stress resultants v1 and v2 , the bending stress couples m11 and m22 ,

and the twisting stress couples m12 and m21 . It is convenient to express these resultants

and couples as area integrals of the stresses acting on the faces of an infinitesimal shell

element, and since we are treating a surface, these are resultants and couples per unit

length of arc on the reference surface. In section 2.3 it is shown that these stress

resultants are the ones that correspond to these deformation quantities defined in the

previous subsection.

In a section 1 = constant of the infinitesimal element, the resultant of the normal

stress 11 acting in the 1 -direction is by definition equal to n11ds2 ( 1 , 2 ,0 ) and

similarly the couple of the normal stress is equal to m11ds2 ( 1 , 2 ,0 ) . Variations of ds2

can be neglected since its value is already of differential magnitude. However, the

variation of the stress across the thickness of the shell has to be considered. It is

therefore necessary to consider a strip with differential area dS 2 ( 1 , 2 , ) given by

expression (2.5). Hence, the resultant and the couple on this face of the differential

element are given by

n11 =

1

11dS 2 ( 1 , 2 , ) = 11 1 + d

ds2 ( 1 , 2 ,0 )

R

2

1

11dS 2 ( 1 , 2 , ) = 11 1 + d

ds2 ( 1 , 2 ,0 )

R

m11 =

Note that the resulting expressions are independent of the stress distribution

through the thickness. By sign convention, a stress resultant is thus defined as positive

in case of a positive direction of the normal to the face of the differential element in

combination with the corresponding stress acting in the positive direction of the

17

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

parametric lines. For a positive stress couple, the distance from the reference surface

must also be positive. Obviously, a resultant or couple is also positive in case of a

negative direction of the normal to the face and the stress acting in the negative

direction. Hence, a positive stress resultant represents tension and a positive stress

couple represents tension at the upper side and compression at the lower side.

In the same way, the longitudinal shearing stress 12 and the transverse shearing

stress 1 are integrated to obtain the longitudinal shearing stress resultant n12 and the

transverse shearing stress resultant v1 , respectively. The same reasoning holds for the

side surface with 2 = constant , while bringing into account the fact that the line

element ds1 has another radius of curvature, and hence all stress resultants and couples

are given by

n11 = 11 1 + d

R2

n22 = 22 1 + d

R1

n12 = 12 1 + d

n21 = 21 1 + d

v1 = 1 1 + d

v2 = 2 1 + d

m11 = 11 1 + d

R2

m12 = 12 1 + d

R2

m22 = 22 1 + d

R1

m21 = 21 1 + d

R1

(2.14)

By comparing the expression for the longitudinal shearing stress resultant n12 with the

one for n21 , it is observed that the equality of the longitudinal shearing stresses,

12 = 21 , not implies the equality of the longitudinal shearing stress resultants. This

difference disappears if R1 = R2 (a sphere or a plate) or when the reference surface is

the middle surface and the shearing stress 12 does not depend on the ordinate . The

equality of the longitudinal shearing stresses does also not imply the equality of the

twisting stress couples m12 and m21 . But both differences may often be neglected

because the thickness is small in comparison to the radii.

As a result of the factors (1 + R1 ) and (1 + R2 ) , the stress couples are not equal

to zero for a uniformly distributed stress. This is a result of the curvature of the shell.

These factors represent the fact that the faces of a shell element are not rectangular but

trapezoidal and that their centre of gravity is not exactly situated on the middle surface.

The transverse shearing stresses 1 and 2 do not lead to stress couples because their

moment arms are of differential length.

18

Having found the expressions for the stress resultants and stress couples, the

constitutive relation is obtained by substituting Hookes law. On the basis of the

Kirchhoff-Love assumptions for a thin shell theory, Hookes law is reduced to the

expressions (2.13). Herein the transverse shearing stresses 1 and 2 are not

described since the transverse shearing strains are neglected. However, this cannot

imply that the corresponding stresses are also set equal to zero since their resultants

cannot be zero if the stress couples can vary along the shell.

The integrations are not performed in this subsection for reasons that become

apparent in section 2.6 where the differences between the analyses by several former

authors are comparatively discussed. This comparison is only possible with the proper

equilibrium equations as complementation of the set of fundamental relations.

2.2.5 Equilibrium relation

Having defined the stress resultants and the stress couples in the previous subsection by

integrations of the stresses through the thickness, it is henceforth assumed that the

fundamental element of the thin shell has a finite thickness t . The internal stress

resultants and couples thus act upon the edges of this fundamental element, which are

of differential lengths of arc ds1 ( 1 , 2 ,0 ) = 1d 1 and ds2 ( 1 , 2 ,0 ) = 2 d 2 , respectively.

These internal forces must balance the external forces that consist of both surface

forces and body forces. The surface forces act upon the inner and outer surface of the

element and the body forces act over the volume of that element. To maintain the

representation of the shell by quantities defined with respect to the reference surface,

these external forces should accordingly be replaced by statically equivalent forces that

act upon the reference surface. Recalling that Loves first approximation is postulated

to derive a small deformation theory of a thin shell, it is natural to make the additional

assumption that the surface and body forces induce negligibly small couples with

respect to the reference surface. Moreover, it will be shown that as the transverse

shearing strain is neglected, it is no longer allowed to induce these external moments

on the reference surface, but for the sake of completeness, the couples will be retained.

The components of the surface force vector p per unit area of the reference

surface are denoted by the resultants p1 , p2 and p , which act along the two

parametric lines 1 and 2 and along the normal (in -direction), respectively, and by

the couples m1 and m2 . Since we are allowed to describe all resulting equations in the

initial configuration (see subsection 2.2.1), we arrive at six linear equations of which

three are equilibriums of stress resultants and three are equilibriums of stress couples.

The derivation shown in Appendix C results in the following six equations of the

equilibrium relation

19

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

n11 2

n

1

2

2

1

R1

n221

2

1

1

2

R2

n

v1 2 v21

n

+

1 2 11 + 22 + p 1 2 = 0

1

2

R1 R2

m11 2

m

1

2

2

1

(2.15)

m221

2

1

1

2

n12 n21 +

m12 m21

=0

R1

R2

The sixth equilibrium equation is in fact an identity, which is in accordance with the

fact that there are only five independent displacements of the reference surface. The

identity is easily obtained by substitution of the definitions (2.14) for the stress

resultants and stress couples, which by observing the symmetry of the shearing stresses

results in the equality

12

21 ) 1 + 1 + d = 0

R2 R1

If the transverse shearing strain is neglected, there are not five but only three

independent displacements. This implies that in this case there are three equilibrium

equations for three external forces in the direction of those displacements and hence

that the influence of external moments can no longer be taken into account. The sought

equations are obtained by eliminating the transverse shearing stress resultants from

(2.15), which results in

n11 2

n

+ n12 1 + 21 1 n22 2

1

2

2

1

+

1 m11 2

m

+ m12 1 + 21 1 m22 2 + p11 2 = 0

R1 1

2

2

1

n221

+ n21 2 + 12 2 n11 1

2

1

1

2

+

1 m221

m

+ m21 2 + 12 2 m11 1 + p21 2 = 0

R2 2

1

1

2

m

1 m11 2

+ m12 1 + 21 1 m22 2

1 1 1

2

2

1

+

n

1 m221

m

n

+ m21 2 + 12 2 m11 1 1 2 11 + 22 + p 1 2 = 0

2 2 2

1

1

2

R1 R2

(2.16)

20

In this section, the principle of virtual work is employed to a thin elastic shell by

utilising the kinematical and constitutive relations derived in subsections 2.2.3 and

2.2.4. The virtual work equation is in this way applied to obtain the equilibrium

relation expressed in the appropriate stress resultants and couples that correspond to the

chosen deformation quantities of the kinematical relation. The fact that these

correspond is observed when the expression of the internal strain energy, which is

formulated in quantities with respect to the reference surface, is evaluated. As a result,

the constitutive relation will be symmetric.

Having assessed the correspondence of the internal quantities, the resulting

equilibrium relation will be such that an elegant similarity exists between the

equilibrium relation and the kinematical relation. This similarity again assures that

after successive substitution, the resulting set of differential equations expressed in the

displacements and the external loads are symmetric.

The elaboration of the virtual work equation not only shows that a consistent set of

internal shell quantities have been chosen, but it also gives, in a simple and elegant

manner, the natural boundary conditions that complement the three sets of equations.

Consider an elastic body under a specified body force vector and a boundary surface

force vector. For a thin shell the body force vector and that part of the boundary surface

force vector that acts upon the inner and outer surface of the element are replaced by

the statically equivalent surface force vector p that acts upon the reference surface as

described in subsection 2.2.5. The other part of the boundary surface force vector,

denoted by the edge force vector f , acts on the boundary surfaces that are

perpendicular to the reference surface and thus collects the resultants of the edge

stresses. Generally, these edge forces are known over a portion of the boundary surface

(which is denoted by S f ) while the displacements are known over the remainder of the

boundary surface (which is denoted by Su ) so that the total boundary surface S of the

shell body is S = S f + Su .

For the shell body we assume that in a certain state it is in equilibrium under the

specified force vectors p and f . Having a displacement vector u at equilibrium, we

consider an arbitrary displacement vector u + u . Note that over the portion Su of the

surface, u must vanish since u is prescribed there. Over the rest of the surface, u is

arbitrary and these components are known as the virtual displacements.

For a steady process as is considered here, the kinetic energy is equal to zero and

in the absence of non-conservative loads (which means that the total amount of energy

is constant) the principle of minimum potential energy can be applied which is

formulated by

E p = 0 ,

E p = minimum

(2.17)

The quantity E p is known as the potential energy and is given by

E p = Es W p W f

Herein is Es the strain energy (or deformation energy), which is present in the body as

potential energy, WP is the work done by the surface force vector p and WF is the

21

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

work done by the edge force vector f , respectively. Equation (2.17) thus states that at

equilibrium the value of the potential energy is a minimum and that this value is not

changed by a virtual variation to a perturbed equilibrium state. In other words, the

work done by the external surface and body forces along the virtual displacements is

balanced by the work done by the internal stresses along the virtual strains. This

principle is known as the principle of virtual work and for this case given by the

following equation that is referred to as the virtual work equation

E p = Es W p W f = 0

(2.18)

The strain energy is defined in terms of a strain energy density function as

Es = EsdV

V

where the differential volume dV is given by (2.6) and the strain energy density

function, which represents work per unit volume, without the effect of thermal

expansion, is given by

Es = ij deij

( i, j ) = (1, 2, )

ij =

Es

eij

which gives as an expression for the virtual work per unit volume by the stresses ij

Es =

Es

eij = ij eij

eij

The variation of the strain energy along the virtual strains, which are in correspondence

with the strain description (2.10), is thus given by

Es = ( 11e11 + 22e22 + 12e12 + 21e21

2 1

+21 e1 + 22 e2 ) 1 2 (1 + R1 )(1 + R2 ) d 1d 2d

In the first term of this expression e11 can be related to quantities of the reference

surface making use of expression (2.10), which for e11 results in

e11 =

1

( 11 + 11 )

1 + R1

(

1

11

+ 111 ) 1 2 (1 + R2 ) d 1d 2 d

2 1

By making use of the definitions (2.14) of the stress resultants and stress couples the

integrations can be easily carried out and proceeding in the same manner, we obtain for

the expression of the variation of the strain energy in reference surface quantities

Es =

(n

11

2 1

(2.19)

This result assures that the stress resultants and stress couples of (2.14) correspond to

the deformation quantities of (2.11).

22

The work done by the surface force vector p on the reference surface must be equal to

W p = ( p u ) dV = ( PU

1 1 + PU

2 2 + PU

) 1 2 (1 + R1 )(1 + R2 ) d 1d 2 d

2 1

where the force Pi is a component of the external force vector per unit volume at a

specific point within the shell space. By making use of the definition (2.9) of the

displacement components, the expression becomes

W p = P1 ( u1 + 1 ) + P2 ( u2 + 2 ) + Pu 1 2 (1 + R1 )(1 + R2 ) d 1d 2d

2 1

On the reference surface, the resultants p1 , p2 and p and the couples m1 and m2 of

the body forces are now introduced in the same manner as was done in subsection 2.2.4

for the stress resultants and the stress couples. These resultants are thus expressed as

p1 = P1 (1 + R1 )(1 + R2 ) d

m1 = P1 (1 + R1 )(1 + R2 ) d

p2 = P2 (1 + R1 )(1 + R2 ) d

m2 = P2 (1 + R1 )(1 + R2 ) d

p = P (1 + R1 )(1 + R2 ) d

where surface forces on the outer and inner surface can easily be added. The integral

for the work done by the surface force vector p hereby becomes

Wp =

( pu

1 1

2 1

The work done by these forces along the virtual displacements is thus given by

Wp = ( p1u1 + p2u2 + pu + m11 + m22 ) 1 2 d 1d 2

(2.20)

2 1

The work done by the edge force vector f on the boundary lines of the boundary

surface S is equal to the work done by the components Fi of the external force vector

per unit area of the boundary surface. The components of the external force vector act

in the same direction as the displacement components. Hence, the work done by the

edge force vector on the two pairs of edges of constant 1 and 2 , respectively, which

are denoted by 1(1) , 1( 2) , (21) and (22) , can be written as

W f = f udS =

S

( FU

1

+ F2U 2 + FU ) 2 (1 + R2 ) d d 2

(1)

( 2)

1 =1 , 1

+ ( FU

1 1 + F2U 2 + FU ) 1 (1 + R1 ) d d 1

1

(1)

( 2)

2 =2 , 2

Introducing the definition (2.9) of the displacement components the integrals become

Wf =

( F (u

1

+ 1 ) + F2 ( u2 + 2 ) + F u ) 2 (1 + R2 ) d d 2

(1)

+ ( F1 ( u1 + 1 ) + F2 ( u2 + 2 ) + F u ) 1 (1 + R1 ) d d 1

1

( 2)

1 =1 , 1

(1)

( 2)

2 = 2 , 2

23

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The displacement components are referred to the reference surface and thus

independent of the coordinate and by making use of the definitions (2.14) of the

stress resultants and stress couples the integrations with respect to d can be easily

carried out. Introducing the edge forces f1 , f 2 and f and edge couples t1 and t2 , our

final result is obtained as

( f u

Wf =

1 1

(1)

( 2)

1 =1 , 1

1

(1)

( 2)

2 = 2 , 2

The work done by the edge forces and edge couples along the virtual displacements is

thus given by

( f u

W f =

1

(1)

( 2)

1 =1 , 1

(2.21)

(1)

( 2)

2 =2 , 2

All terms of the virtual work equation (2.18) have now been given either in virtual

strains (for the internal work quantities) or in virtual displacements (for the external

work quantities) and all terms are referred to by quantities of the reference surface. A

natural step is to obtain the internal work only in terms of the virtual displacements to

be able to elaborate further towards the equilibrium equations and the natural boundary

conditions.

The first term from expression (2.19) is, after substitution of kinematical relation

(2.11) and noting that derivative operations and variation are commutative, given by

(n

1 u1 u2 1 u

1 2 )

+

+

d 1d 2

1 1 1 2 2 R1

11

2 1

By integration by parts the derivatives of the virtual displacements are removed and we

obtain for the first term

[n

( 2)

n111 2

u1d 1d 2

1 1

2 1

2u1 ]1 =1(1) d 2

11

=

1

Here the parameters 1 2 have deliberately not been cancelled where appropriate for

later purposes of evaluation. Proceeding in the same manner for all terms of (2.19) we

obtain

24

1 =

( 2)

1

Es = ( n11u1 + n12u2 + v1u + m111 + m122 ) 2 (1) d 2

1 =1

1

( 2)

2 =2

(1)

2 =2

d 1

n111 2 n121 2 1

n211 2 n221 2 2 v11 2

+

+

u1

1 2 2 2 2

1 2 1

R1

2 1

1 1

n221 2 n211 2 2

n121 2 n111 2 1 v21 2

+

+

+

u2

1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2

R2

2 2

v11 2 v21 2 n111 2 n221 2

+

R1

R2

1 1 2 2

(2.22)

m111 2 m121 2 1

m211 2 m221 2 2

+

+

v11 2 1

1 2 2 2 2

1 2 1

1 1

m221 2 m211 2 2

m121 2 m111 2 1

+

+

v21 2 2

1 2 1 1 1

1 2 2

2 2

m

m

+ n121 2 n211 2 + 12 1 2 21 1 2 n d 1d 2

R

R

1

2

If the sum of all variations (2.18) is set equal to zero, two sets of equations are

obtained, i.e., one for the double integral over the reference surface and one for the

integral over the boundary lines. As stated previously, the variations of the

displacements are arbitrary and non-zero, so the sets of equations can only vanish if

each coefficient of the variations vanishes individually. From the set for the double

integral over the reference surface of (2.22) and (2.20), six equilibrium equations are

obtained, which read

n111 2 n211 2 n121 2 1 n221 2 2 v11 2

+

+ p11 2 = 0

+

1 1 2 2

1 2 2

1 2 1

R1

n221 2 n121 2 n211 2 2 n111 2 1 v21 2

+

+ p21 2 = 0

+

2 2 1 1

1 2 1

1 2 2

R2

v11 2 v21 2 n111 2 n221 2

+ p 1 2 = 0

1 1 2 2

R1

R2

m211 2 m111 2 m221 2 2 m121 2 1

+

v11 2 + m11 2 = 0

2 2 1 1

1 2 1

1 2 2

(2.23)

+

v21 2 + m21 2 = 0

1 1 2 2

1 2 2

1 2 1

n121 2 n211 2 +

m121 2 m211 2

=0

R1

R2

25

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The set for the integrals over the boundary lines of (2.22) and (2.21) reads

{( f

( 2)

1 =1

{( f + n

{( f n

{( f + n

11

2

1

21

1

1

21

1

1

(2.24)

2

2

1

2

Obviously, the equilibrium equations (2.23) are identical to the set (2.15), which shows

that the principle of virtual work is a straightforward and elegant approach to obtain

consistent equation sets. Also, the fact that the sixth equilibrium equation is an identity

is reflected by the fact that it is obtained by a virtual rigid body rotation n about the

normal to the reference surface. The set (2.24) is the subject of the next section.

The set (2.24) is the complete set for the five independent displacements and states

that, per variation of each displacement over the surface S f , each of the internal stress

measures (three stress resultants and two stress couples) must be balanced by aligned

external stress measures. If u is prescribed over the surface Su , on which in

consequence the virtual displacement u vanishes, each displacement must be equal to

the prescribed displacement at that surface. Hence, at each edge either the stress

resultant or the corresponding displacement must be equal to the known edge force or

prescribed edge displacement.

So, for the edge 1 = constant the boundary conditions are

f1 = n11

or

f 2 = n12

f = v1

or

or

u1 = u1

f1 = n11 or u1 = u1

u2 = u2

f 2 = n12 or u2 = u2

u = u 1 = 1(1) and

f = v1 or u = u 1 = 1( 2)

t1 = m11 or 1 = 1

t1 = m11 or 1 = 1

t2 = m12 or 2 = 2

t2 = m12 or 2 = 2

and equally for the edges 2 = constant the boundary conditions are

f1 = n21

or

f1 = n21

or

f 2 = n22

f = v2

or

or

f 2 = n22

f = v2

or

or

t1 = m21

t2 = m22

u1 = u1

u2 = u2

u = u 2 = (21)

or 1 = 1

or 2 = 2

and

t1 = m21

t2 = m22

u1 = u1

u2 = u2

u = u 2 = (22)

or 1 = 1

or 2 = 2

26

However, if the transverse shear strains are neglected, the rotations i are no longer

independent displacements since then these are related to the displacements of the

reference surface by expression (2.12). The first integral of the set (2.24) after

substitution of expression (2.12) becomes

{( f

n11 ) u1 + ( f 2 n12 ) u2 + ( f v1 ) u

u

u2 1 u

1 u

+ ( t1 m11 ) 1

+ ( t2 m12 )

2 d 2

( 2)

R1 1 1

R2 2 2

1 =1

( 2)

2 = 2

u

= ( t2 m12 ) u =(1)

d 2

2

2

( 2)

2

=

( t2 m12 )

( 2)

1 =1

( t2 m12 ) u d 2

2

( 2)

2

=

and by substitution of this result and rearrangement per virtual displacement, the

boundary integral is rewritten to

n11 +

1

1

( t1 m11 ) u1 + f 2 n12 + ( t2 m12 ) u2

R1

R

1

( 2)

2 = 2

1 u

1

+ f v1 +

( t2 m12 ) u (1)

( t2 m12 ) u + ( t1 m11 )

2d 2

2 = 2

2 2

( 2)

1 1

1 =1

( 2)

1 =1

or equally to

( f

1

n11 ) u1 + f 2 n12 + ( t2 m12 ) u2

R1

u

1

1 u

+ f v1 +

( t2 m12 ) u + ( t1 m11 ) 1

2d 2

2 2

( 2)

R1 1 1

1 =1

( 2)

2 = 2

( t2 m12 ) u

(1)

2 = 2

( 2)

1 =1

where the virtual rotation 1 has been employed according to expression (2.12).

In these expressions, we observe Kirchhoffs effective shearing stress resultant as

the boundary edge resultant in the direction of u . But next to this it is noticed that also

the in-plane stress resultants are combinations of the internal stress quantities. Due to

the neglect of the transverse shear deformation, not five boundary edge resultants can

be assigned but only four.

Since the rotation of the normal 1 seems to have a more physical interpretation in

describing the boundary conditions at a specific edge, this choice is described by the

second of the possible expressions for the boundary integral. Hence, the total set of

four stress quantities at the boundary corresponding to the four displacement measures

becomes for the edge 1 = 1( 2)

27

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

f1 = n11

f 2 = n12 +

f = v1 +

1

m12

R2

1 m12

2 2

t1 = m11

or u1 = u1

or u2 = u2

( 2)

1 = 1

or u = u

or 1 = 1

(2.25)

( 2)

[t2 ] =( )

2 = 2

2

1

2

( 2)

1 =1

( 2)

= [ m12 ]2 =(21)

2

or

( 2)

1 =1

u = u

f1 = n11

or u1 = u1

1

f 2 = n12 + m12 or u2 = u2

R2

(1)

1 = 1

1 m12

f = v1 +

or u = u

2 2

t1 = m11

or 1 = 1

(2.26)

( 2)

[t2 ] =( )

2 = 2

2

1

2

( 2)

1 =1

( 2)

= [ m12 ]2 =(21)

2

( 2)

1 =1

or

u = u

For the edges 2 = constant , equivalent expressions can be obtained where the indices

denoting the parametric lines are interchanged where applicable.

If the edge curve on one of the two coordinate lines is a closed curve, the

additional condition is identically satisfied and the boundary conditions on the other

coordinate line are replaced by continuity conditions for all quantities. Otherwise, the

additional conditions describe four point loads at the corners of the reference surface

with the magnitude Rn ( 1 , 2 ) = m12 ( 1 , 2 ) + m21 ( 1 , 2 ) .

2.5 Synthesis

In this section the kinematical relation and equilibrium relation are presented in such a

way that the well-known analogy between these relations becomes patently obvious.

The analogy comprises that a derivative in the differential operator matrix for the

kinematical relation is also present in the differential operator matrix for the

equilibrium relation, but then as the adjoint operator at the transposed position.

Next to this analogy, the corresponding matrices for the two relations needed to

obtain the constitutive relation are given in what follows. These two relations are the

strain distribution across the thickness of the shell expressed in the deformation

quantities of the reference surface and the relation of the stress resultants and stress

couples at the reference surface as expressions of the stress distribution across the

thickness.

28

The following four vectors are used, where u is the displacement vector, e is the

strain vector, s is the stress vector and p is the load vector.

u = u1 u2

1 2

e = 11 22

12

21 21

s = [ n11 n22

n12

n21 v1 v2

p = p1

m1 m2

p2

2 2

11 22 12 21

m11 m22

m12

m21 ]

differential operator matrix that relates the displacement vector u to the strain vector

e . By using temporarily the sign convention that an operator within the curled brackets

does not apply to the vector on which the operator matrix acts, the kinematical relation

is presented by

1

1 1

1

R

1

1

1 2

2

1

1

1

1 2

1 2 1

2 2

R2

1 1

1

0

1 1

11 1 2 2

1

1 2

0

22

1 2 1

12 2 2

1

1

21

0

2

R

1

1 1

1 =

2 2

1

1

0

R

11

2

2 2

22

0

0

0

12

21

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

u

1

u

1

0

0 2

u

1

0

1

0

2

n

1

1 1

0

1 1

1 2 2

1 2

1

0

1 2 1

2 2

1 1

1

1

1 2 2

1 1

R1

1

1 2

1

2 2

1 2 1 R2

0

29

where

where

(..) n111 2

(..) u1

30

relations the stress resultants and stress couples are thus

multiplied by the factor 1 2 .

..

1 1

1 (..)

1 1

B11 (..) =

B11 (..) =

The analogy is observed by, for example, the term B11 in the

1

1 2

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

1

1

1 2

1

1 1 1

1 2 2

2 2

1 1

1 2 1

R2

1

1

1

1

0

0

R

R

1

2

1

1

2 2

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

Bs = p where s is the stress vector, p is the load vector, and

B is the differential operator matrix that relates the two

0

operator L if for the inner product of two vectors, say

u v = v u the relation holds that u Lv = Lu v . Hence, per

partial integration the sign changes and the sequence of the

terms switches round. This is exactly what is observed in

section 2.3 when deriving the equilibrium equations from the

expressions for the work done by the virtual strains. Hereby

the rule of thumb (if e = Bu and Bs = p ) is that an even

differential operator does not change sign and that an uneven

differential operator does change sign and that, for a

curvilinear coordinate system, the sequence of the terms in the

operator changes as indicated.

n111 2

n221 2

0

0

0

0

n p11 2

12 1 2

n211 2 p21 2

0

0

0

0

v p

1 1 2 = 1 2

1

1 2

1 1

1 v21 2 m11 2

1 1 1 2 1

1 2 2

2 2 m111 2 m21 2

m 0

1 1

1

1

1 2 22 1 2

m121 2

1 2 2

2 2

1 1

1 2 1

m

21 1 2

1

1

0

0

R1

R2

is presented by

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

One of the two relations needed to obtain the constitutive relation is the strain

distribution across the thickness of the shell expressed in the deformation quantities of

the reference surface. This strain distribution is given by relation (2.10) and reads

notated in matrix form

e11

e

22

e12

=

e21

2e

1

2e2

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

11

22

0 12

0 21

0 21

2 2 2

0 11

0 22

12

21

where the factors 1 and 2 that account for the curvature of the parametric lines are

1 =

1+

R1

2 =

1

1+

R2

The other one of the two relations relates the stress resultants and stress couples at the

reference surface to the stress distribution across the thickness. These integrals are

given by relation (2.14) and reads notated in matrix form

0

n11

1

n

0

2

22

n12

0

0

0

n21

0

v

0

0

1 =

0

v2 0

m

0

11

1

m22

0 2

0

m12

0

m21

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1 0

0 2

0

0

0

0

0 11

0 22

0 12

1 + 1 + d

2 21 R1 R2

0 1

0 2

0

0

where the same factors are used to account for the curvature.

The fact that this matrix for the stress distribution is the transpose of the one

presented above for the strain distribution guarantees the symmetry of the constitutive

relation between the stress vector s and the strain vector e , which can be symbolically

presented by s = De where D is the rigidity matrix.

31

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

2.6.1 General

Love [13] was the first to derive a set of basic equations which describe the behaviour

of a thin elastic shell. Two drawbacks of the equations resulting from Loves first

approximation exist:

a. The torsion does not meet the requirements that strains resulting from rigid

body motion must vanish; and

b. The expression for the corresponding twisting moment is described by

neglecting certain non-negligible term.

Love himself [17] already attempted to improve his pioneering work and many others

attempted likewise. Flgge [14] for the circular cylindrical shell and independently

Byrne in lines of curvature coordinates tried to obtain a better approximation as a first

order theory by attempting a more careful omission of terms of higher order by using

the series expansion of quotients of the type 1 (1 + R ) ( = 1, 2 ) , but under the same

assumptions. However, the improvement of Loves first approximation by retaining

2

terms as ( R ) in the series expansion leads to correction terms that are of the same

order as the terms that would be introduced if the shear deformation were taken into

account (for a homogeneous, isotropic material). This is shown by, for example,

Reissner [18] and Koiter [19] and Reissner therefore states that if corrections to Loves

first approximation were desired these should be obtained by simultaneously

abandoning all assumptions except the second of the assumptions stated in subsection

2.2.1.

Despite the fact that Loves first approximation is more than a century old and

many attempts have been made at arriving at a better theory, the subject is still open to

discussion. The difference in most theories lies in the simplifications made to obtain a

good approximation of the constitutive relation within the assumptions of the theory.

A full set of equations for the static response of a linear elastic body to external

loading should at least possess a number of qualities, which are:

1. The constitutive relation must be symmetric.

2. The kinematical relation must be such that the strains resulting from rigid body

motion vanish.

3. The kinematical and equilibrium equation must be each others adjoint as

illustrated in section 2.5.

4. The boundary conditions must be congruent and in accordance with the

number of independent degrees of freedom.

These qualities will ensure that the resulting set of differential equations expressed in

the displacements is symmetric and that no further small errors are introduced than

those which are already introduced by the Kirchhoff-Love assumptions.

Next to the abovementioned qualities, it seems advantageous to switch over from

two resultants and two couples of the in-plane shearing stress 12 to only one resultant

and one couple. This is possible by combining these stress quantities but a restriction

should be that the sixth equilibrium equation should not be violated, because this

would introduce new small errors.

32

To obtain these combinations, a reduction of the four corresponding strain

measures to one for the shear angle and one for the torsion might be a suitable first

step, which is deduced from the original description of subsection 2.2.3 by the

following.

By definition, the shear angle over the thickness of the shell is given by 2e12 = e12 + e21

where the respective angles are given by (2.10). Taking the sum of those gives

2e12 = e12 + e21 =

1+

R1

( 12 + 12 ) +

1

1+

R2

( 21 + 21 )

in which the deformation quantities are given by expressions (2.11). These are thus

quantities that are referred to the reference surface. The expression can be rewritten to

2e12 =

2

12 + 21 ) + 1 + 12 + 21 + 1 + 21 + 12 (2.27)

1

(

R1R2

R1

R2

R2

R1

1+ 1+

R1

R2

1

21

R1

R2

21

12 1 2 1 1 1 1 u1

u 2

2

12 +

21 +

=

+

R1

R2 1 1 2 2 2 R1 2 R11 1

1 1 2 2 1 1 u2

u 1

2 2 1 1 1 R2 1 R2 2 2

1 22 11

1 1 2

=

+

u1

u2

1 2 1

2 1 2 2 R1 1 R2

where, to perform the last step, use is made of the Codazzi conditions (2.3). By

rewriting and making use of expressions (2.11) for the transverse shearing strains, it is

obtained that

1

1 2 12 + 21 21 + 12 =

u1 11

u2 2 2

R1

R2 2 R1

1 R2

u

u

1 21

2 2 2

2

1 1

2

1 21 )

(

( 2 22 )

2

1

where the partial derivatives of u cancel out because the function for u and its

partial derivatives shall exist and must be continuous. The result hereby obtained

means that if the transverse shearing strains are neglected according to (2.12) and thus

equal to zero in the expression above the equality holds that

12 +

21

= 21 + 12

R1

R2

(2.28)

33

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The equality (2.28) is for example derived in different ways by Sanders [16] and

Novozhilov [20], but is worthwhile to note that this equality only holds if the

transverse shearing strains are set equal to zero.

Having derived the equality (2.28), a natural step seems to be the introduction of two

alternative deformation quantities

12 = 12 + 21

12 = 12 + 21 +

21 12

+

R1 R2

(2.29)

into the expression for the shearing strain angle (2.27), which is hereby written as

2e12 =

1

12 + 1 +

+

12

R1R2

2 R1 2 R2

1+ 1+

R1

R2

1

(2.30)

Conveniently, in the new deformation quantity 12 , the rigid body rotation about the

normal to the reference surface is cancelled out. The alternative deformation quantities

expressed in the displacements are thus given by

12 =

1 u1 2 u2

+

2 2 1 1 1 2

1 1 2 2

1 u1 u2 2

1 u2 u1 1

+

+

2 2 1 1 1 2 R1 2 2 1 1 R21 1 2 2

2 1 u1

u 1 2 1 u2

u 2

=

1

2

+

R1 2 2 1 2 2 R2 1 1 1 2 1

12 =

(2.31)

1 1 1 u 1 2 u 1 1 u 1 1 u

+

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1

12 =

1 1 2 2

1 u1 u2 2

1 u2 u1 1

+

+

2 2 1 1 1 2 R1 2 2 1 1 R21 1 2 2

2 1 u1

u 1 2 1 u2

u 2

1

2

R1 2 2 1 2 2 R2 1 1 1 2 1

2u

2 1 1 u 1 2 u

+

+

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

but this seems inconvenient for later purposes of presenting the synthesis of all sets of

equations similar to what is shown in section 2.5 and hence for arriving at expressions

for the boundary conditions and interpreting them as is to be shown in section 2.7.

34

If the transverse shearing strain are to be neglected, the expressions for changes of

rotation corresponding to the normal strain distribution are obtained by substituting

expressions (2.12) into (2.11), which for these changes of rotation results in

1 u1

u2 1 1 1 u

1 1 u

1 1 R1 R21 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 22 2 2

11 =

u1 2 1 u2 1 1 u

1 2 u

22 =

+

2

R11 2 1 2 2 R2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1

(2.32)

while the two corresponding strains of the reference surface as described by (2.11)

remain unaltered.

2.6.2

Flgge-Byrne

be redundant, the constitutive relation by such an analysis is given here for later

reference. Flgge [14] roughly performed the following analysis while not making use

of the rigid body rotation in the expressions for the shear strain distribution.

To derive the expressions for the stress resultants and stress couples in terms of the

deformation quantities, the expressions for the strain distribution (2.10) across the

thickness of the shell are substituted into Hookes law (2.13). The resulting expressions

are substituted into the definitions (2.14), where expansions of the type

2

(1 +

R ) 1 R + ( R ) ... , = (1,2 )

1

are carried out to perform the integrations. By omitting terms of higher order than the

2

third in the thickness, it is required that ( R ) < 1 , which is not as restrictive as

Loves thinness assumption. The additional terms introduced are hence meaningless as

long as the other assumptions are not relaxed simultaneously as argued in the previous

subsection.

However, integration of the stress distribution across the thickness expressed in the

deformation quantities results in

n11 =

Et

t2 1

1

+ 22 ) + 11 11

2 ( 11

R1

1

12 R2 R1

m11 =

1

Et 3

1

+ 22 + 11

2 11

12 (1 )

R2 R1

n22 =

Et

t2 1

1

+ 11 ) + 22 22

2 ( 22

1

12 R1 R2

R2

m22 =

1

Et 3

1

+ 11 + 22

2 22

12 (1 )

R1 R2

n12 =

Et 1

t2 1

1

12

12 + 21 + 12

2

1 2

12 R2 R1

R1

m12 =

1

Et 3

1

1

12 + 21 + 12

2

12 (1 ) 2

R2 R1

n21 =

Et 1

t2 1

1

21

12 + 21 + 21

2

1 2

12 R1 R2

R2

m21 =

1

Et 3

1

1

12 + 21 + 21

2

12 (1 ) 2

R1 R2

where it is interesting to note that the stress resultants n12 and n21 and stress couples

m12 and m21 fulfil the sixth equilibrium equation.

These resulting equations are elegant, symmetric and the deformation measures

fulfil the requirement that these vanish for a rigid body motion, but based on the

observation mentioned in subsection 2.6.1 these equations are rejected.

35

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

2.6.3 Koiter-Sanders

Sanders [16] and Koiter [19] use identical strain measures to Loves first

approximation. Using (2.11) but neglecting terms R in comparison to unity for the

expressions (2.10) of the strain distribution, gives

e11 = 11 + 11

e22 = 22 + 22

2e12 = 12 + 12

where 12 = 12 + 21 is slightly different from the expression for the torsion as defined

above.

Although these deformation strain measures meet the requirement, this

introduction means that, Sanders finds, for example for a cylinder with radius a and

coordinates 1 = x and 1 = of the reference surface and = z for the normal

direction (which are introduced without further explanation), for the torsion

12 = x + x =

1 u 2 2u z n

+

a x a x a

where

1 u 1 u x

n =

2 x a

The expression for the torsion hence becomes

12 =

1 1 u x 3 1 u 2 2u z

+

2 a 2 2 a x a x

So, a rigid body rotation about the normal to the middle surface is needed to obtain a

strain measure for the torsion that meets the requirements of describing rigid body

modes without strain. This is rather contradictory and results in unfamiliar equilibrium

equations that correspond to the expressions of the kinematical relation.

Before neglecting terms R in comparison to unity, Sanders derives the equilibrium

equation from his deformation measures with the aid of the principle of virtual work.

By using the equality (2.28) and the equality 12 = 21 he then suggest the introduction

of the shearing stress resultant and couple as

1

1 1

1

( n12 + n21 ) + ( m12 m21 )

2

4 R2 R1

1

m12 = ( m12 + m21 )

2

n12 =

and then neglects the contribution of the stress couples in the stress resultant n12 .

Hereby, the sixth equilibrium equation is no longer satisfied but these small errors

are accepted by Sanders.

36

Substitution of the strain distribution suggested by Sanders and Koiter into (2.14), but

also here neglecting terms R in comparison to unity, yields after integration

n11 =

Et

( 11 + 22 )

1 2

m11 =

Et 3

( 11 + 22 )

12 (1 2 )

n22 =

Et

( 22 + 11 )

1 2

m22 =

Et 3

( 22 + 11 )

12 (1 2 )

n12 = n21 =

Et 1

( 12 + 21 )

1 2 2

m12 = m21 =

Et 3

1

( 12 + 21 )

2

12 (1 ) 2

which is an elegant approximation but the expression for the torsion remains

questionable.

2.6.4 Novozhilov

Novozhilov [20] introduces the following terms on the basis of the identity of the sixth

equilibrium equation (2.15)

n12 = n12

m12 =

m21

m

= n21 12

R2

R1

1

( m12 + m21 )

2

(2.33)

and derives the deformation measures introduced in subsection 2.6.1, which read

12 = 12 + 21

1

12 = 12 + 21 = 21 + 12

2

R1

R2

n1212 + n2121 + m1212 + m2121

m

m

= n12 21 12 + n21 12 21 + m12 12 + 21 + m21 21 + 12

R

R

R

R2

2

1

1

= n12 ( 12 + 21 ) + ( m12 + m21 ) 12

2

= n1212 + m1212

(2.34)

it is shown that the stress resultant and the stress couple correspond to the chosen

deformation measures for the shearing strain and the torsion. So all drawbacks are

overcome and six strain measures and six stress resultants are formulated to describe

the equations.

The symmetry of the constitutive relation is also guaranteed, which is shown by

the two following relations, where the second curvature matrix is the transpose of the

first.

37

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

1

1 +

R1

e11

e = 0

22

2e12

1+

R2

1+

R1

n11

n

0

22

n12

=

m11 1

m

22

1+ R

1

m12

R2

1

1+

R2

1

1

2

1

1 + 1 + R1R2 11

R1

R2

22 1 + 1 + d

R1 R2

0

12

1

1

1+

1 + 1 + 2 R1 2 R2

R1

R2

1

1+

11

22

12

0

11

22

1

1

12

1+

+

1 + 1 + 2 R1 2 R2

R1

R2

1

1+

1

2

1

R1R2

1+ 1+

R1

R2

1+

R1

0

R2

Using the strain measures introduced above, Novozhilov derived the corresponding

equations of equilibrium using the principle of virtual work. Strangely, he did not

derive the natural boundary conditions via this principle, but on the basis of

geometrical considerations. However, he arrives at four conditions, which are equal to

the conditions (2.25) and (2.26).

Using (2.33) and (2.15) for v1 where m1 is set equal to zero since the transverse

shear deformation is neglected, he rewrites the second and third condition for the

boundary stress resultants at the edge 1 = 1( 2) to

f 2 = n12 +

1

2

m12 = n12 + m12

R2

R2

1 m12

1 1m12 2m11 2

f = v1 +

=

+

m22

2

2 2 1 2 2

1

1

38

(2.35)

where especially the second expression seems rather peculiar, which is due to the use

of the original expression for v1 .

The boundary conditions resulting from the application of the principle of virtual

work is given in section 2.7 where the correctness of the expressions derived above is

shown.

2.6.5 Authors on nonlinear, shallow and cylindrical shell equations

Donnell [21] derived an approximate shell equation for buckling of cylinders. Amongst

many others, Vlasov [22] and Mushtari [23] generalised the derivation to large

deflections of thin elastic shells of arbitrary curvature, which were also reproduced by

Donnell [24].

The nonlinear Donnell-Mushtari-Vlasov theory (DMV-theory) for large

deflections of isotropic thin elastic shells holds for arbitrary curvature. The equilibrium

equations for this theory are given by two coupled nonlinear fourth-order partial

differential equations, which contain two independent variables (the coordinates on the

middle surface), and two dependent variables, which are the displacement normal to

the middle surface and Airys stress function. As an approximation of this theory, a

special case can be obtained: the equilibrium equations for so-called shallow shells.

According to Flgge [14], Marguerre [25] formulated a general theory of shallow

shells, which has been further developed and applied to many problems in various

papers by E. Reissner. Hence, the equations of the shallow shell theory are also known

as Marguerres equations for large deflection of plates with small initial curvature,

which follow from Marguerres shell theory. As a special case, for plates with no

curvature, the well-known Von Krmn equations for large deflection of plates are

identically described and therefore other authors refer to the shallow shell equations as

the (generalised) Von Krmn-Donnell equations.

The first rigorous development of the theory of circular cylindrical shells is presented

by Flgge (in a first edition of [14]). The equilibrium equations for this theory are

given by three coupled partial differential equations, which contain two independent

variables (the coordinates on the middle surface), and three dependent variables, which

are the two displacements on the middle surface and the displacement normal to the

middle surface. As stated in subsection 2.6.1, Flgges approach in retaining secondorder terms, which do not exceed the accuracy of the initial assumptions, is rather

meaningless. However, the solution to Flgges equations is often used as a standard to

which approximated or simplified solutions are compared.

As an approximation to Flgges equations, a special case are the equilibrium

equations obtained by the so-called semi-membrane concept. According to Zingoni

[26], Finsterwalder [27] and [27] was of one of the first to derive such an approximate

bending theory by neglecting the flexural rigidity in axial direction and torsional

rigidity. Derived shortly after Flgge, e.g., Schorer [28] assumed that not only the

flexural rigidity in axial direction and torsional rigidity may be equated to zero, but

also that the circumferential strain and the shear strain are both small in comparison to

the axial strain. However, as observed by Moe [29] by studying several characteristic

equations, the applicability of such equations is limited to long shells, which means

that the length in axial direction is sufficiently longer than the radius. As mentioned,

39

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Donnell [21] derived approximate equations for buckling of cylinders, which are a

simplified form of Flgges equations and are more general than Schorers

approximate equations. Von Krmn, together with Tsien, [30], extended the theory for

non-linear behaviour to study wrinkling of cylindrical shells. Jenkins [31] was the first

to apply a similar equation to study the static behaviour of shell roofs. Hence, the

abovementioned approach is sometimes referred to as the Donnell-Von KrmnJenkins theory (DKJ-theory). Based on this theory, Bouma and Van Koten [32],

derived exact and approximate solutions for cylindrical shells with circular edges. Such

a solution procedure is mainly possible due to the simplifications that form the basis of

the DKJ-theory. Because of its reduced form, this theory, often referred to as the

simplified Donnell theory, remains to be the most popular.

The equations of Flgge and Donnell for cylindrical shells are reproduced by

Hoefakker [33]. Herein, it is shown that the Donnell theory does not fulfil the

requirement that zero strains occur at rigid body motion. Since the shallow shell theory

is derived using the same simplifications as Donnells theory of cylindrical shells, the

shallow shell theory does also not fulfil the requirement that strains resulting from rigid

body motion vanish.

To interpret this drawback of Donnells equation, Hoff [34] studied the accuracy

by comparing the roots of Donnells equation with the ones obtained by Flgges

equation. As shown by Hoff, significant errors can occur if Donnells equation is used.

Based on reasoning and judgement, Morley [35] suggested an equation, which was

later derived more explicitly by Koiter [36] and Niordson [37], that overcomes both the

completeness of Flgges approach in retaining second-order terms, which do not

exceed the accuracy of the initial assumptions, and the inaccuracy of Donnells

simplifications in its inability to describe rigid-body modes, but preserves its elegance

and simplicity. Morley compared the roots obtained from this equation with

approximated roots obtained from Flgges equation and with the roots obtained from

Donnells equation. Morley showed that, for the solutions that describe an edge

disturbance originating at a straight edge, Donnells equation leads to significant errors

if the straight edge of the cylindrical shell is long in comparison to its radius, while

Morleys equation is in agreement with Flgges equation for any significant shell

geometry. For the solutions that describe an edge disturbance originating at a closed

curved edge, Morley showed that, both Morleys and Donnells equation closely agree

with Flgges. However, roots for deformation modes with only one whole wave in

circumferential direction, cannot be obtained satisfactorily from Donnells equation.

Although the roots further closely agree, it is also shown that for the inhomogeneous

solution for a cylindrical shell subject to surface load, significant errors occur for the

Donnell solution for the lower values of the mode number in circumferential direction.

Conveniently, Morleys solution closely agrees with Flgges solution for any shell

geometry and deformation mode.

Many other authors, investigated roots of characteristic equations that are derived

either as being exact or as, e.g., approximated, simplified and improved. Houghton and

Johns [38] compared the roots of various characteristic equations, which are derived

for circular cylindrical shells, by representing the deformation in a Fourier series in the

circumferential direction. The roots are obtained for the characteristic equations of

40

Flgge [14], Vlasov [22], Novozhilov [20], Morley [35], Donnell [21] and others, of

which Donnells equations is the most approximate equation. It is shown that, for thin

shells and especially large values of the circumferential mode number, the roots of the

equations closely agree and that for lower mode numbers small differences occur,

which diminish with increasing thinness. Houghton and Johns state that there is some

advantage in using the special simplified equations such as those by Donnell and

Morley, since it is possible to determine a solution without resort to a quartic equation.

However, Donnells equation should not be used for the lower values of the

circumferential mode number.

Seide [39, 40] compared the roots of the complete Flgge equation, the simplified

Flgge equation and the Morley equation for large values of the circumferential mode

number (ranging from 0 to 300) and for a thick cylindrical shell with a radius-tothickness-ratio of 10. The simplified Flgge equation is the equation that is obtained if

second-order terms, which do exceed the accuracy of the initial assumptions, are

omitted. Seide showed that the roots of the complete and simplified Flgge equations

are in excellent agreement and the roots of the Morley equation closely agree for a

large range of the circumferential mode number. Since, for large circumferential mode

numbers and thick cylindrical shells, the validity of the applicability of the KirchhoffLove assumptions is questionable, the roots of Morleys equations are always a good

approximation within these assumptions.

The above-mentioned equations are obtained within the assumptions of the KirchhoffLove assumptions. Shirakawa [41] presented a method for finding the roots of the

characteristic equation in the theory of circular cylindrical shells which contains the

effect of shear deformation (the Mirsky-Herrmann theory). In this paper, the numerical

values are shown for the roots of the characteristic equation in the axial and the

circumferential direction. These numerical values are compared with the values that are

obtained by an improved theory by Shirakawa and Flgges theory. It is shown that

Flgges solutions are very accurate in the case of thin shells and that, for shells with a

radius-to-thickness-ratio smaller than 20, the effect of shear deformation should be

accounted for. Although Flgges solutions show a slight discrepancy, the results

become inaccurate.

Hence, it is concluded that the accuracy of Morleys equation is assessed. As the

equation proposed by Morley is later derived by Koiter, this equation will be further

referred to as the Morley-Koiter equation.

