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What are effects of source impedance on the performance of converters?

1(a) shows a single phase fully controlled converter with source inductance. For simplicity it has been assumed that the converter operates in the continuous conduction mode. Further, it has been assumed that the load current ripple is negligible and the load can be replaced by a dc current source the magnitude of which equals the average load current. Fig. 15.1(b) shows the corresponding waveforms. It is assumed that the thyristors T3 and T4 were conducting at t = 0. T1 and T2 are fired at ωt = α. If there were no source inductance T3 and T4 would have commutated as soon as T1 and T2 are turned ON. The input current polarity would have changed instantaneously. However, if a source inductance is present the commutation and change of input current polarity can not be instantaneous. Therefore, when T1 and T2 are turned ON T3 T4 does not commutate immediately. Instead, for some interval all four thyristors continue to conduct as shown in Fig. 15.1(b). This interval is called “overlap” interval.

During this period the load current freewheels through the thyristors and the output voltage is clamped to zero. On the other hand, the input current starts changing polarity as the current through T1 and T2 increases and T3 T4 current decreases. At the end of the overlap interval the current through T3 and T4 becomes zero and they commutate, T1 and T2 starts conducting the full load current. The same process repeats during commutation from T1 T2 to T3T4 at ωt = π + α.

2. Explain the principle of chopper operation. A chopper is a high speed “on" or “off” semiconductor switch. It connects source to load and load and disconnect the load from source at a fast speed. In this manner, a chopped load voltage as