For later reference, the (simplified) Flgge equation, the Morley-Koiter equation and

the Donnell equation for thin elastic circular cylindrical shells are reproduced. In

accordance with the used notation x , and z are associated with 1 , 2 and ,

respectively. The straight generator in x -direction has an infinite radius and therefore

its curvature is equal to zero. The radius in -direction is already mentioned and equal

to a . Here the dimensionless parameter and the flexural rigidity Db are introduced

without further explanation, which are defined by

41

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

a

4 = 3 (1 2 )

t

Db =

Et 3

12 (1 2 )

2

4

1

uz

+ 2 u z + 4

4

a

a x

2 (1 )

=

1 4

1 4 2u z

1 1 + 2

2 2u z

+

2

1

3

+

(

)

a 2 x 4 a 4 4 x 2

a 4 2 x 2 a 22 x 2

1

1 3 p

1 3 p

1 3 px 1 3 px

+

pz + (2 + ) 2 2 + 4

3

Db

a x a

a x3 a 3 x2

2

4

1

1

1 3 p

1 3 p

1 3 p x 1 3 px

uz

+ 2 u z + 4

=

+

pz + (2 + ) 2 2 + 4

4

3

a

Db

a x a

a x3 a 3 x2

a x

4

4

1

1 3 p

1 3 p

1 3 px 1 3 px

uz

u z + 4

=

+

pz + (2 + ) 2 2 + 4

4

3

Db

a x a

a x3 a 3 x2

a x

2.7.1 Alternative description of the strain distribution

Novozhilov [20], Vlasov [22] and others also expanded the strain description in a

series expression with respect to the coordinate . Hoefakker [33] applied a somewhat

similar idea to the strain distribution of a circular cylindrical shell by rewriting the

strain description. Especially for the deformation quantities in the curved direction of

the cylinder, this rewritten description has the advantage that the strain description after

neglecting terms R in comparison to unity, remains such that the stress couple in

this curved direction is not altered by this approximation. As a result of this feature, the

so-called ring bending action is still perfectly described. The derivation of the

expressions for a circular ring and the approximation of those expressions are given in

Appendix E and Appendix F, respectively. Based on these results, it is observed that,

as a result of the difference between the more conventional description with the

changes of rotation and the description with the alternative deformation quantities,

which can be interpreted as a changes of curvature, the so-called ring bending solution

is not only satisfied by the single differential equation but also by the set of equilibrium

equations if the mentioned expansion is performed. Also based on the discussions in

section 2.6, it is therefore concluded that the expansion of the strain description, which

adopts the changes of curvature, should be preferably considered for a reliable and

consistent theory of shells of revolution.

42

Adopting the procedure proposed by Hoefakker, but now only to the normal strains e11

and e22 , their expressions (2.10) can be identically represented by

e11 =

1+

R1

( 11 + 11 ) = 11 +

11 = +

11 R1 11

11

1+

1+

R1

R1

e22 =

( + 22 ) = 22 + 22 22 = 22 + 22

22

R

2

1+

1+

1+

R2

R2

R2

(2.36)

where two alternative deformation quantities are introduced, which are a combination

of the change of rotation and the normal strain in that respective direction.

Hence, the relation between the alternative deformation quantities and the former

quantities is given by

11 = 11

11

R1

22 = 22

22

R2

(2.37)

for a plate by a normal strain plus a curvature times the coordinate in thickness

direction, the change of curvature.

By rewriting the corresponding part of the virtual work equation to

n1111 + n22 22 + m1111 + m22 22

m

m

= n11 + 11 11 + n22 + 22 22 + m11 11 11 + m22 22 22

R

R

R

R2

1

2

1

= n1111 + n22 22 + m1111 + m22 22

(2.38)

it is shown that the alternative stress resultants and stress couples correspond to

n11 = n11 +

m11

R1

m11 = m11

n22 = n22 +

m22

R2

m22 = m22

These alternative strain and stress quantities for the normal strain and stress

distributions can be complemented by the alternative strain and stress quantities for the

shear strain and stress distribution as introduced in subsection 2.6.1. If this were

desired, the following relations can be collected for the stress resultants and the

changes of curvature

n11 = n11 +

m11

R1

11 = 11

11

R1

n22 = n22 +

m22

R2

22 = 22

22

R2

n12 = n12

m21

R2

12 = 12 +

21

R1

n21 = n21

m12

R1

21 = 21 +

12

R2

43

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The complete set of relations can be compactly represented by

=

1

( + )

2

= ( 1)

( , ) = (1,2 )

for the deformation quantities, while the stress quantities can be represented by

n = n + ( 1)

m

R

m =

1

( m + m )

2

( , ) = (1,2 )

where the notation above corresponds to the deformation measures that are introduced

to describe the shear strain distribution by the relation

= 2

= 2

As a starting point for a kinematical relation, the set (2.11) is used but the transverse

shearing strains are set equal to zero. The neglect of these strains is justified in

subsection 2.6.1 on the argument by Reissner and thus the rotations can be described

by the expressions (2.12). However, for the normal strain distributions the description

by the set (2.36) is proposed. Next to this, the reduction of the four in-plane shear

deformation quantities to one for the shear angle and one for the torsion as given by

expression (2.29) is applied.

The expressions for the kinematical relation can now be obtained by substituting

expressions (2.12) into (2.11) and (2.29). The expressions that are altered are already

given by (2.31) and (2.32). However, the expressions (2.32) have to be substituted into

the expressions (2.37) for the changes of curvature.

The resulting kinematical relation is presented by using temporarily the sign

convention that an operator within the curled brackets does not apply to the vector on

which the operator matrix acts and hence becomes

1 1

1 2

1 2 1

11

1

1 1

22

12 2 2 1 2 2

=

1 1

11

1 1 R1

22

12 1

1 1 2

R1 R2 1 2 1

2 1 1

R

1

2

1 2 2

1 1

1 2 2

1

2 2

1

1 2

1 1 1 2 1

1

1 1 1

R2 R1 1 2 2

1 1

2 2 R2

2

1

2

R21 1 2 1

44

R1

1

R2

0 u

1

u

2

1 u

(2.39)

1 =

1 1

1 1

1

1 1 1 1 1 22 2 2 R12

2 =

1 1

1 2

1

2

2

2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 R2

3 =

1 1

1 2

1 1 1 1

+

12 2 2 1 1 22 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1

As mentioned in subsection 2.6.1 the rigid body rotation about the normal to the

reference surface is cancelled out. In subsection 2.6.4 and subsection 2.7.1, the stress

resultants and stress couples that correspond to the chosen deformation quantities are

given and these fulfil the sixth equilibrium equation of (2.15). This means that by using

the kinematical relation given above, a proper set of equilibrium equation with the

corresponding boundary conditions can be derived. The last desired quality mentioned

in subsection 2.6.1 concerns the symmetry of the constitutive relation.

2.7.3 Constitutive relation

Except for the Flgge-Byrne derivation, the derivations discussed in section 2.6 obtain

constitutive equations by neglecting terms R in comparison to unity. This is based

on Loves observation that the strain energy can be split in a two independent parts;

one that represents the potential energy of extension and shear and one that represents

the potential energy of bending and torsion.

Using (2.11) but neglecting terms R in comparison to unity for the expressions

(2.10) and (2.30) of the strain distributions, gives

11

22

e

1

0

0

0

0

11

e = 0 1 0 0 0 12

22

2e12 0 0 1 0 0 11

22

12

These linear strains are related to their respective stresses by (2.13), which reads

0

1

11

1

e11

E

0

=

e22

22 1 2

1

12

0 0

2e12

deformation quantities, the stress resultants are described by the following integrals

n11

1

n

0

22

n12

0

=

m

11

m

0

22

0

m12

0 0

1 0

11

0 1

22 d

0 0

12

0

45

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

which is a simplification of (2.14) by neglecting the terms R in comparison to

unity. This guarantees the symmetry since the neglect is simultaneously imposed on the

strain and stress distribution across the thickness.

It is assumed that the reference is the middle surface and the thickness t is

constant. Hereby, subsequent substitution of the three sets of expressions given above

results in

Dm

n11 Dm

n

22 0

n12

=

m11 0

m 0

22

m12 0

Dm

Dm

0

1

Dm

2

0

Db

Db

Db

Db

0 11

22

0

12

0 11

0 22

1 12

Db

2

0

(2.40)

which is the constitutive relation between the stress resultants and stress couples and

the deformation quantities of the reference surface. Herein the quantities Dm and Db

are the extensional (membrane) rigidity and flexural (bending) rigidity, respectively,

which are given by

Dm =

Et

1 2

Db =

Et 3

12 (1 2 )

(2.41)

across the thickness has been assumed. The respective normal stress and shearing stress

components can be conveniently obtained from the following relations

n11

12m

+ 3 11

t

t

n22

12m22

22 =

+ 3

t

t

n12

12m12

12 =

+ 3

t

t

11 =

(2.42)

The equilibrium equations are derived by using the principle of virtual work as

described in section 2.3 but by substituting expression (2.34) for the virtual work done

by the shear angle and the torsion, by substituting expression (2.38) for the virtual

work done by the normal strains and the changes of curvature, and by neglecting the

contributions of the transverse shear strains. The variation of the strain energy

described by (2.19) now becomes

Es =

(n

11

2 1

Proceeding in the same manner as in section 2.3 results in the relation (2.43) presented

on the next page where the temporary sign convention for the curled brackets

employed for presenting the kinematical relation is used.

46

1 1 1 1 1

+

1 1 1 1 2 1 22 2 R12

1 1 1 2 1

+

2 2 2 2 1 12 2 1 R22

1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

1 12 2 2 2 1 22 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2

1 =

2 =

3 =

47

(2.43)

1

1

1 2

1

1 1

1 1

1 1 2

2

2 1 n

11 1 2

R

R

R

1 1

1 1

1 2

1

2

2

1 2

2

1

1

2 1 2

1

2 1 2

1 1 2 2 n

22 1 2

p11 2

1 1

2

2 2 n121 2

1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

p21 2

=

2 2 R2

1 R21 R21 2 1 m111 2

2 2

1 1 1 2 1 R2 R1 1 2 2

1 2

2

p 1 2

m221 2

1

1

1

2

3

0

m

12 1 2

R1

R2

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The third equation for the equilibrium in the normal direction thus reads

1 m111 2 m221 2 2 m121 2 1

m121 2

+

+

1 1 1 1

1 2 1

1 2 2 2 2

+

m121 2

+

+

2 2 2 2

1 2 2

1 2 1 1 1

+

+

+ p 1 2 = 0

R1

R12

R2

R21

By comparing this result with the original equation (2.23), which reads

v11 2 v21 2 n111 2 n221 2

+ p 1 2 = 0

R1

R2

1 1 2 2

n11 = n11

m11

R1

; n22 = n22

m22

R2

hold, it can be observed that the transverse shearing stress resultants are now described

by

v11 2 =

m121 2

+

+

1 1

1 2 1

1 2 2 2 2

m121 2

v21 2 =

+

+

2 2

1 2 2

1 2 1 1 1

(2.44)

where the bar indicates that these are not the usual stress resultants but the ones that

correspond to the alternative shearing stress resultant and couple introduced by

Novozhilov as described in subsection 2.6.4.

2.7.5 Boundary conditions

Using the principle of virtual work as described in the previous subsection, the total set

of four stress quantities at the boundary corresponding to the four displacement

measures as given in section 2.4 can be obtained. For the edges 1 = constant , this set

becomes

f1 = n11

or u1 = u1

or u2 = u2

( 2)

1 = 1 ,

or u = u

or 1 = 1

12

f2 = n

f = v

t1 = m11

f1 = n11

12

f 2 = n

f = v

t1 = m11

or u1 = u1

or u2 = u2

(1)

1 = 1

or u = u

or 1 = 1

( 2)

[t2 ] =( )

2

1

2

( 2)

(1)

= [ m12 ]

1 =1

( 2)

[t2 ] =( )

2 =2

2

1

2

( 2)

1 =1

n11 = n11

1

m11

R1

or

u = u ,

1 = 1( 2)

or

u = u ,

1 = 1(1)

1 =1

( 2)

2 =2

48

( 2)

= [ m12 ]2 =(21)

2 =2

(1)

=2

(1)

1 =1

(2.45)

is utilised and the combined internal stress resultants denoted by the superscript are

defined by

n12 = n12 +

2

m12

R2

(2.46)

1 m12

v = v1 +

2 2

However, the rotations are not displacement measures that can be independently

varied, since by neglecting the shear deformation the rotations are described by the

expressions (2.12), which read

1 =

u1 1 u

R1 1 1

(2.47)

1 u

u

2 = 2

R2 2 2

Therefore, at the edge 1 = constant , not the rotation 1 , but the angle

1 u

is the

1 1

independent displacement that should be considered. Hereby, the total set of four stress

quantities at the boundary corresponding to the four displacement measures becomes

for the edges 1 = constant

f1 = n11

f 2 = n12

f = v1

t1 = m11

or u1 = u1

or u2 = u2

( 2)

or u = u

1 = 1

1 u 1 u

=

or

1 1 1 1

f1 = n11

f 2 = n12

,

f = v1

t1 = m11

or u1 = u1

or u2 = u2

(1)

or u = u

1 = 1

1 u 1 u

=

or

1 1 1 1

(2.48)

with the additional conditions that

( 2)

[t2 ] =( )

2

1

2

( 2)

(1)

= [ m12 ]

1 =1

( 2)

[t2 ] =( )

2 = 2

2

1

2

( 2)

= [ m12 ]2 =(21)

2 = 2

( 2)

u = u ,

1 = 1( 2)

or

u = u ,

1 = 1(1)

1 =1

( 2)

2 = 2

1 =1

or

(1)

= 2

(1)

1 =1

where the combined internal stress resultants denoted by the superscript are defined

by (2.46).

Rewriting the expression for f at the edge 1 = 1( 2) of conditions (2.48) by

making use of (2.44) gives

f = v1 +

1 m12

1 1m12 2m11 2

=

+

m22

2

2 2 1 2 2

1

1

which shows that the stress quantities (2.35) as derived by Novozhilov are identical to

the derived quantities.

For the edge 2 = constant , equivalent expressions can be obtained where the

indices denoting the parametric lines are interchanged where applicable.

49

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The derivation of these boundary conditions is elaborated independently from the

approximation that is introduced in the constitutive relation in subsection 2.7.3. As a

result of this approximation, the strain distribution is linear and hereby the stress

resultants are only described by the normal and shear strains, while the stress couples

are only described by the changes of curvature and the torsion. Hence, by making use

of the combined internal stress resultant n12 , additional terms are introduced in the

boundary conditions, which are of the same order of the terms that are neglected in the

constitutive relation. Therefore, while simultaneously approximating the constitutive

relation, it is allowed to approximate the (combined) internal stress resultants n11 and

n12 according to

n11 = n11

1

m11 n11

R1

n12 = n12 +

2

m12 n12

R2

f1 = n11

f 2 = n12

f = v1

t1 = m11

or u1 = u1

f1 = n11

or u2 = u2

f 2 = n12

( 2)

1 = 1 ,

or u = u

f = v1

or 1 = 1

t1 = m11

or u1 = u1

or u2 = u2

(1)

1 = 1

or u = u

or 1 = 1

(2.49)

Another method for deriving the boundary conditions that are consistent with the

equilibrium equations is the application of Hamiltons principle. The potential energy

is formulated on basis of the kinematical relation as well as the constitutive relation.

However, for the linear elastic and geometrical linear equations, the application of this

principle results in the same equilibrium equations and boundary conditions as

obtained by application of the principle of virtual work. Hence, the inconsistency

between the natural boundary conditions and the approximation of the constitutive

relation cannot easily be remedied.

50

The use of a digital computer for the solution of problems in the linear theory of thin

elastic shells of revolution under static loading is described. The described numerical

procedure is integrated into the well-known direct stiffness approach of the

displacement method. The considerations that have to be made for shells of revolution

are presented in the calculation scheme and the back substitution.

solid shell

The theory of elastic plates and shells subject to static loading has been treated

extensively and the analysis of thin shells of revolution has attracted much attention.

Some of these works are of basic nature and deal with what can be referred to as

analytical models. The exact analytical solutions derived in these classical works have

been found only for the more simple problems, e.g. for axisymmetric loading in the

case of shells of revolution. Approximate solutions have been obtained by, among

other methods, series expansions of the exact solution, perturbation methods and the

method of asymptotic integration, but mainly for special loading cases and boundary or

transition conditions. This restrictive feature of the analytical models is due to the

highly mathematical character of the equations leading to inconvenient and involved

solutions. Therefore the major part of the works on shells of revolution and, even more

general, plates and shells fall back on what can be referred to as numerical models. As

mentioned in the introductory chapter 1, this change of focus is largely related to

todays availability of greatly increased computing power.

The common numerical techniques for analysis of shells are the method of

stepwise integration, the finite difference method, the boundary integral method and

the finite element method. The finite element method, which contains a procedure of

approximation to continuous problems, is probably the most widely used and

innumerable finite shell elements have been proposed.

In the finite element method, the continuous structure is divided into a finite

number of parts (which are called elements) that are connected by nodes. The

behaviour of the elements is specified by a finite number of parameters, which are the

element displacements and element forces related to one another by an element matrix.

The element matrices per part of the structure are combined into a global matrix by

enforcing continuity of the element displacements at the nodal points, which are called

the nodal displacements. The element forces are combined into a global vector by

enforcing equilibrium of the element (and external) forces at the nodal points, which

are called the nodal forces.

The key step in any finite element procedure is the generation of the element

matrix for each element. The large variety of element formulations can be roughly

classified into conventional elements, which are mainly based on assumed

displacement, strain or stress fields, and super elements, which require analytical

solutions of governing equations.

51

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

From the several conventional approaches that exist for the formulation of finite

elements, the displacement method is the prevailing one. As the name suggest, the

nodal displacements are the primary unknowns, which are used to describe the

displacement field within the element. This displacement field is usually expressed by

imposed displacement functions, which are called shape functions, and these assumed

functions are of an approximate character.

The accuracy and method of approximation that is employed differs widely and

hence many different types of shell elements have been proposed. Without being

complete, the variety of assumed displacement fields have led to constant strain, linear

and higher order elements and, by also using shape functions to approximate the

geometry, isoparametric elements. The large variety also finds its origin in the shape of

the element as flat triangular, quadrilateral or rectangular, shallow shell, cylindrical

shell as well as doubly curved elements have been developed.

One of the attempts at seeking a method for minimising the number of elements

needed to model a given problem domain is the finite strip method. In this method, the

structure is divided into strip domains in which one opposite pair of sides or faces

coincide with the boundaries of the structure. Within these strip domains, use is made

of polynomials in some direction and continuously differentiable series in other

directions so that the boundary conditions at the ends of the strip domains are satisfied.

Somewhat similar methods use combinations of shape functions of finite elements with

finite strips, combinations of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, and spline

functions.

Such methods enable accurate descriptions of rather large substructures and,

instead of the term conventional element, the term super element seems more

appropriate for such an element.

The asset of super elements lies in the degree of approximation employed in deriving a

stiffness matrix for each element. If exact analytical solutions to governing equations

are available, an exact stiffness matrix can be obtained. Obviously, this is ideally

desirable owing to the advantage that only one single element is sufficient to account

for a complete part of a structure (within which geometry and load are continuous). A

tremendous advantage of employing an exact solution for the response of a shell

structure lies in the fact that the edge disturbances are described in a superior manner

whereby the attenuating bending field components are easily captured, which is

especially valuable for the reproduction of the short influence length components.

This is in sharp contrast to the necessary high degree of mesh refinement for

conventional elements that is usually required to obtain acceptable results, which is

related to the much higher degree of approximation used in deriving a stiffness matrix.

As a result, it is difficult to identify which shell elements are the most effective

elements currently available. Especially since various types of elements have varying

degrees of convergence rate and accuracy, can show sensitivity to the geometry and

support conditions, and possibly suffer from somewhat unexpected sorts of locking.

Unfortunately, super elements do not lack in general of the above-mentioned

shortcomings since exact solutions to governing equations cannot always be obtained.

Especially for shell models, the determination of the stiffness matrix coefficients is not

only complicated and cumbersome, but the resulting expressions are also lengthy and

52

inconvenient. Next to this, exact solutions to, for example, approximate governing

equations are surplus to requirements and might therefore be approximated to the same

degree to avoid the appearance of a wider range of applicability.

However, for such cases the employment of approximate solutions or approximate

equations will often lead to accurate stiffness relations for the practical range of the

considered geometry. Solutions of this kind are obviously bound by a number of

restrictions for the load distribution and the type of response, simplifications for the

constitutive relation, etc, but from practical point of view, such solutions are not a

drawback. Moreover, the super element derived by such means will decrease the

computational costs (due to the minimised number of degrees of freedom) and, for

example, reduce the data preparation effort. This seems to be useful if computational

effort is limited, expensive or not accessible. Ultimately, the leading feature of the

super elements is the expected computational time gain when calculating series of

variation in geometry, load or boundary conditions in order to conduct parameter

studies for the problem at hand.

To conduct parametric studies of the response of shells of revolution a method for

deriving a super element for these shells is suggested. As referred to in the previous

section, this approach avoids the shortcomings of most existing element stiffness

matrices and attempts to minimise the number of elements needed to model a given

problem domain. Similar to the conventional method, the first and crucial step is to

compute the element stiffness matrix but for the super element, this is synthesized on

the basis of an analytical solution to the governing equation.

As the starting point, a proper set of differential equations governing the elastic

behaviour of thin shells of revolution under distributed surface and line loads is

selected. For cylindrical shells (and similarly for conical and spherical shells) with

circular boundaries, which are the most frequently used in structural application, it is

possible to obtain a closed-form solution (within the assumptions of the theory) to

these rigorous shell formulations. The precise formulation of the classic approach is

reshaped into the well-known direct stiffness approach of the displacement method

enabling the calculation of combinations of elements and type of elements, which

makes the use of an electronic calculation device more sensible in view of the

increasing number of equations. The implementation of this direct stiffness approach

into an expeditious PC-oriented computer program is accomplished by using the

Fortran-package in combination with graphical software. The discussion of the

successive steps is the topic of this section.

3.2.1 Substructures for a shell of revolution

A shell of revolution is a body of which the middle surface is a surface of revolution. A

surface of revolution is generated by the rotation of a plane curve about an axis in its

plane. This generating curve is called a meridian. An arbitrary point on the middle

surface of the shell is described by specifying the particular meridian on which it is

positioned and by indicating a second coordinate that varies along the meridian but is

53

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

constant on a circle around the axis of rotation of the shell. This circle is called a

parallel or latitude circle. The meridian is indicated by the angular distance of its

plane from that of the datum meridian. The other coordinate is specified by the angle

between a normal to the shell surface and its axis of revolution. At any angle the

geometry does not vary along the parallel circle, i.e. the surface parameters are constant

in circumferential direction.

In general, any applied load can quite easily and very conveniently be transformed

in a Fourier series with respect to the circumferential coordinate on the parallel

circle. Due to the symmetry of the surface and the probable continuity in

circumferential direction of any surface and line loads, such a series will be a

trigonometric series. Moreover, most of the practical loads on a shell of revolution will

anyhow have of a trigonometric character in circumferential direction.

When considering a structure that consists of several shells of revolution, which

are joined at their parallel circular edges, the above-mentioned observations enable the

division of the structure into substructures per single type of shell of revolution. Within

the edges of such a circumferentially closed substructure, the load and the shell

geometry should be continuous in meridional direction. This means that a substructure

is bounded by (i) a support or free edge, (ii) a transition of two shells, (iii) a stiffening

ring, (iv) a transition of the intensity of the surface load, or (v) a circumferential line

load. Hereby an analytical solution to the governing equations can be employed that

consists of the above-mentioned trigonometric series and functions with arbitrary

constants in meridional direction. Similarly to the finite strip method, use is thus made

of continuously differentiable series in the circumferential direction, i.e. the

trigonometric series, to satisfy the continuity conditions of the circumferentially closed

substructure. The meridional part of the analytical solution contains functions with the

arbitrary constants that are unknown and this part serves as the shape functions of the

displacement field. At every parallel circle, a displacement is thus expressed as the

trigonometric series multiplied by the amplitude per respective parallel circle and this

amplitude is equal to the magnitude of the shape function. By substituting the

meridional coordinates of the two parallel circular edges of the substructure, the two

edge amplitudes per displacement are obtained. Each substructure is thus captured by

only one element with two nodes and the number of the degrees of freedom per

element is equal to the number of arbitrary constants.

In general, a differential equation for the elastic response of thin shells of revolution

(and thus neglecting the influence of the shear deformation) is of the i th order and

hence a solution will contain i arbitrary constants. These have to be determined by i

boundary conditions that can be formulated for two opposite edges. Since it is not

possible to prescribe both an edge displacement as well as an edge force in

corresponding direction simultaneously, a maximal number of i 2 edge displacements

and a maximal number of i 2 edge forces can be prescribed per edge. A shell element

based on such a solution thus has i 2 degrees of freedom per node or in other words

i 2 generalised displacements at either side. In keeping with the number of degrees of

freedom, an equal number of generalised forces with corresponding directions may act

at each node.

54

3.2.2 Application of the suggested approach

To discuss the application of the suggested approach in the form of a super element

method, from here onward the proposed set of equations given in section 2.7 is

considered. To obtain this set the influence of transverse shear deformation is neglected

and because of these three independent displacements, viz. u1 , u2 and u , can be

identified. Hence, three simultaneous differential equations can be obtained that

express the equilibrium equations for p1 , p2 and p in terms of the independent

displacements. By elimination of these displacements, a single differential equation for

one of the displacements can be obtained and this equation will be of the eighth order.

The general solution to this single differential equation has two parts, the

homogeneous solution and the inhomogeneous solution. The homogeneous solution

contains the eight arbitrary constants and depends on the boundary conditions since

this solution accounts for the effects of edge loads on the distribution of the stress and

strain quantities of the reference surface. The inhomogeneous solution is independent

of the boundary conditions and takes care of any distributed load that acts on the

surface.

Henceforth the coordinate 1 will be associated with the meridional direction and

2 with the circumferential direction. The shape of the meridian is arbitrary but at each

point on the meridian, the parallel circle has a constant radius in circumferential

direction whereby it is useful to introduce an angular coordinate. Since it is customary

to denote this circumferential coordinate by , the coordinates ( 1 , 2 , ) are in this

chapter henceforth replaced by ( , , ) .

Assuming not only continuity but also symmetry of the load in circumferential

direction and choosing this line of symmetry to be indicated by = 0 , it is observed

that the loads p and p are even periodic functions with period 2 with respect to

that line of symmetry and that the load p is an odd periodic function. The Fourier

series of any even or odd function consists only of the even trigonometric functions

cos ( n ) or odd trigonometric functions sin ( n ) , respectively, and a constant term [42].

Therefore, the three load components can be described by a Fourier trigonometric

series expressed by

p ( , ) = pn ( ) cos n

n=0

p ( , ) = pn ( ) sin n

n =0

p ( , ) = pn ( ) cos n

n =0

where n is the mode number and represents the number of whole waves in

circumferential direction.

In keeping with the trigonometric series load a trial solution to the reduced

differential equation will be of the trigonometric series form. Obviously, not only the

homogeneous solution u h is to be described by a congruent form to the load

distribution but also the inhomogeneous solution u i will have the same circumferential

55

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

distribution. So, in correspondence with the distribution of the load components, the

general solution for the displacements is of the congruent form

u ( , ) = Chuh ( ) + ui ( ) cos n

n =0

u ( , ) = Chuh ( ) + ui ( ) sin n

(3.1)

n=0

u ( , ) = Chuh ( ) + ui ( ) cos n

n=0

where Ch represents the eight arbitrary constants per circumferential mode number.

On the basis of the same consideration and by inspecting the sets of equations of

section 2.7 it can now be concluded that the rotations, strain and stress quantities are

described by functions of the form

,

, , , ,

n , n , v , m , m

cos n

, ,

n , v , m

sin n

On the basis of these arbitrary solutions to the differential equation of the eighth order

at hand, an element stiffness matrix has to be synthesized. As explained in the previous

subsection, four edge displacements (degrees of freedom) and four edge forces should

hence be described. However, three displacements and two rotations seem to be

available and therefore one of these is redundant. This is result of the neglect of the

influence of shear deformation, due to which the rotations are no longer independent

displacements but are related to the displacements of the reference surface. That the

rotation is not a degree of freedom is easily observed when substituting the general

solution (3.1) for the displacements into the expressions for the rotations, which are

given in subsection 2.7.5. Hereby it is obtained that at the edge, in contrast to the

rotation , the rotation is a linear combination of the independent displacements.

This means that if the displacements u and u are prescribed at a certain edge

= constant , the rotation along the edge is explicitly prescribed, while the rotation

not only depends on the magnitude of the displacements but also on the distribution

in the direction normal to the edge.

Therefore, in correspondence with the boundary conditions formulated in

subsection 2.7.5 for an edge = constant , the edge displacements are associated with

u , u , u and , and the edge forces are associated with f , f , f and t .

According to the relation between these edge forces and the internal stress quantities,

the edge quantities are distributed along the edge by functions of the form

f , u

cos n

f , u

sin n

f , u

cos n

t , 1

cos n

56

The considerations described here are exemplified for a load that is symmetric to a

certain axis, but can easily be extended to an asymmetric load. Then the Fourier series

will be described by combinations of sine and cosine series per load term, which can

both simultaneously but in fact separately be treated as described above. Therefore, the

choice of a symmetric load does not degenerate the generality of the approach.

In the above, a suitable coordinate system has been chosen to represent the reference

surface of the element. For each node, the degrees of freedom and the generalised

forces are identified. The sign convention of the degrees of freedom is identical to the

sign convention that is assigned in chapter 2 for the displacements. Hence, the edge

displacements u , u and u are positive when acting in the positive direction of their

respective coordinate line and the edge rotation is positive when rotating a point

with positive coordinate in positive -direction. The sign convention for the

direction in which the generalised forces act is thus identical at both sides of the

element.

Assuming that the governing equations are obtained, the general solution can be

derived and hence be put in matrix form. Having shown that the edge forces have the

same distribution in circumferential direction as the corresponding edge displacements,

it can be concluded that the relation between these quantities only depends on the

meridional distribution. In other words, a stiffness relation for the element depends on

the amplitude of the circumferential distribution (which can depend on the

circumferential mode number n ) but the trigonometric distribution needs not to be

taken into account. Hence, for every possible mode number n the general solution for

the degrees of freedom can be represented by

i

u ( )

C1 u ( )

A11 ( ) A18 ( ) i

u ( )

u ( ) =

+

u i ( )

u ( )

A41 ( ) A48 ( ) i

( )

C8 ( )

(3.2)

or briefly as

u ( ) = A ( ) c + u i ( )

c

the element geometry, the material properties and the mode number n . The hat

notation refers to amplitude and the superscript c represents that the matrix equation

refers to continuous quantities.

The general solution for the stress resultants and stress couples can be obtained by

successive substitution of the general solution for the displacements in the expressions

of the deformation quantities and the stress quantities. With the objective of

formulating expressions for the edge forces in mind, the internal stress quantities have

to be transformed into suitable quantities according to the boundary conditions

formulated in subsection 2.7.5. Performing the above-mentioned substitutions and

transformation, the general solution for the internal stress quantities is obtained which

can be represented by

c

57

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

i

n ( )

C1 n ( )

B11 ( ) B18 ( ) i

n ( )

n ( ) =

+

vi ( )

v ( )

B41 ( ) B48 ( ) i

m

C

m

(

)

8 ( )

(3.3)

or briefly as

n ( ) = B ( ) c + n i ( )

c

coefficients depend on the element geometry, the material properties and the mode

number n .

The general solutions (3.2) and (3.3) can easily be transformed in expressions for

the edge displacements and edge forces of the element by substituting the nodal

coordinates of the parallel edge lines. While formulating the expressions for the edge

forces it is necessary to take into account that internal stress quantities on the negative

side of the element act in negative coordinate direction and thus in opposite direction to

the positive direction of the edge forces. Identifying one edge with = a and the other

with = b , the expressions for the element displacements and element forces become

c

u ( a )

u ( a ) A11 ( a )

u ( a )

( a ) A41 ( a )

u ( b ) = A b

11 ( )

u ( b )

u b

( ) A41 ( b )

( b )

i

C1 u ( a )

i

A18 ( a ) C2

u ( a )

C3 ui ( a )

A48 ( a ) C4 i ( a )

+ i

A18 ( b ) C5 u ( b )

i

C6 u ( b )

i

A48 ( b ) C7 u ( b )

C8 i ( b )

(3.4)

f ( a )

f ( a ) B11 ( a )

f ( a )

t ( a ) B41 ( a )

f ( b ) = B b

11 ( )

f ( b )

f ( b ) B41 ( b )

t ( b )

C1 fi ( a )

B18 ( a ) C2 fi ( a )

i

C3

f ( a )

i

B48 ( a ) C4 t ( a )

+ i

B18 ( b ) C5 f ( b )

i

C6 f ( b )

i

B48 ( b ) C7 f ( b )

i

C8 t ( b )

(3.5)

for the element forces. Notated briefly these two equations become

u e = A ec + u i ;e

(3.6)

and

f e = B ec + f i;e

(3.7)

where Ae and B e are square matrices of size 8 8 of which the coefficients depend on

the element geometry, the material properties and the mode number n . The hat

58

notation refers to amplitude and the superscript e represents that the matrix equation

refers to element quantities.

The element stiffness matrix relates the element displacements in (3.6) to the

element forces in (3.7). Therefore, the constants should be eliminated, which is done by

first rearranging expression (3.6) to

c = A -1;e ( u e - u i ;e )

(3.8)

and by substituting this expression into (3.7) resulting in

f e = B e A -1;e ( u e - u i ;e ) + f i ;e

(3.9)

From this equation, the so-called fixed edge forces can be obtained by setting the

element displacement u e equal to zero. The result is denoted by the so-called primary

load vector f prim;e per element, which can thus be computed by

f prim;e = -B e A -1;eu i;e + f i;e

(3.10)

Equation (3.9) can be rearranged into

f e - f i ;e + B e A -1;eu i;e = B e A -1;eu e

which, by using relation (3.10) for the primary forces, can be rewritten as

f tot ;e = K eu e

(3.11)

where the element total load vector f tot ;e and the element stiffness matrix K e are

introduced which can be computed by

f tot ;e = f e - f prim;e

K e = B e A 1;e

(3.12)

Equations (3.12) determine per element the stiffness matrix and the load vector on the

element edges that correspond with the nodes. At such a node, an external force can be

applied and if more elements are to be calculated, two elements share one common

node. Introducing the external nodal load vector f ext ;n , where the superscript n refers

to a nodal quantity, the load vector at a node f tot ; n is given by the external load and the

primary load vector. Since a primary load acts on the element, it acts in opposite

direction on the node. Therefore, the contribution of a positive primary load to the

nodal load vector is in the negative direction and the expression for f ext ;n becomes

f tot ; n = f ext ;n - f prim;e; n

(3.13)

e

Comparing equation (3.12) for the element total load vector with equation (3.13) for

the nodal load vector it can be concluded that

f ext ; n - f e;n = 0

e

which represents that at a node the external load must be in equilibrium with the

element forces. In other words, the internal forces at the element edges are in

equilibrium with the applied load.

To correctly assemble the separate elements, care must be taken that at each node the

conditions of equilibrium of the loads and compatibility of the displacements are met.

The process of the assembly resulting in the global matrix equation, the incorporation

of the prescribed displacements and the solution of the resulting reduced global matrix

equation are to be done according to the common procedure of the stiffness method.

59

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Consequently, incorporation of, for example, an elastic support and stiffening ring

elements or assembly of different geometries can be easily taken care of whereby,

when applicable, the transition to a global coordinate system can be plainly guaranteed.

The solution of the reduced global matrix yields the magnitude of the nodal

displacements and since these are equal to the element displacements u e , the constants

c per element can be computed by relation (3.8). Having obtained the constants the

continuous distribution of the displacements and stress quantities within the element

can be computed by expressions (3.2) and (3.3), respectively. Finally, element forces

and support forces can be determined from these solutions.

The following steps are thus performed by a finite element program that is suited for

super elements:

1. Read number of elements and nodes;

2. Read geometry and material properties of each element and nodal coordinates;

3. Read initial displacements;

4. Read distributed forces on the element and external forces on the nodes;

5. Compute matrices A e and B e ;

6. Generate the element stiffness matrix K e according to relation (3.12);

7. Assemble the global stiffness matrix K via a location procedure;

8. Compute the primary load vector f prim;e per element according to relation

(3.10);

9. Generate the load vector at a node f tot ; n according to relation (3.12);

10. Assemble the global load vector f tot via a location procedure;

11. Compose the system of equations and incorporate the prescribed

displacements;

12. Solve the system of equations to obtain the nodal displacements;

13. Compute per element the constants c according to relation (3.8);

14. Obtain the continuous distribution of the displacements and stress quantities of

each element according to expressions similar to (3.2) and (3.3), respectively;

15. Solve element and support forces.

A flow chart of such a program is given in Figure 3-1.

An expeditious PC-oriented computer program, which is called CShell, is written to

calculate the elastostatic response of stiffened and non-stiffened circular cylindrical

shell structures. The program is based on the method presented the previous sections.

The calculation is performed by evaluating super elements that span a large subdomain

of the whole structure. Only one such element is needed to calculate the response of a

cylinder with a constant geometry and material properties, which is subject to linearly

distributed surface loads, nodal line loads and point loads.

60

All elements

INPUT

All elements

Ke

INPUT

fe

All elements

Ce

Ke

fe

INPUT

Red. K, f

Red. K, f

Solve coefficients

Ce

displacements and forces

ue, fe

fe

fe

F0

ue, fe, e

u, f,

Figure 3-1 Flow chart of the FEM program with super elements

61

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The program CShell can be applied to calculate the response of thin shell structures,

that:

Consist of circular cylindrical elements and ring stiffening elements (see

Figure 3-2); extension and bending of the stiffener is taken into account while

torsion is neglected;

Are subject to static distributed surface loads, circumferential line loads and

point loads; these loads are symmetric with respect to the axis = 0 and are

developed in trigonometric series in circumferential direction (in -direction,

e.g., modes pn cos ( n ) for n = 0, 1, 2, ... ); results of the calculation appear as

one or all terms of the trigonometric series;

Have constant linear elastic material properties per element;

Have constant geometrical properties per element; and

Are supported by fixed and/or elastic supports.

3.4.2 Shell theory

Two theories for thin shells have been implemented, the theory of Morley-Koiter and

the theory of Donnell. The theory of Morley-Koiter is considered to be the most exact

one because it uses more appropriate kinematical relations for the changes of curvature.

The Donnell theory is less accurate for lower modes and clearly fails for mode n = 2 .

On the other hand, to obtain the solution to the Morley-Koiter theory an approximation

was introduced which limits its applicability for higher modes. Therefore, MorleyKoiter is used for lower modes and is compulsory for mode n = 2 . For higher modes,

Donnell gives more reliable results. The user indicates at which mode the switch

between Morley-Koiter and Donnell should be made. Default, Donnell is adopted for

n = 6 and higher.

62

The formulations resulting from the Morley-Koiter equation that are used in the

program CShell are derived in chapter 4. The exact homogeneous solution and the

inhomogeneous solution are given for mode number n = 0 in subsection 4.4.3, for n = 1

in subsection 4.4.4, and for n 2 in subsection 4.4.5. As mentioned above, the

approximate expressions for the homogeneous solution presented in section 4.5 are

used in the program CShell to derive the stiffness matrix of a circular cylindrical shell

element.

The formulations that are derived for the ring element stiffness matrices are

reproduced in Appendix E, which is based on the solution implemented by Van

Bentum [1]. The analysis herein presented is largely based on the same set of relations

as for a circular cylindrical shell on basis of the Morley-Koiter theory, but all quantities

in axial direction are omitted. The result is thus a stiffness relation between the

displacements of the ring element and the load on the ring element, viz. the forces at

the circular edges of the cylinder and the external ring loading.

3.4.3 Output

The following automated output is available:

Line plots in axial as well as circumferential direction using pre-defined

Grapher files;

The deformation of a circular profile as well as the whole structure by using a

pre-set Maple worksheet; and

A data file that can be addressed to select the quantities of interest and their

respective location.

3.4.4 Verification of the program CShell

At an early stage of the development and by using the packages available within the

research group, verification of the program for long circular cylindrical shells has been

performed. The results obtained by the super element program and the finite element

packages showed a close agreement and revealed that only improvement with respect

to small terms needed to be considered to accurately synthesize the stiffness matrix and

perform the back substitutions for the stress and displacement quantities.

Upon completion of the main program, the correctness of the implemented numerical

solution method has been verified versus finite element modelling using the wellknown ANSYS package. For this verification, a short circular cylinder with a radiusto-thickness ratio of 100 and a length-to-radius of 2 has been modelled. This short

cylinder represented a steel tank with a fixed bottom and with either a free end or an

eccentric ring at the top. For the verification purpose, the ring has been modelled as a

thick annular plate with a thickness equal to two times the wall thickness of the shell

and a width equal to the radius divided by 16. Hence, the structural super elements that

are implemented in the program are congruently modelled in the finite element package

to verify their performance.

To model the cylindrical shell in the ANSYS package, the SHELL281 element has

been adopted. The element is based on Mindlin-Reissner shell theory and is suitable for

analysing thin to moderately thick shell structures. The quadrilateral shaped element

63

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

has eight nodes with six degrees of freedom at each node (viz. three translations and

three rotations) and three integration points located through the thickness are

designated.

To model the ring beam in the ANSYS package, the BEAM189 element has been

adopted in view of compatibility with the SHELL281 element. The element is based on

Timoshenko beam theory and is suitable for analysing slender to moderately

stubby/thick beam structures. The quadratic three-node beam element in 3D with

unrestrained warping has six degrees of freedom at each node (viz. three translations

and three rotations) and employs a two point Gaussian integration.

The adopted mesh comprises a single element layer across the thickness and

element lengths in circumferential and axial direction have been automatically

generated based on the short influence length (refer to section 4.6). In circumferential

direction, the number of elements per quadrant has been generated based on a

maximum of half of the short influence length. The element length in axial direction is

generated based on an initial mesh of 4 elements in axial direction along the short

influence length, which is refined in the area of the element boundary while a larger

element axial length has been adopted in between the short influence lengths.

The verification of the developed program CShell by finite element modelling using

the well-known ANSYS package revealed an excellent agreement with respect to

displacement and deformed shape of the models. For the stresses, axial and shear

stresses are accurately predicted with respect to magnitude and shape. However, the

circumferential stresses (mainly the membrane component of those stresses) are less

accurate, which is closely related to the simplifications introduced to arrive at the

Morley-Koiter equation (refer to section 4.3). Only negligible numerical differences

could be detected between the respective results for the above-mentioned models.

Based on these observations, the numerical capability of the developed program and

the tremendous benefit of the super element approach for rational first-estimate design

are conclusively demonstrated.

In this thesis, the following structures are studied with the aid of the developed

program:

Chimneys, which are supported at the bottom, with or without stiffening rings

and elastic supports (chapter 5); and

Tanks, which are supported at the bottom, with or without a roof or stiffening

ring at the top and under full circumferential settlement (chapter 6).

The chimneys are all loaded by a wind load. As described in section 5.1, this wind

load is developed into a quasi-static load series. The advantage is that each possible

load-deformation behaviour (as described in subsection 4.4.2) is present. Hence, the

different response for the same geometry enables the interpretation and enlarges the

understanding of the phenomena that occur per mode number.

The tanks are loaded by a content or wind load or subject to a full circumferential

settlement. These cases represent the three main load-deformation conditions that can

be identified for the overall response of the tank wall.

64

The analysis of circular cylindrical shells subject to static loading is carried out by an

exact method. The set of equations proposed in chapter 2 is formulated for circular

cylindrical shells with circular boundaries and the solution for three different loaddeformation behaviours is derived. For thin elastic shells, an approximation of this

exact solution is given and this approximate solution is compared with the solution

obtained by a perturbation technique. The resulting formulations for the displacements

and stress resultants can be readily presented in the context of the computational

method and solution procedure as explained in chapter 3. To enable understanding of

the shell behaviour and the prevailing parameters, characteristic and influence length

for the different load-deformation behaviours are discussed.

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Geometry

For a circular cylindrical shell, it is convenient to apply a polar coordinate system to

the cross-sectional profile with a constant radius a . The directions of the axes are

chosen in longitudinal direction, in circumferential direction and in transverse

direction. In relation to the description of the middle surface of shells of revolution, the

longitudinal direction is the direction along the meridian, the circumferential direction

is the direction along the parallel circle and the transverse direction is along the normal

to the reference surface.

An infinitesimal element has thus sides with length of arc, measured on the

reference surface, dx in longitudinal direction and ad in circumferential direction.

The constant thickness of the element is denoted by t within which an infinitesimal

layer has a thickness dz in normal direction to the reference surface. The three positive

directions of the displacements ( u x , u , u z ) are taken corresponding to the three positive

coordinate directions ( x, , z ) .

4.1.2 Coordinate system

The straight generator in x -direction has an infinite radius and therefore its curvature

is equal to zero. The radius in -direction is already mentioned and equal to a . The

expression of the line element in Appendix A can now be given by

2

ds 2 = dx 2 + a 2 1 + d 2 + dz 2

a

where x , and z are associated with 1 , 2 and , respectively.

65

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Measured on the reference surface, the line element is thus equal to ds 2 = dx 2 + a 2 d 2 .

This means that the following substitution can be made if the proposed theory of

section 2.7 is used as a starting point of our analysis

1 = x

1 = 1

R1 =

2 =

2 = a

R2 = a

(4.1)

=

2

1 2

+

x 2 a 2 2

(4.2)

For the geometry and coordinate system as introduced in the previous section and

substituted accordingly in the proposed theory of section 2.7, the following vectors are

adopted to describe the kinematical, constitutive and equilibrium relations

u = [u x

u u z ]

e = [ xx

xx

x ]

s = [ nxx

nx

mxx

p = [ px

pz ]

m x ]

(4.3)

The kinematical relation (2.39) is rewritten using the description (4.1) of the reference

surface of the circular cylindrical shell resulting in

x

0

xx

1

x a

=

xx 0

x 0

0

1

a

x

0

0

2

a x

u

0

x

u

2

u

2

z

x

2

1

1

2 2 2

a a

2 2

a x

0

The constitutive relation is given by (2.40) but with the new indices reads

66

(4.4)

Dm

nxx Dm

n

0

n x

=

mxx 0

m 0

mx 0

Dm

Dm

0

1

Dm

2

0

Db

Db

Db

Db

0 xx

0

x

0 xx

0

1 x

Db

2

0

(4.5)

where the quantities Dm and Db are the extensional (membrane) rigidity and flexural

(bending) rigidity, respectively, which are given by

Dm =

Et

1 2

Db =

Et 3

12 (1 2 )

(4.6)

The normal stresses xx and and the longitudinal shearing stress x can be

conveniently obtained from the relations given by (2.42) but with the new indices these

read

nxx

12m

+ z 3 xx

t

t

n

12m

=

+z 3

t

t

nx

12mx

x =

+z 3

t

t

xx =

(4.7)

The equilibrium relation (2.43) is rewritten using the description (4.1) resulting in

x

1

a

1

a

1

a

2

x 2

1 2

1

2

2

2

a a

nxx a

n a

p a

x

2 nx a

=

p

a

a x mxx a

p a

2 2 m a z

a x mx a

0

(4.8)

and the transverse shearing stress resultants are described by (2.44) and become

vx =

mxx 1 mx

+

x

a

v =

1 m mx

+

a

x

(4.9)

The boundary conditions (2.49) are rewritten using the description (4.1) resulting in

f x = nxx

f = nx

f z = vx

t x = mxx

or u x = u x

or u = u

or u z = u z

or x = x

f x = nxx

x = x( 2) ,

f = nx

f z = vx

t x = mxx

or u x = u x

or u = u

or u z = u z

(1)

x=x

or x = x

(4.10)

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

where, by making use of (2.46), the combined internal stress resultant vx has become

vx = vx +

1 mx mxx 2 mx

=

+

a

x

a

(4.11)

x =

u z

x

(4.12)

u 1 u z

=

a a

The additional condition for the torsion couple is identically satisfied since a circular

cylindrical shell with full circumferential boundaries is the subject of the further

analysis.

4.3.1 The differential equations for the displacements

Up to this point, no additional simplifications or assumptions have been introduced. To

obtain convenient differential equations for the displacements, it is assumed that the

parameters describing the material properties and the cross-sectional geometry, i.e.

E , and a, t respectively, are constant for the whole circular cylindrical shell.

Substitution of the kinematical relation (4.4) into the constitutive relation (4.5)

results in what is sometimes referred to as the elastic law, which reads

1 u

u

u

nxx = Dm x +

+ z

a

a

x

2u

1 2u z

u

mxx = Db 2z + 2

+ 2z

2

a

a

x

u 1 u u z

n = Dm x +

+

x a a

2u

1 2u z u z

m = Db 2z + 2

+

a 2 a 2

x

nx = Dm

1 1 u x u

+

2 a x

(4.13)

1 u 1 2u z

mx = Db (1 )

+

a x a x

Substitution of this elastic law into (4.8) yields the following three differential

equations for the displacements

2u x 1 1 2u x 1 + 1 2u

1 u z

p

= x

x 2

2 a 2 2

2 a x

a x Dm

1 + 1 2u x 1 2u 1 2u 1 u z

2 a x

2 x 2 a 2 2 a 2

D

2u

D

3u

p

b 2 2 (1 ) 2 + b 2 2 (1 ) 2 z =

Dm a

x

Dm a

x Dm

1 u x 1 u 1

D

3u

+ 2

+ 2 u z b 2 2 (1 ) 2

a x a a

Dm a

x

+

68

Db 4u z 2 4u z

1 4u z 2 2 u z 2 2u z u z p z

+

+

+ =

4 + 2 2 2+ 4

Dm x

a x a 4 a 2 x 2 a 4 2 a 4 Dm

(4.14)

The three differential equations are symbolically described by

L11

L

21

L31

L13 u x

px

1

L23 u =

p

Dm

pz

L32 L33 u z

The operators L11 up to and including L33 form a differential operator matrix, in which

L12

L22

1 + 1 2

2 a 2 2

2

1 + 2

L22 = +

2

1

(

)

2 x 2

x 2

L11 = +

1 + 1 2

2 a x

1

L13 = L31 =

a x

L12 = L21 =

1

1

1

2

3

2

2

ka

2

ka

1

L

L

2

k

1

+

(

)

(

)

23

32

a2

a2

a 2

x 2

x 2

Here the Laplace operator is defined by (4.2) and the dimensionless parameter k is

L33 =

k=

Db

t2

=

2

Dm a 12a 2

(4.15)

Hence, it is noted that for a thin shell where t < a it follows that the parameter k is

negligibly small in comparison to unity ( k 1) .

4.3.2 The single differential equations

By eliminating u x from the first and second equation, the differential equation

describing the relation between u and u z is obtained. Equivalently, u is eliminated

from the first and second equation to obtain a relation between u x and u z . The

resulting equations symbolically read, respectively

1

( L11 p L21 px )

Dm

1

( L22 px L12 p )

Dm

This operation is only possible if the operators on a scalar function are commutative,

which means that for example ( L21L11 L11L12 ) = 0 .

By substituting these two relations into the third equation, the single differential

equation for the displacement un is obtained, which symbolically reads

L31 ( L12 L23 L22 L13 ) + L32 ( L21L13 L11L23 ) + L33 ( L22 L11 L12 L21 ) u z

1

=

( L22 L11 L12 L21 ) p z + ( L31L12 L32 L11 ) p + ( L32 L21 L31L22 ) px

Dm

69

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

In this multiplication of the derivatives in the proper manner, the terms with the square

of the parameter k are neglected in comparison to unity ( k 2 1) . The single

differential equation is then obtained as

2

4

1

uz

+ 2 u z + 4

4

a

a x

1 4

1 4

1 4 2u

2 (1 + ) 2 2 2 4 4 2z

2

4

a x

a x a x

4

1 u

+4 (1 2 ) 4 4z

a x

1

1 3 p

1 3 p

1 3 px 1 3 px

=

+

pz + (2 + ) 2 2 + 4

3

Db

a x a

a x3 a 3 x2

2 (1 )

(4.16)

44 =

1 2

a

= 12 (1 2 )

k

t

(4.17)

and hence it can be concluded that, since t < a for any circular cylinder, > 1 .

Moreover, in case that the fourth derivative with respect to x of the function u z exists,

the one that is multiplied with the parameter 4 will be a leading term since 4 1 .

For the edge disturbances described by the homogenous solution it is apparent that

the highest derivatives with respect to x may account for the rapid variations in axial

direction of the displacement field while the lowest derivatives may account for the

slow variations of this field. The magnitude of the fourth derivative with respect to x

that is multiplied with the parameter 4 is sufficiently large to neglect the other fourth

derivatives with respect to x , which also holds for the probably small contributions of

sixth and second derivatives. Hence, purely for convenience a simplified and from

mathematical point of view considerably more elegant differential equation can be set

up with practically the same numerical accuracy.

Small differences between an exact solution to equation (4.16) and a solution to an

approximated equation will however exist, but these differences are of the same order

as introduced by neglecting the terms R in comparison to unity in order to obtain

the constitutive relation (2.40). Hence, emphasizing these differences is meaningless

unless the transverse shear deformation and the deformation due to strain in the

direction normal to the reference surface are also taken into account.

In accordance with the above-mentioned considerations, the single differential equation

is approximated by neglecting the derivatives that do not contribute substantially in

comparison to the derivative multiplied by the parameter 4 . For the other two

equations relating u x and u to u z , a similar observation leads to the neglect of small

terms, which are multiplied by the parameter k . In this way, three differential equation

are obtained that read

70

1

1 3u z

1 3u z 1 1 + 1 2 p x

1 + 1 2 p

=

p

+

u + ( 2 + ) 2 2 + 4

2

2 a 2 2

a x a 3 Dm 2 a x

1

1 3u z 1 3u z 1

1 + 2 p x 1 + 1 2 p

3

=

+

u x +

px +

3

2

2

a x

a x Dm

2 x 2

2 a x

2

4

1

uz

+ 2 u z + 4

=

4

a

a x

(4.18)

1

1 3 p

1 3 p

1 3 px 1 3 px

+

p z + (2 + ) 2 2 + 4

a x a 3

a x 3 a 3 x2

Db

This equation, suggested by Morley [35] and later derived by Koiter [36] and Niordson

[37], overcomes both the completeness of Flgges approach in retaining second-order

terms, which do not exceed the accuracy of the initial assumptions, and the inaccuracy

of Donnells simplifications in its inability to describe rigid-body modes but preserves

its elegance and simplicity.

Strangely, the first two equations of (4.18) are widely accepted but the many variations

for the single differential equation (similar to the third equation of (4.18)) indicate that

general consensus has not yet been obtained. A discussion on the variety of proposed

equations is presented in section 2.6. In subsection 4.5.2 the Morley-Koiter equation

and some of the suggested equations are listed. In that subsection, the somewhat forced

simplification and its implication is exemplified by means of the respective solutions to

the homogeneous equation. Since the homogeneous solution to the Morley-Koiter

equation is mathematically the most suitable for substitution with the same accuracy,

this equation is considered in the further treatment of circular cylindrical shells.

boundaries

cylindrical

shell

with

curved

As stated in subsection 3.2.2, continuity and symmetry of the load in circumferential

direction is assumed. By choosing this line of symmetry to be indicated by = 0 , the

three load components can be described by a Fourier trigonometric series expressed by

p x ( x, ) = pxn ( x ) cos n

n =0

p ( x, ) = pn ( x ) sin n

(4.19)

n=0

p z ( x, ) = pzn ( x ) cos n

n=0

where n is the circumferential mode number and represents the number of whole

waves in circumferential direction.

71

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The following considerations are derived for a load that is symmetric to a certain

axis, but can easily be extended to an asymmetric load by describing combinations of

sine and cosine series per load term. These can be treated separately with congruent

resulting expressions, whereby the choice of a symmetric load does not degenerate the

generality of the approach.

4.4.2 Three load-deformation behaviours

The response of a cylinder to all possible loads indicated by a different mode number

n can be subdivided into three different load-deformation behaviours. Consider a

(long) circular cylinder without restricting boundary conditions. The response of such a

cylinder to any load is obviously equal to the response of a ring to that load. In Figure

4-1 the load and the corresponding deformation for four terms is displayed for a

circular ring. Actually, Figure 4-1 only gives the response to the loads p ( ) and

p z ( ) , but it is obvious that a load px on a cylinder gives a congruent behaviour per

mode number n .

Figure 4-1 Four load terms and their corresponding deformation for a circular ring

The mode indicated by n = 0 (left in Figure 4-1) is generally known as the

axisymmetric mode and describes a constant behaviour in circumferential direction.

Such a load leads, in principle, to a change in the radius of the cylinder with circular

edges. Any quantity must be constant in circumferential direction; in other words,

the substitution

cylinder, which does not lead to any strain, and because of symmetry considerations,

the rotation should be zero. The same applies to the longitudinal shearing strain

x , the torsion x , the corresponding longitudinal shearing stress x and its resultant

nx and couple mx , which also can be concluded by inspecting the governing

equations.

72

Not being able to describe u leaves only two independent displacements to

describe ( u x and u z ), which implies that only two differential equations expressed in

the displacements can be obtained (while p is equal to zero). Hence, the resulting

differential equation will not be of the eighth order, but from inspecting the system

(4.14) of the sixth order since the differential equations for px and pz are of the

second order for u x and of the fourth order for u z , respectively.

To remain consistent the axisymmetric mode will be studied with the MorleyKoiter equation, while making the necessary substitutions, but also the sets of

equations given in section 4.2 are used as the starting point.

4.4.2.2 Beam mode

The mode indicated by n = 1 (second left in Figure 4-1) is generally known as the beam

mode and describes the response of the circular cylinder that is obtained if it were

treated as a beam with a circular cross-section. In other words, the lateral deflection of

the circular cylinder is caused by the resultant of such a load term. However, using the

expressions derived for three independent shell displacements, viz. u x , u and u z ,

results in an inherent description corresponding to a beam with flexural as well as shear

rigidity. Moreover, the governing equation is an eighth order differential equation and

hence not only the fourth order polynomial solution representing the beam type of

behaviour is described, but also a solution is obtained that takes care of the

nonconforming deformation states that can be obtained at the circular boundary.

Obviously, this part of the solution describes an edge disturbance that mainly originates

from the cross-sectional deformation that can be prohibited.

The behaviour described above is excellently described by the Morley-Koiter equation,

where for n = 1 all quantities can be expressed as functions of the type

( x, ) = 1 ( x ) cos and ( x, ) = 1 ( x ) sin depending on the axis of symmetry of the

quantity under consideration.

4.4.2.3 Self-balancing modes

The modes indicated by n = 2,3,4,... ( n = 2 and n = 3 are depicted at the right-hand side

in Figure 4-1) are generally known as the self-balancing modes. Obviously, the load

has as many symmetry axes as the mode number n , where these axes cross each other

at the middle point of the circle, which also holds for n anti-symmetry axes. The

response of a ring to such a load is fully described by a deformation of the circular

shape without displacing the middle point of that circle since the resultant of the load is

equal to zero.

The response of a full cylinder without restriction to the deformation at its circular

boundaries will be equal to the response of a ring with the circular profile. However, if

this response behaviour is restricted at any circle, not only bending in circumferential

direction will occur, but also both bending and membrane straining in axial direction.

The behaviour described above is excellently described by the Morley-Koiter

equation, where for the mode numbers n > 1 all quantities can be expressed as

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

functions of the type ( x, ) = n ( x ) cos n and ( x, ) = n ( x ) sin n depending on the

axis of symmetry of the quantity under consideration.

4.4.3

for the axisymmetric mode. Hence, the following substitutions for the load and

displacements can be made

p x ( x, ) = p x 0 ( x ) ,

u x ( x, ) = u x 0 ( x )

p ( x, ) = 0

u ( x, ) = 0

p z ( x, ) = p z 0 ( x ) ,

u z ( x, ) = u z 0 ( x )

Obviously, the derivative with respect to is equal to zero = 0 for all quantities.

4.4.3.1

Differential equation

2u

1 u z

p

2x

= x

x

a x Dm

By setting

D 4u 2 2u z u z p z

1 u x 1

+ 2 u z + b 4z + 2

+ =

a x a

Dm x

a x 2 a 4 Dm

(4.20)

By substitution of the load and displacement functions given above, the single

differential equation (4.18) becomes

2

4

4

4

3

d 2

1

1 d px 0 ( x )

d u z 0 ( x ) 1 d pz 0 ( x )

2 + 2 + 4

=

+

4

dx

a

Db dx 4

a dx 3

a dx

The equation presented here is of the eighth order, but this is due to the fact that

equation (4.18) is derived by eliminating the displacement u , which is zero for the

axisymmetric case under consideration.

Integrating thrice with respect to coordinate x yields the sought equation, which

reads

2

4

d 2

1

1

du ( x ) 1 dpz 0 ( x )

2 + 2 + 4 z 0

=

+ px 0 ( x )

dx

a

Db dx

a

a dx

(4.21)

Applying a similar procedure to the second equation of the set (4.18), results in

2u x 0 ( x )

x 2

1 u z 0 ( x )

1

px 0 ( x )

=

a x

Dm

(4.22)

Obviously, equation (4.22) is equal to the first equation of the set (4.20) and an

equation similar to (4.21) could be directly obtained from this set. Doing so, the single

differential equation for u z reads

Db d 4

du z

2 d2

1 1

1 dpz

1

2

=

+ px

4 + 2 2 + 4 + 2 (1 )

a dx

a a

a

Dm dx

dx Dm dx

74

A single differential equation for u x can also be obtained, which reads

D d4

d 2u

2 d2

1 1

1 1 Db d 4

1 dp z

b 4 + 2 2 + 4 + 2 (1 2 ) 2x =

p +

2 +

4 x

a dx

a a

Dm a

Dm dx

a dx

Dm dx

dx

These two equations show that the solution for u x will contain one more constant (i.e.

Equation (4.21), which is obtained from the single differential equation (4.18), is

slightly different from the equation obtained from the set (4.20). However, the

difference between the solutions to these equations is small and since it is allowed to

neglect this difference, equation (4.21) will be adopted in the further analysis.

4.4.3.2 Homogeneous solution

The general solution consists of a homogeneous and an inhomogeneous part. By

inspecting the differential equation (4.21), it is observed that the homogeneous part can

be separated in a polynomial part and a non-polynomial part. The latter can be obtained

by solving the following homogeneous equation

2

4

d 2

1

2 + 2 + 4 u z 0 ( x ) = 0

a

a

dx

uz0 ( x ) = e

a0

x

a

x

x a0 a

x

x

C1 cos b0 a + C2 sin b0 a + e

C3 cos b0 a + C4 sin b0 a (4.23)

1

2

a0 = (1 + 02 ) 2 + 0

2

; b0 = (1 + 02 ) 2 0

in which 0 =

1

22

(4.24)

The corresponding part for the axial displacement u x is obtained by solving the second

equation of the set (4.18), which results for the independent displacement u x in

1

uz 0 ( x ) dx

a

in which u z 0 ( x ) is thus given by expression (4.23).

u x 0 ( x ) =

Assuming a constant load px and a linear load pz , the inhomogeneous solution to the

single differential equation (4.21) reads

Etu z 0 ( x ) = a 2 p z 0 ( x ) + a px 0 ( x ) dx

and by substitution of this result into the second equation of the set (4.18) the

inhomogeneous solution for the axial displacement u x can be obtained, which gives

Etu x 0 ( x ) = a pz 0 ( x ) dx px 0 ( x ) dxdx

The two constants that will arise are in fact part of the homogeneous solution but can

be presented here for convenience allowing for a better insight into the solution.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

4.4.3.4 Complete solution

Describing the loads px and pz by the forms

p x 0 ( x ) = px 0

p z 0 ( x ) = p z( 20)

x

+ pz(10)

l

uz ( x ) = e

a0

x

a

x

x a0 a

x

x

C1 cos b0 a + C2 sin b0 a + e

C3 cos b0 a + C4 sin b0 a

1 2 ( 2) x

a p z 0 + pz(10) + a ( p x x + C5 )

Et

l

(4.25)

and the complete solution for the independent displacement u x reads

ux ( x ) =

x

1

1

x

x

a0 a

e

( a0C1 + b0C2 ) cos b0 + ( b0C1 + a0C2 ) sin b0

2

2

2 ( a0 ) + ( b0 )

a

a

+e

a0

x

a

x

x

(4.26)

1 1 p z( 20) 2

1

1

x + pz( 0) x + px x 2 + C5 x + C6

a

Et 2 l

2

(4.9), (4.11) and (4.13), the complete solution for all nontrivial quantities can be

obtained as exemplified in Appendix I.

For the axisymmetric mode, a further approximation can be adopted by neglecting of

2 in comparison to unity to provide more insight into the response of the circular

cylindrical shell.

For n = 0 , the dimensionless parameters a0 and b0 (4.24) become equal to unity. If

only the loading normal to the shell surface is considered, i.e. pz = q ( x ) and px = 0 , the

full solution is then described by

uz0 ( x ) = e

x

a

x

x a

x

x q ( x ) a

C1 cos a + C2 sin a + e C3 cos a + C4 sin a + Et

It is readily verified that this approximated solution would be the exact solution to

the following differential equation

Db

d 4u z 0 ( x ) Et

+ 2 uz0 ( x ) = q ( x )

dx 4

a

The above differential equation is identical to the one for a beam on an elastic

foundation if the modulus of subgrade is taken as

Et

and the flexural rigidity of the

a2

beam is described by the flexural rigidity of a (curved) plate. Hence, it is observed that

76

the circular cylinder under axisymmetric loading behaves as a flexural strip that is

elastically supported by the membrane action of a ring.

4.4.4

As stated in subsection 4.4.2.2, all quantities for the beam mode can be described by

functions of the type ( x, ) = 1 ( x ) cos and ( x, ) = 1 ( x ) sin depending on the axis

of symmetry of the quantity under consideration. Hence, the following substitutions for

the load and displacements can be made

p x ( x, ) = px1 ( x ) cos

u x ( x, ) = u x1 ( x ) cos

p ( x, ) = p1 ( x ) sin

u ( x, ) = u1 ( x ) sin

p z ( x, ) = p z1 ( x ) cos

u z ( x, ) = u z1 ( x ) cos

while for the derivates with respect to the circumferential coordinate and

consequently for the Laplace operator (4.2) substitutions can be made of the form

( x, ) 1 ( x ) cos

=

= 1 ( x ) sin

d2

1

( x, ) = 11 ( x ) cos = 2 2 1 ( x ) cos

a

dx

(4.27)

for quantities generally described by ( x, ) = 1 ( x ) cos and similarly for the quantities

generally described by ( x, ) = 1 ( x ) sin .

4.4.4.1 Differential equation

By substituting the load and displacement functions given above, the single differential

equation (4.18) becomes an ordinary differential equation and by omitting the cosine

function for the circumferential distribution, the governing differential equation is

reduced to

4

4

2

1 d p1 ( x ) 1

d u z1 ( x ) 1

p

x

(2

)

=

+

+

4 p1 ( x )

(

)

11 + 4

1

1

1

z

4

Db

a 2 dx 2

a

a dx

3

1 d p x1 ( x ) 1 dpx1 ( x )

+

+ 3

a dx3

a

dx

(4.28)

4.4.4.2 Homogeneous solution

The general solution consists of a homogeneous and an inhomogeneous part. By

inspecting the differential equation (4.28), it is observed that the homogeneous part can

be separated in a polynomial part and a non-polynomial part. The latter can be obtained

by solving the following homogeneous equation

4

11 + 4 u z1 ( x ) = 0

a

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

4

1 a

u z1 ( x ) = 11u z1 ( x )

4

(4.29)

x

x a1 a

x

x

u z1 ( x ) = e

a1

x

a

2

a1 = (1 + 12 ) 2 + 1

2

1

; b1 = (1 + 12 ) 2 1 in which 1 = 2

2

(4.31)

obtained by solving the first two equations of the set (4.18) for which the homogeneous

equations read

1 3u z

1 3u z

4

2

2

a x a 3

1 3u z 1 3u z

u x =

+

a x3 a 3 x2

u = ( 2 + )

differential equations in which the sine function (for u ) and the cosine function (for

u x ) can be omitted. By substituting the representation (4.29) for u z1 ( x ) the following

equations are obtained

4

1 a

1 d2

1

11u1 ( x ) = ( 2 + ) 2 2 4 11u z1 ( x )

4

a dx

a

1 a

11u x1 ( x ) =

4

1 d3

1 d

3 11u z1 ( x )

3

a

dx

a

dx

2

1 a

1 d u z1 ( x ) 1

u1 ( x ) = ( 2 + ) 2

4 u z1 ( x )

4

a

dx 2

a

3

1 a 1 d u z1 ( x ) 1 du z1 ( x )

u x1 ( x ) =

+ 3

4 a dx3

a

dx

4

Assuming linear loads px , p and pz , the inhomogeneous equation of (4.28) reduces

to

2

4

4

2

2

1

1 d p1 ( x ) 1

d u z1 ( x ) 1 d

=

4 p1 ( x )

4

2 2 p z1 ( x ) + (2 + ) 2

4

dx

Db dx

a

a

dx 2

a

a

3

1 d p x1 ( x ) 1 dpx1 ( x )

+

+ 3

a dx3

a

dx

inhomogeneous solution is obtained as

78

u z1 ( x ) =

a2 1

2

2+

p x p1 ( x ) ) dxdxdxdx 2 pz1 ( x )

p1 ( x ) dxdx + pz1 ( x )

4 ( z1 ( )

Et a

a

2

a 1

p x1 ( x ) dxdxdx + p x1 ( x ) dx

Et a 2

The four constants that will arise are in fact part of the homogeneous solution but can

be presented here for convenience allowing for a better insight into the solution.

Obviously, this part of the solution is in fact the membrane solution. A formal way of

obtaining expressions for the other independent displacement would be to substitute the

solution for u z1 and subsequently neglecting small terms. However, a more natural way

is to determine the membrane solution to the equilibrium equations.

As shown by in [43], the membrane solution to the set of equilibrium equations (4.8)

reads

n ( x, ) = a cos pz1 ( x )

1

nx ( x, ) = a sin ( p z1 ( x ) p1 ( x ) ) dx

a

1

1

a

a

Using the elastic law (4.13), the displacements can be obtained by successive

determination, which yields

u x ( x, ) =

a2

1

1

cos 3 ( p z1 ( x ) p1 ( x ) ) dxdxdx pz1 ( x ) dx

Et

a

a

u ( x , ) =

p x1 ( x ) dxdx

a 2

a2

1

sin 4 ( p z1 ( x ) p1 ( x ) ) dxdxdxdx

Et

a

+ ( 2 + )

u z ( x, ) =

2 (1 + )

1

p1 ( x ) dxdx

p z1 ( x )

a 2

2+

p x dxdxdx

3 x1 ( )

a

a2

1

cos 4 ( pz1 ( x ) p1 ( x ) ) dxdxdxdx

Et

a

2

1

2+

p x

p1 ( x ) dxdx + pz1 ( x )

2 z1 ( )

a

2

1

1

p x dxdxdx + px1 ( x ) dx

3 x1 ( )

a

a

where the expression for u z ( x, ) is exactly equal to the solution to the inhomogeneous

+

equation presented above. Moreover, if these expressions are substituted into the first

two equations of the set (4.18), these equations are identically satisfied.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

By substitution of the expression for u z ( x, ) the rotations become

x ( x, ) =

du z1 ( x )

cos

dx

( x, ) = u z1 ( x ) sin

and all other quantities are zero for the membrane solution, which is thus equal to the

inhomogeneous solution.

4.4.4.4 Complete solution

Describing the loads px , p and pz by the forms

p x1 ( x ) = px1

p1 ( x ) = p( 12)

p z1 ( x ) = p z(12)

x

+ p(11)

l

x

+ p z(11)

l

x

x

a1

x

a

a

+e

+

a1

x

a

x

x

C3 cos b1 a + C4 sin b1 a

p ( 2) 1 5 1 2 3

1

x a x + a 4 x + pz(11) x 4 a 2 x 2 + a 4

cos z1

2

Eta

l

120

3

24

p( 2) 1 5 2 + 2 3

2+ 2 2

1

1

x

a x p(11) x 4

a x

l 120

6

24

2

1 3

+ apx1 x + a 2 x

6

(4.32)

3

1 x 2

x

x

1 x

+ cos 2 C5 + 2 C6 + C7 + C8

6 a

a

a

2 a

Similar expressions for the independent displacements u and u x are obtained by the

appropriate substitutions.

By substitution of the expressions for the independent displacements into the

expressions (4.9), (4.11) and (4.13), the complete solution for all nontrivial quantities

can be obtained as exemplified in Appendix I.

4.4.5

As stated in subsection 4.4.2.3, all quantities for the self-balancing modes can be

described by functions of the type ( x, ) = n ( x ) cos n and ( x, ) = n ( x ) sin n

depending on the axis of symmetry of the quantity under consideration. Hence, the

following substitutions for the loads and displacements can be made

80

p x ( x, ) = pxn ( x ) cos n

u x ( x, ) = u xn ( x ) cos n

p ( x, ) = pn ( x ) sin n

u ( x, ) = un ( x ) sin n

p z ( x, ) = p zn ( x ) cos n

u z ( x, ) = u zn ( x ) cos n

while for the derivates with respect to the circumferential coordinate and

consequently for the Laplace operator (4.2) substitutions can be made of the form

( x, ) n ( x ) cos n

=

= nn ( x ) sin n

d 2 n2

( x, ) = nn ( x ) cos n = 2 2 n ( x ) cos n

a

dx

(4.33)

quantities generally described by ( x, ) = n ( x ) sin n .

4.4.5.1 Differential equation

By substitution of the load and displacement functions given above, the single

differential equation (4.18) becomes an ordinary differential equation and by omitting

the cosine function for the circumferential distribution, the governing differential

equation is reduced to

2

4

4

1

1

d

u x =

n n pzn ( x )

nn n + 2 + 4

4 zn ( )

a

Db

a dx

2

3

n d pn ( x ) n3

1 d pxn ( x ) n 2 dpxn ( x )

+ (2 + ) 2

p

x

+

+ 3

(

)

n

a

dx 2

a4

a dx 3

a

dx

(4.34)

4.4.5.2 Homogeneous solution

The general solution to a differential equation consists of a homogeneous and an

inhomogeneous part. By inspecting the differential equation (4.34), it is observed that

the homogeneous part cannot be separated in a polynomial part and a non-polynomial

part.

The homogeneous equation is given by

2

4

4

d

u x =0

nn n + 2 + 4

4 zn ( )

a

a dx

1a

u zn ( x ) =

4

n n n + a 2 uzn ( x ) dxdxdxdx

(4.35)

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The solution to the homogeneous equation is given by (see also also Appendix H)

u zn ( x ) = e

a1n

+e

x

a

n

1 x

1 x a1n a n

1 x

1 x

n

n

C1 cos bn a + C2 sin bn a + e

C3 cos bn a + C4 sin bn a

an2

x

a

n

2 x

2 x an2 a n

2 x

2 x

n

n

C5 cos bn a + C6 sin bn a + e

C7 cos bn a + C8 sin bn a

(4.36)

where the dimensionless parameters a1n , an2 , bn1 and bn2 are defined by

1

1

1 1 2

a =

1 + +

,

2

2

1

1 1 2

b =

1

2

2

1

n

an2 =

1

n

1

2

1

1 1

2 +

,

2

2

bn2 =

1

1 1

2 +

2

2

(4.37)

1

2

in which

1

2

1 = + ( 1 + 2 ) + 1 + 2 ( 1 1) + 2 ( 2 + 1)

2

1 = + 2 2

2 = 2 + 2

2

2 = + ( 1 + 2 ) + 1 2 ( 1 1) 2 ( 2 + 1)

2

and

= 1 + 2 ( 2 + 2 ) + ( 2 2 )

1

= n 2 2

2

(4.38)

, = n ( n 2 1) 2 2

Obviously, the roots (4.37) are surplus to requirements and approximations can be

made for several load-deformation regimes (see e.g. the next section), but the presented

solution is a unification of former results by other authors and the exact solution for

n = 0 and n = 1 is still retained. For these two values of n , the parameter (4.38) is

equal to zero and the eight roots are calculated with the reduced parameters

1

1

n = 0,1

2

= (1 + 2n = 0,1 ) 2 + n = 0,1

1

n = 0,1

2

= (1 + 2n = 0,1 ) 2 n = 0,1

an2= 0,1 = 0

bn2= 0,1 = 0

which are in agreement with the solutions (4.24) and (4.31) for the axisymmetric and

beam mode, respectively.

The presented roots are an exact solution to the homogeneous differential equation

and similar, but not equal, to the exact solution by Niordson [37]. However, the slight

difference between Niordsons solution and the presented solution originates

presumably from setting the dimensionless parameters and equal to one another

by Niordson. Due to this small adjustment (which is clearly admissible), the exact

solution for n = 0 and n = 1 is no longer retained, which is in contrast to the solution

presented above.

82

The homogeneous solution for the displacements u x and u can be obtained by solving

the first two equations of the set (4.18) for which the homogeneous equations read

1 3u z

1 3u z

4

2

2

a x a 3

1 3u z 1 3u z

u x =

+

a x3 a 3 x2

u = ( 2 + )

differential equations in which the sine function (for u ) and the cosine function (for

u x ) can be omitted. By substituting the representation (4.35) for u zn ( x ) the following

equations are obtained

4

1 a

n d 2 n3

1

n nun ( x ) = ( 2 + ) 2 2 4 n n n + 2 u zn ( x ) dxdxdxdx

4

a dx a

a

1 a 1 d 3 n2 d

1

n nu xn ( x ) =

+ 3 n n n + 2 u zn ( x ) dxdxdxdx

3

a

4 a dx a dx

u n ( x ) =

u xn ( x ) =

1 n a

4 a2

2

2

1

n2

1

( 2 + ) n + 2 u zn ( x ) dxdx 2 n + 2 u zn ( x ) dxdxdxdx

a

a

a

4

2

2

1 1 a

1

n2

1

+

u

x

dx

+

+

u zn ( x ) dxdxdx

(

)

zn

n

2

2 n

2

4 a

a

a

a

Assuming linear loads px , p and pz , the inhomogeneous equation of (4.34) reduces

to

n4 n2 1

1 n4

n3

n 2 dpxn ( x )

4 p zn ( x ) 4 pn ( x ) + 3

u zn ( x ) =

4

2

a a

Db a

a

a

dx

2

by omitting all second and higher derivatives with respect to x . Hereby the

inhomogeneous solution is obtained as

1 a2

1

a dpxn ( x )

2 p zn ( x ) pn ( x ) + 2

Db n 1

n

n

dx

2

u zn ( x ) =

(4.39)

By substituting this result into the first two equations of the set (4.18), the

inhomogeneous solution for the circumferential displacement u and the axial

displacement u x can be obtained. If the second and higher derivatives with respect to

x are omitted, these differential equations become

1 1 4u 1 3u z 1 1 + 1 2 p x 1 1 2 p

+

2 a 4 4 a 4 3 Dm 2 a x

2 a 2 2

1 1 4u x 1 3u z 1 1 2 p x 1 + 1 2 p

2 a 4 4 a 3 x2 Dm a 2 2

2 a x

and by substituting the displacement and load functions given above, these equations

can be rewritten and omitting the cosine and sine terms, the equations become

83

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

1

1 a2

1 + a 3 dpxn ( x )

un ( x ) = u zn ( x ) +

2 pn ( x )

n

Dm n

1 n3 dx

a du ( x ) 1 1 + a 3 dpn ( x ) a 2 2

u xn ( x ) = 2 zn

+

+ 2

pxn ( x )

3

n

dx

Dm 1 n

dx

n 1

4.4.5.4 Complete solution

Describing the loads px , p and pz by the forms

p xn ( x ) = p xn

pn ( x ) = p( 2n)

p zn ( x ) = pzn( 2)

x

+ p(1n)

l

x

+ pzn(1)

l

a1n x

x

x

a

a

+e

+e

+e

a1n

x

a

an2

an2

x

a

n

1 x

1 x

n

C3 cos bn a + C4 sin bn a

x

a

n

2 x

2 x

n

C5 cos bn a + C6 sin bn a

(4.40)

n

2 x

2 x

n

C7 cos bn a + C8 sin bn a

( 2) 1 ( 2) x

1 a2

(1) 1 (1)

Db n 2 1

n

l

n

Similar expressions for the independent displacements u and u x are obtained by the

appropriate substitutions.

By substitution of the expressions for the independent displacements into the

expressions (4.9), (4.11) and (4.13), the complete solution for all nontrivial quantities

can be obtained, which are given in Appendix I.

4.5.1 Approximation of the exact solution

To express the eight roots (4.37), the parameters and (4.38) have been introduced.

By definition (4.17) 2 is a small value for the usual thickness-over-radius-ratio t a .

For the static behaviour of thin shells under the usual loading cases, only the first and

lower values of the mode number n are important (say n = 1,...,5 ) and hereby and

84

are small in comparison to unity. This enables a tremendous reduction of the

expressions for the eight roots by expanding these into a series development and then

breaking them down after the second term since 2 2 1 .

For n = 0 and n = 1 , parameter = 0 and by employing the abovementioned

development, the following approximate expressions are obtained

n = 0:

n = 1:

1

42

1

a11 = 1 + 2

4

a10 = 1

,

,

1

42

1

b11 = 1 2

4

b01 = 1 +

a02 = b02 = 0

a =b =0

(4.41)

2

1

2

1

where the subscripts denote the mode number n , which would also be obtained from

the same approximation of (4.24) for n = 0 and (4.31) for n = 1 .

For n > 1 and small values of and the following approximate expressions are

obtained

1

a1n = 1 + n

2

1

b = 1 n

2

1

n

1 1

an2 = n 1 + n

2 2

1 1

b = n 1 + n

2 2

(4.42)

2

n

from which the solution for n = 0 and n = 1 is still traceable. The parameters n and n

are identical to the parameters and (4.38), but the subscript n is further adopted to

indicate the mode numbers n > 1 . For n > 1 and larger values of n and n , the exact

solution or the solution to Donnells equation has to be used.

4.5.2 Solution obtained by a perturbation technique

Another approach to obtain an approximate solution to the characteristic equation of a

differential equation (or rather, a solution accurate within the assumptions and

simplifications postulated to derive that differential equation) is investigated in this

subsection for several differential equations. These differential equations have been

introduced in subsection 2.6.5 and represent different accuracies within the first-order

approximation theory for circular cylindrical shells.

The approach employed in this subsection (as, amongst others, shown by Nayfeh

[44]) has the objective to obtain approximate solutions to algebraic equations; e.g.

those as obtained by substitution of the trial solution into the differential equations as

presented in this subsection. The solution is represented as an asymptotic expansion in

terms of the small parameter, which is called parameter perturbation.

The method of parameter perturbation for the mode numbers n > 1 is preformed

below on the following three differential equations: the (simplified) Flgge equation

(refer to subsection 2.6.5), equation (4.16) derived from the set of equations proposed

in chapter 2, the Morley-Koiter equation (4.18) and the Donnell equation (refer to

subsection 2.6.5).

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The (simplified) Flgge equation reads

2

4

1

uz

+ 2 u z + 4

4

a

a x

1 4

1 4 2u

2 (1 ) 2 4 4 4 2z

a x

a x

+2 (1 )

=

1 1 + 2

2 2u

3

+ 2 2 2z

4

2

a 2 x

a x

1

1 3 p

1 3 p

1 3 px 1 3 px

+

pz + (2 + ) 2 2 + 4

Db

a x a 3

a x3 a 3 x2

2

4

1

uz

+ 2 u z + 4

4

a

a x

1 4

1 4

1 4 2u z

2

1

+

(

)

a 2 x 4

a 2 x 22 a 4 4 x 2

1 4u

+4 (1 2 ) 4 4z

a x

1

1 3 p

1 3 p

1 3 px 1 3 px

=

+

pz + (2 + ) 2 2 + 4

3

Db

a x a

a x3 a 3 x2

2 (1 )

2

4

1

1

1 3 p

1 3 p

1 3 p x 1 3 px

uz

+ 2 u z + 4

=

+

pz + (2 + ) 2 2 + 4

4

3

a

Db

a x a

a x3 a 3 x2

a x

4

4

1

1 3 p

1 3 p

1 3 px 1 3 px

uz

u z + 4

=

p

+

(2

+

)

+

+

z

4

Db

a 2 x 2 a 4 3

a x3 a 3 x2

a x

u z ( x, ) = C n e

rn

x

a

cos n

2

2

4

2

n n2 1 4

n 2 12 6 n 2 12

n 2 12 n n 2 1 2 n n 2 1

r 4 2

r +

+ 4r 4

r 4 2 r + 4 2 + 2

2

2

2

3

2 n n2 1 2

r =0

(1 ) 2 r 6 + (1 2 ) 4 r 4 + (1 ) 2

86

The proposed characteristic equation becomes

r8 4

2

2

4

2

n n2 1 4

n 2 12 6 n 2 12

n 2 12 n n 2 1 2 n n 2 1

r

+

4

+

2

r

+

+ 4r 4

2

2

2

2

2

4 ( n 1) 4

2 6

2n 4

r (1 2 )

r + (1 ) 6 r 2 = 0

2

4

(1 )

2

2

4

2

n n2 1 4

n 2 12 6 n 2 12

n 2 12 n n 2 1 2 n n 2 1

r 4 2

r +

+ 4r 4 = 0

r 4 2 r + 4 2 + 2

2

2

r8 4

n2 6

n4 4

n6 2 n8

r

+

6

r

4

r + 8 + 4r 4 = 0

2

4

6

It is noted that for large n , which means n 2 1 , all equations above transform into the

Donnell characteristic equation.

For small n , which means n2 2 , approximate solutions to the algebraic equations

are obtained below in accordance with the adopted approach of parameter perturbation.

Solutions for the large roots are obtained by assuming that the roots have expansions of

the form r = r0 + r1 , in which is the small parameter of the order 1 2 . Hence, the

second-order term is neglected, which is justified within the Kirchhoff-Love

assumptions.

The perturbed characteristic equation for both the (simplified) Flgge and the

proposed equation then read

1

r 8 4 n 2 r 6 + O ( 2 ) + 4 r 4 = 0

2

1

r 8 4 n 2 r 6 + O ( 2 ) + 4r 4 = 0

2

r 8 4n 2r 6 + O ( 2 ) + 4r 4 = 0

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

For all the equations above, the solution can be represented by r = ( a1n ibn1 ) , in which

1

1

a1n = 1 + n and bn1 = 1 n . The parameter n is different for the four equations and

2

2

reads, respectively,

n =

n2 12

2

n =

n2 12

2

n =

n2

for the Donnell equation.

2

Solutions for the small roots are obtained by assuming that the roots have expansions

of the form r = s0 + 2 s1 , in which is the small parameter of the order 1 2 .

The perturbed (simplified) Flgge characteristic equation then reads

4 s0 4 + 16s1s03 4 ( n 2 1 + 12 ) n n 2 1 s0 2 + n n 2 1 + O ( 2 ) + = 0

2

2

4

4 s0 4 + 16s1s03 4 ( n 2 12 ) n n 2 1 12 (1 ) n 4 s0 2 + n n 2 1 + O ( 2 ) + = 0

4 s0 4 + 16s1s03 4 ( n 2 12 ) n n 2 1 s0 2 + n n 2 1 + O ( 2 ) + = 0

2

4 s0 4 + 16s1s03 4n 6 s0 2 + n8 + O ( 2 ) + = 0

For all the equation above, the solution can be represented by r = ( an2 ibn2 ) , in which

1 1

1 1

an2 = n 1 + n and bn2 = n 1 n . The parameters n and n are different for

2 2

2 2

n =

n n2 1

2

n =

n n 1

2

, n

n =

n n2 1

2

, n =

, n =

n = n =

88

n2

2

n 2 1 + 12

2

n 2 12 12 (1 )

2

n 2 12

2

n2

n 1

2

for the Morley-Koiter equation, and

for the Donnell equation.

By comparing these results for the obtained roots of the Morley-Koiter equation by

parameter perturbation and the approximated roots of this equation as derived in the

previous subsection, it is easily observed that these are identical. This shows that

parameter perturbation can be conveniently adopted if an exact solution to the

differential equation cannot be easily obtained.

Furthermore, the envisaged small difference between the roots of the (simplified)

Flgge equation, the proposed equation and those of the Morley-Koiter equation is

apparent whereas the previously described accuracy of the solution of the Donnell

equation is once more obvious as the roots an2 and bn2 to this equation are in

considerable error for the lower mode numbers.

Moreover, if other differential equations resulting from a first-order approximation

theory are considered, such as those as listed in section 2.6, similar roots are obtained.

For small deflections, the shallow shell equations all attain to Donnell solution. The

solution to equation (4.16) and the equations referred to in section 2.6, such as the

complete Flgge equation, the Koiter-Sanders equation, Novozhilovs equations and

the other comparable equations, all provide no significant improvement over the

solution to the Morley-Koiter equation solution as discussed in more detail in

subsection 2.6.5. Hence, it is once more assessed that the Morley-Koiter equation

accurately describes the behaviour of thin circular cylindrical shells as solutions to the

other equations are not considered as improved results or approximated results with a

higher accuracy within the simplifications and assumptions of the first-order

approximation theory for thin shells.

4.6.1 Axisymmetric mode

In expression (4.23), the terms multiplied with C1 and C2 are oscillating functions of

the ordinate x that decrease exponentially with increasing x . The terms multiplied

with C3 and C4 are also damped oscillations but these decrease exponentially with

decreasing x .

We introduce the characteristic length lc by

lc =

a

a0

wave, is not negligible for a length that is (approximately) equal to times the

x

of the exponential function is than equal to

a

and the value of the function in the order of e 0.05 . This influence length li is thus

equal to

li = lc =

a

a0

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

By using the approximate value for a0 (4.41) the influence length can be approximated

by

at

li

4

3 (1 2 )

To exemplify the influence of an edge disturbance we compare the influence

length with the radius of the cylinder. This influence-length-to-radius ratio reads:

li

at

t

2.4

2

a

a

4 3 1

( ) a

Since the thickness-to-radius ratio of a thin shell is smaller than 1 50 , the influence

length li of the edge disturbance is (much) shorter than the radius of the cylinder (e.g.

0.24a in case of a t = 100 ).

The length in x -direction of the circular cylinder is denoted by l . If the cylinder is

a0

unity, the influence of the term in (4.23) with constants C3 and C4 on the solution for

x = 0 will also be negligible. In other words, the length of the cylinder is in those cases

larger than the influence length li . Hence, it is useful to rewrite the solution (4.23) into

the form

uz0 ( x ) = e

a0

+e

x

a

x

x

S1 cos b0 a + S 2 sin b0 a

a0

lx

a

x

x

S3 cos b0 a + S 4 sin b0 a

(4.43)

since the value of the constants will be more or less of the same order. Obviously, the

converse applies to the factors with which the constants are multiplied, which ensures

the accuracy and stability of the determination of the stiffness matrix by the super

element approach. This is mainly due to the inversion of the element displacement

matrix A e indicated by expression (3.8).

In some cases, it is convenient to apply an alternative ordinate x in negative x direction. With x = l x and thus x = 0 for x = l , the alternative ordinate has its origin

at the boundary at x = l . Then, by using another set of free constants, the solution is

rewritten to

u z 0 ( x ) = C1e

a0

x

a

x

a0

x

x

a

a

(4.44)

The new constants can be determined independently: C1 and 1 with the aid of the

boundary conditions for x = 0 and C2 and 2 with the aid of the boundary conditions

for x = 0 . This presentation of the solution is convenient for simple cases for which the

phase angle can be determined immediately by the boundary conditions. The other

90

presentations (4.23) and (4.43) are suitable when a pair of linear equations for the

constants is derived, where, as mentioned above, (4.43) seems advisable when

synthesizing an element stiffness matrix within the direct stiffness approach.

4.6.2 Beam mode

In expression (4.30), the terms multiplied with C1 and C2 are oscillating functions of

the ordinate x that decrease exponentially with increasing x . The terms multiplied

with C3 and C4 are also damped oscillations but these decrease exponentially with

decreasing x . Obviously, the characteristic and influence lengths for this part of the

solution are approximately equal to the characteristic and influence lengths of the

homogeneous solution for the axisymmetric load and can be calculated by

lc =

a

a1

li = lc =

a

a1

unity, the influence length can be approximated by

li

4

3 (1 2 )

at 2.4 at

which is equal to the influence length obtained for the axisymmetric behaviour. Since

the thickness-to-radius ratio of a thin shell is smaller than 1 50 , the influence length li

of the edge disturbance is (much) shorter than the radius of the cylinder.

4.6.3

Self-balancing modes

In expression (4.36), the terms multiplied with C1n , C2n , C5n and C6n are oscillating

functions of the ordinate x that decrease exponentially with increasing x . The terms

multiplied with C3n , C4n , C7n and C8n are also damped oscillations but these decrease

exponentially with decreasing x . Obviously, the characteristic and influence lengths

for the terms multiplied with the first four constants are approximately equal to the

characteristic and influence lengths of the homogeneous solution for the axisymmetric

load.

The characteristic and influence lengths for the terms multiplied with the first four

constants can be calculated by

lc ,1 =

a

a1n

li ,1 = lc ,1 =

a

a1n

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

By using the approximate value for a1n (4.42) and neglecting 2 in comparison to

unity, this short influence length can be approximated by

li ,1

4

3 (1 2 )

at 2.4 at

The characteristic and influence lengths for the terms multiplied with the other four

constants can be calculated by

lc ,2 =

a

an2

li ,2 = lc ,2 =

a

an2

By using the approximate value for an2 (4.42) and neglecting 2 in comparison to

unity, this long influence length can be approximated by

2a

1

a

8.1 a

= 2 4 3 (1 2 )

at

at

2

n

t

n n 1

n n2 1 t

which depends on the mode number n . Obviously, these terms describe a far-reaching

a

influence (roughly

times the short influence length li ,1 ), but that their influence

t

length decreases rapidly with increasing n .

In expression (4.40), the terms multiplied with the constants C1n , C2n , C3n and C4n

li ,2

represent the part of the solution describing the edge disturbance with the short

influence length, which is further referred to as the short-wave solution. Similarly, the

terms multiplied with the constants C5n , C6n , C7n and C8n represent the part of the

solution describing the edge disturbance with the long influence length, which is

further referred to as the long-wave solution.

In this chapter, the solutions to the Morley-Koiter equation (as an approximation of the

exact equation for thin elastic shells within the first-order approximation theory) are

given for the respective load-deformation behaviours. The approximate solution for the

self-balancing mode is compared with several solutions obtained by parameter

perturbation, which confirmed that the Morley-Koiter equation accurately describes the

behaviour of thin circular cylindrical shells. The characteristic and influence lengths

have been derived for the axisymmetric mode, the beam mode and the self-balancing

modes.

92

study

Solutions obtained by a computer program based on the method presented in chapter 3

are given for long circular cylindrical shell structures. The formulations that are used in

this program are derived in chapter 4. The generic knowledge from that chapter in

combination with the results presented in this chapter provides the basis of a parametric

study of the stiffened and non-stiffened shell geometry, support conditions and loading

on its behaviour and interaction. The conclusions of this study and the applicability of

the computational method for long circular cylindrical shells are given in chapter 7.

The distribution of the wind load around a circular cylindrical chimney has a maximal

value at the windward meridian (denoted by =0) equal to the stagnation pressure and a

small pressure at the leeward meridian. The sides in between are subjected to suction,

which in absolute value is even larger than the stagnation pressure (see Figure 5-1 for a

typical distribution).

pw

beam

total

Figure 5-1 Typical distribution of the wind load (left) and axial stress at the base (right).

Because of the choice of the coordinate system and the symmetry of the load, the wind

load (constant in axial direction) can be developed in a Fourier cosine series for the

circumferential direction. By sign convention, the positive direction of the load is taken

in the positive direction of the coordinate z, which is from inside to outside of the

circular profile. For a quasi-static load series, only the lower mode numbers have to be

taken into account to accurately describe the wind load. Hence, the distribution

exemplified in Figure 5-1 is given by

pz ( x, ) = pw [ 0 + 1 cos + 2 cos 2 + 3 cos3 + 4 cos 4 + 5 cos5]

(5.1)

in which

0 = 0.823 ; 1 = 0.448 ; 2 = 1.115 ; 3 = 0.400 ; 4 = 0.113 ; 5 = 0.027

93

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

where pw is set equal to 1 kN m 2 , which value is a good reference value for the wind

stagnation pressure in north-western Europe. The shape of the circumferential

distribution of the wind load depends roughly on the geometry of the chimney and

varies from code to code but has the common characteristic that only a part of the

circumference, the so-called stagnation zone, is under circumferential compression,

while the remainder is under suction. The values presented above are taken from the

reports by Van Koten [45] and Turner [46] The normalised distribution of the wind

load (5.1) across the profile of the cylinder is depicted in Figure 5-2 where the distance

to the centre dc across the profile is calculated by dc = a cos . For clarity and

reference, the linear distribution of a beam load ( n = 1) is also shown. A negative value

of the load-to-stagnation-pressure-ratio pz pw denotes pressure, while a positive value

denotes suction.

Figure 5-2 Distribution of the wind load (5.1) across the cylinder

5.2.1 Closed-form solution

In a paper by Hoefakker [47], the closed-form solution is derived for the

circumferential distribution of the axial membrane stress resultant nxx at the clamped

base of a long circular cylinder (for example an industrial, steel chimney) under the

wind load described in section 5.1. The axial stress distribution at the base of such a

long chimney is mainly described by the beam action. However, the large suction at the

sides of the chimney leads to an additional out of roundness of the cross-section, e.g.

94

for n = 2 the circular cross-section deforms to an oval shape. To withstand this out of

roundness at the base additional axial stresses are generated as shown in Figure 5-1. At

the base (denoted by x = 0 ) the chimney is typically clamped and at the top (denoted

by x = l ) the chimney often has a free edge. Over the distance l between these two

edges, the geometrical and material properties are assumed to be constant. This means

that the response to the wind load can be calculated by the solution to the differential

equation (4.18). This solution has to be complemented by the appropriate boundary

conditions that are given by

x =0;

clamped:

u x = u x = 0 ; u = u = 0 ; u z = u z = 0 ; x = x = 0

x=l;

free:

f x = nxx = 0 ;

f = n x = 0 ;

f z = vx = 0 ; t x = mxx = 0

The first term ( n = 0 ) of the series development for the wind load (5.1) is constant in

circumferential direction and represents axisymmetric loading. It leads to a small

circumferential tension in the chimney and due to the clamped edge to a short edge

disturbance. However, the resulting stresses and displacements are known to be

negligible in comparison with the response to the other terms of the wind load.

The second term ( n = 1) describes a varying load that has a negative peak value at the

windward meridian and a positive peak value at the leeward meridian. This is the only

load term that is not self-balancing: i.e. it has a resultant in the wind direction. If the

chimney is long, the stresses and deformations due to this load might be calculated by

the membrane theory. Hence, not all boundary conditions can be fulfilled since there

are more conditions than quantities but the necessary edge disturbance will be

represented by a small influence over a short length. The same result can be obtained

by elementary beam theory if the shear deformation is accounted for. In fact, the

solution to this term is also well known and by solving the boundary conditions for the

membrane stress resultants at x = l the following expression for the axial membrane

stress resultant nxx is obtained, which is quadratic with respect to the axial coordinate

nxx ( x, ) =

pw1

2

( l x ) cos

2a

is shown that the common assumption that the membrane solution is accurate is

slightly in error if the lateral contraction is accounted for. Due to the then arising

incompatibility at the clamped edge, a small but evident edge disturbance is produced

and the resulting bending stress couple mxx does contribute to a certain extent to the

axial stress at the base.

First solving the boundary conditions for the stress resultants at the free edge

( x = l ) , four constants are obtained that read

C3 = 0 ; C4 = 0 ;

C5 =

pz1la

Et

; C6 =

1 pz1l 2

2 Et

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

in which pz1 = pw1 . The boundary conditions for the clamped edge ( x = 0 ) can now be

solved, which for a long chimney ( l a 5 ) results in

C1 =

p z1l 2

2 Et

p z1l 2

p la

2 + pz1l 2

C 7 = z1

;

; C8 =

2 Et

2 Et

Et

and mxx is obtained by back substitution and by introducing

; C2 =

p z1 = pw1 for the wind load. The solution at x = 0 reads

nxx ( 0, ) =

pw1l 2

cos

2a

mxx ( 0, ) =

pw1l 2

cos

42

Hence, the effect of the bending stress couple is mainly limited to the short influence

length but, while accounting for defined equation (4.17), certainly not negligible at

the base of the chimney. The corresponding axial stress at the base x = 0 due to the

beam term, as obtained by relation (4.7), is equal to

nxx 2 z 6mxx

p l 2 2z

+

= w 1 +

3

2

t

t t

2at

t

1 2

Note that the load factor 1 is negative for the

nxx=1 ( 0, , z ) =

1 cos

(5.2)

stress is positive (tension) at the windward meridian ( = 0 ) and negative

(compression) at the leeward meridian ( = ) . Although the additional bending stress

is only present over a short influence length, the contribution can be quite substantial.

For the outer or inner surface ( z = t 2 ) of, e.g., steel with = 0.3 , the term between

the brackets becomes 1 3

0.3

1 0.5 . Hence, a prediction by the membrane stress

0.91

resultants only, might be in a rather large error for such a material (in this case an error

of 50%).

The third term ( n = 2 ) describes a double symmetric and hence self-balancing term

with two waves about the circumference, which results in a pressure at the windward

and the leeward meridian and a suction at the sides. The response to this load is

calculated by using the solution as presented in Appendix I, which is complemented by

the boundary conditions at hand.

The higher-order terms of the development ( n > 2 ) are also self-balancing and

therefore analysed with the same solution procedure as for n = 2 , however, with their

respective value of the circumferential wave number.

As shown in Appendix I, the inhomogeneous solution can be obtained omitting all

derivatives with respect to the axial coordinate x . For the present load

pz ( x, ) = pzn cos n

n

96

an inhomogeneous solution for n>1 reads

u z ( x, ) = u zn cos n =

1

a4

pzn cos n

Db n = 2 ( n 2 1)2

1

u ( x, ) = un sin n = u zn sin n

n

a2

m ( x, ) = mn cos n = 2

pzn cos n

n=2 n 1

mxx ( x, ) = mxxn cos n = mn cos n

na

pzn sin n

n=2 n 1

v ( x, ) = vn sin n =

where the other quantities are equal to zero. Obviously, the inhomogeneous solution

for n>1 is the ring-bending solution.

The inhomogeneous solution for n > 1 shows that the displacements u z and u are

not equal to zero. The boundary conditions at the clamped edge ( x = 0 ) are therefore

not fulfilled and an edge disturbance that originates from this edge is necessary. Due to

the largely deformed cross-sectional profile, the resulting edge disturbance has a farreaching influence. The boundary conditions at x = l are also not fulfilled but only due

to a non-zero change of curvature in circumferential direction that is multiplied by

Poissons ratio . It can be concluded that this fact alone leads to a short edge

disturbance that originates from this free edge with a mainly local effect and a small

influence on the response of the cylinder.

From the abovementioned arguments, it can be concluded that for a chimney with

a length larger than the long influence length only the boundary conditions at the base

are necessary to describe the overall response to the wind load. Hence, the constants in

the homogeneous solution of the edge disturbance that originates from the free edge

can safely be equated to zero. The expressions for the four quantities, which have to be

described at the clamped edge, are derived by back substitution as shown in Appendix

I. The boundary conditions for this edge can now be formulated by adding the

inhomogeneous solution to the expressions for the homogeneous solution at x = 0 ,

which gives four equations with four unknown constants. Making use of the fact that

terms multiplied by 4 are negligibly small in comparison to unity (for the lower

values of n under consideration) and the solution to these equations for = 0 is

C1n = 0 ; C2n = 0 ;

C5n = u zn

; C6n = 1 ( n 2 32 ) 2 u zn

n

z

where u is equal to uzn as presented in the inhomogeneous solution above. For the

case that Poissons ratio is not zero, the solution is

C1n = C2n =

n2 1 n

u z

2 2

n2 1 n

; C5n = 1

u z

2

2

3 1

3

1

C6n = 1 n 2 2 ( n 2 1) n n 2 1 2 u zn

2

2

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The constants C1n and C2n (which are equal to zero if Poissons ratio is equal to zero)

represent the short-wave solution. Additionally, it can be verified that the long-wave

solution (represented by the constants C5n and C6n ) is mainly described by membrane

stress resultants in the axial direction while the loading leads to bending stress

resultants in circumferential direction.

For the free edge at x = l , a similar procedure to obtain the other four constants can

be applied. As described the boundary conditions at this edge are only not met by a

bending stress couple, which occurs if the lateral contraction, described by Poissons

ratio , is taken into account. For convenience, the solution is obtained at an edge

x = 0 to cancel out the length in the expressions. Solving the four equations for the

boundary conditions, the four constants become

C1n =

n2 1 n

u z

2 2

; C2n =

n2 1 n

u z

2 2

; C5n =

n2 n

u z

2 2

; C6n =

n2 n

u z

2 2

which indeed shows that the long-wave solution is hardly activated since these

constants are of the order O ( 2 ) . The fact that the inhomogeneous solution is

incompatible with the boundary conditions for the free edge is compensated by an edge

disturbance that is described by a small short-wave and equally small long-wave

solution.

On basis of these observations, it is obvious that the influence of the

incompatibility at the free edge is negligible when calculating any quantity at the base

of a sufficiently long cylinder. Additionally, the influence of the bending stress couple

mxx at the base on the axial stress distribution at the base is not negligible if the lateral

contraction is accounted for. However, similar to the stress distribution for the beam

action, the contribution can be added to the membrane stress resultant nxx . Moreover,

the addition of the effects gives an identical ratio of the bending stress to the membrane

stress. The expressions for the stress resultant nxx and the stress couple mxx are found

by back substitution of the homogeneous solution. Substitution of the constants and

addition of the inhomogeneous solution results in the expressions

5

nxx ( 0, ) = 2 3(1 2 )

n=2

5

mxx ( 0, ) = a 2

n=2

a 2 pzn n 2 1 2 3

2

1 2 2 2 n n n 1 cos n

t n2 1

4

pzn 2n 2 1 n 2 1 1 n 2

+

1

cos n

+

n 1

2 2 2 2

2

2

Hence, the expression for the axial stress xx ( x, , z ) at the base x = 0 due to the terms

2xx n 5 ( 0, , z ) =

2

5

nxx 2 z 6mxx

p zn 2 z

2 a

+

=

2

3

1

3

(

)

1 +

cos n (5.3)

2

2

2

t

t t

t n 1

t

n=2

1 2

98

Van Koten [45] derived a similar expression for the stress distribution at the base

and at the middle surface ( z = 0 ) on basis of Donnells equation. The important

difference between his result given by

5

2xx n 5 ( 0, ,0 ) = 2 3 (1 2 )

n=2

a 2 pzn

cos n

t 2 n2

and the presented solution on basis of the Morley-Koiter equation is obviously the

difference in the inhomogeneous solution that describes the ring-bending action. It is

well known that this part of the full solution is more accurately described by the

Morley-Koiter equation, which gives a considerable improvement of the displacements

(especially for the case n = 2 ). The ratio of the solutions is hence equal to

MK

n2

xx ( 0, ,0 )

Dxx ( 0, .0 ) n 2 1

( for 2 n 5)

Having found the response of the long chimney to the separate terms of the wind load,

a useful design formula can be derived for the stress distribution at the base. For the

long chimney longer than the long influence length, it is readily verified that the only

non-balancing term ( n = 1) is the leading term of the full response and conveniently, its

response is most easily found by a membrane solution or beam analysis. The other

contributing terms are the self-balancing terms ( n = 2,...,5 ) . The response to these load

terms (5.3) has to be calculated by a more laborious solution and therefore it is

convenient to express their influence by their ratio to the response to the beam term

(5.2). This results in an expression for the axial stress at the base x = 0 , which is

composed as

5

2xx n 5 ( 0, , z )

0xx n 5 ( 0, , z ) = nxx=1 ( 0, , z ) 1 + n = 2 n =1

xx ( 0, , z )

Since the ratio of the bending-to-membrane stress for the non-balancing terms and the

beam term are multiplied by the same factor, the formula is further simplified to

5

2 n5

xx ( 0, ,0 )

1 3

0xx n 5 ( 0, , t 2 ) = nxx=1 ( 0, ,0 ) 1 + n = 2 n =1

0,

,0

)

1 2

xx (

2

5

l2

1 n

2 a a

0xx,nt 5 ( z = t 2 ) = pw1

1 + 4 3 (1 ) 2

1 + 3

2at

l t n = 2 n 1 1

1 2

(5.4)

The formula for the maximal tensile stress at the clamped edge is obtained at the

location of the windward meridian ( = 0 ) and by substituting the wind load (5.1) this

expression reads

0xx,nt 5 ( z = t 2 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 1 + 3

at

l t

1 2

(5.5)

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The formula for the compressive stress at the middle surface ( z = 0 ) and the leeward

meridian ( = ) reads

0xx,nc5 ( z = 0 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 4.88 1 2

at

l t

which does not necessarily indicate the maximal compressive stress. The location of

this maximum depends on the dimensions of the cylindrical shell and on the constants

in the wind load.

Between the straight brackets of the formula (5.5) for the tensile stress we

recognize the inverse dimensionless parameters l a and t a . Similar to Van Koten

[45] and Turner [46], a plot of the term between the straight brackets is presented in

Figure 5-3 with those dimensionless parameters on the axes and the respective term is

depicted for a Poissons ratio equal to zero ( = 0 ) to allow comparison with the graph

show in [45]. Note that, to obtain the stress on the outer or inner surface, the term

between the round brackets has additionally to be taken into account. The practical

range for long chimneys extends up to a value of around l a = 60 , which further

depends on the thickness of the cylinder.

The above-mentioned term only depends on the value of Poissons ratio. The term

as presented in Figure 5-3 consists of the dimensionless parameters l a and t a which

are multiplied by a factor. This factor depends on the constants of the wind load and is

given by 6.39 if = 0 . Van Kotens formula, as presented in [45] for = 0 , is obtained

by adopting the solution to Donnells equation and yields 4.87 for that factor, which

shows that adopting the solution to the Morley-Koiter equation gives a tremendous

improvement over the solution based on Donnells equation. Turner, using a finite

element analysis in [46], sets the factor to 6.05 to obtain sufficient agreement between

the application of the formula and his range of finite element results (at the maximum

0.5% difference). The value of 6.05 can be obtained from formula (5.5) if = 0.32 is

used for Poissons ratio, which is a good value for the lateral contraction of steel.

Turners results are based on chimneys made of steel, which shows that formula (5.5)

is in excellent agreement with Turners finite element results.

Formula (5.5) may be presented in an alternative way. By introduction of the

characteristic lengths l1 and l2 for the present case of a long circular cylinder under

wind load, which are defined by

l1 = at

l2 = 4 atl 2

formula (5.5) for the maximal tensile stress at the clamped edge may be rewritten to

0 n 5

xx , t

100

2

4

l

2 a

( z = t 2 ) = 0.224 pw 1 + 6.39 1 1 + 3

1 2

l1

l2

(5.6)

0.02

400

0.0175

1.1

0.0125

1.15

1.2

1.4 1.3

1.6

2.0

2.5

0.01

0.0075

0.005

3.0

3.0

300

a/t

t/a

0.015

0.0025

350

1.05

2.5 2.0

1.6

250

1.4

200

1.3

150

1.2

1.15

100

1.1 1.05

50

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

l/a

l/a

2

Figure 5-3 Closed-form multiplier 1 + 6.39 ( a l ) ( a t ) for = 0 to the beam solution

to obtain the maximal axial tensile stress xx at the base of a long, one-sided clamped

chimney with (left) t a and (right) a t on the vertical axis.

Similar to Figure 5-3, a plot of the term between the straight brackets of formula (5.6)

is represented in Figure 5-4 for = 0.3 against the dimensionless parameter l2 a . For

the practical range, the dimensionless ratios as employed in formula (5.5) are

10 < l a < 60 and 50 < a t < 400 , i.e. 0.7 < l2 a < 3 and 70 < l l1 < 1200 as employed in

formula (5.6). Note that the largest value for l2 a is obtained for the thickest and

longest chimneys, i.e. smallest a t in combination with largest l a .

The stress calculated by formula (5.5) and (5.6) for = 0.3 , and normalized to the

stagnation pressure of the wind load pw , is graphically represented in Figure 5-5

against the dimensionless parameters l a and t a for the abovementioned ranges.

Both figures show that only for a considerable length-to-radius ratio, the stress at

the base of the chimney is dominated by the beam behaviour as supported by the ratios

as depicted in Figure 5-3. Hence, the stress at the base varies not merely quadratic with

the length as might have been expected based on the expression for the beam stress, but

is largely dominated by the non-balancing terms for shorter chimneys.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

( l2 a )

4

Figure 5-4 Closed-form multiplier 1 + 6.39 1 2 ( a l2 ) for = 0.3 according to

formula (5.6).

The above closed-form solutions are obtained for a fully rigid support at the base of the

chimney for which not only the displacement of the cross-section is prohibited, but also

the rotation of the wall of the chimney is fully withstood, i.e. the clamped edge. If the

support of the chimney allows free rotation, the moment should be zero at the base.

The solution for such a hinged-wall edge ( u x = u = u z = 0, mxx = 0 ) is almost equal to

the solution for the clamped edge. The change in the long edge disturbance is

negligible, but the short edge disturbance is somewhat different. However, this

difference is not of any importance with respect to the global solution for the stresses at

the edge. The four constants for the hinged-wall edge are given by

C1n =

n2 1 n

u z

2 2

102

a/t=400

a/t=350

a/t=300

a/t=250

a/t=200

a/t=150

a/t=100

a/t=50

Upon inspection and back substitution of these constants, it is observed that the

membrane stresses for the hinged-wall edge are identical to those for the clamped

edge, and that, in the absence of the bending stresses, the stress distribution across the

thickness slightly differs. The formula for the maximal tensile stress at the hingedwall edge is thus similar to the formula for the clamped edge (5.5), but with the

difference that the stress distribution across the thickness is only given by the

membrane stress resultant nxx . Situated at the windward meridian ( = 0 ) , the

expression reads

0xx,nt 5 ( t 2 z t 2 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2

at

l t

The tensile membrane stress at the base of a long chimney having either a clamped

edge or a hinged-wall edge can thus be obtained equating the product of the beam

theory stress with the multiplier for this beam theory stress presented within the

straight brackets of formula (5.5) and as shown in Figure 5-3 for = 0 . Alternatively,

the membrane stress is described by formula (5.6) and the multiplier is as shown in

Figure 5-4 for = 0.3 . To obtain the maximum tensile stress for the clamped edged, the

term between the round brackets of formulas (5.5) and (5.6) has additionally to be

taken into account, which only depends on the value of Poissons ratio.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Discussion and evaluation

In this subsection, the solution to the Morley-Koiter equation is used to obtain a

suitable formula for the stress distribution at the fixed base of a long chimney under

wind loading. Mainly because the inhomogeneous solution for the self-balancing terms

( n > 1) accurately describes the ring-bending action of the cylinder, the result is a

substantial refinement of the formula that is found by using Donnells equation for

these terms and shows better agreement with finite element results.

The ratio of the total membrane stress to the beam theory stress depends

completely on the geometry of the chimney, the circumferential distribution of the

wind load and to a lesser extend on the lateral contraction of the material. The

influence of the additional stress, due to the higher-order terms of the wind loads,

manifests itself in a long-wave solution. The shell behaviour in the part of the cylinder

where the long-wave solution does not exert influence is in accordance with the ringbending action. The long-wave solution represents the additional membrane action of

the shell to meet the boundary conditions.

Additionally, the stress distribution through the thickness at the base of the

clamped cylinder is derived. It is shown that, if the lateral contraction is taken into

account, a considerable contribution must be incorporated in the maximal tensile and

compressive stress at the base. For steel with Poissons ratio equal to = 0.3 , the

bending stress is roundabout 50% of the membrane stress. As can be observed from the

solution of the constants, this rather large increase is subdivided into two

approximately equal parts: a part that produces the short edge disturbance and a part

that produces a long edge disturbance that contributes in a comparatively minor extent

to the long edge disturbance produced by the membrane action.

It is noted that the result is obtained under the assumption that the length of the

chimney is at least larger than the long influence length. For shorter cylinders, the

solution cannot be obtained solely on the boundary conditions at the clamped base,

since the long edge disturbance will produce stresses that are incompatible with the

boundary conditions at the free end. Hence, a compensating long edge disturbance will

originate from the free edge that might be of influence to the axial stress distribution.

The range of application of the derived formula is the subject of the next subsection.

5.2.2 Applicability range of formulas

The objective of this subsection is to show the range of application of the formulas

(5.5) and (5.6) derived in the previous subsection. These formulas predict the tensile

axial stress at the base and the windward side of a long clamped chimney subject to

wind load and only differ in the different dimensionless parameters that are adopted.

The formulas describe the stresses at the middle surface and at the outer surface.

The range of application of these formulas is determined by comparison with

results obtained by the program CShell, which applies for short and long cylindrical

shells. As this program is based on the closed-form solution, it is obvious that for

chimneys much longer than the influence length an identical result is obtained. For

chimneys shorter than the influence length, the program is more accurate since the

formulas do not include the effect of the edge disturbance that originates at the free

edge.

104

To investigate the range of application, calculations have been made with a lengthto-radius-ratio ranging from 10 to 30 and a radius-to-thickness-ratio ranging form 50 to

400. To compare the results for the specified range, the multiplication factor for the

middle fibre stress obtained by the formula and the program is plotted in Figure 5-6

against the dimensionless parameter l2 a . The ratio obtained by the formula shown in

Figure 5-6 is thus based on formula (5.6) and represents the term between the straight

brackets. This plot is thus identical to the plot in Figure 5-4.

The agreement between the plot obtained by the formula and the plot obtained with

the program is extremely good up to multiplication factor of about 7 and obviously

even smaller differences will be observed for greater length-to-radius ratios. For a ratio

larger than 7 the formula-to-program-ratio precipitously increases, viz. the formula

predicts a much higher stress than the program, which is conservative but not accurate.

The ratio larger than 7 has also been identified as a limit of applicability by, amongst

others, Schneider and Zahlten [48]. Furthermore, a larger factor seems not practical

from the design point of view.

Figure 5-6 Stress ratio for = 0.3 at the middle fibre obtained by formula (5.6) and the

program CShell.

105

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

In Figure 5-7, the multiplication factor for the outer fibre stress is plotted for the ratio

obtained by the formula and for the ratio obtained by the program. The factor shown in

Figure 5-7 is thus based on all terms of formula (5.6). Obviously, the agreement

between the plot obtained by the formula and the plot obtained with the program is

extremely good up to a higher multiplication factor as the term between the round

brackets of formulas (5.5) and (5.6) is additionally taken into account.

Comparison of Figure 5-6 for the middle fibre stress with Figure 5-7 for the outer fibre

stress shows that the range of application is related to the geometry of the cylinder, viz.

directly related to dimensionless parameter l2 a . The figures indicate that the formula

is applicable if the dimensionless parameter l2 a is larger than or equal to unity.

To interpret the dependency on this parameter, it is recalled that, besides the

dependency on the wind load factors, the increase of the beam stress is attributed to the

long-wave solution of the self-balancing terms of the wind load ( n 2 ) . The long

influence length li ,2 for mode numbers n 2 is described by the expression derived in

subsection 4.6.3, which can be written as

li ,2

a

a

n n 1 t

8.1

2

It is mode number n = 2 that has the longest influence length and dominates the

difference between the beam stress and the total stress resulting from all terms of the

wind load. For n = 2 , the long influence length is approximately equal to

l in,2= 2 2a

a

t

roughly larger than or equal to unity, which can be written as

l2 4 atl 2 4 t l

=

=

1

a

a

a a

and hence it is concluded that formula (5.6) (and thus formulas (5.5) as well) is correct

if the length fulfils the inequality

la

a

t

application is obtained

1

l l in,2= 2

2

It is thus tentatively concluded that formulas (5.5) and (5.6) are correct for a length

larger than the half influence length for n = 2 .

106

Figure 5-7 Stress ratio for = 0.3 at the outer fibre obtained by formula (5.6) and the

program CShell.

To further investigate and show the dependency on the geometry, the multiplication

factor is calculated with the program for a chimney with different radius-to-thicknessratio of 50, 100, 200 and 400 and a varying length-to-radius-ratio taken such that the

length varies from 0.1 up to 1.1 times the long influence for n = 2 . The multiplication

factor is compared with the multiplication factor as calculated by the formula. The

multiplication factor is calculated for the stress at the middle surface and for the stress

at the outer surface and both without and with the lateral contraction.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The results are presented in the next four figures, which show the ratio of the

multiplication factor calculated by the program to the multiplication factor calculated

by the formula for the considered radius-to-thickness-ratios, i.e. 0xx,nt 5 ( z ) nxx=,1t ( 0 ) . On

the horizontal axis the length-to-(half influence length for n = 2 )-ratio is shown. The

four figures show the result for the following radius-to-thickness-ratios:

Figure 5-8 for a t = 50 ( l n = 2 16.5a ) ,

i ,2

i ,2

i ,2

i ,2

Not surprisingly, the figures show that with increasing thinness of the chimney, the

accuracy of the formula increases. For all radius-to-thickness ratios, the agreement

between the stress calculated by the formula and the stress calculated by the program is

excellent for infinitely long chimneys up to a length equal to half of the influence

length for n = 2 . Additionally, the ratio for the middle surface stress and the ratio for

the outer surface stress are both with approximately the same accuracy predicted by the

formula, whether the lateral contraction is accounted for or not. Herewith the range of

application is conclusively determined. A discussion of the observed relation is

included in the next subsection.

Program-to-formula-ratio

1.25

1.00

0.75

outer fibre, poisson=0

middle fibre, poisson=0.3

outer fibre, poisson=0.3

0.50

0.25

0.00

0.2

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.2

1.5

1.7

108

2.0

2.2

Program-to-formula-ratio

1.00

0.75

outer fibre, poisson=0

middle fibre, poisson=0.3

outer fibre, poisson=0.3

0.50

0.25

0.00

0.2

0.4

0.7

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

2.0

2.2

Program-to-formula-ratio

1.00

0.75

outer fibre, poisson=0

middle fibre, poisson=0.3

outer fibre, poisson=0.3

0.50

0.25

0.00

0.2

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.2

1.5

1.7

2.0

2.2

109

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Program-to-formula-ratio

1.00

0.75

0.50

outer fibre, poisson=0

middle fibre, poisson=0.3

0.25

0.00

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.9

2.2

In this section, the behaviour of a long circular cylinder (for example an industrial,

steel chimney) with a fixed base and a free end has been studied. The presented closedform solution (as obtained for such a long circular cylinder under the wind load

described in section 5.1) and the range of application (as extracted from the previous

subsection) are summarised here for convenience and discussion.

The circumferential distribution of the axial membrane stress resultant nxx and the

bending stress couple mxx are obtained at the clamped base for the three loaddeformation behaviours. The resulting stresses and displacements from the first term

( n = 0 ) of the series development for the wind load (i.e. the axisymmetric loading) are

known to be negligible in comparison with the response to the other terms of the wind

load and are hence discarded. A useful design formula is derived for the stress

distribution at the clamped base of the long cylinder by expressing the influence of the

self-balancing terms ( n = 2,...,5 ) by their ratio to the response to the beam term

( n = 1) . This resulted in expressions (5.5) and (5.6) for the maximum tensile stress at

the windward meridian ( = 0 ) , which respectively read

110

0xx,nt 5 ( z = t 2 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 1 + 3

at

l

t

1 2

l

0xx,nt 5 ( z = t 2 ) = 0.224 pw

l1

a

1 + 6.39 1 2 1 + 3

1 2

l2

The stress ratio between the total membrane stress and the beam theory stress is thus

given by the term within the straight brackets in the above formulas. This membrane

stress ratio has been compared with the stress ratio as obtained from the program

results. For long circular cylindrical shells with = 0.3 having a length-to-radius-ratio

ranging from 10 to 30 and a radius-to-thickness-ratio ranging from 50 to 400, Figure

5-6 for the middle fibre (membrane) stress results and Figure 5-7 for the outer fibre

stress results are found to be in excellent agreement for cylinders longer than half of

the influence length of the long-wave solution for n = 2 .

The figures obtained for shorter cylinders from very short up to about the influence

length (Figure 5-8 through Figure 5-11) revealed that the above design formulas

(including the bending stress) are indeed applicable to cylinders longer than half of the

influence length of the long-wave solution for n = 2 , which can be explained by the

following.

If the cylinder is longer than the long influence length for a certain mode number,

the incompatibility with the boundary conditions for the free edge is compensated by

an edge disturbance that is described by a small short-wave and equally small longwave solution which are both of the order O ( 2 ) , when compared with the edge

disturbance originating from the clamped edge. Moreover, these edge disturbances

originating from the free edge do not influence the clamped edge.

However, for a cylinder shorter that the long influence length of a certain mode

number, the long-wave edge disturbance originating from the clamped edge for that

mode number is notable and significant at the free edge, i.e. of the same order but of

smaller magnitude. The incompatibility with the boundary conditions at the free edge is

compensated by a long-wave edge disturbance from the free edge, which in turn is

notable at the clamped edge. This provides an additional incompatibility at the clamped

edge to be compensated by an additional edge disturbance, which provides the main

difference between the actual stress at the base and the stress as predicted by the design

formula.

For the cylinder equal to the half influence length, the edge disturbance is of the

order e

0.21 at the free edge, which thus results in an additional edge disturbance at

the clamped edge in the order of e 2 0.043 . For a cylinder shorter than the half

conclusively explains the graphs as presented in the previous subsection.

111

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The subject of this section is to investigate the influence of stiffening rings on the

behaviour of the long chimney. Additionally, this influence can be captured in a

closed-form solution and the range of application is identified by computational results.

In section 5.2, it is shown, as a description of the behaviour, that the stress at the

fixed base of a long cylinder under wind load can be conveniently related to the beam

mode ( n = 1) . The deformation and stress for the axisymmetric mode ( n = 0 ) are of no

importance on the overall behaviour. It is expected that mainly the response to the

higher modes ( n 2 ) is altered by the presence of a stiffening ring in comparison with

the response of a cylinder without rings.

For these higher modes, the normal stress resultant nxx at the fixed base is directly

related to the induced out-of-roundness (ovalisation) of the cylinder, which cannot

occur at the base. As a consequence, the cross-section intends to warp at the base. The

normal stresses are needed to withstand this warping, in other words: to keep this

section plain. As the presence of stiffening rings within reasonable distance of the fixed

base will reduce the ovalisation and hence the warping that needs to be counteracted,

nxx is reduced accordingly.

The first objective of the next subsection is to define an influence measure for the

resistance to ovalisation based on the situations with and without stiffening rings. To

arrive at such a measure, closed-form solutions will be developed for a number of cases

to determine the governing parameters. The second and successive objective is to

extract a useful formula describing the influence of the stiffening rings on the stress at

the base of a long cylinder.

5.3.1 Closed-form solution (full solution)

Deriving a closed-form solution for a cylinder stiffened by rings involves the

determination of the boundary conditions at both edges of the cylinder and the

transitional conditions at the locations of the stiffening rings between those edges. As

per each edge four conditions and per each stiffening ring in between those edges eight

conditions must be identified, the total set of equations to be formulated can become

rather big. Hence, a closed-form solution will become too cumbersome for

interpretation if not impossible to obtain. The objective of this subsection is to derive

closed-form solutions for a number of basic cases from which insight is gained in the

stiffening effect of the ring on the cylinder and general expressions can be formulated

based on the extracted governing parameters.

The first two cases describe an infinitely long cylinder with only one stiffening

ring and a semi-infinitely long cylinder (a cylinder of infinite length with one free

edge) with one stiffening ring at its edge, respectively. From these, relative simple,

cases, the governing parameters are obtained that describe the interaction of the

stiffening ring with the cylinder. Moreover, a relevant simplification can be introduced

based on these two cases and making use of that simplification, the infinitely long

cylinder with equidistant stiffening rings is investigated as a third case to arrive at the

sought formula describing the influence of stiffening rings on the reduction of the

ovalisation and other quantities accordingly.

112

To simplify the analysis, only stiffening rings with their centre of gravity located at the

middle surface of the cylinder are considered. Hence, the relation between the loads on

the ring and the ring displacements is substantially simplified. Based on the relation

(E.7) of Appendix E, the simplified description of the stiffening ring behaviour

becomes

f

fz

ring

EAr 2

a2 n

=

EAr n

a 2

EAr

n

u ring

a2

2

EAr EI r 2

1

+

n

( ) uz

a2

a4

(5.7)

in which the combined cross-sectional properties Ar and I r for rings symmetric to the

middle surface of the cylinder are given by the elementary integrals

Ar = dA , I r = z 2 dA

A

which for a (single) ring of rectangular cross-section with width b and height h

become

Ar = bh , I r =

1 3

bh

12

At the location of the ring in between two cylindrical parts denoted by i and i + 1 , the

following systems of equations, from which the relevant boundary conditions can be

extracted, is formulated for the modes n 2 .

(i )

fx ( li )

fx ( 0 )

f ( li ) + f ( 0 )

f ( l )

f ( 0 )

z i

z

t

l

x ( i )

tx ( 0 )

( i +1)

0

f

+

fz

0

( ring )

fx

f

=

f

z

tx

( ext )

u x ( li )

u x ( 0 )

u

l

(

)

i = u ( 0 )

u z ( li )

u z ( 0 )

x ( 0 )

x ( li )

(i )

and

( i +1)

u x

u

=

u z

x

( ring )

To further simplify the analysis, it is tentatively assumed that the spacing between the

rings or spacing between the ring and the (stiffened or not stiffened) edge is such that

the boundary or transitional conditions can be described for the edge or ring location

only. In other words, the spacing between a considered ring or edge and the adjacent

rings or edges is greater that the long influence length of the cylinder.

Based on the assumption above, two base cases are identified, for which the

closed-form solution will be obtained. The first case is a ring in an infinitely long

cylinder and the second case is a semi-infinitely long cylinder with a ring present at a

free edge.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Infinitely long cylinder with one ring

The first case, a ring in an infinitely long cylinder, represents thus the case that the ring

is located such that, at both sides, the adjacent rings or edges are located further away

than the length of the long edge disturbance. Hence and based on symmetry

considerations, the four boundary conditions are described by

u x ( 0 )

f ( 0 )

fz ( 0 )

x ( 0 )

( cylinder )

0

1 f

= 21

2 fz

( ring )

(5.8)

where, for the sake of simplicity, the external load on the ring is assumed to be zero.

To solve this system, terms multiplied by 2 are neglected in comparison to unity.

As a reference, the solution for a clamped base given in section 5.2 is recalled and

reads

C1n = C2n =

n2 1 n

u z

2 2

; C5n = C6n = u zn

which can thus be obtained from the system (5.8) by equating, the ring extensional and

flexural rigidities to infinity ( EAr = EI r = ) .

Based on this solution, the following assumption is introduced. For a ring with a

very low extensional and flexural rigidity, the ovalisation of the cylinder will fully

develop under the wind load and all constants are then computed equal to zero. For a

ring with a very high extensional and flexural rigidity, the constants are equal to the

solution as given for the clamped base. Hence, it is assumed that the constants C1n and

C2n are of the order O ( 2 ) when compared with the constants C5n and C6n .

The neglect of small terms and the assumption presented above further facilitate

obtaining a solution to the four boundary conditions given by the system (5.8) and

reads

C1n = C2n = O ( 2 ) u zn

; C5n = C6n =

ring

ring + 1

u zn

ring =

1 I r n n 2 1 bh3 n n 2 1 1 2

=

2

4 Db

a at 3

4

(5.9)

This parameter is thus described by the ratio of the moment of inertia of the ring to

both the moment of inertia of the cylinder (if taken as the cross-sectional beam

property) as well as the geometrical properties of the cylinder. By back substitution, the

displacement at the ring location is obtained as

5

5

1

u z2 n 5 ( 0, ) = 1 ring u zn cos n =

u zn cos n

+

1

+

1

n =2

n = 2 ring

ring

114

Semi-infinitely long cylinder with one ring at its end

The second case, a semi-infinitely long cylinder with a ring present at a free edge,

represents thus the case that, on one side, the adjacent rings or edges are located further

away than the length of the long edge disturbance. Hence, and based on symmetry

considerations, the four boundary conditions are described by

fx ( 0 )

f ( 0 )

f ( 0 )

z

tx ( 0 )

( cylinder )

0

f

=

fz

( ring )

(5.10)

where, for the sake of simplicity, the external load on the ring is assumed to be zero.

Identical to the solution as presented for the ring in an infinitely long cylinder, the

terms multiplied by 2 are neglected in comparison to unity and it is assumed that the

constants C1n and C2n are of the order O ( 2 ) when compared with the constants C5n

and C6n .

To further facilitate obtaining a solution to the four boundary conditions given by

the system (5.10), it is assumed that the ring geometrical properties are such that the

following relations hold

t<h,

2

h2

( n2 1) 1

12a 2

which seems plausible for a normally sized stiffening ring. However, the solution will

be limited to rings of which the height is larger than the thickness of the cylinder but

smaller than the radius of that cylinder.

Making use of all the simplifications and assumptions as mentioned above, the

solution becomes

C1n = C2n = O ( 2 ) u zn

; C5n =

ring

ring + 1

; C6n = O ( 2 ) u zn

u zn

in which the parameter ring is introduced above (5.9). By back substitution, the

displacement at the ring location is thus equally described as for the case with the

infinitely long cylinder.

Conclusion from the above cases

From the solution as presented for the two cases above and especially from the

parameter ring that captures the influence of the stiffening ring on the cylinder, it can

be concluded that, for a sufficiently long and thin ( 2 1) cylinder, the extensional

rigidity of the ring has a negligible influence on the reduction of the ovalisation in

comparison with the influence of the flexural rigidity. This is easily understood as it

can be expected that not the global deformation of the cross-section of the cylinder is

changed due to the presence of the stiffening ring, but that the amplitudes of the

displacements u and u z are reduced within the long influence length originating from

the location of the stiffening ring. Hence, identical to the inhomogeneous solution for

1

n

the displacements, the relation un = u zn also holds for the displacements of the

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

stiffening ring. Introducing this relation into the relation (5.7) between the loads on the

stiffening ring and its displacements, results in

f

fz

ring

= EI r 2

2

n

1

u

(

)

z

a 4

ring

(5.11)

which is in line with the assumption that only the flexural rigidity of the ring influences

the behaviour of the cylinder for the modes n 2 .

If the re-formulated relation (5.11) for the behaviour of the ring is adopted in, e.g.,

the system (5.8) for the first case, the solution to that system is identical to the solution

presented for that case.

Infinitely long cylinder with equidistant rings

Based on the observations above, a third case is analysed which comprises an infinitely

long cylinder with equidistant stiffening rings. The rings are spaced such that the longwave edge disturbance originating from a ring is notable and significant at the adjacent

ring, but that the long-wave edge disturbance from the adjacent ring induced by this

effect is negligible at the subject ring. Based on symmetry considerations, only one

cylinder between two identical rings can be analysed for which the eight boundary

conditions are described by

u x ( 0 )

f ( 0)

fz ( 0 )

x ( 0 )

u ( l )

x

f ( l )

f z (l )

x ( l )

( cylinder )

1

2

12

1

2

1

2

0

0

f ( ring 1)

ring

(

1)

u z ( ring 1)

fz

0

= 1 EI r n 2 1 2 0

) 0

2 a4 (

0

f( ring 2)

0

u ( ring 2)

fz ( ring 2)

0

0

(5.12)

where relation (5.11) between the loads on the ring and its displacement u z is

employed and, for the sake of simplicity, the external load on the ring is assumed to be

zero.

Obviously, the solution to these equations describes a symmetric response with

respect to the mid-section of the cylinder length between the two stiffening rings. To

solve this system, the same simplifications are introduced as for the first case. The

terms multiplied by 2 are neglected in comparison to unity and it is assumed that the

constants C1n and C2n are of the order O ( 2 ) when compared with the constants C5n

and C6n . The same applies to the constants C3n and C4n which are of the order O ( 2 )

when compared with the constants C7n and C8n . Moreover, the constants C5n and C6n

are of the same order as the constants C7n and C8n .

116

To obtain full symmetry, the displacement (4.40) is rewritten similar to the

proposed representation of (4.43) to

x

x

x

a1n

a

a

+e

+e

+e

a1n

x l

a

an2

an2

x

a

n

1 xl

1 x l

n

C3 cos bn a + C4 sin bn a

n

2 x

2 x

n

C5 cos bn a + C6 sin bn a

x l

a

n

2 x l

2 x l

n

C7 cos bn a + C8 sin bn a

1 a2

( 2) 1 ( 2) x

(1) 1 (1)

+ 2

cos pzn pn + p zn pn

Db n 1

n

n

l

stress couples as given in Appendix I are rewritten by applying the same

transformation for the edge disturbances originating form the edge at x = l .

To solve the system (5.12), the observation that e

been employed to introduce the simplification that

2

an2 al

e

1 and

a1n

l

a

a1n

l

a

<e

an2

l

a

and e

an2

l

a

< 1 has

1

The solution to the system (5.12) for the eight constants then reads

C1n = C3n =

an2

n n 2 1 n 2 1 ring

2 l

2 l n

a

1

+

2

e

cos bn + sin bn u z

ring

2

2

2

n (1 + ring )

a

a

C5n = C7n =

ring

(1 + )

ring

C6n = C8n =

l

an2

2 l

2 l n

1 + ring + e a (1 ring ) cos bn + sin bn u z

a

a

l

an2

2 l

2 l n

a

+

+

1

e

(1 ring ) cos bn (1 + 3ring ) sin bn u z

ring

2

a

a

(1 + ring )

ring

x = 0 , this expression reads

l

5

an2

1

2 l

2 l n

a

u z2 n 5 ( 0, ) =

1

+

2

e

ring

2

a

a

n = 2 (1 +

ring )

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

It is easily observed that, if the rings are spaced with a distance such that e

the solution for the eight constants becomes

C1n = C2n = C3n = C4n =

C5n = C6n = C7n = C8n =

an2

l

a

1,

n n 2 1 n 2 1 ring n

u z

2

n 2 1 + ring

ring

1 + ring

u zn

which is identical to the solution as presented above for the first case.

Furthermore, the constants C1n , C2n , C3n and C4n of the short edge disturbance are

indeed of the order O ( 2 ) if compared to the constants C5n , C6n , C7n and C8n of the

long edge disturbance.

Interpretation and governing parameters

In the cases above, the influence of the stiffening rings on the behaviour of the circular

cylinder is analysed. It is shown that, for these cases, the influence is fully captured by

the parameter ring (5.9), which reads

ring =

1 I r n n2 1

4 Db

2

a

Upon inspection of the description (4.42) for the governing parameters of the longedge disturbance, these parameters can be further approximated by

1

1 n n2 1

an2 bn2 n =

2

2 2

comparison to unity as performed in section 5.2. Hence, the governing parameter

introduced to describe the influence of the stiffening rings on the behaviour of the

circular cylinder can be rewritten to

ring

1 Ir 1

n

2 Db 2 a

In other words, this parameter comprises the ratio of the bending stiffness of the

ring to the wall bending stiffness of the cylinder multiplied with the constants of the

argument of long-influence attenuating terms.

Moreover, it is shown that the extensional rigidity of the ring has a negligible

influence on the reduction of the out of roundness in comparison with the influence of

the flexural rigidity and, as a result, the relation u zn = nun for the amplitudes of the

displacements u and u z can be adopted. Although the constants related to the short

edge disturbance are present while being of the order O ( 2 ) if compared to those of

the long edge disturbance, it can be easily observed from the expressions for the

displacements as given in Appendix I that the presence of the short edge disturbance

has a negligible impact on the displacements in comparison with the terms related to

the long edge disturbance. Hence, the difference between the ring displacements and

the more distant shell material is reduced within the long influence length originating

from the location of the stiffening ring.

118

Alternative approach

With the objective to investigate the influence of stiffening rings on the behaviour of

the long chimney, a solution similar to the ones as presented above is too cumbersome

to obtain, e.g., a suitable formula for the stress distribution at the base of a long, ringstiffened chimney under wind loading. Typically, such a chimney is circumferentially

stiffened by multiple, equidistant rings against the ovalisation due to the wind load.

These multiple stiffening rings provide a multitude of the number of equations to be

solved in closed-from disabling such an approach. Alternatively, a resolution might be

found in smearing out the relevant ring properties along the circular cylinder. If such

an approach is incorporated into the Morley-Koiter equation, orthotropic relations need

to be accounted for with which its elegance is lost making this approach not feasible.

However, a novel approach is suggested which overcomes the abovementioned

complications.

The observations above for the more rigorous solution indicate that the

simplifications introduced for the semi-membrane concept as developed for circular

cylindrical shells might be adopted for such shells that are stiffened by rings. In this

novel approach, the relevant ring property, i.e. the bending stiffness, is smeared out

along the circular cylindrical shell surface, which is further elaborated upon in the next

subsection.

5.3.2 Closed-form solution (SMC)

The semi-membrane concept (SMC), as referred to in section 1.4, and its application to

circular cylindrical shells are described in Appendix G. This concept is applicable to

non-axisymmetric load cases of circular cylindrical shells provided that the cylinder is

sufficiently long in comparison to its radius and that the boundary effects mainly

influence the more distant material. Correspondingly, two main simplifications are

introduced. Firstly, the circumferential strain is equal to zero and hence u zn = nun .

Secondly, the bending moments about the circumferential axis and torsion axis are zero

and hence mxx = 0 mx = 0 and consequently vx = 0 .

As presented in Appendix G, the differential equation for the semi-membrane concept

reads

2

2

4 4

1

2 2 2

2

4

+

2

1

+

a

+

+

1

)

(

uz

4

a8

x 2 2 2 2

a x

3

3

3

1

1

1 pz

1

px

=

+ p 3

2 (1 + ) 2 2 + 4 3

2

Db

a x a

a x

where the dimensionless parameter is introduced in (4.17) and the solution for

u z ( x, ) to this equation becomes

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

x

anSMC a n

SMC x

SMC x

n

u z ( x, ) = cos n e

C1 cos bn a + C2 sin bn a

+e

anSMC

x

a

n

SMC x

SMC x

n

C3 cos bn a + C4 sin bn a

(5.13)

1 a2

( 2) 1 ( 2) x

(1) 1 (1)

+ 2 cos n pzn

pn + pzn

pn

Db n 1

n

n

l

in which the approximated dimensionless parameters anSMC and bnSMC are defined by

1 1

1 1

anSMC = n 1 + nSMC

bnSMC = n 1 nSMC

,

2 2

2 2

4

SMC

for small values of n and n for 1 , where the dimensionless parameters n is

is equal to

n

nSMC =

1 + n2 1

2 2

The main difference between this SMC solution (5.13) and the solution (4.40) to the

Morley-Koiter equation is that the short edge disturbance is not described by the SMC,

which is inherent to the introduced simplifications. Furthermore, the only small

difference between the two solutions is observed in the arguments of the exponential

and trigonometric terms of the long edge disturbance. Hence, it can be proposed to

adopt only the leading term in the SMC, which is similar to the approximation and

interpretation as adopted in the previous subsection, resulting in

1

1 n n2 1

an2 bn2 n =

2

2 2

In other words, the contributions of the order 2 in comparison to unity are not

described, which is clearly admissible when the main simplifications of the SMC can

be adopted.

As the inhomogeneous solution is correctly described by the SMC, it is concluded

that the expressions for all quantities can be adequately adopted to obtain a closed-form

solution for engineering purposes.

Stiffening rings with their centre of gravity located at the middle surface of the cylinder

To show that the mentioned differences hardly impact the results, the third case of the

previous subsection, the Infinitely long cylinder with equidistant rings, is analysed

by the SMC solution. Analysing only one cylinder between two identical rings, the four

boundary conditions that can be described become

120

u x ( 0, )

f ( 0, ) + f z ( 0, )

ux (l, )

f z ( l , )

f ( l , ) +

( cylinder )

( ring 1)

ux ( )

( ring 1)

1

1 f z ( )

( ring 1)

f ( )

2

2

=

( ring 2)

ux ( )

( ring 1)

1

1 f z ( )

( ring 1)

f ( )

which upon substitution of the appropriate cosine and sine functions results in

u x ( 0 )

f ( 0 ) nf z ( 0 )

u x ( l )

f ( l ) nf z ( l )

( cylinder )

0

f ( ring 1) + nf ( ring 1)

( ring 1)

1

z

= EI r n ( n 2 1)2 u zz

=

4

a 2

0

0

2

( ring 2)

( ring 2)

+ nfz ( ring 2)

u z

where relation (5.11) between the loads on the ring and its displacement u z is

employed.

The solution to these equations becomes

C1n = C3n =

ring

(1 + )

ring

C2n = C4n =

1

l

n

l

l n

1

1

1 + ring + e 2 a (1 ring ) cos n + sin n u z

2

a

2

a

1

l

n

l

l n

1

1

a

2

+

+

1

e

ring

2

a

a

2

2

(1 + ring )

ring

and from inspection of this solution in comparison with the solution presented in the

previous subsection, it is concluded that the expressions for all quantities as derived by

an SMC approach indeed can be adequately adopted to obtain a closed-form solution

for engineering purposes.

In the SMC approach, the bending stiffness of the shell is only adopted for the

circumferential bending moment. As the ring behaviour can be adequately described by

the bending action of the ring only, it is proposed to smear out the bending stiffness

of the rings along the bending stiffness of the cylinder resulting in the following

modified bending stiffness

Db,mod = Db +

EI r

lr

where lr denotes the spacing between the rings. Hence, the difference between the

solution for a long cylinder with multiple equidistant stiffening rings and the solution

for a long cylinder without these rings can be captured by a modified parameter mod

only, which becomes

44mod

1 2

=

kmod

where

kmod =

Db ,mod

Dm a 2

EI r

lr

Dm a 2

Db +

=

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The modified parameter kmod can be rewritten to

kmod =

Db

r 1 where

Dm a 2

r =

Db

EI

Db + r

lr

(5.14)

in which the stiffness ratio r represents the ratio of the bending stiffness of the

circular cylindrical shell only to the modified bending stiffness of the shell (with the

contribution of the ring stiffness per spacing). Hence, the following relation exists

between the original and the modified formulations of the modified parameters

kmod = k r 1

mod = 4 r

For the special case of rectangular stiffening rings with width b and height h

located at the middle surface of the circular cylindrical shell, the stiffness ratio r

becomes

r =

lr t 3

lr t 3 + bh3 (1 2 )

Similar to subsection 5.2.1, a useful design formula can be derived for the stress

distribution at the base of the long chimney stiffened by equidistant rings by

calculating the response to the wind load. Fully in line with the approach for the long

chimney without stiffening rings, the contribution of the self-balancing terms

( n = 2,...,5 ) can be expressed by their ratio to the response to the beam term (5.2).

In order to obtain this ratio, first the appropriate boundary conditions need to be

solved for the self-balancing terms as described in the SMC solution, which are given

by

x =0;

clamped:

u x = u x = 0 ; u = u = 0

x=l;

free:

f x = nxx = 0 ;

f +

f z

= nx = 0

to which, if the chimney is long enough that the edge disturbance originating from the

free edge does not influence that disturbance at the clamped edge, the solution for the

constant becomes

3

n2 1 n

C2n = 1 (1 + )

u z

mod 2

2

C1n = u zn ;

C3n = C4n = 0

where for the sake of comparison, the contributions of the order 2 are retained.

Substitution of the constants into the expression for nxx as presented in Appendix I,

results in the expression for nxx at the clamped edge

5

nxx ( 0, ) = 2 3(1 2 )

n =2

a2

p

n2 1

r 2 zn 1 (1 + )

cos n

mod 2

t

n 1

Having found the response for these self-balancing terms ( n = 2,...,5 ) , the useful design

formula can be derived for the stress distribution at the base. This results in an

expression for the axial stress at the base x = 0 , which reads

2 n 5 ( 0, , z )

0xx n 5 ( 0, , z ) = nxx=1 ( 0, , z ) 1 + xxn =1

xx ( 0, , z )

122

It can be assumed that the ratio of the bending-to-membrane stress for the nonbalancing terms is not altered although not described by the SMC solution and remains

identical to ratio as obtained for the beam term. Hence, it is tentatively proposed that

the formula for the stress distribution at the base can be further simplified to

2 n 5 ( 0, ,0 )

0xx n 5 ( 0, , t 2 ) = nxx=1 ( 0, ,0 ) 1 + xxn =1

1 3

0,

,0

)

1 2

xx (

The formula for the maximal tensile stress at the clamped edge at the windward

meridian ( = 0 ) for the long chimney without stiffening rings (5.5) is obtained by

substituting the wind load (5.1). Performing the same substitutions for the long

chimney stiffened by rings, this expression becomes approximately

0xx,nt 5 ( z = t 2 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 r 1 + 3

at

l t

1 2

in which the only change compared with (5.5) is the addition of the factor

(5.15)

r within

Eccentric stiffening rings to the middle plane of the cylinder

For an eccentric ring, the relation between the loads f and f z on the ring and its

displacement u and u z is slightly more involved resulting in a too complicated set of

equations for deriving a closed-form solution on basis of the full solution to the

Morley-Koiter equation. However, a similar modification as followed above for the

symmetric ring on basis of the SMC approach can be easily employed.

The behaviour of the stiffening ring is described by relation (E.7) of Appendix E,

which reads

EAr

ES

n + 3r n ( n 2 1)

u ring

a2

a

(5.16)

2

EAr

ESr 2

EI r 2

u z

+ 2 3 ( n 1) + 4 ( n 1)

a2

a

a

in which the combined cross-sectional properties Ar , Sr and I r for rings asymmetric

f

fz

ring

EAr 2

a2

=

EAr n + ESr n n 2 1

( )

a 2

a3

Ar = dA + a 1 zdA

A

S r = zdA

A

I r = z 2dA a 1 z 3dA

A

which are evaluated with respect to the middle surface of the cylinder in the program

CShell.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

1

n

on the stiffening ring and its displacements, this relation becomes

f

fz

ring

ES r

n ( n 2 1) u z

a3

=

ES r n 2 1 u + EI r n 2 1 2 u

) z a 4 ( ) z

a 3 (

ring

and further by combining the ring loads as performed within the SMC approach, the

relation reads

f z

f +

ring

= n sin n

2

EI r 2

( n 1) ( uz )ring

a4

which is, identical to the symmetric ring case, in line with the assumption that only the

flexural rigidity of the ring influences the behaviour of the cylinder for the modes

n2.

1

n

eccentric ring, which has not, similar to the case for a symmetric ring, been concluded

on basis of closed-form solutions on basis of the full solution to the Morley-Koiter

1

n

equation. If the assumption that the simplification un = u zn is also valid for the

eccentric ring, formula (5.15) for the stress distribution at the base of the long chimney

stiffened by equidistant rings holds for both symmetric stiffening rings and eccentric

stiffening rings. To obtain the stiffness ratio r as defined by (5.14), the flexural

rigidity of the ring should then be taken as

I r = z 2dA a 1 z 3dA

(5.17)

A

which is evaluated with respect to the middle surface of the cylinder in the program

CShell..

It is however envisaged that the determination of the flexural rigidity of eccentric

stiffening rings by expression (5.17) will result in an overestimation of the stiffness

ratio r (5.14) if used in conjunction with formula (5.18). The overestimation of the

ring stiffness can be explained by the fact that at the intersection of the cylinder wall

with the web of the eccentric ring forces are transferred from the ring into the shell.

This transfer results in an introduction of n , nx and vx into the shell. For the ring

with its neutral axis on the middle plane of the cylinder, these stress resultants are

either negligible (as for n and vx ) or distributed along the cylinder according to the

long wave solution only (as for nx ). For the eccentric ring, the resulting (additional)

distribution of these quantities along the cylinder is not negligible and confined to the

vicinity of the ring location, i.e. described by the short-wave solution. This additional

short-wave shell-ring interaction is not accounted for in the SMC and hence the shell

action of that part of the cylinder (with a length comparable to the short influence

length around the ring location) acting with the ring is not considered. The equivalent

bending stiffness is presently obtained by smearing out the ring stiffness over the

spacing between the stiffeners. To properly account for the shell membrane action at

124

the location of the ring, the additional stress transfer might be accounted for by

modifying the ring stiffness and by adopting this modified stiffness in the equivalent

bending stiffness. Fully in line with the approaches to determine the stress distribution

in flanges of curved beams and the critical buckling pressure of ring-stiffened shells,

the effective width concept could be adopted. The inclusion of a certain shell length

acting as a flange on the inner side of the eccentric ring replaces the section of the ring

by a combined section that should be evaluated with respect to its centre of gravity.

This would most likely results in a lower flexural rigidity of the ring in comparison

with the ring that is evaluated with respect to the middle surface of the cylinder.

As discussed and shown by Bleich [49], the stress distribution in the flanges of

curved T- and I-beam cross sections differs from the distribution in solid cross sections

as the assumed invariability of the shape of the cross section is not fulfilled by curved

beams with such a non-solid cross-section. Bleich analysed the variation of the

longitudinal stress in the curved flange resulting from the cross-sectional deformation,

viz. the longitudinal stress decreases as the deflection of the flange increases with

increasing distance from the web. The longitudinal stress is thus maximal directly

above the web and decreases towards the ends of the flange. By replacing the flange of

width b f by a narrower flange in which the maximal prevails everywhere and taking

the replacing width in such a manner that the total force in the beam remains

unchanged, Bleich obtained a formula for this effective width beff of symmetrical

flanges with respect to the web of the beam under extension and bending and provided

some remarks on terms and effects for further improvement.

Similar to the above approach, it is obvious that for a ring-stiffened cylinder,

equivalent formulas can be derived for the length of the shell section acting effectively

with the stiffening ring. This so-called effective length leff is then accounted for while

determining the relevant properties of the combined stiffener and shell section, such as

the cross-sectional area, the location of the neutral axis and the moment of inertia.

There are several accepted methods of determining the effective length. According to

Pegg and Smith [50] and MacKay [51], the simplest method to determine the

associated effective length of the cylinder is to take 75 percent of the shell length

between the stiffeners as suggested by Faulkner [52] for the design of submarines.

Especially in case of long circular cylindrical shells stiffened by rings, the spacing

between the rings might be as long as several times the flange width of the stiffener,

which shows that this approach is not likely applicable for the present purpose.

Moreover, the effective length is a function of the shell geometry in its deformed state

and therefore a function of the shell radius and thickness, the stiffener spacing, the ring

dimensions and eccentricity as noted by Hutchinson and Amazigo [53]; which can be

also identified by inspection of the closed-form solutions presented in subsection 5.3.1.

Furthermore and in case of non-axisymmetric loading, the geometric properties

and the wave number are further influencing the effective length. A rather

straightforward equation that accounts for these effects has been presented by Bijlaard

[54] and reads

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

leff

1

l

l

cosh r cos r

4 2

2

2

2a

n

t

n

t

a

a 1+

=

+

2 a2

sinh lr + sin lr

3 a

a

a

of which the expression without the term within the brackets is in fact an improvement

of Bleichs equation. The equation without the term within the brackets represents in

fact the effective length for stiffened cylinders under axisymmetric and beam loading.

The equation as presented by Bijlaard (with and without the term within the brackets)

has been adopted in many standards, codes and textbooks to account for the effective

length of the cylinder acting with a stiffening member.

Tables with effective length values are also presented in PD5500:2009

Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure vessels published by the British

Standards Institution. These tables provide the effective length for different wave

numbers, ring spacing-to-radius-ratios and thickness-to-radius ratios and the code

indicates that equation as presented by Bijlaard for the effective length might be used

for large radius-to-thickness -ratios (larger than approximately 30), i.e. in the range of

the present investigation.

Pegg and Smith [50] have listed a comparison of the tabulated values and the

values as calculated by the equation, which shows that comparable effective length

values are obtained for different thickness-to-radius-ratios and wave numbers.

For the present purpose, Bijlaards equation is investigated in more detail.

Obviously, the term within the brackets accounts for a small decrease of the effective

length for the typical wave numbers and thickness-to-radius-ratios. Only for unlikely

high wave numbers and relatively thick cylinders, which are outside the present

investigation, the term provides a marked decrease that is not negligible. Furthermore,

the term dependent on the distance between the rings lr only has a limited and

negligible influence on the effective length based on the envisaged distance for the

long chimneys under consideration. Even for the thickest cylinders with a radius-tothickness-ratio of 50, the reducing effect of the term dependent on lr is negligible for a

distance between the rings larger than about 0.25 times the radius. In other words, this

term rapidly becomes unity for small distances. Hence, a simplified representation of

Bijlaards equation for relatively largely spaced stiffening rings and thin cylinders

reads

leff

2a

n2 t

1 +

3 a

1

2

n2 t

1+

4 3 1 2

( ) 2 3 a

2 at

It is well known that the effective length is directly related to the characteristic

length. The characteristic length for the short-wave solution for the self-balancing

modes is given in subsection 4.6.3 and by adopting for a1n the approximation of the

solution to Donnells equation as presented in subsection 4.5.2 the characteristic length

becomes

1

a

a 1 n2

at

n2

t

1 +

lc ,1 = 1 = 1 +

=

2

a n 2

4 3 1 2

( ) 2 3(1 2 ) a

126

which shows that Bijlaards equation is based on the solution to Donnells equation.

Hence, the small terms with respect to the thickness-to-radius-ratio as described by

Bijlaards equation are not only surplus to requirements, but that the expression for the

effective length can also be slightly improved by adopting for a1n the approximation of

the solution to the Morley-Koiter equation as presented in subsection 4.5.1.

Based on the above and for the present purpose, the following equation is

tentatively considered for the effective length of the cylinder wall acting together with

a stiffening member at its location

1

n 2 12

2a 1 n 2 12

2 at

t

leff 1 +

=

1

+

2 2

4 3 1 2

( ) 2 3(1 2 ) a

For the typical value of = 0.3 for Poissons ratio of steel, the effective length is

approximately equated to 1.56 at in which the term within the brackets is set to unity

as an approximation for relatively thin shells.

It is however reiterated that the effective length is not only a function of the shell

radius and thickness and wave number of the loading, but also a function of the

stiffener spacing, the ring dimensions and eccentricity.

The actual effective length to be accounted for in case of eccentric stiffening rings can

be obtained by performing a range of calculations by, e.g., the program CShell, as

closed-form solutions are too complex and involved to be considered. The range of

application of the derived formula for ring-stiffened long cylinders with relatively large

spacing between either symmetric rings or eccentric rings is the subject of the next

subsection.

5.3.3 Applicability range of formulas

The objective of this subsection is to show the range of application of formula (5.15)

derived in the previous subsection based on the closed-form solution. Similar to section

5.2, the formula predicts the tensile axial stress at the base and the windward side of a

long clamped chimney subject to wind load. However, the influence of distributed

stiffening rings is incorporated into the formula.

The range of application of this formula is determined by comparison with results

obtained by the program CShell, which applies for short and long cylindrical shells and

allows accurate modelling of stiffening rings. As this program is based on the closedform solution, it is expected that, for a chimney with closely spaced stiffening rings,

the formula predicts an accurate value of the stress at the base. For chimneys shorter

than, say, the influence length and/or for chimneys with a more uneven distribution of

the ring stiffness, the program is more accurate than the formula since the formula does

not include the effect of the edge disturbance that originates at the free edge and as the

formula is based on a constant distribution of the ring stiffness along the length of the

chimney.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Stiffening rings with their centre of gravity located at the middle surface of the cylinder

To investigate the range of application of formula (5.15) to chimneys with symmetric

stiffening rings, calculations have been made for a radius-to-thickness-ratio of 100,

with length-to-radius-ratios of 10, 20 and 30 and with 2, 3, 4 and 5 equally spaced

stiffening rings per length-to radius ratio. The cylinder is clamped at the base and

stiffened by a ring at the top and by rings evenly distributed in between these edges.

The neutral line and the centre of gravity of the rings are located at the middle plane of

the circular cylindrical shell. To present unambiguous and concise results, only the

response to the mode numbers n = 2 and n = 1 of the wind load (5.1) have been

calculated for a first assessment of the range of application.

Figure 5-12 represents the total-stress-to-beam-stress-ratio with varying amount of

distributed ring stiffness and number of rings for the length-to-radius-ratios of 10. The

vertical axis thus represents the term between the straight brackets of formula (5.15).

The value of the distributed ring stiffness is indicated by the value of the factor r on

the horizontal axis, which is the square root of the stiffness ratio r as defined by

(5.14). Hence, the values as calculated by the program should be a straight line

between the following limit points. For the case r = 1 , no stiffening rings are added

and for the theoretical case r = 0 , the total stress is equal to the beam stress. The stress

obtained for case r = 1 should thus be accurately predicted by formula (5.5) within its

range of applicability, while the theoretical case r = 0 represents the case where

infinitely stiff rings are added that fully withstand the higher order terms of the wind

load allowing the chimney to act as a beam under lateral load. In Figure 5-12, not only

the calculated lines for 2, 3, 4 and 5 equally spaced stiffening rings, but also the

predicted line by formula (5.15) is shown.

128

Figure 5-12 Stress ratio obtained by the program CShell and formula (5.15) for l a = 10

and a t = 100 .

Similar to Figure 5-12, Figure 5-13 and Figure 5-14 represent the total-stress-to-beamstress-ratio with varying amount of distributed ring stiffness and number of rings for

the length-to-radius-ratios of 20 and 30, respectively.

For r = 1 (the case without stiffening rings), a difference between the value

predicted by formula (5.15) and the value obtained by the program is observed in the

three figures. This difference is mainly related to the neglect of the small terms of the

order O ( 2 ) in arriving at formula (5.15), which is further increased by the relative

shortness of the modelled chimney. The largest relative difference is namely observed

in Figure 5-12 for the lowest length-to-radius-ratio of 10 (and hence a length shorter

than half of the long influence length).

For the calculated length-to-radius-ratios, the program results obtained for more

than five stiffening rings are nearly identical to the cases with five rings.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Figure 5-13 Stress ratio obtained by the program CShell and formula (5.15) for l / a = 20

and a t = 100 .

For the cylinders with stiffening rings, the line through the values obtained by the

program is fairly in line with the line predicted by formula (5.15) unless the spacing

between the stiffening rings is chosen too large. For stiffening rings with a spacing

roundabout equal to and larger than half of the long influence length, the difference

between the program results and the values predicted by the formula increase with

increasing ring stiffness, i.e. decreasing stiffness ratio r . The difference between the

values predicted by the formula and the values obtained by the program is small for the

cases with closely spaced stiffening rings, i.e. with a spacing shorter than half of the

long influence length.

130

Figure 5-14 Stress ratio obtained by the program CShell and formula (5.15) for l / a = 30

and a t = 100 .

To investigate the range of application of formula (5.15) to chimneys with eccentric

stiffening rings, calculations have been made for a radius-to-thickness-ratio of 100 and

200 and with 3 and 5 equally spaced stiffening rings per length-to-radius-ratio. For the

radius-to-thickness-ratio of 100, the length-to-radius-ratios of 10, 20 and 30 have been

considered and for the radius-to-thickness-ratio of 200, the length-to-radius-ratios of

15, 30 and 45 have been considered. For both radius-to-thickness-ratios, these

respective length-to-radius-ratios approximately match with a 0.5, 1 and 1.5 times the

influence length of the long-wave solution. Similar to the case with the symmetric

stiffening rings, the cylinder is clamped at the base and stiffened by a ring at the top

and by rings evenly distributed in between these edges. The centre of gravity of the

rings is located outside the middle plane of the circular cylindrical shell. To present

unambiguous and concise results, only n = 2 and n = 1 are calculated for a first

assessment of the range of application.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

For the radius-to-thickness-ratio of 100 and 200, Figure 5-15, Figure 5-16 and

Figure 5-17 represent the ratio of the total-stress-to-beam-stress with varying amount

of distributed ring stiffness and number of rings and for a length-to-radius-ratios

approximately match with a 0.5, 1 and 1.5 times the influence length of the long-wave

solution, respectively. Similar to the figures for the symmetric rings, the vertical axis

represents the term between the straight brackets of formula (5.15). The value of the

distributed ring stiffness is indicated by the value of the factor r on the horizontal

axis, which is the square root of the stiffness ratio r as defined by (5.14). Not only the

calculated lines for 3 and 5 equally spaced stiffening rings, but also the predicted line

by formula (5.15) is shown.

Figure 5-15 Stress ratio for (left) a t = 100 , l / a = 10 and (right) a t = 200 , l / a = 15 .

Figure 5-16 Stress ratio for (left) a t = 100 , l / a = 20 and (right) a t = 200 , l / a = 30 .

132

Figure 5-17 Stress ratio for (left) a t = 100 , l / a = 30 and (right) a t = 200 , l / a = 45 .

It is striking that in the above figures the course of the stress ratio for a t = 100 with

varying stiffness ratio r is almost identical to the course of that ratio for a t = 200 .

Based on the figures and especially Figure 5-17, it is can be readily observed that for

the case with stiffening rings spaced at a distance equal to or larger than half of the

long influence length, the effectiveness of the rings is reduced compared to adding

more and smaller rings with the same stiffness ratio r . However, the main conclusion

is that the difference between the values predicted by the formula and the values

obtained by the program is increased in comparison with the symmetric ring cases.

Moreover, the formula provides a larger reduction of the total-to-beam stress than that

is actually obtained by the application of the stiffening rings (as calculated by the

program). In other words, the formula overestimates the stiffness of the rings. This

stiffness is calculated by equation (5.17) based on the ring area only, which is

evaluated with respect to the middle surface of the cylinder. The resulting

overestimation of the ring stiffness in formula (5.15) is in full accordance with the

observation and the approach envisaged in the previous subsection.

Based on the above observations, it is proposed to assess the applicability of the

formula (5.15) while adopting a flexural rigidity of the combined ring and the effective

shell length in accordance with

I r , c = z 2 dAc ac 1 z 3dAc

(5.19)

Ac

Ac

which is evaluated with respect to the centre of gravity of the combined section of the

eccentric ring and the effective shell length and the subscript c denotes these

combined quantities.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

For this purpose, calculations have been made for a radius-to-thickness-ratio of 50,

100 and 200 and with a varying number of equally spaced stiffening rings per length-to

radius ratio. For the radius-to-thickness-ratios, the respective length-to-radius-ratios

approximately match with a 0.5, 1 and 1.5 times the influence length of the long-wave

solution. The maximum number of stiffening rings has been chosen such to achieve a

minimum spacing of about 0.2 times the influence length of the long wave solution

while the minimum number of stiffening rings that has been considered is two. The

considered rings are T beams that are bend with the stem inside matching with the

curvature of the shell. The cross-sectional dimensions have been based on practical

considerations related to the thickness of the shell and typical requirements as

prescribed in relevant codes and standards. Three different cross-sections have been

considered to study the impact of this variation with the following generic properties:

a) the web height equal to the flange width,

b) the web height larger than the flange width of the previous case, and

c) the flange width larger that the web height of the first case.

The relevant input data and results of these calculations is summarised in Appendix J.

The following conclusions can be readily drawn from the results of the abovementioned calculations.

The stress ratio between the axial stress at the base due to the self-balancing terms

( n = 2,...,5 ) and the axial stress at the base due to the beam term is rather independent

of the length-to-radius ratio ( l a ) and determined by the distance between the ring

stiffeners lr versus the influence length lin,2= 2 of the long-wave solution for the

respective thickness-to-radius-ratios ( t a ) . Hence, for a certain thickness-to-radiusratio and ring stiffener geometry, the effectiveness of the rings is mainly governed by

the ratio between lr and lin,2= 2 .

For a distance between the ring stiffeners lr larger than a quarter of the influence

length lin,2= 2 of the long-wave solution, the effectiveness of the stiffening rings is limited

as shown by the reduction of the stress ratio between the axial stress at the base due to

the self-balancing terms ( n = 2,...,5 ) and the axial stress at the base due to the beam

term.

To obtain a linear relation between r and the stress ratio, a certain effective

shell length has to be accounted for, which has been determined for the abovementioned cases. These theoretical effective shell lengths to be adopted for the

determination of r are presented in Appendix J. The theoretical effective shell

lengths are (much) shorter than as given by the equations presented in subsection 5.3.2

and the referred tabulated vales in that subsection. In other words, the determined

effective lengths are (much) shorter than 1.56 at .

The target root of the stiffness ratios r and determined effective shell lengths

leff indicate dependence on the stiffener spacing lr , ring dimensions and eccentricity er

134

A suitable formula for the effective shell length could be based on an improved

equation that accounts for the mentioned ring properties. The moment of inertia of the

ring stiffener is accounted for by the resulting r . The following trends are observed

for the effective shell length from the result as presented in Appendix J:

For an increasing distance between the ring stiffeners lr , the effective length

decreases (refer to all cases),

For an increasing shell thickness t , the effective length decreases (refer to all

cases),

For an increasing ring area Ar with approximately the same ring eccentricity

er , the effective length increases slightly (refer to increased width of flange

case)

For an increasing ring area Ar with an increasing ring eccentricity er , the

effective length decreases (refer to increased height web case).

Based on the above general conclusion and a parametric assessment of the sensitivities,

the following relation for the effective length is proposed

2

1 lr t er 2

1 +

Ar a

in which is an additional factor required to obtain sufficient agreement between the

calculated effective length and the length determined from the program results. To this

end, the value of the additional factor should be taken as = 2 which might be further

dependent on the number of waves as the current result have been obtained for the

combination of the mode numbers n = 2 and n = 1 of the wind load. Hence, a proposed

formula for the effective length of the shell is

1

leff

2

n 2 12

t 1 lr t er 2

1+

1 +

4 3 1 2

( ) 2 3(1 2 ) a Ar a

2 at

(5.20)

The values as presented in Appendix J for the effective length differ to a certain extent

from the values as obtained with the proposed formula (especially for the radius-tothickness-ratio of 50). However, this difference is limited considering the impact on the

combined stiffness on the ring and the marked improvement over the much larger

difference as presented in Figure 5-15, Figure 5-16 and Figure 5-17 for r based on

the stiffening ring properties only, i.e. without the combined properties of the ring and

the effective shell length. Furthermore, the prediction by the proposed formula shows

proper agreement in the relevant and practical range with a reduction to 10% - 30% of

the axial stress at the base due to the self-balancing terms ( n = 2,...,5 ) .

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

In this section, the influence of stiffening rings on the behaviour of the long chimney

with a fixed base and a free end has been studied. The presented closed-form solution

(as obtained for such a ring-stiffened long circular cylinder under the wind load

described in section 5.1) and the range of application (as extracted from the previous

subsection) are summarised here for convenience and discussion.

To define the influence measure for the resistance to ovalisation based on the situations

with and without stiffening rings, closed-form solutions are developed for a number of

cases to determine the governing parameters. The cases are investigated based on the

closed-form solutions to the Morley-Koiter equation and comprised the following:

1. A ring in an infinitely long cylinder,

2. A semi-infinitely long cylinder with a ring present at a free edge, and

3. An infinitely long cylinder with equidistant rings.

Based on the solutions for these cases, it is determined that the influence of the

stiffening rings on the behaviour of the cylinder is fully captures by the parameter ring

(5.9), which reads

ring

1 Ir 1

n

2 Db 2 a

Hence, it is concluded that the extensional rigidity of the ring has a negligible influence

on the reduction of the ovalisation in comparison with the influence of the flexural

rigidity and that the relation u zn = nun for the amplitudes of the displacements u and

u z can be adopted. Furthermore, the difference between the ring displacements and the

more distant shell material is reduced within the long influence length originating from

the location of the stiffening ring.

Based on these observations, the SMC approach is proposed for further analysis and

the suitability of this approach is confirmed by a verification of the third case as

analysed with the solutions to the Morley-Koiter equation.

Within the SMC approach, a novel approach is suggested that comprised the

proposal to smear out the bending stiffness of the rings along the bending stiffness of

the cylinder resulting in a modified bending stiffness. The resulting design formula

(5.15) for the maximal tensile stress reads

2

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 r 1 + 3

at

l t

1 2

in which the stiffness ratio r (5.14) represents the ratio of the bending stiffness of the

0xx,nt 5 ( z = t 2 ) = 0.224

circular cylindrical shell only to the modified bending stiffness of the shell (with the

contribution of the ring stiffness per spacing). The root of this factor thus represents the

influence of the stiffening rings on the stress distribution at the base of the long circular

cylindrical shells.

For stiffening rings with their centre of gravity located at the middle surface of the

cylinder, the design formula is verified with the program CShell (with a range of shell

geometries and ring spacing). The stress ratio between the stress due to the mode

136

numbers n = 1 and n = 2 and the stress due to the beam term is obtained by the

program. The calculated stress ratio is fairly in line with the stress ratio predicted by

formula (5.15) unless the spacing between the stiffening rings is chosen too large. For

stiffening rings with a spacing roundabout equal to and larger than half of the long

influence length, the difference between the program results and the values predicted

by the formula increase with increasing ring stiffness, i.e. decreasing stiffness ratio r .

The difference between the values predicted by the formula and the values obtained by

the program is small for the cases with closely spaced stiffening rings, i.e. with a

spacing shorter than half of the long influence length.

For eccentric stiffening rings, the envisaged necessity to account for a certain

effective shell length to determine the equivalent ring stiffness within the SMC

approach is confirmed by the program results (with a range of shell geometries, ring

spacing and ring geometries). Based on these program results, it is shown that the

determined effective lengths are (much) shorter than the existing formulation for the

effective shell length, i.e. 1.56 at . Furthermore, it is shown that the effective shell

length to be accounted for also depends on the stiffener spacing, ring dimensions and

eccentricity.

To match with the results of the program, a preliminary proposal for the effective

length is provided based on the observations above. As a conclusive result could not be

obtained, it is proposed to conservatively take the effective shell length equal to half of

the existing formulation. Considering the applicability of the design formula, a marked

improvement is already achieved by inclusion of a certain effective length and the need

for more improvement within the practical ranges is considered to be unnecessary for

rational first-estimate design of ring-stiffened circular cylindrical shells.

The subject of this section is to investigate the influence of elastic supports on the

behaviour of the long chimney. Additionally, this influence can be captured in a

closed-form solution and the range of application is identified by computational results.

In section 5.2, it is shown that the behaviour can be conveniently related to the

beam mode ( n = 1) . The deformation and stress for the axisymmetric mode ( n = 0 ) are

of no importance on the overall behaviour. It is expected that mainly the response to

the higher modes ( n 2 ) is altered by the presence of an elastic support in comparison

with a cylinder with a clamped support.

For these higher modes, the normal stress resultant nxx at the elastically supported

base is directly related to the induced out-of-roundness (ovalisation) of the cylinder,

which is partly withstood at the base by the planar (circumferential and radial) elastic

supports. As a consequence, the cross-section intends to warp at the base, which in

turn is partly withstood by the axial elastic support and results in the normal stresses at

the base. As the presence of planar elastic supports at the base will reduce the

ovalisation and hence the warping and as the axial elastic support will reduce the

warping that can be counteracted, nxx is reduced accordingly.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The first objective of the next subsection is to define an influence measure for the

resistance to ovalisation based on the situations with and without elastic supports. To

arrive at such a measure, closed-form solutions will be developed for a number of cases

to determine the governing parameters. The second and successive objective is to

extract a useful formula describing the influence of the stiffening rings on the stress at

the base of a long cylinder.

5.4.1 Closed-form solution

For a completely elastic supported edge, the following system of equations for the

boundary conditions at the base ( x = 0 ) is obtained for the modes n 2 .

k xu x

k u

k zu z

kx

x =0

nxx

n

= x

vx

mxx

x=0

(5.21)

(rotational) are introduced.

To solve this system, with the objective to obtain a formula for the stress at the base of

the chimney, terms multiplied by 2 are neglected in comparison to unity. However,

such a solution is too cumbersome for practical use. Hence, some particular cases are

investigated. As a reference, the results of section 5.2 are recalled.

The solution for a clamped base is recalled and reads

C1n = C2n =

n2 1 n

u z

2 2

; C5n = C6n = u zn

which can thus be obtained from the system (5.21) by equating each spring stiffness to

infinity ( k x = k = k z = k = ) .

The solution for the hinged-wall edge ( u x = u = uz = 0, t x = 0 ) is also recalled. It is

almost equal to the solution for a clamped edge and reads

C1n =

n2 1 n

u z

2 2

which can thus be obtained from the system (5.21) by equating the each extensional

spring stiffness to infinity and the rotational spring stiffness to zero

( k x = k = k z = , k = 0 ) .

Various cases of elastic supports are considered for a long chimney, which is

elastically supported at the base and free at the top. Firstly, the presence of an axial

elastic support is considered. Secondly, the influence of both an axial and rotational

elastic support is analysed. Finally, the influence of the combination of a

circumferential and radial elastic support is analysed.

138

For the first case, it is assumed that an axial elastic support k x is present and that the

wall of the cylinder is free to rotate. The displacements in the circular plane ( z -plane)

are supposed to be fixed.

The solution for this elastic supported edge ( k xux = f x , u = uz = 0, t x = 0 ) reads

C1n =

n 2 1 x n

u z

2 2 x + 1

; C2n = 0 ; C5n = u zn

; C6n =

x n

u z

x + 1

x =

kx a 1

k a

= x

E t n E t n n 2 1

(5.22)

This parameter is thus mainly described by the geometrical properties of the cylinder

and the ratio of the axial elastic support to the modulus of elasticity of the cylinder.

By back substitution, the stress resultant nxx and the stress couple mxx are obtained

as

5

nxx2 n 5 ( 0, ) 2 3(1 2 )

n=2

a 2 pn

x

cos n

2

t n 1 x + 1

mxx2 n 5 ( 0, ) = 0

which finally gives for the axial stress distribution at the base

5

2xx n 5 ( 0, , z ) = 2 3 (1 2 )

n=2

a 2 pn

x

cos n

t 2 n 2 1 x + 1

For the second case, it is assumed that, next to the axial elastic support k x , a rotational

elastic support k is also present. The displacements in the circular plane ( z -plane)

are supposed to be fixed, which is equal to the previous case.

The solution for this elastic supported edge ( k xux = f x , u = uz = 0, kx = t x ) reads

C1n =

n 2 1 x n

u z

2 2 x + 1

; C5n = u zn

n 2 1 x

1 n n2 1

x n

+

1

u z

2

2

+ 1 2 x + 1 2

x + 1

in which the parameters x and are introduced as

C2n =

x =

kx a

E t n n2 1

; =

; C6n =

x n

u z

x + 1

k a 2

2

Ea 2 t

By back substitution, the stress resultant nxx and the stress couple mxx are obtained as

5

nxx2 n 5 ( 0, ) 2 3 (1 2 )

n=2

5

mxx2 n 5 ( 0, ) a 2

n=2

a 2 pn

x

cos n

2

t n 1 x + 1

pn

n2

x

1

cos n

2

2

n 1 + 1 x + 1 n n 1 x + 1

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

If the parameter x is large and thus the factor

x

close to unity, the stress

x + 1

2xx n 5 ( 0, , z ) =

5

nxx 2 z 6mxx

a2 p

x 2 z

+

= 2 3 (1 2 ) 2 2 n

3

1 +

cos n

2

t

t t

t n 1 x + 1

t

n=2

1 2 + 1

If the parameter x is not large, the parameter is probably small in the practical

cases and hence the stress couple mxx is almost zero.

The stress at the middle surface is for all cases described by

5

2xx n 5 ( 0, ,0 ) = 2 3(1 2 )

n=2

a 2 pn

x

cos n

2

2

t n 1 x + 1

(5.23)

For the third case, it is assumed that, both a circumferential elastic support k and a

radial elastic support k z are present. The displacement in axial direction is supposed to

be fixed, while the wall of the cylinder is free to rotate.

The solution for this elastic supported edge ( u x = 0, ku = f , k z uz = f z , t x = 0 ) reads

C1n C2n O ( 2 ) ; C5n C6n

z n

u z

z + 1

z = 2

n 2 k z + k a 1

n 2 k z + k a

2

=2

2

2

E

t n n 1

E

t n n2 1 n 1

(5.24)

This parameter is thus mainly described by the geometrical properties of the cylinder

and the ratio of the combined elastic support to the modulus of elasticity of the

cylinder.

The approximate solution above is accurate if the parameter z is not small, since

then the stress couple mxx is almost zero and does not exert influence on the stress

distribution at the base.

By back substitution, the stress resultant nxx and the stress couple mxx are obtained

as

5

nxx2 n 5 ( 0, ) 2 3(1 2 )

n=2

a 2 p zn z

cos n

t n 2 1 z + 1

mxx2 n 5 ( 0, ) 0

which finally gives for the axial stress distribution at the base

5

2xx n 5 ( 0, , z ) = 2 3 (1 2 )

n=2

a 2 p zn z

cos n

t 2 n 2 1 z + 1

(5.25)

The objective of this subsection is to show the range of application of the formulas

(5.23) and (5.25) based on the closed-form solution. Similar to section 5.2, these

formulas predict the tensile axial stress at the base and the windward side of a long

chimney subject to wind load. However, the influence of elastic supports is

incorporated into the formulas.

140

The range of application of these formulas is determined by comparison with

results obtained by the program CShell, which applies for short and long cylindrical

shells and allows accurate modelling of elastic supports. As this program is based on

the closed-form solution, it is obvious that for chimneys much longer than the

influence length an identical result is obtained. For chimneys shorter than the influence

length, the program is more accurate since the formulas do not include the effect of the

edge disturbance that originates at the free edge.

To investigate the range of application of the formula (5.23) to chimneys with an axial

elastic support k x , calculations have been made for a constant radius-to-thickness-ratio

equal to 100 and length-to-radius-ratios of 5, 10, 20 and 40. This range has been

chosen based on the dominating long influence length ( n = 2 ) for the radius-tothickness-ratio equal to 100, which is approximately equal to 20 times the radius. The

parameter x (5.22) has been varied from practically infinity to zero in combination

with a hinged wall, i.e. k equal to zero and the total-stress-to-beam-stress-ratio has

been investigated. The total-stress-to-beam-stress-ratio for a hinged edge

( k x = k = k z = , k = 0 ) can thus be used as a reference. Obviously, if the parameter x

is large, this hinged-wall solution is obtained and, if the parameter x approaches

zero, the total-stress-to-beam-stress-ratio is equal to unity.

As observed from the closed-form solution, the variation of the parameter x has

an identical influence on the course of the total stress-to-beam stress for the different

length-to-radius-ratios. Naturally, the total stress-to-beam stress value differs much as

the hinged-wall solution has a different value for each length-to-radius-ratio. If first

the membrane stress is deducted from the total stress for both the spring stiffness

solution and the hinged-wall solution and then their ratio is taken to obtain a

normalised stress ratio, this normalised stress ratio xn is defined by

xn =

( x )

( = )

0 n 5

xx

0 n5

xx

x

n =1

xx

n =1

xx

2xx n5 ( x )

n=2

2xx n5

n=2

n

x

2

1 x + 1

n=2

= 5

n

n=2 n 1

5

(5.26)

The value of this ratio ranges from zero to unity for all length-to-radius-ratios and is

used as the quantity to plot on the vertical axis against varying spring stiffness. Figure

5-18 shows these normalised curves for the considered four ratios as obtained by the

program CShell and the theoretical curve as obtained by formula (5.23). On the

horizontal axis, the modified parameter x ,mod has been adopted, which is in fact a

reduction of the parameter x (5.22) according to

n n2 1

x ,mod = x

4

3 (1

kx a a

E t t

This modified parameter is thus independent of the mode number n , while the

dependency on the radius-to-thickness-ratio and the elastic properties of the chimney is

preserved.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

From Figure 5-18, it is observed that the three curves for the length-to-radius-ratios

of 10, 20 and 40 almost coincide with the curve predicted by the formula, while the

curve for the smallest length-to-radius ratio, i.e. l a = 5 , markedly differs from the

other curves.

As shown in Figure 5-18, the agreement between the theoretical factor and the

factors calculated by the program CShell is very good and excellent for the higher

length-to-radius ratios. However, it seems that if the length-to-radius-ratio is smaller

than half of the influence length-to-radius-ratio (here lin,2= 2 2a 10 for a t = 100 ), the

closed-form solution is no longer applicable.

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

l/a=5

l/a=10

l/a=20

l/a=40

formula

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.01

0.1

1

10

parameter x, mod (a/t =100)

100

1000

Figure 5-18 Theoretical factor compared with factor for several length-to-radius-ratios.

made for a constant radius-to-thickness-ratio equal to 200 and length-to-radius-ratios of

7.5, 15, 30 and 60, respectively. This range has been chosen based on the influence

length for the radius-to-thickness-ratio equal to 200, which is approximately equal to

30 times the radius.

The results are similar to the results for a radius-to-thickness-ratio equal to 100 as

the variation of the parameter x has an identical influence on the course of the total

stress-to-beam stress. Identical to the presentation of Figure 5-18, the total-to-beamstress-ratio has been normalised against the hinged-wall solution and the plotted

value thus ranges from zero to unity for all length-to-radius-ratios. Figure 5-19 shows

these normalised curves for three considered ratios as obtained by the program CShell

142

and the theoretical curve as obtained by formula (5.23). The curve for l a = 60 is

omitted for clarity as it fully coincides with the theoretical curve. Similar to Figure

5-18 for a t = 100 , only the curve for the smallest length-to-radius ratio, i.e. l a = 7.5 ,

markedly differs from the other curves.

As shown in Figure 5-19, the agreement between the theoretical factor and the

factors calculated by the program CShell is very good and excellent for the higher

length-to-radius ratios. However, it seems that if the length-to-radius-ratio is smaller

than half of the influence length (here lin,2= 2 2a 15 for a t = 200 ), the closed-form

solution is no longer applicable.

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

l/a=7.5

l/a=15

l/a=30

formula

0.2

0.0

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

Figure 5-19 Theoretical factor compared with factor for several length-to-radius-ratios.

Figure 5-18 and Figure 5-19 show that almost identical results are obtained for the

factor, which can be applied to the formula for the stress distribution at the base of a

long chimney, for different radius-to-thickness-ratios. Hence, the validity of the

theoretical formula (5.23) has been verified. The closed-form solution is thus

applicable for any value of the parameter x , which expresses the stiffness of the axial

elastic support, and if the length of the chimney is longer than half of the influence

length for mode number n = 2 , which coincides with the range of application of

formulas (5.5) and (5.6) for a fixed base. In other words, formula (5.23) that

additionally accounts for the presence of an axial elastic support has the same range of

application as the formula without this additional term.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

In the above, it is shown that formula (5.23) based on the closed-form solution is valid

for several radius-to-thickness-ratios and the range of application is specified. Another

formula derived on basis of the closed-form solution is formula (5.25), which describes

the influence of both a circumferential and a radial elastic support at the base of a long

chimney.

To investigate the influence of these elastic supports by varying the parameter z

(5.24), which is a ratio of the combined spring stiffness to the properties of the

cylinder, a radius-to-thickness-ratio has been chosen equal to 100. To determine the

parameter z , it has been assumed that the circumferential spring stiffness k is equal

to the radial spring stiffness k z and, as such, a planar elastic support is provided.

Calculations have been made for length-to-radius-ratios of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20,

respectively. This range has been chosen based on the influence length for the radiusto-thickness-ratio equal to 100, which is approximately equal to 20 times the radius.

Longer chimneys are not considered since, from the previous results for the axial

elastic support described with the parameter x , it can be concluded that the formula is

valid for chimneys longer than the influence length.

The results are similar to the results for the variation of the parameter x . To adopt

the presentation of Figure 5-18 and Figure 5-19, the vertical axis is correspondingly

normalised against the hinged-wall solution. The normalised stress ratio zn is

introduced, which is defined by

zn =

( )

( = )

0 n5

xx

z

0 n 5

xx

z

n =1

xx

n =1

xx

2xx n5 ( z )

n=2

2 n5

xx

n=2

n

z

2

1 z + 1

n=2

= 5

n

2

n=2 n 1

5

(5.27)

The value of this ratio ranges from zero to unity for all length-to-radius-ratios. Figure

5-20 shows these normalised curves for three considered ratios as obtained by the

program CShell and the theoretical curve as obtained by formula (5.25). On the

horizontal axis, the modified parameter z ,mod has been adopted, which is modified of

the parameter z (5.24) according to

z ,mod = z

2 ( n + 1)

2

n2 1

n

4

3 (1

k z a a

E t t

modification of the parameter x to shown the relative influence of the parameters.

The curve for l a = 20 is omitted for clarity as it fully coincides with the

theoretical curve. In comparison with the figures for the influence of an axial elastic

support, it is observed the agreement between the theoretical factor and the factors

calculated by the program CShell is even better than for the variation of the parameter

x . The agreement is even quite good for a length-to-radius-ratio of 2,5, which is much

less than half of the influence length (here lin,2= 2 2a 10 for a t = 100 ).

144

Since the formula for the stress at the base of a chimney is not accurate for a length

smaller than the half influence length, it is remarkable that the closed form solution for

the influence of an elastic supported edge is even more accurate. Additionally, smaller

values than 2,5 for the length over the radius are not practical from an engineering

point of view. However, the range of application for the total stress at the elastic

supported base of a chimney loaded by the wind load is governed by the limitations of

the formula for the clamped or hinged supported base.

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

l/a=2.5

l/a=5

l/a=10

l/a=20

formula

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

Figure 5-20 Theoretical factor compared with factor for several length-to-radius-ratios.

In this section, the influence of elastic supports on the behaviour of the long chimney

with such a support at the base and a free end has been studied. The presented closedform solution (as obtained for such a ring-stiffened long circular cylinder under the

wind load described in section 5.1) and the range of application (as extracted from the

previous subsection) are summarised here for convenience and discussion.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

New design formulas that describe the stress distribution at the elastically supported

base of long cylindrical shells subject to wind load representing a chimney with the

following elastic support conditions are derived:

1. Axial elastic support only,

2. Combination of axial and rotational elastic supports, and

3. Combination of circumferential and radial elastic supports.

For the first case with only the axial elastic support described by the axial spring

stiffness k x , the formula for the maximal tensile stress at the middle surface reads

0xx,nt 5 ( z = 0 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 xn

at

l t

n

x

2

1 x + 1

n=2

xn =

5

n

2

n=2 n 1

5

x =

kx a

E t n n2 1

This parameter is thus mainly described by the geometrical properties of the cylinder

and the ratio of the axial elastic support to the modulus of elasticity of the cylinder.

For the second case with the combination of an axial and a rotational elastic support,

the latter support is described by the rotational spring stiffness k . Similar to parameter

x , a parameter is introduced to describe the influence of the rotational elastic

=

k a 2

2

Ea 2 t

Based on the closed-form solution and practical considerations, it is assessed that the

additional influence of the rotational support will be limited, as the rotational spring

stiffness k will decrease rapidly with decreasing axial spring stiffness k x .

For the third case with the combination of a circumferential and a radial elastic support,

the support is described by the circumferential spring stiffness k and the radial spring

stiffness k z . For this support, the formula for the maximal tensile stress at the middle

surface reads

0xx,nt 5 ( z = 0 ) = 0.224

146

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 zn

at

l t

in which the normalised parameter zn (5.27) is introduced, which is defined by

n

z

2

1 z + 1

n=2

= 5

n

2

n=2 n 1

5

zn

z = 2

n 2 k z + k a

2

2

E

t n n2 1 n 1

This parameter is thus mainly described by the geometrical properties of the cylinder

and the ratio of the combined elastic support to the modulus of elasticity of the

cylinder.

For the axial elastic support (described by x ) and the planar elastic support (described

by z with assumed equal k and k z ), the design formulas are separately verified with

the program CShell (with a range of shell geometries and elastic support properties).

The total-to-beam-stress-ratio for the elastically supported condition is normalised to

the hinged-wall solution. The calculated stress ratios are in close agreement with the

stresses predicted by formulas (5.23) and (5.25).

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

formula axial

formula planar

0.0

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

Figure 5-21 Theoretical factor for axial elastic support and planar elastic support.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Figure 5-21 shows the plot for the theoretical factor in case of varying parameter z

and for a varying parameter x . Similar to the previous plots, the horizontal axis has a

logarithmic distribution. Obviously, the decrease of the latter parameter has more

influence than a decrease of the first. This is clearly related to the ratio of the parameter

z to the parameter x , which reads (for the case that kz = k = k z )

z kz

a n2 + 1

=

2 3(1 2 )

t n2 1

x k x

a

times the parameter x .

t

The physical interpretation for practical cases seems to be that for the stress

distribution at the base of a long chimney, only the axial spring stiffness has to be taken

into account and that the presented formula is applicable for any value of the parameter

x in combination with cylinders longer than half of the influence length of the longwave solution for n = 2 .

148

Solutions obtained by a computer program based on the method presented in chapter 3

are given for short circular cylindrical shell structures. The formulations that are used

in this program are derived in chapter 4. To demonstrate the capability of the

developed program, a numerical study of tanks under the main load-deformation

conditions is performed. The conclusions of this study are given in the chapter 7.

6.1 Introduction

Circular cylindrical tanks are used for storing liquids, gases, solids and mixtures

thereof. Tanks for storing solids are more usually known as silos and these are fitted

with, e.g., a flat top end cap and conical bottom end cap. Liquefied or compressed gas

at substantial pressure is mainly stored in ball tanks or cylindrical tanks with dished

end caps. Such tanks are referred to as pressure vessel, i.e. a closed container designed

to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.

Silos and pressure vessels are not considered in this chapter.

Liquid storage tanks can be horizontal in shape, but large liquid storage tanks for

storing water, oil, fuel, chemicals and other fluids are usually vertical in shape. These

large, thin-walled tanks can be open top and closed top, have fixed roofs, floating roofs

and internal roofs, single walls and double walls, flat bottom, cone bottom, slope

bottom and dish bottom. The functional layout of the tank depends on operational

considerations and the required safety measures and pollution prevention.

A typical large liquid storage tank is obviously much shorter than the long

chimney such that the diameter is of the same order in comparison with the length as

opposed to the chimney. The geometry of such stocky cylinders is typically such that

the diameter is at least equal to the length or that the length can even be much smaller

than the radius, viz. a ratio between radius and length between 0.5 and 3.

For such short lengths between the circular boundaries, the short influence length

has a more marked contribution to the load-deformation behaviour of the cylinder and

the long influence length is much longer than the height of the shell. This feature

prevents that closed-form solution to non-axisymmetric loads similar to those obtained

for the long chimneys in chapter 5 can be readily obtained.

Concrete tanks typically might have a relatively large ratio between radius and

thickness of about 30 - 80, but especially large steel storage tanks are thin-walled such

that the ratio between radius and thickness might even be between 500 and 2,000.

This chapter intends primarily to demonstrate the CShell capability to model the

shell of large vertical liquid storage tanks and additionally to provide tentative insight

into the response of such tank shells to the relevant load and/or deformation conditions,

which is obtained by several calculations with the program CShell and comparison

with the insight as obtained for the behaviour of the long cylinder.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Most liquid storage tanks are constructed of (typically carbon) steel or steel alloys, but

concrete is also used to construct water tanks and tanks with a separate secondary

containment (double wall and full-containment tanks). The choice to adopt concrete for

water tanks is favourable if a longer life and less involved recycling is desired.

Separate concrete outer walls to the inner steel tank walls as secondary containment are

used as a relatively large bunding is not desired or to provide protection to the inner

(stainless) steel inner tank. In these cases, the concrete outer wall functions as catch

basin in case of failure of the inner tank.

Cryogenic liquid storage tanks (for liquefied gases such as LNG, which are

typically stored at very low temperature, but at ambient pressure) typically require fullcontainment tanks that include a primary steel containment tank, a concrete secondary

containment tank that includes a full-vapour barrier and an insulation layer between the

two tanks. The (prestressed) concrete outer tank protects the sensitive inner steel tank

against external hazards and serves as catch basin in case of failure of the inner tank.

Alternatively, a concrete secondary tank with a membrane containment/insulation

system within the concrete secondary tank is adopted. In the latter case, the concrete

secondary tank takes the hydrostatic load. For in ground tanks, the surrounding earth

may be used to provide mechanical support or an in-pit construction is considered in

which the tank is built as a separate unit within the pit that provides containment in

case of leakage and rupture. The combined mechanical behaviour of the tanks in case

of a full-containment concept and, for in ground tanks, the interaction of the soil and

varying internal fluid level pose some more involved analyses which are not

considered in this chapter.

Oil and oil products are most commonly stored in large vertical cylindrical carbon

steel tanks at atmospheric pressure or at low pressure.

A tank might have an open top (e.g. in case of water storage) and, depending on the

type of liquid, a cover to the contents may be provided to reduce evaporation or ingress

of contaminants. Generally and especially for liquid fuel (oil and oil products), the

choice between a fixed roof tank and a floating roof tank depends on the flash point of

the particular fluid.

Fixed roof tanks are used to store liquids with very high flash points (fuel oil,

water, bitumen, etc.). Such tanks typically have cone roofs, dome roofs and umbrella

roofs. Dome roofs are provided to tanks with a slightly higher than ambient storage

pressure. These tanks might be insulated to prevent clogging of the fluid by internal

(bottom) heating.

Floating roof tanks are broadly divided into external floating roof tanks and

internal floating roof tanks. The floating roof rises and falls with the liquid level inside

the tank whereby the vapour space above the liquid level is decreased and consequently

a much smaller risk of internal tank explosion is achieved. In principle, the floating

roof eliminates emission of air pollutants and greatly reduces the evaporative loss of

the stored liquid. External floating roof tanks are used to store medium flash point

liquids (naphtha, kerosene, diesel, crude oil, etc.). These tanks do not have a fixed roof

(i.e. the tank is open at the top). Internal floating roof tanks are used to store liquid with

150

low flash points (aviation fuel, gasoline, ethanol, etc.). These tanks have both a fixed

roof at the top and a floating roof inside the tank.

A fixed roof provides an adequate radial (and tangential) restraint to the top of the

tank wall due to its high membrane stiffness. This restraint is considered to be a full

circular restraint to the tank wall. For a floating roof, a flexible seal is normally

provided between the tank shell and the edge of the roof. Hence, the roof provides little

restraint on the tank shell and this influence can be neglected.

The tank floor is generally formed by a thin steel membrane consisting of welded

plates and acts principally as a seal to the tank. These steel bottom plates are laid and

fully supported on a prepared foundation. The pressure of the contents is directly

transmitted to the base (e.g. compact soil foundation, pile-supported, concrete ring or

slab foundation). Alternatively, a reinforced concrete slab can be adopted as also

commonly provided for water tanks. The bottom plates are welded to the shell wall (or

alternatively the shell wall is connected to a reinforced concrete slab) and, due to the

high membrane stiffness of the floor, this shell-to-floor junction provides a full circular

restraint to the shell wall (i.e. no radial and tangential displacement). The tank might be

freely placed on its foundation (unanchored) or anchored (typically by vertical anchor

bolts connected to a pile-supported concrete strip foundation or long prestressed anchor

bolts with grout anchors). The anchorage can thus be modelled as a (rather) stiff soil

spring that acts as a (nearly) rigid support to the shell wall.

This chapter further focuses mainly on large, single wall, concrete or steel, vertical

tanks for the storage of liquids at low or ambient temperatures and with a design

pressure near ambient pressure which are either closed or open at the top. The design of

such tanks can be divided in three major areas; 1) the shell, 2) the bottom, and 3) the

roof. The bottom and roof layout of the tank typically vary with the operational

conditions, preferences and safety requirements. In any case, these provide a rigid

support, no support, or an elastic (intermediate) support to the tank shell. In view of the

capability of the CShell program, the next sections focus on the shell of the tank while

considering the various connections of the shell to the top and bottom.

The typical design loads specifically for the shell wall are the following:

Dead load (the weight of the tank or tank component)

Superimposed loads (roof live load, snow, partial internal vacuum, etc)

Stored liquid load (the load due to filling the tank to maximum capacity with

liquid with the design specific gravity)

Wind load (wind pressure on vertical areas and, in case of fixed roof, load

from uplift pressure on the roof)

Seismic load (for specific areas only and not considered for the present

purpose)

External loads and constraints (shell connections/nozzles allowing inlet, outlet

and drainage, and venting, and ladders, stairs, platforms, shell

openings/manholes providing access for inspection and maintenance, etc.)

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Axial stresses due to dead and superimposed load in the shell with a wall designed to

carry the content load are typically of a relatively low stress level due to the high

membrane stiffness of the tank wall. The external loads and constraints affect only the

localized behaviour of the shell and are typically not governing for the overall design.

Three main load-deformation conditions can therefore be identified for the overall

response of the tank wall:

Content load (especially when being filled to maximum capacity)

Wind load (especially for the open top tank and external floating roof tank)

Settlement induced load and/or deformation

6.3.1 Content load

The content load obviously depends on the density and level of the fluid that is stored

in the tank. The relative density of typical fluids, such as crude oil and white oil

products, is less than unity, As the hydrostatic test of tanks for such liquids is normally

performed by filling with water, a minimum density of 1000 kg/m3 is conservatively

adopted and obviously the full capacity of the tank should be considered.

The content provides an axisymmetric hydrostatic internal pressure on the wall of

the vertical cylinder, which induces an increase of the initial diameter and a

corresponding simple hoop tension. In vertical direction, this circumferential tension

varies linearly and directly with the static head of the fluid. Normally, no

circumferential stiffening is required to counteract this action. At the shell-to-bottom,

the full radial restraint of the tank wall induces axial bending stresses along the short

influence length and reduces the radial displacement (to zero at the bottom) and

corresponding circumferential stress in that disturbance length.

6.3.2 Wind load

The wind load is described in section 5.1. The shape of the circumferential distribution

of the wind load depends roughly on the geometry of the chimney and varies from code

to code but has the common characteristic that only a part of the circumference, the socalled stagnation zone, is under circumferential compression, while the remainder is

under suction. For convenience, the wind load distribution as described by expression

(5.1) is adopted.

Overturning and sliding stability of the tank under wind load needs to be evaluated

and, if necessary, the required anchorage should be defined. Anchorage is typically

required for taller tanks with smaller ratios between radius and length.

Due to the wind load, the cross-section of the tank tends to distort into an oval

shape. At the shell-to-bottom, the full circular restraint of the tank wall in combination

with an axial restraint in case of anchorage, induces axial bending stresses along the

long influence length that are resulting from the withstood out-of-roundness as

similarly observed for the chimney under wind load.

In case of closed, fixed roof tanks, the roof provides an adequate restraint to

maintain the roundness of the tank. The wind load is then mainly carried by axial

tensile stresses at the windward side and compressive stresses at the leeward side, i.e.

mainly by beam action of the shell. For open top and external floating roof tanks,

circumferential primary wind girders are normally externally provided at or near the

152

tank top to maintain the roundness and stability of the tank under wind load (especially

while emptying the tank). Especially for tall tanks, secondary wind girders at intervals

in the height of the tank might be required to prevent local buckling.

6.3.3 Settlement induced load and/or deformation

Large cylindrical storage tanks constructed on soft foundations may be subjected to

various types of shell deflections due to settlement of the foundation. The subject,

cause and consequences of these foundation settlements and implication on the

response and requirements to large storage tank has been investigated by, for example,

Malik et al. [55], Marr et al. [56] and Godoy and Sosa [57].

The foundation settlements can be described in terms of three components; 1)

uniform settlement, 2) planar tilt, and 3) circumferential settlement (non-planar or

differential settlement). The uniform settlement and planar tilt cause rigid body

displacement and rotation of the tank and are therefore of relatively little importance

for the overall design.

Even a minimal non-planar settlement leads to serious consequences for the tank

structure. For liquid storage tanks with a floating-cover-system, the non-planar

settlement of the foundation often results in jamming of the cover. It turns out that at

some height of the cylinder the shape of the cross-section becomes elliptic, which is at

first sight the unlikely consequence of the vertical displacements of the bottom. The

explanation of this phenomenon is found in the well-known principle of the inextensional deformations. The feature of the in-extensional deformations is that the

strains of the middle surface are equal to zero. As thin-walled structure, which is much

stiffer in-plane than perpendicular to its plane, a shell has a strong preference for such

deformations.

Take a cylindrical shell, open at the top and with a thin bottom, as shown in Figure

6-1 in which a double sinusoidal settlement ( n = 2 ) is depicted at the bottom. The

shell-to-floor junction prevents the opposite points Q from moving inward and the

opposite points Q from moving outward. In order to keep the developed length of the

circumference constant and not to induce any axial strain, the generatrices PQ have to

turn inward and the generatrices PQ have to turn outward such that the areas PQQP

follow the turning over without shear deformation in the plane of the shell. With this it

is made roughly clear that the curving of the bottom causes an increasing ovality with

increasing height. As shown in [43], the depicted in-extensional deformation is

obtained by equating the middle surface strains of the kinematical relation (4.4) equal

to zero. Adopting a sinusoidal settlement with wave number n , the normal

displacement u z is to the axial displacement u x as n 2 x to the radius a where x

denotes the axial coordinate from the bottom of the shell. For a cylinder with height a

and a general sagging of the cylinder ( n = 2 ) , the horizontal displacement at the top is

thus equal to 4 times the vertical displacement.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The settlement induced out-of-roundness thus results in both inward and outward

deflections. Inward deflections may impede the motion of the floating roof. Outward

deflections may cause loss of the flexible seal between the tank shell and the edge of

the roof. In case of an anchorage at the bottom and in case of a fixed roof or wind

girder at the top, the in-extensional deformation as described above cannot be fully

realized, as the restraints at the top and bottom do not necessarily conform to the

settlement of its foundation. Hence, not only the settlement induced out-of-roundness

in the upper parts of the tank, but also high circumferential stress developed in the

primary wind girder and high axial stresses developed at the tank bottom may be

induced by the circumferential settlement.

Figure 6-1 In-extensional deformation of a circular cylindrical shell with a thin bottom and

an open top.

Based on the main load-deformation conditions for the shell as described in the

previous subsections, the following relevant cases have been identified for the shell of

the tank:

Content load of a fully filled tank,

Wind load on the tank with various top restraints, and

Circumferential settlement of the foundation with various top restraints.

For the hydrostatic load and the wind load both steel tanks and concrete tanks have

been analyzed, while only steel shells have been considered for the settlement analyses.

154

6.4.1 Concrete tank

A concrete tank with radius a , height l and uniform wall thickness t is considered

which is complete filled with water with density w as shown in Figure 6-2.

Figure 6-2 Circular cylindrical concrete tank connected to a thick flat plate.

For such a simple case, the solution can be obtained by elementary analysis. The

content provides an axisymmetric hydrostatic internal pressure on the wall of the

vertical cylinder equal to pz = w ( l x ) in which x = 0 at the bottom of the tank. Over

the distance l between the two edges, the geometrical and material properties are taken

as constant. This means that the response to the wind load can be calculated by the

solution to the differential equation (4.21) that is given in subsection 4.4.3. This

solution has to be complemented by the appropriate boundary conditions that are given

by

x =0;

clamped:

u x = u x = 0 ; u z = u z = 0 ; x = x = 0

x=l;

free:

f x = nxx = 0 ;

f z = vx = 0 ; t x = mxx = 0

solution (refer to subsection 4.4.3) thus reads

a2

(l x )

Et

a2

x ( x ) = w

Et

a 1

u x ( x ) = w l x x

Et 2

uz ( x ) = w

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

By solving the equations for the boundary conditions, the constants of the full solution

are obtained. Assuming that the length of the cylinder is larger than the (short)

influence length li , only the edge disturbance originating from the bottom edge has to

be taken into account. By back substitution of these constants in the approximated

expressions, the circumferential stress resultant n and the bending stress resultant mxx

become

x

1

n = w al 1 e x cos x + 1 sin x

l

l

1

l

mxx = w 2 ex 1 cos x sin x

2

l

which is in fact the membrane solution plus an edge disturbance originating from the

bottom. This edge disturbance will not be correct if the bottom is also unrestrained

such that it fully accommodates a radial displacement.

These quantities and the approximate values at characteristic points are shown in

Figure 6-3 for a thick concrete tank. The lateral contraction of the material is not

accounted for as Poissons ratio is chosen as = 0 . The density of water is taken

w = 10 kN 3 . The adopted dimensions are proportionally chosen as a = 3m , t = 0.3m

m

and l = 4m . The straight line in the diagram of n represents the inhomogeneous

solution and thus also represents the membrane response. The plot of n obviously has

the same course as the plot of the normal displacement u z .

The thickness-to-radius-ratio, which is equal to

t

1

=

, is deliberately chosen large to

a 10

show that, even for this thick shell, the influence length of the edge disturbance for the

axisymmetric behaviour is actually very short. This means that in almost every case the

influence of one edge on the other will be negligible. Furthermore, it means that the

inhomogeneous solution describes the global behaviour of the shell and that a bending

field only disturbs this global behaviour of the shell over a relatively short section of

the shell.

To illustrate the fact that the edge disturbance is indeed very short for a thin shell under

axisymmetric loading, the same calculation is made for a tank with the same length and

radius, but with a thickness t = 0.03m (see Figure 6-4). So the thickness-to-radius ratio

is equal to the rather thin value

t

1

=

and the disturbance therefore influences a

a 100

much shorter length of the shell. This results in a higher peak of the circumferential

stress resultant n , but greatly reduces the peak of the bending stress resultant mxx .

156

Figure 6-3 A tank wall ( a = 10t ) rigidly connected to a thick bottom plate.

Figure 6-4 A tank wall ( a = 100t ) rigidly connected to a thick bottom plate.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

6.4.2 Steel tank

For practical reasons, steel tanks are built up from fairly small rectangular pieces of

carbon steel plate, which are curved in a cylindrical shape and joined by butt-welding.

The shell is thus built up in rings (also referred to as courses) and typically the

thickness of the plates varies with the internal pressure, i.e. thicker plates are applied in

the lower courses and thinner plates in the upper courses.

A steel tank (material properties taken as E = 210 106 kN m 2 and = 0.3 ) with

radius a = 10m , height l = 20m and varying wall thickness is modelled as completely

filled with water (density taken as w = 10 kN 3 ). The bottom edge ( x = 0 ) is fully

m

fixed and the top ( x = l ) is free. The thickness of the shell courses has been applied as

follows from the bottom to the top ( h indicates height of the respective courses or

courses with the same thickness)

h = 2.5m t = 11mm

h = 2.5m t = 9.5mm

h = 2.5m t = 8.5mm

h = 5.0m t = 7.5mm

h = 7.5m t = 7.0mm

The relevant displacements and stresses are shown in Figure 6-5 and Figure 6-6.

The circumferential stress resultant n varies rather linear with the content level up to

the region near the bottom where the radial displacement is fully restraint. The small

disturbances coincide with the transitions in course thickness. It is obvious that the

course of the circumferential stress and the displacement u z are identical, as

expected. The shape of the hoop stress diagram is reduced by the increased thickness of

the courses towards the bottom the tank. The smooth changes are clarified by the

stiffening effect of the thicker plate to the thinner plate above, which can be considered

as a partial restraint at the bottom edge of the thinner plate. The axial stress associated

with the bending stress resultant mxx is quite considerable, but in fact an anchored tank

is modelled. If the tank is not anchored, an elastic rotational support is present that

allows some rotation of the shell-to-floor junction, which effectively reduces the

bending stresses at the bottom. Large tanks may alternatively have rounded corners

(transition from vertical wall to bottom profile) to easier withstand these

hydrostatically induced stresses with the additional benefit of reducing localized

stresses in case of planar tilt.

158

Figure 6-5 Steel tank with content load, displacement u z and circumferential stress

along the height.

Figure 6-6 Steel tank with content load, stress resultants n and mxx along the height.

6.5.1 Concrete tank

In this subsection the response of two different concrete storage tanks under the wind

load (5.1) is presented. The two cases are:

1. A storage tank, which is clamped at the base, with a free edge at the top; and

2. The same storage tank, but with a fully rigid roof at the top.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The rigid roof is modelled as a ring with a very high modulus of elasticity so that the

ring is non-deformable by in-plane actions and thus provides a circular restraint to the

top. At the bottom an anchored condition is considered, as wind load is typically more

important for taller tanks that are normally anchored against overturning. The

anchorage provides a certain elastic axial and rotational support to the tank shell. For

the present purpose, a full axial and rotational restraint to the shell wall is considered.

If a more realistic elastic support in axial direction (in combination with a congruent

rotational support) is adopted, no considerable impact on the response is envisaged in

view of the high stiffness of the soil springs generated by either the prestressed anchor

bolts or the pile foundation.

The geometrical properties of both concrete shells are the same

( l = 30m, a = 25m, t = 0.3m ) and for the material properties E = 35 106 kN m2 and = 0.2

are used.

The anchored case is in fact identical to the analyses as presented in a previous

paper by Hoefakker and Blaauwendraad [58], which provided program results for tanks

based on the solution to the Donnell equation for n > 1 . In the current program, the

Morley-Koiter equation has been implemented for all load-deformation behaviours and

a one to one comparison with the Donnells solution is hereby available.

From the following figures, it is observed that in view of the magnification factors

the deformation is drastically reduced by the (rigid) stiffening ring and that the axial

stress xx for n = 1 is distributed like a clamped-free beam and that for n > 1 this stress

is distributed like a clamped-hinged beam in case of a rigid roof. Interesting is the fact

that the bending stress resultant is mainly described by the short influence length and

that the membrane stress resultant is described by either the polynomial solution (viz.

the membrane solution) or the long influence length.

Furthermore, it is observed that the magnitude of the stress resultants and crosssectional deformation is much smaller in comparison with the values reported in [58]

based on the solution to the Donnell equation for n > 1 . The stress resultant nxx is

reduced by about 20% at the base of the tank with the free edge and, in case of a rigid

roof, the maximum along the tank height is reduced by about 33%. Moreover, the

stress resultant mxx at the base is reduced by 50%. For this particular case, a large

reduction in the outer fibre stress at the base is thus observed. To present similar graphs

for the cross-sectional deformation, the magnification factors in [58] are 5000 for the

free edge and 15000 for the rigid roof. The comparison of the two solutions for this

particular case once more shows that description of the quantities and the shape of the

diagrams are properly described by the Donnell equation but that to predict the

magnitude of these quantities the Morley-Koiter equation should be considered.

Finally, the stress resultant nxx at the base is about 120 N mm under the applied

wind load. This value is even less than the axial stress at the base under the dead

weight of the concrete shell only. Adopting a typical density of 2400kg m3 for

concrete, the dead weight stress at the base becomes glt 210 N mm . In this particular

case, it can thus be concluded that the dead weight virtually provides a full axial

restraint at the bottom of the shell.

160

Figure 6-7 Cross sectional deformation of the anchored tank with a free edge (left) at the

top ( 3000) and of the anchored tank with a rigid roof (right) at half the length of the

cylinder ( 18000).

Figure 6-8 Anchored tank with a free edge (left) and with a rigid roof (right), nxx at = 0 .

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Figure 6-9 Anchored tank with a free edge (left) and with a rigid roof (right), mxx at = 0 .

Figure 6-10 Anchored tank with a free edge (left) and with a rigid roof (right), nxx at

x=0.

162

6.5.2 Steel tank

In this subsection the response of two different steel storage tanks (material properties

taken as E = 210 106 kN m 2 and = 0.3 ) under the wind load (5.1) is presented. The

two cases are:

1. A storage tank, which is clamped at the base, with a free edge at the top; and

2. The same storage tank, but with a (steel) wind girder at the top.

In line with the observations of the previous subsection, the connection at the base is

modelled as a full axial and rotational restraint to the shell wall. These cases are

considered to show the impact of the wind girder on the stress distribution and the

deformation of the tank.

A typical geometry for a steel storage tank with a wind girder is a t = 1000 , l a = 1

and g = 20 where the ratio g represents the bending rigidity of the wind girder itself

to the tank wall. Hence, a tank with l = a = 10m is considered that is built up from

various courses with varying plate thickness as exemplified in subsection 6.4.2 while

maintaining roughly the typical ratio of a t = 1000 . The thickness of the shell courses

has been applied as follows from the bottom to the top ( h indicates height of the

respective courses or courses with the same thickness)

h = 2.5m t = 12.5mm

h = 2.5m t = 10.0mm

h = 5.0m t = 7.5mm

The corresponding tank wall bending stiffness (viz. shell bending rigidity times the

tank height) is thus equal to

Dbl =

E

ht 3

12 (1 2 )

For the present purpose, the wind girder is conveniently modelled as an eccentric

annular plate with width hg = 250mm and thickness t g = 12.5mm resulting in a

circumferential bending rigidity of the wind girder EI g =

Ehg 3t g

12

centre of gravity.

From the following figures, it is observed that the influence of the modelled ring is

confined to a limited length from the top, viz. only affects the shell behaviour within

the short influence length and does not markedly influence the overall behaviour. Note

that although the total radial displacement u z at the top and = 0 is larger with the

wind girder, the maximum radial displacement is slightly smaller with the wind girder

( 0.9mm ) compared to the case with the free edge (1.0mm ) .

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Figure 6-11 Cross-sectional deformation at the top of a steel tank with a free edge (left) (

2000) and with a wind girder (right) ( 2000).

Figure 6-12 Steel tank with a free edge (left) and with a wind girder (right), u z at = 0 .

164

Figure 6-13 Steel tank with a free edge (left) and with a wind girder (right), xx at = 0

and at outer face of the cylinder.

Figure 6-14 Steel tank with a free edge (left) and with a wind girder (right), m at the top.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

In this section, the response of the steel tank with the wind girder of the previous

subsection (case 2) under a non-planar settlement is presented. For the present purpose,

the non-planar settlement is conveniently considered to induce a general sagging of the

tank shell, i.e., a full circumferential settlement with mode number n = 2 is considered,

which is described by

ux ( ) =

us , max

(1 + cos 2 )

2

in which us ,max is the maximum settlement along the circumference. Values up to

us , max = 50mm are typically considered. As the constant term only produces a rigid body

motion of the shell, this term is further ignored. Hence, only a settlement with mode

number n = 2 and top value of 25mm is modelled.

The geometry and material properties are taken identical to those of the previous

subsection, but at the bottom the tank is modelled as freely supported in axial and

rotational direction. In other words, at the bottom of the tank a prescribed axial

displacement without rotational constraint is modelled.

As stated in subsection 6.3.3, an assessment based on in-extensional behaviour of a

cylinder with height equal to its radius a subject to a general sagging of the tank

( n = 2 ) revealed that the radial displacement u z at the top of such a cylinder is thus

equal to 4 times the axial displacement u x of the settlement and 2 times the

circumferential displacement u along the shell height.

From the following figures, it is observed that the circumferential settlement

indeed mainly induces an in-extensional deformation and corresponding stresses.

Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of the modelled ring is confined to a

limited length from the top, viz. only affects the shell behaviour within the short

influence length and does not markedly influence the overall behaviour.

The step change in the diagram of x is obviously in line with the height of the

shell courses, but the rather large variations rather misrepresent the behaviour, as the

values of this stress are relatively small. Hence, it is observed that the ring at the top

only influences the circumferential stress and the axial stress and hardly affect the

deformation.

166

Figure 6-15 Steel tank with a wind girder under a circumferential settlement, xx at = 0

and at = 0 (right) and both at outer face of the cylinder.

Figure 6-16 Steel tank with a wind girder under a circumferential settlement, x at

= 45deg and at outer face of the cylinder (left) and u x at = 0 (right).

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Figure 6-17 Steel tank with a wind girder under a circumferential settlement, u at

= 45deg (left) and u z at = 0 (right).

Figure 6-18 Steel tank with a wind girder under a circumferential settlement,

circumferential stress ring .

168

7 Conclusions

7 Conclusions

Review of the first-order approximation theory for thin shells

To understand the assumptions and simplifications, which are introduced to obtain the

appropriate thin shell equations, the set of equations resulting from a fundamental

derivation for thin elastic shells has been reproduced. To arrive at a consistent and

reliable first-order approximation theory of shells of revolution, two expansions have

been explored. The most adopted approach in previous work is the expansion of the

strain description that adopts the changes of rotation, while only few authors have

considered the changes of curvature. In this research, it is shown that the expansion of

the strain description that adopts the changes of curvature should preferably be

considered. Hence, this approximation and simplification is only effected in the

constitutive relation, while the kinematical and equilibrium relations maintain to be

solely based on the adopted assumptions. Mathematically consistent, the boundary

conditions have been derived by making use of the principle of virtual work. It has

been concluded that, while simultaneously approximating the constitutive relation, the

combined internal stress resultants of the boundary conditions need to be congruently

approximated to avoid misleadingly representing a greater accuracy than that is

attributed to expressions of the underlying relations. Hence, a mathematically

consistent set of equations representing a first-order approximation theory cannot be

derived.

Computational method and expeditious PC-oriented computer program

An objective was to develop a computer program for the typical shells of revolution,

i.e. circular cylindrical, conical and spherical shells. Due to required effort identified

during the development of such a super element program for circular cylinders and

upon inspection of the sets of equations for conical and spherical shells, it has been

decided to fully focus on circular cylindrical shells as a first, but complete and

successful step towards more applications.

The implementation of the super element approach into a PC-oriented computer

program (using the Fortran-package in combination with graphical software) has

resulted in an expeditious, stable and well-working tool that can be used by structural

analysts for rational first-estimate design of long and short circular cylindrical shells.

The accuracy and reliability of the developed program is conclusively demonstrated by

the finite element verification for long and short circular cylindrical shells. The

numerical study conducted for large vertical liquid storage tanks demonstrated the

capability and user-friendliness of the program.

General solutions to the circular cylindrical shell equations

The so-called Morley-Koiter equation is an approximation of the exact equation for

circular cylindrical shells. It has been shown that this equation is mathematically the

most suitable equation for substitution if compared to similar equations with the same

accuracy of other authors.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The equation overcomes both the completeness of Flgges approach in retaining

second-order terms, which do not exceed the accuracy of the initial assumptions, and

the inaccuracy of Donnells simplifications in its inability to describe rigid-body modes

but preserves its elegance and simplicity.

The exact roots to the Morley-Koiter equation have been obtained and, albeit being

surplus to requirements, the presented solution is a unification of former results by

other authors. To facilitate insight in the prevailing parameters of the shell response to

the respective load-deformation conditions, approximate roots have been derived for

the axisymmetric, beam-type, and non-axisymmetric load-deformation conditions.

The approximate solution for the self-balancing modes has been compared with

several similar solutions obtained by parameter perturbation, which conclusively

confirmed that the Morley-Koiter equation accurately describes the behaviour of thin

circular cylindrical shells.

Furthermore, it can be concluded that the perturbation technique is highly suitable

for obtaining roots of the reduced equation, especially in the case that obtaining exact

and closed-form solutions is very involved.

Parametric study of long circular cylindrical shells (chimneys)

The formulations that are implemented in the PC-oriented computer program are the

approximated solutions to the Morley-Koiter equation for circular cylindrical shell.

Design formulas, based on closed-form solutions to the Morley-Koiter equation and an

equation derived by the semi-membrane concept, and numerical solutions obtained by

the developed program are given for long circular cylindrical shell structures, i.e. long

in comparison with their radius (for example industrial, steel chimneys).

Design formula without stiffening rings or elastic supports

The design formula that describes the stress distribution at the fixed base of long

cylindrical shells subject to wind load representing a chimney without stiffening rings

has been derived, which reads for the maximal tensile stress at the outer surface

0xx,nt 5 ( z = t 2 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 1 + 3

at

l t

1 2

for the specified wind load. By introduction of the characteristic lengths l1 = at and

l2 = 4 atl 2 , this formula can be alternatively written as

l

0xx,nt 5 ( z = t 2 ) = 0.224 pw

l1

a

1 + 6.39 1 2 1 + 3

1 2

2

The term within the round brackets describes the effect of a full rotational constraint

and should be omitted in case the shell wall is free to rotate at the base.

This design formula is a marked improvement of the existing formula that is based

on the Donnell equation and comprises excellent agreement with existing numerical

simulations over a large range of shell geometries. The design formula expresses the

influence of the self-balancing terms ( n = 2,...,5 ) by their ratio to the response to the

beam term ( n = 1) . Furthermore, the range of application (as extracted from the

program results) has been conclusively determined for long circular cylindrical shells

170

7 Conclusions

having a length-to-radius-ratio ranging from 10 to 30 and a radius-to-thickness-ratio

ranging from 50 to 400. The formula is shown to be applicable to cylinders longer than

half of the influence length of the long-wave solution for n = 2 . This range of

application is equivalently determined in terms of the introduced characteristic length,

which provided that the formula is applicable to cylinders with a characteristic length

l2 longer than its radius a .

Design formula with stiffening rings

A useful formula describing the influence of the stiffening rings on the stress at the

base of a long cylinder has been developed. To define the influence measure for the

resistance to ovalisation based on the situations with and without stiffening rings,

closed-form solutions were developed for a number of cases to determine the

governing parameters. It is shown that (i) the extensional rigidity of the ring has

negligible influence on the reduction of the ovalisation in comparison with the

influence of the flexural rigidity and (ii) the difference between the ring displacements

and the more distant shell material is reduced within the long influence length

originating from the location of the stiffening ring. Based on these observations for the

more rigorous approach and a resulting simplification based on the SMC approach, a

novel approach has been suggested that comprised the proposal to smear out the

bending stiffness of the rings along the bending stiffness of the cylinder resulting in a

modified bending stiffness. The resulting design formula for the maximal tensile stress

reads

0xx,nt 5 ( z = t 2 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 r 1 + 3

at

l t

1 2

or alternatively

4

a

2

1 + 6.39 1 r 1 + 3

1 2

2

in which the stiffness ratio r represents the ratio of the bending stiffness of the

0 n 5

xx , t

l

( z = t 2 ) = 0.224 pw

l1

circular cylindrical shell only to the modified bending stiffness of the shell (with the

contribution of the ring stiffness per spacing). The root of this factor thus represents the

influence of the stiffening rings on the stress distribution at the base of the long circular

cylindrical shells.

For stiffening rings with their centre of gravity located at the middle surface of the

cylinder, the design formula has been verified to be applicable for the cases with

closely spaced stiffening rings, i.e. with a spacing shorter than half of the long

influence length for n = 2 (as extracted from the program results with a range of shell

geometries and ring spacing). In this case, the ring stiffness is to be determined based

on the properties of the ring only.

For eccentric stiffening rings, it was envisaged that a certain effective shell length

has to be accounted for to determine the equivalent ring stiffness within the SMC

approach, which was confirmed by the program results (with a range of shell

geometries, ring spacing and ring geometries). Based on these program results, it is

proposed to conservatively take the effective shell length equal to half of the existing

formulation, as a conclusive result could not be obtained. Considering the applicability

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

of the design formula, a marked improvement is already achieved by inclusion of a

certain effective length and the need for more improvement within the practical ranges

is considered to be unnecessary for rational first-estimate design of ring-stiffened

circular cylindrical shells.

Design formula with elastic supports

The design formula that describes the stress distribution at the fixed base of long

cylindrical shells subject to wind load representing a chimney with axial elastic support

has been derived, which reads for the maximal tensile stress at the middle surface

0xx,nt 5 ( z = 0 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 xn

at

l t

or alternatively

4

a

1 + 6.39 1 2 xn

l2

in which the normalised stress ratio xn is introduced, which depends on the respective

l

0xx,nt 5 ( z = 0 ) = 0.224 pw

l1

factors and mode number of the load and the parameter x , which in turn is mainly

described by the geometrical properties of the cylinder and the ratio of the axial elastic

support to the modulus of elasticity of the cylinder.

Similarly, the design formula that describes the influence of a combined

circumferential and radial elastic support has been derived, which reads for the

maximal tensile stress at the middle surface

0xx,nt 5 ( z = 0 ) = 0.224

l2

a a

pw 1 + 6.39 1 2 zn

at

l t

or alternatively

4

a

1 + 6.39 1 2 zn

l2

in which the normalised stress ratio zn is introduced, which depends on the respective

l

0xx,nt 5 ( z = 0 ) = 0.224 pw

l1

factors and mode number of the load and the parameter z , which in turn is mainly

described by the geometrical properties of the cylinder and the ratio of the combined

elastic support to the modulus of elasticity of the cylinder.

The factors with the elastic support parameter thus represent the influence of the

respective elastic supports on the stress distribution at the base of the long circular

cylindrical shells. The range of application (as extracted from the program results) of

these new formulas has been conclusively determined for long circular cylindrical

shells having a radius-to-thickness-ratio of 100 and 200, respectively, and a varying

length-to-radius-ratio based on the long influence length of the long-wave solution for

n = 2 . The formulas are shown to be applicable to cylinders for which the characteristic

length l2 is larger or equal to its radius.

172

7 Conclusions

It is concluded that, in case of an elastic support to a long circular cylinder, only

the axial spring stiffness has to be taken into account and that the presented formula is

applicable for any value of the parameter x in combination with cylinders longer than

half of the influence length of the long-wave solution for n = 2 .

Reflection on objective and scope of the research

The development of a super element program for circular cylindrical shells and the

derivation of design formulas based on parametric studies could only have been

successfully performed with the aid of the generic knowledge of the shell behaviour in

combination with the presented closed-form solutions. To arrive at practical closedform solution based on first-order approximation theories for thin elastic shells, the

basic and generic knowledge of the shell behaviour, the prevailing parameters and the

underlying theories are essential, which is most apparently demonstrated for the cases

of the ring stiffened and elastically supported circular cylindrical shells.

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174

Appendices

Appendices

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176

Appendices

Appendix A

of a surface

(Struik [59])

Curve

Consider a 3-dimensional space described by the Cartesian coordinates x1 , x2 , x3 . The

parametric representation of a curve with respect to the parameter is given by

3

x = xi ( ) ei .

i =1

differential increment vector along the curve, which for Cartesian coordinates is given

by

3

i =1

2

( ds )

Because

dx

is thus a unit vector in the direction of dx and hereby tangent to the

ds

t=

dx

.

ds

dt

= k = kn

ds

in which n is the unit normal vector in the direction of the principal normal to the

curve, k is the curvature vector, which expresses the rate of change of the tangent

vector along the curve, and k is called the curvature and the reciprocal ( R = k 1 ) is

called the radius of curvature. The minus sign is introduced to reflect that it is assumed

that the parametric curves are arranged in such a manner that the unit normal points

from the concave side to the convex side of the surface.

Consider a set of three independent functions of the Cartesian variables x1 , x2 , x3 given

by

i = i ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) ,

( i = 1,2,3)

i ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = constant

( i = 1, 2,3)

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

determine the coordinate lines of a curvilinear coordinate system and the intersection of

these coordinate lines determines a point that is labelled ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) . The position vector

x in the rectangular coordinate system as a function of these curvilinear coordinates

1 , 2 , 3 is represented by

3

x ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) = xi ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) ei = x1 ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) e1 + x2 ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) e 2 + x3 ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) e3 .

i =1

close point P within the space is written with respect to the curvilinear coordinates as

3

i =1

x

is introduced.

i

( ds )

= dxi dx =

g d d

ij

i , j =1

xk xk

.

k =1 i j

3

The equation for the line element is also known as the first fundamental form and gij is

called the metric tensor. Noting that along a parametric curve i the differential length

of arc dsi takes the simplified form

dsi = g ii d i = x,i d i ,

the unit tangent vectors along the parametric curves can be defined by

ti =

dx , i

dsi

x , i d i

g ii d i

x,i

x,i

Surface

A surface S in the rectangular coordinate system can be written as a function of the

two parameters 1 and 2 , which are the curvilinear coordinates of the surface, and

these parameters determine the parametric curves 2 = constant and 1 = constant ,

respectively. The position vector x as a function of these curvilinear coordinates 1 , 2

is represented by

3

x ( 1 , 2 ) = xi ( 1 , 2 ) ei .

i =1

infinitesimal close point P on the surface is written with respect to the curvilinear

coordinates as

dx = x,1d 1 + x,2 d 2 .

178

Appendices

The line element or first fundamental form ( ds ) is now expressed by

2

( ds )

= dxidx = E ( d 1 ) + 2 Fd 1d 2 + G ( d 2 )

2

where

E = g11 = x,1 ix,1 , F = g12 = g 21 = x,1 ix,2

, G = g 22 = x,2 ix,2 .

From vector algebra for the dot product, the angle 12 angle between the vectors x,1

and x,2 along two parametric curves can be found by elaborating

cos 12 =

x,1 ix,2

x,1 x,2

g12

=

g11 g 22

F

EG

EG F 2

.

EG

sin 12 = 1 cos 2 12 =

To describe a real surface in a right-handed coordinate system, the sine of the angle 12

is always positive and hence EG F 2 > 0 since E and G are always positive. From

the result for the cosine of the angle 12 it is observed that, if 12 = 2 and thus the

parametric curves form an orthogonal net, F = 0 .

A representation of the angle between two arbitrary directions can be obtained by

taking the dot product of the differential change dx in one direction and x in another

direction, which are respectively represented by

dx = x,1d 1 + x,2 d 2

x = x,11 + x,22

which gives for the dot product the expression dxix = dx x cos . Hence, the

condition for orthogonality of two directions and thus = 2 is given by

Ed 11 + F ( d 12 + 1d 2 ) + Gd 2 2 = 0 .

The unit tangent vectors along the parametric lines are thus defined by

t1 =

x,1

x,1

t2 =

x,2

x,2

The unit normal vector n is thus parallel to the cross product of the vectors x,1 and x,2

and hereby this unit normal vector can be defined by

n=

x,1 x,2

x,1 x,2

dt

= k = kn + kg

ds

where the vector k , which is called the curvature vector, is thus defined as the rate of

change of the unit tangent vector, k n is the normal curvature vector and k g is the

tangential or geodesic curvature vector. The normal curvature vector is given by

k n = kn

the dot product of k with n , which after some manipulation results in

179

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

k =

dt

dxidn

in =

.

ds

dxidx

dn = n,1d 1 + n,2d 2

e ( d 1 ) + 2 fd 1d 2 + g ( d 2 )

2

k=

E ( d 1 ) + 2 Fd 1d 2 + G ( d 2 )

2

in which the numerator is called the second fundamental form and its magnitudes are

defined by

e = x,1 in,1 , 2 f = ( x,1 in,2 + x,2 in,1 ) , g = x,2 in,2 .

Since x,i in = 0 , the magnitudes can alternatively be expressed by

e = x ,11 in ,

f = x,12 in ,

g = x,22 in

2x

is introduced.

i j

d 2

for which the normal curvature is a maximum or a minimum

d 1

can be obtained by rewriting the expression for k for those directions to

e + 2 f + g2

k () =

E + 2 F + G 2

dk

and deriving the directions for which

= 0 , which after some rearrangement

d

The directions =

results in

1,2 =

( Eg Ge )

( Eg Ge ) 4 ( Fg Gf )( Ef

2 ( Fg Gf )

2

Fe )

d 2 2

,

and using this notation the

d 1 1

1 + 2 =

( Eg Ge )

( Fg Gf )

1 2 =

( Ef Fe )

( Fg Gf )

this equation is identically satisfied. This means that the directions of maximum and

minimum normal curvature are orthogonal.

If these lines of curvature are taken as the parametric curves, one curvature direction is

described by

d 2

d 1

= 0 and the other curvature direction is described by

= 0 . Hence,

d 1

d 2

,

( Ef Fe ) = 0

( Fg Gf ) = 0 .

Since the parametric curves are orthogonal F = 0 and since E and G are always

positive, it is obtained that when the parametric curves are the lines of curvature

180

Appendices

F =0

f =0.

Substituting this condition into the expression for k and by keeping first d2 = 0 and

then d1 = 0 , the corresponding normal curvatures become

1 e

=

R1 E

k1 =

1

g

= .

R2 G

k2 =

The normal curvatures in the curvature directions are called the principal curvatures

and further it is assumed that the parametric curves are the lines of curvature.

For such a surface, the first fundamental form is described by the curvilinear

coordinates 1 and 2 and the magnitudes E and G according to

( ds )

= E ( d 1 ) + G ( d 2 ) .

2

Three mutually orthogonal unit vectors ( t1 , t 2 , n ) are oriented tangent to the 1 direction, 2 -direction and normal to the surface, respectively, and these are given by

t1 =

x,1

t2 =

x,2

n=

x,1 x,2

1 2

k1 =

1

1

= 2 x,1 in,1

R1 1

k2 =

1

1

= 2 x,2 in,2 .

R2 2

Since the derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector itself, it lies in

the plane formed by the other two unit vectors and it can thus be decomposed into its

components along the latter vectors. By making use of the mutual orthogonality of the

unit vectors and that x,12 = x,21 , the magnitudes of the components can be found by

straightforward taking the dot product of the respective vectors with each other. Doing

so and making use of the expressions for the normal curvatures, the following

derivatives of the unit vectors are obtained.

t1,1 =

1,2t 2 1 n

2

R1

t1,2 =

1

2,1t 2

1

t 2,1 =

1

1,2t1

2

t 2,2 =

n,1 =

1

t1

R1

n ,2 =

2,1t1 2 n

1

R2

2

t2

R2

substitution of the appropriate derivatives defined above into the equality n,12 = n ,21 .

Hereby, it is obtained that

1

1 1

=

R2 2 2 R1

2

1 2

=

R1 1 1 R2

Similarly, the equality t1,12 = t1,21 yields two more equations of which one is the Codazzi

condition that is mentioned first and the other is the Gauss condition that reads

1 2 1 1

1 2

.

=

1 1 1 2 2 2

R1R2

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Obviously, the equality t 2,12 = t 2,21 yields again the Gauss condition and the other

Codazzi condition.

Shell space

A surface S in the rectangular coordinate system x1 , x2 , x3 can be written as a function

of two parameters; viz. 1 , 2 , which are the curvilinear coordinates of the reference

sur face. To describe the location of an arbitrary point within the two outer surfaces of

the shell a third coordinate is introduced in the thickness direction. The position vector

R to this arbitrary point is described by

R ( 1 , 2 , ) = r ( 1 , 2 ) + n ( 1 , 2 )

where r is the position vector of the corresponding point on the reference surface and

n is the unit normal vector at that point. Hence, the differential change dR in the

position vector R from a point P0 to an infinitesimal close point P on the surface is

written as

dR = dr + dn + nd

in which dr = r,1d 1 + r,2d 2 and dn = n,1d 1 + n,2d 2 .

The line element ( ds ) is calculated by taking the dot product of the differential change

dR in the position vector. Taking into account the orthogonality of the coordinate

system, the expression for the line element becomes

2

2

2

2

( ds ) = ( r,1 ir,1 + 2r,1 in,1 + 2n,1 in,1 ) ( d 1 ) + ( r,2 ir,2 + 2r,2 in,2 + 2n,2 in,2 ) ( d 2 ) + ( d ) .

2

1

1

r,1 and similarly n,2 = r,2 , which after

R1

R2

( ds )

= g11 ( d 1 ) + g 22 ( d 2 ) + g 33 ( d )

2

where the coefficients gii ( i = 1,2,3) are the metric coefficients along the orthogonal

parametric lines. These coefficients are defined by

A1 = g11 = 1 1 + , A2 = g 22 = 2 1 + , A3 = g33 = 1

R

R

1

2

where Ai are the scale factors, 1 and 2 are the so-called Lam parameters of the

reference surface and R1 and R2 are the principal radii of curvature at the point on the

reference surface corresponding to point Po . The Lam parameters and the principal

radii are related to the position vector and the unit normal vector by

12 = r,1 ir,1

2 2 = r,2 ir,2

182

1

1

= 2 r,1 in,1

R1 1

,

,

1

1

= 2 r,2 in,2

R2 2

Appendices

Appendix B

curvilinear coordinates

determined by the coordinate lines i ( i = 1,2,3) , which are assumed to be orthogonal,

the metric coefficients are denoted by gii calculated by

xk xk

k =1 i i

3

g ii = x,i ix ,i =

where x is the position vector to a point within that medium as shown in Appendix A.

Only infinitesimal deformations are taken into account and the displacement in the

directions normal to the coordinate surfaces 1 , 2 , 3 are represented by U1 , U 2 , U 3

respectively.

Denoting two neighbouring points in an unstrained medium by Po and P , their

positions before deformation are given by i and i + d i respectively. After

deformation the positions of Po and P are given by i + i and i + i + d i + d i . The

displacements are related to the change in position by the description of the line

element and hence described by U i = gii i .

The length of the element ds joining Po and P is expressed by the relation

( ds )

= gii ( 1 , 2 , 3 )( d i )

(B.1)

i =1

( ds )

= gii ( 1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , 3 + 3 )( d i + d i ) .

2

(B.2)

i =1

To the order of approximation considered in the linear theory the respective parts are

expressed by

gii

j

j =1 j

3

gii ( 1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , 3 + 3 ) = gii ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) +

( d i + d i )

= ( d i ) + 2 d i d i + ( d i )

( d i ) + 2

2

j =1

i

d j d i

j

( ds )

= Gij d i d j

(B.3)

i =1 j =1

in which

3

(B.4)

Gij = ij g ii + ii k + gii i + g jj j

j

i

k =1 k

where products of j and i are neglected and ij denotes the Kronecker delta.

j

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

According to the expressions (B.1) and (B.3), the length dsi in the direction of one of

the coordinate lines i is dsi = gii d i and the length after deformation is dsi = Gii d i .

The extension eii of this element is thus

eii =

Gii d i gii d i

g ii d i

= 1+

Gii g ii

1 Gii g ii

1

where

g ii

2 g ii

the

nonlinear

terms

are

eii

1 Gii gii i

1 3 g ii

=

+

k .

2 g ii

i 2 g ii k =1 k

(B.5)

xk xk

,

k =1 i i

3

g ii = x,i ix ,i =

xk xk

k =1 i j

3

Gij = x, i ix, j =

where the vector x is the position vector of a point in the deformed medium. Hence,

the angle ij between the vectors x,i and x, j along two parametric curves on the

surface can be found by elaborating

cos ij =

x, i ix, j

x,i x, j

Gij

GiiG jj

(i j ) .

2

cos ij = sin ij

ij . The shear components of the strain tensor are defined by the

eij =

1 Gij

1 Gij

2 GiiG jj 2 g ii g jj

(i j )

(B.6)

3

3 g

g

GiiG jj = gii + ii k + 2 gii i g jj + jj k + 2 g jj j

i

j

k =1 k

k =1 k

g

= gii g jj + jj g ii + ii g jj k + 2 g ii g jj i + j

i j

k

k =1 k

The extension and shear components of the strain tensor are obtained by substituting

the relation U i = gii i into expressions (B.5)and (B.6), which results in

Ui

1 3 gii U k

i gii 2 g ii k =1 k g kk

1

Ui

Uj

gii

eij =

+ g jj

i g jj

2 gii g jj j gii

eii =

184

(B.7)

,

if i j.

Appendices

Appendix C

Equilibrium

equations

curvilinear coordinates

in

Consider the reference surface of an infinitesimal shell element bounded by two pairs

of normal planes of the coordinate lines 1 and 2 , respectively. The equilibrium

conditions of this infinitesimal element under the influence of the internal stress

resultants and stress couples and applied external forces and torques will be

determined. Similar derivations can be found in, e.g., Reissner [61], Novozhilov [20],

Leissa [11], Ventsel and Krauthammer [62].

The external force and torque vectors acting on the reference surface are introduced by

p = p1t1 + p2t 2 + p n

m = m2t1 + m1t 2

(C.1)

The internal stress resultant and stress couple vectors acting on the reference line of a

face 1 with its normal in positive direction of the tangent vector t1 are introduced by

n1 = n11t1 + n12t 2 + v1n

m1 = m12t1 + m11t 2

(C.2)

and on a face 2 with its normal in positive direction of the tangent vector t 2 are

introduced by

n 2 = n21t1 + n22t 2 + v2n

m 2 = m22t1 + m21t 2

(C.3)

The differential length of the reference line on a face 1 is equal to 2 d 2 , which also

holds for a face 1 + d 1 since it is already of differential length. By considering

internal stress resultants acting on the faces 1 and 1 + d 1 , it is observed that the

magnitude of the force due to the internal stress resultants on the face 1 is equal to

2n1d 2

since the components of the stress resultant vector act in negative direction of the

tangent vector t1 . On the face 1 + d 1 , the increment of the stress resultants along the

1 coordinate line has to be accounted for, by which the magnitude is equal to

2n1

d 1 d 2

2n1 +

1

Corresponding expressions can be formulated for the stress couples on these faces and

for the faces 2 and 2 + d 2 .

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

By taking the sum of the forces and the sum of moments on all four faces, the

equilibrium equation are obtained and these read, respectively,

n

n

2n1d 2 + 2n1 + 2 1 d 1 d 2 1n 2 d 1 + 1n 2 + 1 2 d 2 d 1 + 1 2pd 1d 2 = 0

m

m

2m1d 2 + 2m1 + 2 1 d 1 d 2 1m 2d 1 + 1m 2 + 1 2 d 2 d 1

1

2

r

r

+

d 1 2n1d 2 +

d 2 1n 2 d 1 + 1 2md 1d 2 = 0

1

2

r

d 1 2n1d 2 has been constructed on basis of

1

neglecting terms multiplied by the square of a differential length. Adding up all terms

and dividing by the common factor d 1d 2 results in the vector equations

2n1 1n 2

+

+ 1 2p = 0

1

2

2m1 1m 2 r

r

+

+

2n1 +

1n 2 + 1 2m = 0

1

2

1

2

r

r

= 1t1 and

= 2t 2 (Appendix A) can be utilised.

1

2

Substitution of the expression (C.1) for the applied external forces and torques, and the

expressions (C.2) and (C.3) for the internal stress resultants and stress couples and

utilisation of the expressions derived in Appendix A for the derivatives of the unit

vectors t1 , t 2 and n , resolves in

2n11

v

+ n12 1 + 1 21 n22 2 + 1 2 1 + 1 2 p1 t1

1

2

2

1

1

n

v

+ n11 1 + 2 12 + n21 2 + 1 22 + 1 2 2 + 1 2 p2 t 2

R2

2

1

1

2

n

v v

+ 1 2 11 1 2 22 + 2 1 + 1 2 + 1 2 p n = 0

R1

R2

1

2

1 2m12

m

m21 2 1 22 + 1 2v2 1 2 m2 t1

m11

2

1

1

2

1

2

2

1

m

m

+ 1 2 n12 1 2 n21 + 1 2 12 1 2 21 n = 0

R1

R2

186

Appendices

Appendix D

Beltrami operator

Laplace-

Strain energy

In section 2.3 the expression for the strain energy of a shell is derived as

Es = EsdV

V

where

Es = ij deij

( i, j ) = (1, 2, )

For a homogeneous and isotropic material obeying the generalisation of Hookes law

the integral simplifies to

1

( 11e11 + 22e22 + e + 212e12 + 21e1 + 22e2 ) dV

2 V

Es =

Introducing the Kirchhoff-Love assumptions and the differential volume by (2.6), the

integral reduces to

1

( 11e11 + 22e22 + 212e12 ) 1 2 (1 + R1 )(1 + R2 ) d 1d 2 d

2 2 1

Es =

(D.1)

The stresses are described by the two-dimensional Hookes law (2.13), which reads

E

E

E

e + e22 ) ,

22 =

e + e11 ) ,

12 =

e12

2 ( 11

2 ( 22

1

1

1+

The normal strains e11 and e22 are described by (2.10), which read

11 =

e11 =

1+

R1

( 11 + 11 )

e22 =

1

1+

R2

( 22 + 22 )

(D.2)

(D.3)

2e12 =

+ 1 +

+

1

12

R1R2 12

2

R

2

R2

1

1+ 1+

R1

R2

1

e12 =

1

+ 1 +

+

R1R2

2 R1 2 R2

1+ 1+

R1

R2

1

(D.4)

1

= 12

2

1

= 12

2

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Alternatively, the normal strains e11 and e22 are described by (2.36), which read

e11 = 11 +

1+

R1

11 ,

e22 = 22 +

1+

R2

22

(D.5)

11 = 11

11

R1

22 = 22

22

R2

(D.6)

By substituting the expressions (D.2), (D.3) and (D.4) into (D.1) and carrying out the

integration with respect to for t 2 t 2 , the strain energy as an integral over the

reference surface becomes

Es =

+

1 Et

( 11 + 22 )2 2 (1 ) ( 11 22 2 ) 1 2 d 1d 2

2 1 2 2 1

1 Et 3

+ 22 )2 2 (1 ) (1122 2 )

2 ( 11

24 1 2 1

1 1

1

1

2 ( 1111 2222 ) 2 (1 ) +

R1 R2

R1 R2

(D.7)

1 1 2 2

1

1

1

+ 11 22 + 2 (1 ) 2

+ 2 2 1 2 d 1d 2

R2

R1 R2 R1

R1 R1R2 R2

Alternatively, by substituting (D.5) instead of (D.3), which are related to one another

by (D.6), an equal expression is obtained that becomes

Es =

+

1 Et

( 11 + 22 )2 2 (1 ) ( 11 22 2 ) 1 2 d 1d 2

2 1 2 2 1

1 Et 3

( 11 + 22 )2 2 (1 ) ( 11 22 2 )

24 1 2 2 1

1

+2 ( 11 + 22 ) 11 + 22 2 (1 ) 11 22 + 22 11 + +

R2

R1 R1 R2

R2 R1

188

2

1

1

1

1

2

11 22 2 ) 2 1 2 d 1d 2

( 11 + 22 ) 2 (1 )

(

R1R2

RR

R1 R2

1 2

(D.8)

Appendices

As Novozhilov does, by introducing the parameters

t

= 11 ,

11

2

t

22 = 22

2

t

=

2

Es =

+

1 Et

( 11 + 22 )2 2 (1 ) ( 11 22 2 ) 1 2 d 1d 2

2 1 2 2 1

1 Et

1

2

1

22 2 )

+ 22 ) 2 (1 ) ( 11

2 ( 11

2 1 2 1 3

3

t

t 22

t 1

1

+ ( 11 + 22 ) 11 + 22 (1 ) 11

+ 22 11 (1 ) +

3 R2 R1

3 R2

R1

3 R1 R2

+

2

1 t2

1 t2

t2 1

1

2

11 22 2 ) + 2 (1 ) 2 1 2 d 1d 2

( 11 + 22 ) 2 (1 )

(

R1R2 12

R1R2 12

12 R1 R2

The last three terms are obviously negligible in comparison to the first two since they

t2

. As a first order approximation, e.g. based on the linearization

2

R

of the strain distribution, the terms of the order O are also neglected. Using the

R

original strain measures, the strain energy reduces to

t

Es =

+

1 Et

( 11 + 22 )2 2 (1 ) ( 11 22 2 ) 1 2 d 1d 2

2 1 2 2 1

1 Et 3

+ 22 )2 2 (1 ) ( 11 22 2 ) 1 2 d 1d 2

2 ( 11

24 1 2 1

Hence, the contribution of the normal and shear strain and the contribution of the

changes of curvature and twist are uncoupled. The approximated expression for the

strain energy can also be directly obtained if the linearization of the strain distribution

as proposed in subsection 2.7.3 is adopted. On basis of this observation, it seems to be

allowed to assume that the constitutive relation can be given according to the relation

presented in subsection 2.7.3.

The Laplace-Beltrami operator is a differential operator defined as

i

where is the differential operator which, when applied to a scalar field f , produces

the vector field grad f as shown by Borisenko and Tarapov [15]. In a system of

orthogonal curvilinear coordinates 1 , 2 , 3 with orthogonal local basis t1 , t 2 , t 3 , a

natural generalisation of the gradient in rectangular coordinates is obtained as

3

f grad f = t i

i =1

f

si

where dsi = i d i .

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The second derivatives of the position vector to a point are assumed to be continuous,

such that x,ij = x, ji . Since x,i = i t i , the expression

i t i , j = j ,i t j + j t j ,i i , j t i

i t i , j it k = j , i t j it k + j t j ,i it k i , j t i it k

can be written as

i t i , j it j = j , i

if k = j and i j .

1

1

1 1 f

1 f

1 f

f if = t1

+ t2

+ t3

+ t2

+ t3

i t1

1 2

1 3 1 1

1 2

1 3

1 1

and since the three unit vectors are mutual orthogonal, it is obtained that the first three

non-zero terms become

f = t1 it1

1 1 f

1 f

1 f

+ t1 it 3,1

+ ...

+ t1 it 2,1

1 1 1 1

1 2

1 3 1

and by making use of the derived nontrivial relations between the unit vectors and their

respective derivatives, the full expression for the Laplace-Beltrami operator of field f

can be rewritten to

f =

190

1 2 3 f 13 f 1 2 f

1 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3

Appendices

Appendix E

stiffness

matrix

for

the

elastostatic

behaviour

of

a

circular ring

The formulations that are derived for the ring element stiffness matrices are based on

the solution presented by Van Bentum [1], which is implemented in the precursor of

the present computer program CShell. The objective of the analysis herein presented is

to integrate the ring element in the super element approach as described in chapter 3.

This analysis is largely based on the same set of relations as for a circular cylindrical

shell on basis of the Morley-Koiter theory.

For a ring employed as a stiffener to cylindrical elements described by a super

elements approach, the ring element shall be present at the boundary of the adjacent

elements. Hence, the nodal forces of these elements must be in equilibrium with the

loads acting on the ring and the nodal displacements must be equal to the

displacements of the ring element. In other words, the stiffness relation between the

displacements of and the forces acting on the ring element can be added to the stiffness

matrix for the circular cylindrical structure at its respective nodal position.

It might be assumed that the ring has relatively little resistance against loads acting

out of its circular plane, such as lateral and torsional loads. Hence, the ring is modelled

as a curved beam, which is only able to withstand loads acting in its circular plane.

Additionally, the ring element is connected to the circular shell outer or inner surface.

Therefore, the neutral line of the curved beam is not located at the middle surface of

the shell element, which is chosen as the reference surface. To facilitate connection to

the cylindrical shell description, the directions of the axes are chosen in the

circumferential and transverse directions and the three sets of equations are referenced

to the middle surface of the shell element. A polar coordinate system is thus applied to

this middle surface serving as the reference line of the circular ring. Hereby, an

infinitesimal element of the circular beam has a side with length of arc, measured on

the reference line, ad in circumferential direction (where a denotes the radius of the

reference line) and dz in normal direction to the reference line. The height of such an

element is not necessarily constant, but assumed to be constant for convenience.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Coordinate system

Based on the choice as described above, the radius of the reference line in -direction

is constant and denoted by a . The expression of the line element in Appendix A can

now be given by

2

ds 2 = a 2 1 + d 2 + dz 2

a

where and z are associated with 2 and , respectively. Measured on the reference

surface the line element is thus equal to ds 2 = a 2 d 2 . This means that the following

substitution can be made if the proposed theory of section 2.7 is used as a starting point

of our analysis

1 = x

1 = 0

R1 =

2 =

2 = a

R2 = a

(E.1)

As the curved beam is assumed to be able to withstand only loads acting in its own

plane, it is free to deform in its lateral direction. Hence, changes of the line element in

this direction (the x -direction) are not described and all quantities not acting in the

plane of the circular ring are equated to zero. Therefore, the vectors used with respect

to this coordinate system are

u = [ u u z ]

e = [ ]

s = [N

M]

f = [ f

fz ]

The presented strain and change of curvature are identical to those for the strain

and the change of curvature in the circumferential direction of the shell middle

surface, but for the circular ring the redundant indices can be omitted. The presented

stress resultant N and the stress couple M can be interpreted in the same manner as

the stress resultant n and the stress couple m , but for the circular ring as a force and

bending moment acting on its cross-section instead of a force and bending moment per

unit length. Similarly, the loads f and f z are loads per unit length acting on the

reference line instead of loads per unit area of the middle surface.

Kinematical relation

The kinematical relation (2.39) is rewritten using the description (E.1) of the reference

line of the circular ring resulting in

1 d

a d

=

0

192

u

a

2

1 d

1 u z

2 2 2

a d a

(E.2)

Appendices

Constitutive relation

As the neutral line of the curved beam is not located at the middle surface of the shell

element, the stress resultant and the stress couple cannot be obtained by rewriting an

expression from section 2.7. Based on the expressions (2.14), the stress resultant and

stress couple can be readily defined as

N = dA

A

M = zdA

A

However, to adopt the kinematical relation as described above, the alternative stress

resultants according to section 2.7 need to be used for consistency. Hence, the

applicable stress resultants are introduced by

N=N+

M

z

= 1 + dA

A

a

a

M = M = zdA

A

element.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

In Figure E-1, a segment of the connection of the ring beam to the cylindrical wall is

shown facing the cross-section of the ring. The thickness and the radius to the middle

line of the cylinder are denoted by t and a , respectively, and the typical ring element

consists of two parts. The dimensions of the part 1 and part 2 are denoted by t1 and t2

in the radial direction and l1 and l2 in the transverse direction, respectively.

In the figure, two ring parts are shown, which are both connected to the outside of

the cylindrical wall. To facilitate a generic configuration, e.g. also applicable to a ring

on the inside, the radius of the part 1 is indicated by a1 .

To relate the stress resultant and stress couple to quantities acting at the reference line,

the radius to the middle surface of the cylindrical wall is thus adopted and the origin of

the thickness coordinate z is correspondingly chosen at the reference line. For this

coordinate basis and the generic configuration described above, the integration ranges

become

1

z0 = a1 t1 a

2

z1 = z0 + t1

z2 = z1 + t2

where the constant width of the part 1 between z0 and z1 is l1 , and the constant width

of part 2 between z1 and z2 is l2 . Hence, the stress integrals are represented by

z1

z2

z

z

N = l1 1 + dz + l2 1 + dz

z0

z1

a

a

z1

z2

z0

z1

M = l1zdz + l2 zdz

The same assumptions for the elastic behaviour are employed as for the elastic shell.

Hence, the stress-strain relation for the ring beam is adapted from the two-dimensional

Hookes law for a thin elastic shell (2.13) and reads

= Ee

The strain distribution in the thickness direction is adapted from (2.36), which for the

circumferential direction only reads

z

e=+

1+

z

a

By subsequent substitution of the strain distribution into the stress-strain relation and

this result into the stress integrals, the stress resultant and the stress couple read

z2

z1

z2

z

z

z1

N = E l1 1 + dz + l2 1 + dz + E l1 zdz + l2 zdz

z0

z

z

z

1

0

1

a

a

1

1

z1

z1

z2

z2

z

z

M = E l1 zdz + l2 zdz + E l1 z 2 1 + dz + l2 z 2 1 + dz

z0

z1

z0

z

1

a

a

194

Appendices

The above formulas show that a number of integrals need to be developed. To facilitate

a convenient solution the factor within the brackets multiplied by z 2 of the formula for

1

the moment is expanded into (1 + z a ) 1 z a + ... and truncated as presented. Finally,

the following moments of area are introduced

z1

z2

z0

z1

A0 = dA = l1 dz + l2 dz

A

z1

z2

z0

z1

A

z1

z2

z0

z1

A2 = z 2 dA = l1 z 2 dz + l2 z 2 dz

A

z1

z2

z0

z1

A

By adopting this notation for the integrals and making use of the truncated expansion

where applicable, the stress resultant and the stress couple read

A

N = E A0 + 1 + EA1

a

M = EA1 + E A2 3

a

N EAr

= ES

M r

ES r

EI r

(E.3)

A1

a

Ar = A0 +

S r = A1

I r = A2

A3

a

Equilibrium relation

The equilibrium relation (2.43) is rewritten using the description (E.1) resulting in

1 d

a d

1

a

N f

=

2

f

1 d

1 M

2 2 2 z

a d a

(E.4)

and the transverse shearing stress resultant is adapted from (2.44) and becomes

V=

1 dM

a d

(E.5)

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Stiffness matrix

With the objective to integrate the ring element in the super element approach for shells

of revolution as described in chapter 3, continuity and symmetry of the load in

circumferential direction of the ring is assumed. Hence, all quantities must be

continuous in circumferential direction, which can be interpreted as transitional

conditions.

In accordance with the derivation presented in chapter 3, the two load components

can be described by a Fourier trigonometric series expressed by

f ( ) = f n sin n

n=0

f z ( ) = f zn cos n

n=0

where n is the mode number and represents the number of whole waves in

circumferential direction. The dependence on the axial coordinate is obviously omitted,

as the ring cannot withstand loads in that direction. So, in correspondence with the

distribution of the load components, the general solution for the displacements is of the

congruent form

u ( ) = un sin n

n=0

u z ( ) = u zn cos n

n=0

On the basis of the same consideration and by inspecting the sets of equations above, it

can now be concluded that the relevant strain and stress quantities are described by

trigonometric functions of the form

, , N , M

cos n

sin n

On the basis of these arbitrary solutions describing the behaviour of a ring connected to

a cylindrical surface, an element stiffness matrix has to be synthesized. The

considerations described here are exemplified for a load that is symmetric to a certain

axis, but can easily be extended to an asymmetric load.

As mentioned above, the stiffness relation between the displacements of and the

forces acting on the ring element is to be derived and these quantities are distributed

along the circular reference line by functions of the form

f , u

sin n

f z , uz

cos n

Having shown that the forces have the same distribution as the corresponding

displacements, it can be concluded that the stiffness relation for the ring element only

depends on the amplitude of the circumferential distribution (which can depend on the

circumferential mode number n ). Such a stiffness relation can thus be presented by

f K

=

fz K z

196

K z u

K zz u z

Appendices

where circumferential distributions of the ring quantities are related to the amplitudes

by the relations

f ( ) sin n

u ( ) sin n

0 f

0 u

,

=

=

cos n fz

cos n u z

f z ( ) 0

u z ( ) 0

(E.6)

By substitution of (E.6) for the displacements into the kinematical relation (E.2), the

expressions for the strain and curvature become

f ( ) sin n

u ( ) sin n

0 f

0 u

,

=

=

0

cos

0

cos

n

n u z

(

)

f

(

)

f

z

z

z

n

( ) a

=

( ) 0

1

a u cos n

2

n 1 u z cos n

a 2

By substitution of this result into the constitutive relation (E.3), the expressions for the

stress resultant and stress couple become

EAc

n

N ( ) a

=

M ( ) ESc n

a

EAc ESc 2

+ 2 ( n 1)

u cos n

a

a

u cos n

ESc EI c 2

+ 2 ( n 1) z

a

a

By substitution of this result into the equilibrium relation (E.4), the expressions for the

forces acting on the ring element become

EAc 2

n

f ( ) sin n

0

a2

=

cos n EAc

ES

f z ( ) 0

n + 3c n ( n 2 1)

a

a 2

EAc

ES

n + 3c n ( n 2 1)

2

u

a

a

2

u

EAc

ES

EI

+ 2 3c ( n 2 1) + 4c ( n 2 1) z

a2

a

a

EAc 2

n

f

a2

=

fz EAc n + ESc n ( n 2 1)

a 2

a3

EAc

ES

n + 3c n ( n 2 1)

u

a2

a

2

u

EAc

ES

EI

+ 2 3c ( n 2 1) + 4c ( n 2 1) z

2

a

a

a

(E.7)

For the sake of completeness, the transverse shearing stress resultant (E.5) is given.

ES

V ( ) = 2c

a

ESc

EI

u

n 3c n ( n 2 1) sin n

2

a

a

u z

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198

Appendices

Appendix F

For a circular ring described by a reference line with radius a and circumferential

coordinate and with a thickness coordinate z with its origin at this reference line,

the expression for the normal strains (2.36) is rewritten to

e=

1

z

1+

a

( + z ) = +

z

=+

z

z

a

1+

1+

a

a

The strain energy described by the strain and the change of rotation can be

obtained easily from (D.7), which results in

2

Es =

1 Et

1 Et 3

22

2 ad +

22

ad

2 22

21

24 1 2

a

An identical expression for the strain energy described by the strain and the change of

curvature can be obtained easily from (D.8), which results in

Es =

1 Et

1 Et 3

2

ad

+

22 2 ad

22

2 1 2

24 1 2

It is believed that the latter description is more appropriate for a ring. However, this

would be true for a mathematically exact solution, which is not desirable in view of the

assumptions readily introduced to obtain the strain expression. The objective of this

appendix is thus to define the best linearization in the framework of a firstapproximation theory.

As a starting point, the linearization of the normal strain description is presented for

both kinematical quantities and . In line with the approach of subsection 2.7.3,

terms z a will be neglected in comparison to unity, resulting in an expression with the

change of rotation denoted by superscript and one with the change of curvature

denoted by superscript , respectively.

e = + z

e = + z

For the kinematical quantities based on the description that adopts the change of

curvature, the equations (E.2) are at hand, which are extracted from the kinematical

relation (2.39). In the same manner, but extracted from the kinematical relation (2.11),

the kinematical quantities based on the description that adopts the change of rotation

can be obtained.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Hence, the following kinematical relations are to be considered

1 d

a d

=

1 d

a 2 d

1 d

a d

=

0

u

2

1 d u z

2 2

a d

1

u

a

1 d2

1 u

2 2 2 z

a d a

1

a

In the following, the approach of Appendix E will be adapted per linearization. Both

strain descriptions are substituted into the stress-strain relation = Ee . Subsequently,

this is to be substituted into the expressions for the stress resultant and the stress

couple, which read

N = dA

A

M = zdA

A

These relations hold for both strain descriptions as the neglect of terms z a is to be

simultaneously imposed on the strain and stress distribution.

Performing the substitutions as described above per linearization, the constitutive

relations become

N EA ES

=

M ES EI

N EA ES

=

M ES EI

A = dA

A

S = zdA

A

I = z 2dA

A

The expressions for the stress resultants and stress couples as described above are to be

substituted in the corresponding equilibrium equations. For the resultant and couple

that are based on the description that adopts the change of curvature, the equations

(E.4) are at hand, which are extracted from the equilibrium relation (2.43). In the same

manner, but extracted from the equilibrium relation (2.15), the equilibrium equations

based on description that adopts the change of rotation can be obtained.

200

Appendices

Hence, the following equilibrium relations are to be considered

1 d

a d

1

a

1 d

a d

1

a

1 d

a 2 d N f

=

2

1 d M fz

2 2

a d

N f

=

1 d2

1 M fz

2 2 2

a d a

0

By substitution of (E.6) for the displacements into the kinematical relations above, the

expressions for the kinematical quantities become

n

a

=

n

a 2

n

a

=

0

1

a u cos n

n 2 u z cos n

a 2

1

a u cos n

2

n 1 u z cos n

2

a

By substitution of these results into the constitutive relations above, the expressions for

the stress resultant and stress couple become

ES

EA ES 2

EA

n+ 2 n

+ 2 n

N ( ) a

u cos n

a

a

a

=

ES

EI

ES

EI

u cos n

M

(

)

n+ 2 n

+ 2 n2 z

a

a

a

a

EA ES 2

EA

n

+ 2 ( n 1)

N ( ) a

u cos n

a

a

=

u cos n

ES

ES

EI

M

( ) n

+ 2 ( n 2 1) z

a

a

a

By substitution of these results into the equilibrium relations above, the expressions for

the forces acting on the ring element become

ES

EI

EA

ES

EI

EA 2

n + 2 3 n2 + 4 n2

n + 3 n ( n 2 + 1) + 4 n3

2

f B ( ) sin n

0 a2

u

a

a

a

a

a

B =

cos n EA

ES

EI

EA

ES

EI

u

f z ( ) 0

+ 2 3 n2 + 4 n4 z

n + 3 n ( n 2 + 1) + 4 n3

a

a

a2

a

a

a 2

EA 2

EA

ES

n

n + 3 n ( n 2 1)

u

f K ( ) sin n

0

a2

a2

a

K

=

2

u

cos n EA

ES

EA

ES 2

EI 2

2

f z ( ) 0

n + 3 n ( n 1)

+ 2 3 ( n 1) + 4 ( n 1) z

a

a2

a

a

a 2

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By substitution of the combined sectional ring quantities defined in Appendix E, which

are rewritten making use of the definitions above, into the stiffness relation (E.7), the

following is obtained

EA 2 ES 2

n + 3 n

f a 2

a

=

EA

ES

f

z

n + 3 n3

a

a 2

EA

ES

n + 3 n3

2

u

a

a

3

2

2 u

EA ES

EI 2

EA 2

2

+ 3 ( 2n 1) + 4 ( n 1) 5 ( n 1) z

2

a

a

a

a

Especially for larger values of the circumferential mode number n , but also for n = 0

and n = 1 , the expressions based on description that adopts the change of rotation are

less accurate than the expressions based on description that adopts the change of

curvature.

Hence, it can be concluded that the description that adopts the change of curvature

is more appropriate.

Moreover, for a reference line that coincides with the neutral line of a ring element,

the stiffness matrix derived on basis of the description that adopts the change of

curvature is identical to the stiffness matrix obtained in Appendix E. This is clearly not

the case if the description that adopts the change of rotation is employed.

Additionally, by substitution of expressions for the kinematical quantities into the

two expressions for the linearization of the normal strain and hence the normal stress,

the following is obtained

n

1

n

n2

e = + z 2 u + + z 2 u z cos n

a

a

a

a

n

1

n2 1

e = u + + z 2 u z cos n

a

a

a

into the expression for the normal strains (2.36), the following is obtained

1

e=

1+

( + z ) = +

z

a

n

1

a n2 1

= u + + z

u z cos n

z

a + z a2

a

a

1+

a

z

Obviously, as the stress-strain relation is linear, the expression that adopts the change

of curvature is almost identical for both the strain as the stress distribution across the

thickness. The difference observed is only present for the non-linearly varying part,

which will be negligible for small thickness-to-radius ratio as exemplified in Appendix

D.

202

Appendices

Appendix G

Semi-membrane concept

Introduction

Another interesting simplified approach, which has the objective to obtain insight into

the load carrying behaviour of cylindrical shell structures, is the semi-membrane

concept (SMC), which is able to deal with non-axisymmetric load cases. The semimembrane concept assumes that, to simplify the initial kinematical equations, the

circumferential strain is equal to zero and that, to simplify the initial equilibrium

equations, the bending moments about the circumferential axis and torsion axis are

zero ( mxx = 0 mx = 0 and hence vx = 0 ). The resulting equation exactly describes the

ring-bending behaviour, but it can only be applied to self-balancing modes. As shown

by Pircher, Guggenberger and Greiner [9], this concept can be applied to, e.g., a radial

wind load, an axial elastic support and an axial support displacement. However, not all

load cases or support conditions can be described. Moreover, the semi-membrane

concept is only applicable to certain load-deformation behaviours of cylindrical shell

structures. Closely related to the simplifications, it should be allowed to neglect the

influence of the part of the solution described by the short influence length in

comparison to the part described by the long influence length. In other words, the

cylinder should be sufficiently long compared with its radius and the boundary effects

should mainly influence the more distant material.

Geometry

For the semi-membrane concept, the same polar coordinate system is applied and the

axes are chosen in the same direction as for the circular cylindrical shell. Accordingly,

the three positive directions of the displacements ( u x , u , u z ) are taken corresponding to

the three positive coordinate directions ( x, , z ) .

Sets of equations

The sets of equations formulated for the circular cylindrical shell are tremendously

simplified by the assumptions of the semi-membrane concept, i.e. the circumferential

strain as well as both the axial and torsional bending moments may be equated to zero.

The vectors (4.3) used with respect to the coordinate system become

u = [u x

u u z ]

e = [ xx

s = [ nxx

nx

m ]

p = [ px

pz ]

u

u

+ u z = 0 and hence u z = .

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The kinematical relation (4.4) is rewritten resulting in

xx x

= 1

x a

0

u x

u

0

u

2

1

1 z

2 2 2

a a

x

0

xx x

= 1

x a

0

u

, this relation is rewritten to

u x

u

x

1 3

1

+

a 2 3 a 2

0

(G.1)

The constitutive relation is given by (4.5) but becomes, rewritten for the assumptions

introduced above,

2

nxx Dm (1 ) 0

n =

0

Ds

x

m

0

0

0 xx

0 x

(G.2)

Db

where the quantities Dm , Ds and Db are the extensional (membrane) rigidity, the shear

Dm =

Et

1 2

Ds =

Et

2 (1 + )

Db =

Et 3

12 (1 2 )

(G.3)

x

1

a

nxx a p x a

n a = p a

0

x

m a p a

1 2

1 z

2 2 2

a a

0

However, this relation is not in line with the analogy as explained in section 2.5. The

analogy comprises that a derivative in the differential operator matrix for the

kinematical relation (G.1) is also present in the differential operator matrix for the

equilibrium relation, but then as the adjoint operator at the transposed position. Hence,

the proposed equilibrium equation becomes

204

Appendices

x

1

a

n a

px a

xx

n a =

p

x

p + z a

1 3

1

2 3 2 m a

a a

0

(G.4)

v =

1 m

a

(G.5)

In this section, the principle of virtual work is employed for the semi-membrane

concept by utilizing the kinematical and constitutive relations derived in the previous

section. The elaboration of the virtual work equation shows that a consistent set of

internal shell quantities has been chosen. Hence, the elaboration confirms the proposed

equilibrium relation (G.4) and provides, in a simple and elegant manner, the natural

boundary conditions that complement the three sets of equations.

The virtual work equation (2.18) is formulated by

E p = Es W p W f = 0

Es = ( nxx xx + nx x + m ) ad dx

x

where

u x

x

1 u x u

x =

+

a x

1 2u z u z

1 3u 1 u

= 2

=

+

a 2 a 2 a 2 3 a 2

xx =

and

nxx = Dm (1 2 ) xx

nx = Ds x

m = Db

The work done by the surface force vector p on the reference surface along the virtual

displacements is formulated by (2.20) and becomes

u

Wp = px u x + pu p z ad dx

Wp = px u x + p + z u ad dx [ apz ]2 dx

1

x

x

where the second part represents a line load along x at = 1 and = 2 . For a closed

circular cylinder, this integral is equal to zero.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The final expression becomes

Wp = p x u x + p + z

u ad dx

The work done by the edge force vector f on the boundary lines of the boundary

surface S along the virtual displacements is formulated by (2.21) and becomes

u

W f = f x u x + f u f z ad

1

2

x = x( ) , x( )

u

+ f x u x + f u f z + t dx

=(1) , ( 2)

x

W f = f x u x + f + z u ad

[ f z u ]2

1

1

2

x = x( ) , x( )

1

2

x = x( ) , x( )

+ f x u x + f u f z + t dx

=(1) , ( 2)

x

where the second part of the first line represents the four point loads at the corners of a

confined surface. For a closed circular cylinder, this integrand and the second integral

are equal to zero. The final expression becomes

W f = f x u x + f + z u ad

1

2

x = x( ) , x( )

All terms of the virtual work equation have now been given either in virtual strains (for

the internal work quantities) or in virtual displacements (for the external work

quantities). A natural step is to obtain the internal work only in terms of the virtual

displacements to be able to elaborate further towards the equilibrium equations and the

natural boundary conditions.

After substitution of the expression for the kinematical relation and noting that

derivative operations and variation are commutative, the following expression is

obtained

u x

1 3u 1 u

1 u x u

Es = nxx

+ nx

+

+

m

+ 2

2

ad dx

3

x

x

a

a

a

x

removed where applicable and we obtain

nx 1 3m 1 m

1 nx

n

Es = xx +

u

ad

dx

+

+ 2

u ad dx

x

x a

x a 2 3

a

x

x

2

x = x( )

2

=( )

u 1 2u

1 2m

1 m u

+ nxu x +

u

+ m +

dx

2

a

a

a 2 =(1)

a

x

206

Appendices

To provide insight into the origin of the respective terms above in comparison with the

equilibrium equations (4.8) and the boundary conditions (4.10), the respective terms

that differ are further investigated. The rotation related to m is described by (4.12)

and, making use of the introduced relation u z =

=

u

, this relation is rewritten to

u 1 2u

+

a a 2

which allows the following substitution in the virtual strain energy formulation

u 1 2u

m +

= m

a 2

a

u

) is described

by (G.5), which allows the following substitution in the second line integral

1 2 m

1 m u v

u

=

u + vu z

a 2

a

nx 1 3m 1 m

nx 1 2v v

+ 2

+ 2

+

+ u

u =

3

2

a

a

x a

x a

a result from the simplifications above, the following equilibrium equation can be

identified by comparing the result of the last two substitutions with the equilibrium

equations (4.8)

n =

v 1 2 m

=

a 2

Making use of these equilibrium equations and the displacement relations, the

expression above for the internal virtual work can be identically described by

1 nx

n

nx 1 n v

Es = xx +

+

+ u ad dx

u x ad dx

x

a

a

x a

x

x

2

x = x( )

2

=( )

+ [ nxu x + nu + vu z + m ]=(1) dx

x

which is exactly what would be expected if mxx , mx and vx are set equal to zero.

If the sum of all variations (internal and external) is set equal to zero, two sets of

equations are obtained, i.e. one for the double integral over the reference surface and

one for the integral over the boundary lines. As stated previously, the variations of the

displacements are arbitrary and non-zero, so the sets of equations can only vanish if

each coefficient of the variations vanishes individually. From the set for the double

integral over the reference surface, two equilibrium equations are obtained, which read

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

nxx 1 nx

+

+ px = 0

x a

nx 1 3m 1 m

p

+

+ 2

+ p + z = 0

x a 2 3

a

(G.6)

The set for the integrals over the boundary lines x = constant only (for a closed

cylinder) reads

( f

nxx ) u x + f + z nx u ad

x = x( )

(G.7)

+ ( f x + nxx ) u x + f + z + nx u ad

=0

x = x( )

Obviously, the equilibrium equations (G.6) are identical to the set (G.4). The set (G.7)

is the subject of the next section.

Boundary conditions

The set (G.7) is the complete set for the two independent displacements and states that,

per variation of each displacement over the surface S f , each of the internal stress

measures (two stress resultants) must be balanced by aligned external stress measures.

If u is prescribed over the surface Su , on which in consequence the virtual

displacement u vanishes, each displacement must be equal to the prescribed

displacement at that surface. Hence, at each edge either the stress resultant or the

corresponding displacement must be equal to the known edge force or prescribed edge

displacement. So, for the edges x = constant the boundary conditions are

f x = nxx

f +

f z

= n x

or u x = u x

or u = u

x=x

(1)

f x = nxx

and

f +

f z

= n x

or u x = u x

( 2)

x=x

or u = u

Up to this point, no additional simplifications or assumptions have been introduced. To

obtain convenient differential equations for the displacements, it is assumed that the

parameters describing the material properties and the cross-sectional geometry, i.e.

E , and a, t respectively, are constant for the whole circular cylindrical shell.

Substitution of the kinematical relation (G.1) into the constitutive relation (G.2)

results in what is sometimes referred to as the elastic law, which reads

u x

x

1 u x u

nx = Ds

+

a x

1 3u 1 u

m = Db 2

+ 2

3

a

a

nxx = Dm (1 2 )

208

(G.8)

Appendices

Substitution of this elastic law into (G.4) yields the following two differential equations

for the displacements

(1 2 )

2u x Ds 1 2u x 1 2u p x

=

x 2 Dm a 2 2 a x Dm

(G.9)

D 1 2u x 2u Db 1 2 2

1

pz

s

+

+ 1 u =

p +

Dm a x x 2 Dm a 4 2 2

D

px

L12 u x

1

=

p

L22 u

Dm p + z

The operators L11 up to and including L22 form a differential operator matrix, in which

L11

L

21

2 1 1 2

+

2 a 2 2

x 2

2

1 1

L12 = L21 =

2 a x

L11 = (1 2 )

L22 =

1 2

k 2 2

+

+ 1

2

2

2

2

2 x

a

k=

Db

t2

=

Dm a 2 12a 2

(G.10)

Hence, it is noted that for a thin shell where t < a it follows that the parameter k is

negligibly small in comparison to unity ( k 1) .

By eliminating u x from the two equations, the single differential equation for the

displacement u is obtained, which symbolically reads

( L11L22 L21L12 ) u =

1

p

L21 px L11 p + z

Dm

This operation is only possible if the operators on a scalar function are commutative,

which means that for example ( L21L11 L11L12 ) = 0 .

The single differential equation is then obtained as

2

4

k

2

1 2 2 2

4+ 2

2 (1 + ) 2 + 2 2 2 2 + 1 u

x

x

a

a (1 2 )

1 2

1

2

1 2

p

=

px 2 (1 + ) 2 + 2 2 p + z

2

x

a

Dm (1 ) a x

(G.11)

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

To facilitate comparison between the solutions presented herein, it is preferred to solve

the homogeneous equation for the displacement u z as then all quantities for the semimembrane concept can be described similar to those resulting from the solution to the

Morley-Koiter equation. This can be easily accomplished by noting that, as a result of

the simplification that is equal to zero, the relation u z =

u

holds. Hence, by

taking the derivative of (G.11) with respect to and by rearranging the resulting

equation, the single differential equation for u z becomes

2

2

4 4

1

2 2 2

2

4

+ 8 2 (1 + ) a

+

+ 1 u z

4

x 2 2 2 2

a

a x

3

3

3

1

1

1 pz

1

px

=

+ p 3

2 (1 + ) 2 2 + 4 3

2

Db

a x a

a x

44 =

1 2

a

= 12 (1 2 )

k

t

(G.12)

(G.13)

As stated in chapter 1, the semi-membrane concept exactly describes the ring-bending

behaviour and can only be applied to self-balancing modes. The modes indicated by

n = 2,3,4,... are generally known as these self-balancing modes.

The following considerations are derived for a load that is symmetric to a certain

axis, but can easily be extended to an asymmetric load by describing combinations of

sine and cosine series per load term. These can be treated separately with congruent

resulting expressions, whereby the choice of a symmetric load does not degenerate the

generality of the approach.

As stated in the introduction, the cylinder should be sufficiently long compared

with its radius and the boundary effects should mainly influence the more distant

material. Then the behaviour described above is excellently described by the

differential equation resulting from the semi-membrane concept, where for the mode

numbers n > 1 all quantities can be expressed as functions of the type

( x, ) = n ( x ) cos n and ( x, ) = n ( x ) sin n depending on the axis of symmetry of the

quantity under consideration. Hence, the substitutions similar to those as presented for

the solution of Morley-Koiter equation in subsection 4.4.5 can be made. Hence, the

following substitutions for the loads and displacements can be made

p x ( x, ) = pxn ( x ) cos n

u x ( x, ) = u xn ( x ) cos n

p ( x, ) = pn ( x ) sin n

u ( x, ) = un ( x ) sin n

p z ( x, ) = p zn ( x ) cos n

u z ( x, ) = u zn ( x ) cos n

(G.14)

while for the derivates with respect to the circumferential coordinate substitutions

can be made of the form

( x, )

cos n

= n ( x )

= nn ( x ) sin n

210

Appendices

for quantities generally described by ( x, ) = n ( x ) cos n and similarly for the

quantities generally described by ( x, ) = n ( x ) sin n .

By substitution of the load and displacement functions (G.14), the single differential

equation (G.12) becomes an ordinary differential equation and by omitting the cosine

function for the circumferential distribution, the governing differential equation is

reduced to

2

4 d 4 n 2

d 2 n 2 n 2 1

4

u zn ( x )

2

1

+

(

)

4

a2

dx 2 a 2 a 2

a dx

2

2

4

2

1

n

n

1

n dpxn ( x )

=

2 (1 + ) 2 2 + 4 pzn ( x ) pn ( x ) + 3

Db

a x

a

n

dx

a

(G.15)

Homogeneous solution

The general solution to a differential equation consists of a homogeneous and an

inhomogeneous part. By inspecting the differential equation (G.15), it is observed that

the homogeneous part cannot be separated in a polynomial part and a non-polynomial

part.

The homogeneous equation is given by

2

2

4

2 n2 1

) d 2 + n4 ( n2 1) u ( x ) = 0

d 1+ n (

zn

dx 4

2 a2

4

dx 2 a 4 4 4

subsection 4.5.2

u z ( x, ) = u zn ( x ) cos n = Cne

rn

x

a

cos n

2

n2 1 n n2 1 2 n n2 1

r +

=0

4r 2 (1 + ) 2

u zn ( x ) = e

anSMC

+e

x

a

anSMC

n

SMC x

SMC x

n

C1 cos bn a + C2 sin bn a

x

a

n

SMC x

SMC x

n

C3 cos bn a + C4 sin bn a

(G.16)

1

anSMC = n 1 + nSMC

2

1

bnSMC = n 1 nSMC

2

in which

nSMC = 12 (1 + ) ( n 2 1) 2

, n = n ( n 2 1) 2 2

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

For small values of SMC

and n , the following approximate expressions are obtained

n

1 1

anSMC = n 1 + nSMC

2 2

1 1

bnSMC = n 1 nSMC

2 2

(G.17)

The homogeneous solution for the displacement u can be obtained by solving the

u

, which resulted from the initial assumption that, to simplify the

relation u z =

The homogeneous solution for the displacement u x can be obtained by solving the

second equation of the set (G.9) for which the homogeneous equation read

2

2u 1 + 1 2 2

1 2u x

= 2 4 2 2 2 + 1 u

a x

x

2 a

(G.18)

differential equation in which the sine function (for u ) and the cosine function (for u x )

can be omitted and hence the following equations are obtained

1

un ( x ) = u zn ( x )

n

2

a dun ( x ) 1 + n ( n 1)

u xn ( x ) =

2 a 4

n dx

u ( x ) dx

n

2

a du ( x ) 1 + ( n 1) 1

u zn ( x ) dx

= 2 zn

+

n

dx

2

a

4

2

Inhomogeneous solution

Assuming linear loads px , p and pz , the solution to the inhomogeneous equation of

(G.19) becomes

1 a2

1

a dpxn ( x )

u zn ( x ) =

2 pzn ( x ) pn ( x ) + 2

Db n 1

n

n

dx

2

Similar to the homogeneous solution, the inhomogeneous solution for the

displacement u can be obtained by solving the relation u z =

and the

homogeneous solution for the displacement u x can be obtained by solving the first

equation of the set (G.9). If the second derivative with respect x is omitted, the latter

differential equation becomes

1 2u x

p x 1 2u

=

a 2 2

Ds a x

212

Appendices

and by substituting the displacement and load functions given above, the equations can

be rewritten and omitting the cosine and sine terms, the equations become

1

un ( x ) = u zn ( x )

n

1 a2

a dun ( x ) 1 a 2

a du ( x )

u xn ( x ) =

pxn ( x ) +

=

pxn ( x ) 2 zn

2

Ds n

n dx

Ds n 2

n

dx

inhomogeneous solution for the displacements becomes

1 a2

1

a dpxn ( x )

pzn ( x ) pn ( x ) + 2

Db n 2 1

n

n

dx

2

u zn ( x ) =

1 1 a2

1

a dpxn ( x )

pzn ( x ) pn ( x ) + 2

Db n n 2 1

n

n

dx

2

u n ( x ) =

(G.20)

1 a2

a 1 a a 2 dpzn ( x ) 1 dpn ( x )

u xn ( x ) =

pxn ( x ) 2

2

Ds n

n Db n 2 n 2 1 dx

n dx

2

where the second derivative of the loads have been omitted for the assumed linear

loads.

Complete solution

Describing the loads px , p and pz by the forms

p xn ( x ) = p xn

pn ( x ) = p( 2n)

p zn ( x ) = pzn( 2)

x

+ p(1n)

l

x

+ pzn(1)

l

x

anSMC a n

SMC x

SMC x

n

u z ( x, ) = cos n e

C1 cos bn a + C2 sin bn a

+e

anSMC

x

a

n

SMC x

SMC x

n

C3 cos bn a + C4 sin bn a

(G.21)

1 a2

( 2) 1 ( 2) x

(1) 1 (1)

2 cos n pzn pn + pzn pn

Db n 1

n

n

l

Similar expressions for the independent displacements u and u x are obtained by the

+

appropriate substitutions.

By substitution of the expressions for the independent displacements into the

expressions (G.8), the complete solution for all nontrivial quantities can be obtained,

which are given in Appendix I.

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

As implicated by the simplifications, the influence of the part of the solution described

by the short influence length is neglected in comparison to the part described by the

long influence length. Consequently, the small terms of the dimensionless parameters

anSMC and bnSMC as presented by (G.17) are identified as superfluous and discarded to not

suggest an accuracy that it not described.

If only the leading terms are retained (i.e. by neglecting 2 in comparison to

unity), the dimensionless parameters anSMC and bnSMC become equal to

1

n . If only the

2

full solution is then described by

u zn ( x ) = e

1

x

n

2

a

+e 2

x

x

n

1

1

n

C1 cos 2 n a + C2 sin 2 n a

x

a

n

x

x

1

1

n

C3 cos 2 n a + C4 sin 2 n a

1 a2

q( x)

Db n 2 1

and similarly for all other quantities the same approximation can be adopted.

Hence, it is readily verified that this approximated solution would be the exact

solution to the following homogenous differential equation

4

n2 1

Eta 2 d u zn ( x )

+ Db 2 u zn ( x ) = q ( x )

4

4

n

dx

a

2

The above differential equation is similar to the one for a beam on an elastic

2

n2 1

foundation if the modulus of subgrade is taken as Db 2 and the flexural rigidity

a

2

Eta

of the beam is described by 4 . Hence, it is observed that the circular cylinder under

n

by the so-called ring bending action.

214

Appendices

Appendix H

Solution to

equations

MK

and

SMC

Introduction

This appendix provides the exact homogeneous solution to the Morley-Koiter (MK)

and semi-membrane concept (SMC) differential equations and the general expressions

for all quantities by back substitution. The back substitution and the resulting

expressions are separately provided in Appendix I.

n >1

The third equation of (4.18) is the well-known Morley-Koiter equation. The

homogeneous differential equation is given by

2

4

4

1

+

+

4

u =0

2

4 z

a

a x

in which

=

2

1 2

a

+ 2 2 , = 4 3 (1 2 )

2

x

a

t

By substituting, for a closed circular cylindrical shell, the periodic trial function

u z ( x, ) = Fn ( x ) cos n + Gn ( x ) sin n

4

d 2 n2 d 2 n2 1

d Fn ( x )

+

F

x

cos

n

+

4

cos n = 0

(

)

2

n

a 2 dx 2 a 2 a 2

dx 4

a

dx

and a similar equation for the functions Gn ( x ) .

2

Fn ( x ) = e

r x

a

2

2 n2 2 n2 1

4

r 2 r 2 + 4r = 0

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

This yields two algebraic equations of second degree in r 2

2 n 2 2 n 2 1

2

r 2 r 2 = 2ir

2 1

n 2 2 n 2 ( n 2 1)

r4 2

i r +

=0

2

4

1

= n2 2

2

, = n ( n2 1) 2 2

r 4 2 ( i ) r 2 + 2 = 0

The four roots of the rapid attenuating boundary layers (short-wave solution) read

r(1,2) = a1 ib1

r(3,4) = ( a1 ib1 )

where

1

2

1

b1 =

2

a1 =

12 + 12 + 1

12 + 12 1

in which

1 = + 1

1 = 1 + 2

The four roots of the gradual attenuating boundary layers (long-wave solution) read

r(3,4) = a2 ib2

r( 7,8) = ( a2 ib2 )

where

1

2

1

b2 =

2

a2 =

in which

2 = 1

2 = 1 2

216

2 2 + 2 2 + 2

2 2 + 2 2 2

Appendices

In which for all eight roots the following parameters are used

1

2

1

2 =

2

1 =

2 + 2 +

2 + 2

where

= ( 2 2 1)

= 2

u z ( x, ) = Fn ( x ) cos n

in which

Fn ( x ) = e

a1

+e

x

a

a2

x

x

x a1 a

x

x

a

x

x a2 a

x

x

C5 cos b2 a + C6 sin b2 a + e

C7 cos b2 a + C8 sin b2 a

1

1

2

1 1

1

1

2

+

1

+

1

+

2

+

1

+

+

a1 =

(

)

(

)

(

)

1

2

1

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

1 2 1

1 1

2

b1 =

+ ( 1 + 2 ) + 1 + 2 ( 1 1) + 2 ( 2 + 1)

2

2

2

1

1

2

1 2 1

1 1

2

+

1

+

1

+

a2 =

(

)

(

)

(

)

1

2

1

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

1 2 1

1 1

2

b2 =

+ ( 1 + 2 ) + 1 2 ( 1 1) 2 ( 2 + 1) +

2

2

2

where

1 = + 2 2

2 = 2 + 2

in which

= 2 + 2 = 1 + 2 ( 2 + 2 ) + ( 2 2 )

So

1 + 2

=

2

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Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

n = 0 and n = 1

As explained in subsection 4.4.5.2, the exact homogeneous solution for n = 0 and n = 1

is described by

uz ( x ) = e

a1

x

a

x

x a1 a

x

x

in which

1

1

2

a1 = (1 + 2 ) 2 +

1

1

2

b1 = (1 + 2 ) 2

in which

=

=

1

2 2

for n = 0 , and

1

2 2

for n = 1 .

The differential equation resulting from the semi-membrane concept is presented in

Appendix G by equation (G.12). The homogeneous differential equation is given by

2

2

4 4

1

2 2 2

2

4

uz = 0

+

2

1

+

a

+

+

1

(

)

x 2 2 2 2

a x 4 a8

By substituting, for a closed circular cylindrical shell, the periodic trial function

u z ( x, ) = Fn ( x ) cos n + Gn ( x ) sin n

2

4

4

n2

d 2 n 2 n 2 1

d Fn ( x )

2 2 (1 + ) 2 2 2 Fn ( x ) cos n + 4

cos n = 0

dx

a a

dx 4

a

a

Fn ( x ) = e

r x

a

2

n2 1 n n2 1 2 n n2 1

r +

=0

4r 2 (1 + ) 2

= 12 (1 + ) ( n 2 1) 2

218

, = n ( n 2 1) 2 2

Appendices

the characteristic equation becomes

1

r 4 2 r 2 + 4 = 0

4

The four roots, representing the gradual attenuating boundary layers (long-wave

solution), read

r(1,2) = a ib

r(3,4) = ( a ib )

where

1

a=

2

1

b=

2

2 + 2 +

2 + 2

in which

=

= 1 2

1

a = 1+

2

1

b = 1

2

The general homogenous solution to the Morley-Koiter equation for n > 1 is provided.

All relevant quantities are related to the displacement u z by adopting the expressions

as presented in chapter 4. For n = 0 and n = 1 , the general homogeneous solutions for

all quantities are a reduction of the solutions for n > 1 , which are therefore not

explicitly presented here, but which have been obtained by adopting a similar approach

as followed below.

A general representation of the homogeneous solution for the displacement u z is

described by (4.35), which in a slightly rewritten form reads

1 a

uz =

4

1

u z ( x, ) dxdxdxdx

2

+ a

As shown in subsection 4.4.5.2, this solution can be substituted into the first two

equations of the set (4.18) resulting in the following expressions

2

2

1

1

+ 2 uz

3 + 2 uz

1 a

1

a

a

u = 2 ( 2 + )

dxdx + 2

dxdxdxdx

4a

a

3

4

2 + 2 uz

1 1a

1

1

a

ux =

+

u

dx

dxdxdx

z

4 a

a2

a 2

2

219

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The rotation x is described by equation (4.12) and reads

x =

u z

x

The normal stress resultants and the longitudinal shearing stress resultant are described

by equation (4.13) and read

1 u

u

u

nxx = Dm x +

+ z

a

a

x

u 1 u u z

+

n = Dm x +

x a a

1 1 u x u

+

nx = Dm

2 a x

Upon substitution of the expressions for the displacements above, these expressions

read

2

2 + 2 uz

a

nxx = Db a 2 2

dxdx

a

2

n = Db a + 2 u z

a

+ 2 uz

a

nx = Db a

dx

a

2u

1 2u z

u

mxx = Db 2z + 2

+ 2z

2

a

a

x

2u

1 2u z u z

m = Db 2z + 2

+

a 2 a 2

x

1 u 1 2u z

mx = Db (1 )

+

a x a x

Upon substitution of the expression for u above, the expression for mx reads

2

2

1

1

+ 2 uz

3 + 2 uz

1 a

1

a

a

mx = Db (1 ) 3 ( 2 + )

dx + 2

dxdxdx

4a

a

3

2

1 uz

Db (1 )

a x

4

The transverse shearing stress resultants are described by equation (4.9) and read

mxx 1 mx

+

x

a

1 m mx

v =

+

a

x

vx =

220

Appendices

Upon substitution of the expressions for the stress couples above, these expressions

read

2

2

1

1

2

4

+

u

uz

2

2

1 a

1

a

a

vx = Db (1 ) 4 ( 2 + )

dx + 2

dxdxdx

2

4

4a

3u

1 3u z

1 u

+ Db 3z 2

2 z

2

x

a

a

x

2

2

1

1

+ 2 uz

3 + 2 uz

1 a

1

a

a

+ 2

v = Db (1 ) 3 ( 2 + )

dxdx

4a

a

3

1 3u

1 3u z 1 u z

+ Db 2 z 2

a x a 3 a 2

The combined internal stress resultant vx is described by equation (4.11) and reads

vx =

mxx 2 mx

+

x

a

Upon substitution of the expressions for the stress couples above, this expression reads

2

2

1

1

2 + 2 uz

4 + 2 uz

1

a

1

a

a

vx = Db (1 ) 4 ( 2 + )

dx

+

dxdxdx

2a

2

a 2

4

3u 2 3u z

1 u

+ Db 3z 2

2 z

2

x

x

a

x

a

The general homogenous solution to the SMC equation for n > 1 is provided. All

relevant quantities are related to the displacement u z by adopting the expressions as

presented in Appendix G.

The homogeneous solution is presented by expression (G.16), which reads

x

x

x

a2

a

a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

C3 cos b2 a + C4 sin b2 a

in which

1

a2 = 1 +

2

1

, b2 = 1

2

where

1

= n ( n 2 1) 2 2 , = 12 (1 + ) ( n 2 1) 2

221

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Resulting form the initial assumption that the circumferential strain is equal to zero,

the homogeneous solution for the displacement u is obtained by

u = u z d

2

u

1+ 1

2

u x = ad

2 + 1 udx

4

x

2 a

Upon substitution of the expressions for the displacement u above, this expression

reads

2

1 + 1 2

u

u x = z ad d +

+ 1 u z dx

4

2

2 a

x

The normal stress resultant, the longitudinal shearing stress resultant and the stress

couple are described by equation (G.8) and read

u x

x

1 u x u

nx = Ds

+

a x

1 3u 1 u

m = Db 2

+ 2

3

a

a

nxx = Dm (1 2 )

Upon substitution of the expressions for the displacements above, these expressions

read

2

2u

1 + 1 2

nxx = Dm (1 2 ) 2z ad d +

+

1

u z

2 a4 2

x

2

1+ 1

2

1

nx = Ds

+

u z dx

2 4

2

2 a

m = Db

1 2u z

+ uz

a 2 2

The transverse shearing stress resultant is described by equation (G.5) and reads

v =

1 m

a

Upon substitution of the expressions for the stress couples above, these expressions

read

v = Db

222

1 3u z u z

+

a 3 3

Appendices

Appendix I

solutions

The expressions for all quantities, which are obtained by back substitution of the exact

homogeneous solution to the Morley-Koiter (MK) differential equation, are provided

for n > 1 . For n = 0 and n = 1 , the expressions obtained by back substitution are a

reduction of the expressions for n > 1 , which are therefore not explicitly presented here,

but which have been obtained by adopting a similar approach as followed below.

A complete representation of the derivation of all expressions is surplus to

requirements in view of the number of quantities and number of terms involved. For a

more elaborate discussion of the successive substitutions, reference is made to the back

substitution of the homogeneous solution to the SMC equation hereafter.

The expressions for the back substitution are extracted from Appendix H. For a

specific inhomogeneous solution, the expressions for all quantities are also provided.

The solution to the differential equation is thus described by

u z ( x, ) = Fn ( x ) cos n

in which

x

a1 x

x

x a1

x

x

Fn ( x ) = cos n e a C1 cos b1 + C2 sin b1 + e a C3 cos b1 + C4 sin b1

a

a

a

a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x a2 a

x

x

+

C

cos

b

C

sin

b

e

C7 cos b2 + C8 sin b2

6

2

2

5

a

a

a

a

1

a1 = 1 +

2

1 1

b2 = 1 +

2 2

1

b1 = 1

2

1 1

b2 = 1 +

2 2

in which

1

= n ( n 2 1) 2 2 , = ( n 2 12 ) 2

By back substituting the expression for u z ( x, ) , the expressions for all quantities can

be derived while introducing the appropriate approximations, viz. neglecting the small

terms in comparison with unity as 2 2 1 . Without further elaboration, the result is

provided below for all relevant quantities, which is obtained by same procedure as

described for the SMC solution hereafter.

223

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

For the displacement u x , the substitution yields

ux =

a1 x

1

x

x

12

12

11

cos n e a {u11

x C1 u x C2 } cos b1

+ {u x C1 + u x C2 } sin b1

4

a

a

+e

+e

+e

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{u x C3 u x C4 } cos b1 a + {u x C3 u x C4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{u x C5 u x C6 } cos b2 a + {u x C5 + u x C6 } sin b2 a

x

x

21

22

22

21

{u x C7 u x C8 } cos b2 a + {u x C7 u x C8 } sin b2 a

n2 1

3

n2 1

n2 1

1

+

+

u11

x =

2

2

2

2

2

n n2 1 3

n2

n2 1

u x21 = 2

1 + 2 2

2

n

n

2

n2 1

3

n2 1

n2 1

u12

=

+

+

2

1

+

x

2

2

2

2

2

For the displacement u , the substitution yields

n n2 1 3

n2

n2 1

u x22 = 2

1

+

n2 2

n2

2

u =

a1 x

1

x

x

sin n e a {u11C1 u12C2 } cos b1 + {u12C1 + u11C2 } sin b1

2n

a

a

+e

+e

+e

n

u11 =

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{u C3 + u C4 } cos b1 a + {u C3 + u C4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{u C5 u C6 } cos b2 a + {u C5 + u C6 } sin b2 a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{u C7 + u C8} cos b2 a + {u C7 + u C8 } sin b2 a

1 n 2

n2 1

( 2 + ) 2

2

2

n

u12 = ( 2 + )

x =

n2

n2 1

u22 = 2 2 2 + ( 2 + ) 2

a1 x

1

x

x

cos n e a {11x C1 12x C2 } cos b1 + {12x C1 + 11x C2 } sin b1

2a

a

+e

+e

+e

224

u21 = 2

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

x

x

11

12

12

11

{ x C3 x C4 } cos b1 a + {x C3 + x C4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{ x C5 x C6 } cos b2 a + { x C5 + x C6 } sin b2 a

x

x

21

22

22

21

{ x C7 x C8 } cos b2 a + { x C7 x C8 } sin b2 a

Appendices

1

21

x = 1 +

2

1

22

x = 1

2

11x = ( 2 + )

12x = ( 2 )

nxx =

2

a1 ax 11

Et n

x

x

12

12

11

a

cos

n

e

{nxxC1 nxx C2 } cos b1 a + {nxx C1 + nxxC2 } sin b1 a

42 a

+e

+e

+e

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{nxxC3 + nxx C4 } cos b1 a + { nxx C3 + nxxC4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{nxx C5 nxx C6 } cos b2 a + {nxx C5 + nxx C6 } sin b2 a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{nxx C7 + nxx C8} cos b2 a + { nxx C7 + nxx C8 } sin b2 a

n2 1

2

n11

=

xx

2

nxx21 = 2

n2 1

n2

n2

2

n12

xx = 2

nxx22 = 2

n2 1

n2

n =

a1 x

Et

x

x

12

12

11

cos n e a {n11

C1 nC2 } cos b1

+ {nC1 + nC2 } sin b1

a

a

a

+e

+e

+e

n =1

11

12

n

=

n2 1

2

2

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{nC3 + nC4 } cos b1 a + { nC3 + nC4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

22

21

22

{nC5 n C6 } cos b2 a + {n C5 + nC6 } sin b2 a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{nC7 + n C8} cos b2 a + { n C7 + nC8 } sin b2 a

1 n2 1

n = 2

4

21

22

n

=0

225

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

For the stress resultant nx , the substitution yields

nx =

a1 x

Et n

x

x

12

12

11

sin n e a {n11

x S1 nx S 2 } cos b1

+ {nx S1 + nx S 2 } sin b1

4 a

a

a

+e

+e

+e

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{ nx S3 nx S 4 } cos b1 a + {nx S3 nx S 4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{nx S5 nx S6 } cos b2 a + {nx S5 + nx S6 } sin b2 a

x

x

21

22

22

21

{ nx S7 nx S8 } cos b2 a + {nx S 7 nx S8 } sin b2 a

3

n2 1

+ 2

n11

x = 2 1

2

nx21 =

n2 1 1

n2

1 + 2

2

n

2

3

n2 1

n2 1 1

n2

n12

2

nx22 = 2 1 + 2

x = 2 1 +

n

2

2

For the stress couple mxx , the substitution yields

2

a1 x

x

x

12

12

11

mxx = Db cos n e a {m11

xx C1 mxx C2 } cos b1

+ {mxx C1 + mxxC2 } sin b1

a

a

a

+e

+e

+e

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{mxxC3 + mxx C4 } cos b1 a + { mxx C3 + mxxC4 } sin b1 a

x

a

x

x

21

22

22

21

{mxx C5 mxx C6 } cos b2 a + {mxx C5 + mxx C6 } sin b2 a

x

x

21

22

22

21

{mxx C7 + mxx C8} cos b2 a + { mxx C7 + mxx C8} sin b2 a

n2 1

m11

=

xx

2

mxx21 =

m12

xx = 2

1

mxx22 = 2

2

n2 1

2

2

a1 x 11

x

x

12

12

11

m = Db cos n e a {m

C1 m

C2 } cos b1 + {m

C1 + m

C2 } sin b1

a

a

a

+e

+e

+e

226

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{mC3 + mC4 } cos b1 a + { mC3 + mC4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{mC5 m C6 } cos b2 a + {m C5 + mC6 } sin b2 a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{mC7 + m C8} cos b2 a + { m C7 + mC8} sin b2 a

Appendices

n2 1

11

m

= 2 2

12

m = 2

21

m

=

n2 1

2

22

m

=0

mx = Db

a1 x

1 n

x

x

12

12

11

sin n e a {m11

xC1 mxC2 } cos b1

+ {mxC1 + mxC2 } sin b1

2 aa

a

a

+e

+e

+e

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

x

11

12

12

11

{ mxC3 mxC4 } cos b1 a + {mxC3 mxC4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{mxC5 mx C6 } cos b2 a + {mx C5 + mxC6 } sin b2 a

x

x

21

22

22

21

{ mxC7 mx C8 } cos b2 a + {mx C7 mxC8 } sin b2 a

1

m11

x = 2 + + ( 2 + ) 2

1

2 + n2 1 1 1

n2

mx21 = 1 +

2 2 3 + 2 2

2

2

2

n 2n

2

1

m12

x = 2 ( 2 + ) 2

1

2 + n2 1 1 1

n2

mx22 = 1 +

2 2 + 3 2 2

2

2

2

n 2n

2

3

x

a1

x

x

12

12

11

vx = Db cos n e a {v11

x C1 vx C2 } cos b1

+ {vx C1 + vx C2 } sin b1

a

a

a

+e

+e

+e

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{vx C3 vx C4 } cos b1 a + {vx C3 vx C4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

21

22

22

{vx C5 vx C6 } cos b2 a + {vx C5 + vx C6 } sin b2 a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{vx C7 vx C8 } cos b2 a + {vx C7 vx C8 } sin b2 a

n2

v11

=

x

2

n2 1 n n2 1

vx21 = 2

2 2

22

n2

v12

x = 2 + 3

2

n2 1 n n2 1

vx22 = 2

2 2

2 2

227

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

For the stress resultant v , the substitution yields

2

a1 x

n

x

x

12

12

11

v = Db sin n e a {v11

C1 v C2 } cos b1

+ {v C1 + v C2 } sin b1

a a

a

a

+e

+e

+e

a1

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{v C3 + v C4 } cos b1 a + {v C3 + v C4 } sin b1 a

a2

a2

x

a

x

21

x

22

22

21

{v C5 v C6 } cos b2 a + {v C5 + v C6 } sin b2 a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{v C7 + v C8} cos b2 a + {v C7 + v C8} sin b2 a

x

a

n2 1

1

v11

+ ( 2 + ) 2

= 2

2

12

v = 2

v21 =

n2 1

2

v22 = 0

a1

x

x

a

a

a

+e

+e

+e

a1

x

a

a2

a2

x

a

11

x

x

12

12

11

{vx C3 vx C4 } cos b1 a + {vx C3 vx C4 } sin b1 a

x

a

21

x

x

22

21

22

{vx C5 vx C6 } cos b2 a + {vx C5 + vx C6 } sin b2 a

21

x

x

22

22

21

{vx C7 vx C8 } cos b2 a + {vx C7 vx C8 } sin b2 a

( 2 ) n 2

vx 11 = 2 3 +

( 2 ) n2 1 n n2 1

vx21 =

2 2

2

2

( 2 ) n2

vx 12 = 2 + 3

( 2 ) n2 1 n n 2 1

vx22 =

2

2 2

2

For a load, constant with respect to coordinate x and presented by pz ( x, ) = pzn cos n ,

the inhomogeneous solution is derived for all relevant quantities. For convenience, the

other load terms are assumed to be zero. For the sake of clarity, this rather simple load

case is considered, but this does degenerate the generality of the approach as it can

easily be extended to more involved load cases.

228

Appendices

The inhomogeneous solution can be obtained by omitting all derivatives with respect to

the axial coordinate x and by omitting the load terms px and p in the differential

equation (4.34). The single differential equation then reads

2

1 4 2

1

1 4 pz

n4

+ 2 uz =

=

pzn cos n

4

4 2

2

4

4

a a a

Db a

Db a 4

uz =

1

a4

pzn cos n

Db ( n 2 1)2

By substituting this result into the first equations of the set (4.18), the inhomogeneous

solution for the circumferential displacement u is obtained, which becomes

u = u z d =

1

a4

pzn

sin n

Db ( n 2 1)2 n

The other nontrivial solutions (refer to expressions (4.9) and (4.13)) are

1 2u z u z

a2

m = Db 2

+

=

pzn cos n

2

a2 n2 1

a

mxx = m

v =

1 m

na

= 2

pzn sin n

a

n 1

The expressions for all quantities, which are obtained by back substitution of the exact

homogeneous solution to the SMC differential equation, are provided for n > 1 .

The expressions for the back substitution are extracted from Appendix H. For a

specific inhomogeneous solution, the expressions for all quantities are also provided.

The solution to the differential equation is thus described by

u z ( x, ) = Fn ( x ) cos n

in which

x

x

x

a2

Fn ( x ) = e a C1 cos b2 + C2 sin b2

a

a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

C3 cos b2 a + C4 sin b2 a

1 1

1 1

a2 = 1 + , b2 = 1

2 2

2 2

in which

1

= n ( n 2 1) 2 2 , = 12 (1 + ) ( n 2 1) 2

229

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

The number of derivatives and integrals of Fn ( x ) with respect to the coordinate x that

need to be evaluated are limited in case of the SMC solution and become

dFn ( x )

dx

a2 a

x

x

e

( a2C1 + b2C2 ) cos b2 a + ( b2C1 a2C2 ) sin b2 a

a

+e

d 2 Fn ( x )

dx

a2

x

a

x

x

2

x

a2

= e a

a

{(( a ) (b ) ) C + ( 2a b ) C }cos b ax

2

2 2

) }

x

2

2

+ ( 2a2b2 ) C1 + ( a2 ) ( b2 ) C2 sin b2

a

+e

a2

x

a

{(( a ) (b ) ) C + ( 2a b ) C }cos b ax

2 2

) }

x

2

2

+ ( 2a2b2 ) C3 + ( a2 ) ( b2 ) C4 sin b2

a

F ( x ) dx = ( a ) + ( b )

n

x

a a2 a

x

x

e

( a2C1 b2C2 ) cos b2 a + ( b2C1 a2C2 ) sin b2 a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

However, introducing the approximated parameters and neglecting the small terms in

comparison with unity, viz. 2 2 1 , the congruent approximation of the derivatives

and integrals reads

dFn ( x )

dx

a2 a

x

x

e

{1C1 + 2C2 } cos b2 a + { 2C1 1C2 } sin b2 a

2 a

+e

d 2 Fn ( x )

dx 2

a2

x

a

x

x

2

x

2 a2 a

x

x

( C1 C2 ) cos b2 + ( C1 + C2 ) sin b2

e

2 a

a

a

+e

Fn ( x ) dx

a2

x

a

x

x

( C3 + C4 ) cos b2 a + ( C3 + C4 ) sin b2 a

1 a a2 a

x

x

{1C1 2C2} cos b2 + { 2C1 1C2} sin b2

e

a

a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

in which

1

1 = 1 +

2

230

1

, 2 = 1

2

Appendices

By back substituting the expression for u z ( x, ) and adopting the derivatives and

integrals above, the expressions for all quantities can be derived while introducing the

appropriate approximations, viz. neglecting the small terms in comparison with unity

as 2 2 1 .

For the displacement u , the expression becomes

a2 x

1

x

x

n

a

a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

C3 cos b2 a C4 sin b2 a

2

u x =

u

1 + 1 2

ad

2 + 1 udx

4

2 a

x

2

2

a dFn ( x ) 1 + ( n 1)

F

x

dx

= cos n 2

+

(

)

n

4

dx

2a

a 2 dFn ( x )

1 n n2 1

cos n

+ 2 Fn ( x ) dx

2

2

n

a

dx

which results in

ux =

a2 ax

1 n n2 1

x

x

cos

n

e

( u x1C1 u x 2C2 ) cos b2 a + ( u x 2C1 + u x1C2 ) sin b2 a

2

n2

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

in which

3

u x1 = 1

2

3

, ux2 = 1 +

2

For the stress resultant nxx , the same procedure results in

nxx =

2

x

Et n 2 1 n

x

x

a2 a

a cos n e

( C1 + C2 ) cos b2 a + ( C1 + C2 ) sin b2 a

2

2

2 n a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

( C3 C4 ) cos b2 a + ( C3 + C4 ) sin b2 a

nx =

a2 ax

Et n2 1 n

x

x

sin

n

e

2

4 n

a

a

a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

in which

1

nx1 = 1 +

2

1

, n x 2 = 1

2

231

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

For the stress couple m , the expression becomes

m = Db

a2 ax

n2 1

x

x

cos

n

C1 cos b2 + C2 sin b2

e

2

a

a

a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

C3 cos b2 a + C4 sin b2 a

v = Db

a2 x

n2 1 n

x

x

2

a a

a

a

+e

a2

x

a

x

x

C3 cos b2 a C4 sin b2 a

For a load, constant with respect to coordinate x and presented by pz ( x, ) = pzn cos n ,

the inhomogeneous solution is derived for all relevant quantities. For convenience, the

other load terms are assumed to be zero. For the sake of clarity, this rather simple load

case is considered, but this does degenerate the generality of the approach as it can

easily be extended to more involved load cases.

The inhomogeneous solution can be obtained by omitting all derivatives with

respect to the axial coordinate x and by omitting the load terms px and p in the set

of equations (G.9). A single differential equation is obtained, which reads

2

Db 2 2

p

+ 1 u = z = npzn sin n

a 4 2 2

u =

1

a4

p zn

sin n

2

2

Db ( n 1) n

and hence

uz =

u

1

a4

=

pzn cos n

Db ( n 2 1)2

The other nontrivial solutions (refer to expressions (G.8) and (G.5)) are

1 3u 1 u

a2

m = Db 2

+

=

p zn cos n

3

a 2 n 2 1

a

1 m

na

= 2

v =

p zn sin n

a

n 1

of which the stress couple is identically be obtained from the equilibrium equation

(G.4).

232

Appendices

Appendix J

stiffening rings

Introduction

This appendix summarizes the relevant input data and results of the calculations as

referred to in section 5.3.

Input data

Calculations have been made for a radius-to-thickness-ratio of 50, 100 and 200 and

with a varying number of equally spaced stiffening rings per length-to radius ratio. For

the radius-to-thickness-ratios, the respective length-to-radius-ratios approximately

match with a 0.5, 1 and 1.5 times the influence length of the long-wave solution. The

maximum number of stiffening rings has been chosen such to achieve a minimum

spacing of about 0.2 times the influence length of the long wave solution while the

minimum number of stiffening rings that has been considered is two. The considered

rings are T beams that are bend with the stem inside matching with the curvature of the

shell. The cross-sectional dimensions have been based on practical considerations

related to the thickness of the shell and typical requirements as prescribed in relevant

codes and standards. Three different cross-sections have been considered to study the

impact of this variation with the following generic properties:

a) the web height equal to the flange width (Case 1),

b) the web height larger than the flange width of the previous case (Case 2), and

c) the flange width larger that the web height of the first case (Case 3).

The properties of the considered rings are summarized in Table J-1 for which the

notation is depicted in Figure I-1.

Table J-1 Ring dimensions for the three cases (all with a = 1000 mm ).

Case

1

at

50

100

200

50

100

200

50

100

200

t1

l1

t2

l2

150 mm

100 mm

75 mm

150 mm

100 mm

75 mm

200 mm

133 mm

100 mm

15 mm

7 mm

4 mm

15 mm

7 mm

4 mm

15 mm

7 mm

4 mm

20 mm

10 mm

5 mm

20 mm

10 mm

5 mm

20 mm

10 mm

5 mm

150 mm

100 mm

75 mm

200 mm

133 mm

100 mm

150 mm

100 mm

75 mm

233

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

element.

Results

In the tables provided in this section, the results for the calculations as described above

have been collated. The following non-dimensional parameters have been adopted to

provide insight in the results:

4lr

lin,2= 2

of the long wave solution

program

r and

the stress ratio between the axial stress at the base due to the selfbalancing terms ( n = 2,...,5 ) and the axial stress at the base due to the

beam term

leff , program

at

leff , formula

at

leff , formula

leff , program

234

program

ratio of the above non-dimensional effective shell lengths

Appendices

Table J-2 Constant ring with equal width and height a t = 50

Radius-to-thickness ratio a t = 50

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 7.5

Number of

rings

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.607

0.910

program

0.187

0.222

0.287

leff , program

at

0.563

0.480

0.342

leff , formula

at

0.725

0.714

0.694

leff , formula

leff , program

1.29

1.49

2.03

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 15

Number of

rings

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.520

0.607

0.728

0.910

1.213

1.820

program

0.188

0.202

0.221

0.244

0.277

0.333

0.464

leff , program

at

0.551

0.520

0.492

0.457

0.409

0.314

0.104

leff , formula

at

0.725

0.720

0.714

0.706

0.694

0.676

0.643

leff , formula

leff , program

1.32

1.38

1.45

1.55

1.70

2.15

6.17

Number of

rings

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.496

0.546

0.607

0.682

0.780

0.910

1.092

1.365

1.820

2.730

program

0.184

0.193

0.204

0.216

0.231

0.250

0.273

0.305

0.358

0.466

0.708

leff , program

at

0.605

0.582

0.562

0.540

0.513

0.481

0.443

0.384

0.279

0.101

-0.096

leff , formula

at

0.725

0.722

0.718

0.714

0.709

0.703

0.694

0.683

0.667

0.643

0.602

leff , formula

leff , program

1.20

1.24

1.28

1.32

1.38

1.46

1.57

1.78

2.39

6.34

-6.29

235

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Table J-3 Constant ring with equal width and height a t = 100

Radius-to-thickness ratio a t = 100

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 10

Number of

rings

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.429

0.572

0.858

program

0.193

0.227

0.288

leff , program

at

0.687

0.621

0.492

leff , formula

at

0.735

0.725

0.705

leff , formula

leff , program

1.07

1.17

1.43

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 20

Number of

rings

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.429

0.490

0.572

0.686

0.858

1.144

1.716

program

0.193

0.207

0.224

0.246

0.276

0.326

0.443

leff , program

at

0.695

0.676

0.656

0.632

0.596

0.506

0.249

leff , formula

at

0.735

0.730

0.725

0.717

0.705

0.687

0.655

leff , formula

leff , program

1.06

1.08

1.11

1.13

1.18

1.36

2.63

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 30

Number of

rings

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

236

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.429

0.468

0.515

0.572

0.643

0.735

0.858

1.029

1.287

1.716

2.573

program

0.188

0.197

0.207

0.219

0.232

0.249

0.270

0.299

0.345

0.439

0.661

leff , program

at

0.782

0.767

0.752

0.735

0.717

0.695

0.664

0.608

0.492

0.262

-0.015

leff , formula

at

0.735

0.732

0.729

0.725

0.719

0.713

0.705

0.694

0.678

0.655

0.614

leff , formula

leff , program

0.94

0.95

0.97

0.99

1.00

1.03

1.06

1.14

1.38

2.50

-40.71

Appendices

Table J-4 Constant ring with equal width and height a t = 200

Radius-to-thickness ratio a t = 200

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 15

Number of

rings

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.607

0.910

program

0.183

0.214

0.271

leff , program

at

0.794

0.735

0.592

leff , formula

at

0.739

0.729

0.709

leff , formula

leff , program

0.93

0.99

1.20

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 30

Number of

rings

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.520

0.607

0.728

0.910

1.213

1.820

program

0.184

0.197

0.213

0.234

0.263

0.314

0.441

leff , program

at

0.768

0.757

0.745

0.724

0.683

0.549

0.216

leff , formula

at

0.739

0.735

0.729

0.720

0.709

0.691

0.658

leff , formula

leff , program

0.96

0.97

0.98

1.00

1.04

1.26

3.04

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 45

Number of

rings

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.496

0.546

0.607

0.682

0.780

0.910

1.092

1.365

1.820

2.730

program

0.180

0.188

0.198

0.209

0.221

0.237

0.258

0.287

0.338

0.447

0.696

leff , program

at

0.854

0.845

0.836

0.825

0.812

0.791

0.752

0.667

0.490

0.194

-0.088

leff , formula

at

0.739

0.736

0.733

0.729

0.723

0.717

0.709

0.698

0.682

0.658

0.617

leff , formula

leff , program

0.87

0.87

0.88

0.88

0.89

0.91

0.94

1.05

1.39

3.39

-6.99

237

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Table J-5 Constant ring with increased width and equal height a t = 50

Radius-to-thickness ratio a t = 50

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 7.5

Number of

rings

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.607

0.910

program

0.178

0.211

0.276

leff , program

at

0.541

0.465

0.326

leff , formula

at

0.728

0.718

0.700

leff , formula

leff , program

1.34

1.54

2.15

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 15

Number of

rings

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.520

0.607

0.728

0.910

1.213

1.820

program

0.179

0.193

0.210

0.233

0.266

0.321

0.453

leff , program

at

0.527

0.499

0.473

0.440

0.390

0.296

0.093

leff , formula

at

0.728

0.724

0.718

0.711

0.700

0.683

0.652

leff , formula

leff , program

1.38

1.45

1.52

1.62

1.80

2.31

7.01

Number of

rings

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

238

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.496

0.546

0.607

0.682

0.780

0.910

1.092

1.365

1.820

2.730

program

0.175

0.184

0.194

0.206

0.221

0.239

0.261

0.294

0.347

0.457

0.702

leff , program

at

0.577

0.554

0.535

0.515

0.490

0.460

0.421

0.361

0.257

0.085

-0.103

leff , formula

at

0.728

0.725

0.722

0.718

0.713

0.708

0.700

0.689

0.675

0.652

0.613

leff , formula

leff , program

1.26

1.31

1.35

1.40

1.46

1.54

1.66

1.91

2.62

7.65

-5.94

Appendices

Table J-6 Constant ring with increased width and equal height a t = 100

Radius-to-thickness ratio a t = 100

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 10

Number of

rings

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.429

0.572

0.858

program

0.182

0.214

0.274

leff , program

at

0.678

0.614

0.483

leff , formula

at

0.738

0.728

0.710

leff , formula

leff , program

1.09

1.19

1.47

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 20

Number of

rings

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.429

0.490

0.572

0.686

0.858

1.144

1.716

program

0.182

0.196

0.212

0.233

0.263

0.311

0.428

leff , program

at

0.682

0.663

0.644

0.620

0.584

0.493

0.241

leff , formula

at

0.738

0.734

0.728

0.721

0.710

0.694

0.664

leff , formula

leff , program

1.08

1.11

1.13

1.16

1.22

1.41

2.75

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 30

Number of

rings

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.429

0.468

0.515

0.572

0.643

0.735

0.858

1.029

1.287

1.716

2.573

program

0.178

0.186

0.196

0.207

0.220

0.236

0.257

0.286

0.332

0.428

0.654

leff , program

at

0.760

0.746

0.731

0.715

0.698

0.676

0.643

0.586

0.468

0.242

-0.022

leff , formula

at

0.738

0.735

0.732

0.728

0.724

0.718

0.710

0.700

0.686

0.664

0.625

leff , formula

leff , program

0.97

0.99

1.00

1.02

1.04

1.06

1.10

1.20

1.46

2.74

-27.80

239

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Table J-7 Constant ring with increased width and equal height a t = 200

Radius-to-thickness ratio a t = 200

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 15

Number of

rings

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.607

0.910

program

0.173

0.202

0.257

leff , program

at

0.788

0.734

0.586

leff , formula

at

0.742

0.732

0.714

leff , formula

leff , program

0.94

1.00

1.22

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 30

Number of

rings

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.520

0.607

0.728

0.910

1.213

1.820

program

0.174

0.186

0.202

0.221

0.250

0.300

0.428

leff , program

at

0.758

0.747

0.734

0.714

0.668

0.528

0.204

leff , formula

at

0.742

0.738

0.732

0.725

0.714

0.697

0.666

leff , formula

leff , program

0.98

0.99

1.00

1.01

1.07

1.32

3.26

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 45

Number of

rings

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

240

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.496

0.546

0.607

0.682

0.780

0.910

1.092

1.365

1.820

2.730

program

0.170

0.178

0.187

0.197

0.210

0.225

0.245

0.274

0.325

0.437

0.690

leff , program

at

0.837

0.828

0.819

0.808

0.794

0.772

0.730

0.642

0.465

0.174

-0.096

leff , formula

at

0.742

0.739

0.736

0.732

0.727

0.721

0.714

0.703

0.689

0.666

0.627

leff , formula

leff , program

0.89

0.89

0.90

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.98

1.10

1.48

3.82

-6.53

Appendices

Table J-8 Constant ring with equal width and increased height a t = 50

Radius-to-thickness ratio a t = 50

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 7.5

Number of

rings

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.607

0.910

program

0.153

0.183

0.243

leff , program

at

0.380

0.304

0.172

leff , formula

at

0.716

0.703

0.680

leff , formula

leff , program

1.88

2.32

3.96

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 15

Number of

rings

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.520

0.607

0.728

0.910

1.213

1.820

program

0.154

0.167

0.183

0.204

0.235

0.290

0.425

leff , program

at

0.368

0.338

0.309

0.272

0.219

0.122

-0.050

leff , formula

at

0.716

0.711

0.703

0.694

0.680

0.658

0.620

leff , formula

leff , program

1.95

2.10

2.28

2.55

3.10

5.38

-12.34

Number of

rings

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.496

0.546

0.607

0.682

0.780

0.910

1.092

1.365

1.820

2.730

program

0.151

0.159

0.168

0.179

0.192

0.209

0.231

0.263

0.318

0.433

0.689

leff , program

at

0.410

0.389

0.368

0.346

0.319

0.286

0.245

0.182

0.082

-0.062

-0.200

leff , formula

at

0.716

0.713

0.709

0.703

0.697

0.690

0.680

0.666

0.648

0.620

0.574

leff , formula

leff , program

1.75

1.83

1.92

2.03

2.19

2.41

2.77

3.66

7.87

-10.04

-2.87

241

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Table J-9 Constant ring with equal width and increased height a t = 100

Radius-to-thickness ratio a t = 100

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 10

Number of

rings

12

11

10

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.496

0.546

program

0.151

0.159

0.168

leff , program

at

0.410

0.389

0.368

leff , formula

at

0.716

0.713

0.709

leff , formula

leff , program

1.75

1.83

1.92

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 20

Number of

rings

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.429

0.490

0.572

0.686

0.858

1.144

1.716

program

0.154

0.165

0.180

0.199

0.226

0.274

0.393

leff , program

at

0.553

0.531

0.507

0.477

0.428

0.315

0.081

leff , formula

at

0.725

0.720

0.712

0.702

0.688

0.667

0.629

leff , formula

leff , program

1.31

1.35

1.40

1.47

1.61

2.11

7.80

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 30

Number of

rings

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

242

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.429

0.468

0.515

0.572

0.643

0.735

0.858

1.029

1.287

1.716

2.573

program

0.150

0.157

0.165

0.175

0.187

0.202

0.221

0.249

0.296

0.398

0.634

leff , program

at

0.627

0.610

0.593

0.573

0.551

0.522

0.479

0.407

0.276

0.067

-0.132

leff , formula

at

0.725

0.722

0.717

0.712

0.706

0.698

0.688

0.675

0.656

0.629

0.582

leff , formula

leff , program

1.16

1.18

1.21

1.24

1.28

1.34

1.44

1.66

2.38

9.44

-4.42

Appendices

Table J-10 Constant ring with equal width and increased height a t = 200

Radius-to-thickness ratio a t = 200

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 15

Number of

rings

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.607

0.910

program

0.143

0.168

0.218

leff , program

at

0.653

0.592

0.424

leff , formula

at

0.729

0.716

0.691

leff , formula

leff , program

1.12

1.21

1.63

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 30

Number of

rings

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.520

0.607

0.728

0.910

1.213

1.820

program

0.144

0.155

0.168

0.185

0.212

0.264

0.394

leff , program

at

0.630

0.614

0.594

0.561

0.489

0.310

0.018

leff , formula

at

0.729

0.723

0.716

0.705

0.691

0.669

0.630

leff , formula

leff , program

1.16

1.18

1.20

1.26

1.41

2.16

34.78

Length-to-radius ratio l a = 45

Number of

rings

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

4lr

lin,2= 2

0.455

0.496

0.546

0.607

0.682

0.780

0.910

1.092

1.365

1.820

2.730

program

0.141

0.148

0.155

0.164

0.175

0.189

0.208

0.237

0.290

0.410

0.674

leff , program

at

0.705

0.694

0.681

0.665

0.643

0.607

0.544

0.429

0.237

-0.017

-0.211

leff , formula

at

0.729

0.725

0.721

0.716

0.709

0.701

0.691

0.678

0.659

0.630

0.583

leff , formula

leff , program

1.03

1.04

1.06

1.08

1.10

1.16

1.27

1.58

2.77

-36.38

-2.76

243

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

244

Literature

Literature

Numbered list

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

2002, Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and

Geosciences, graduation report.

Bouma, A.L., Loof, H.W., Van Koten, H., The analysis of the stress

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Loof, H.W., co-workers, The library of computer programmes for shell

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Bahtia, R.S., Sekhon, G.S., A novel method of generating exact stiffness

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Bahtia, R.S., Sekhon, G.S., Generation of an exact stiffness matrix for a

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Bahtia, R.S., Sekhon, G.S., Generation of exact stiffness matrix for a conical

shell element. Computers & Structures, 1999. 70: p. 425-435.

Sekhon, G.S., Bahtia, R.S., Generation of exact stiffness matrix for a spherical

shell element. Computers & Structures, 2000. 74: p. 335-349.

Melerski, E.S., Design analysis of beams, circular plates and cylindrical tanks

on elastic foundations: with IBM-compatible software. 2000, Rotterdam:

Balkema.

Pircher, M., Guggenberger, W., Greiner, R., Stresses in Elastically Supported

Cylindrical Shells under Wind Load and Foundation Settlement. Advances in

Structural Engineering, 2001. 4(3): p. 159-167.

Kraus, H., Thin Elastic Shells. 1967, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Leissa, A.W., Vibration of Shells. 1973, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government

Printing Office.

Hildebrand, F.B., Reissner, E., Thomas, G.B., Notes on the Foundations of the

Theory of Small Displacements of Orthotropic Shells, in NACA-TN-1833.

1949.

Love, A.E.H., The Small Free Vibrations and Deformations of a Thin Elastic

Shell. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - Series A Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 1888. 179: p. 491 - 549.

Flgge, W., Stresses in Shells. Second Edition ed. 1973: Springer-Verlag

Berlin Heidelberg New York.

Borisenko, A.I., Tarapov, I.E., Vector and tensor analysis with applications.

1979, New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Sanders, J.L., An Improved First Approximation Theory for Thin Shells.

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31

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249

Theory Review for Cylindrical Shells and Parametric Study of Chimneys and Tanks

Curriculum Vitae

Jeroen Hoefakker was born in Amersfoort, The Netherlands, on 17 February 1974.

After having graduated in 1992 from Rijksscholengemeenschap Thorbecke in

Amersfoort, he attended the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Delft University of

Technology. In 2000, he gained a Master of Science in Civil Engineering and

Geosciences, specialising in structural mechanics.

In October 2000, he commenced to work on his doctoral research in the Section of

Structural Mechanics of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences.

In parallel with the PhD research, he produced the lecture notes Theory of Shells for

a Masters course by Professor Blaauwendraad and assisted as a lecturer from 2001

through 2005 for this course.

In 2004 he was a member of the organising committee of the 5th International PhD

Symposium in Civil Engineering held in Delft.

In March 2006, he joined INTEC Engineering (nowadays INTECSEA) employed as an

offshore pipeline systems and marine terminals engineer working on a range of

projects from feasibility studies to detailed design.

Jeroen is the proud father of two daughters, Minke (2006) and Lieke (2009), born to his

partner Mirjam Veenstra.

250

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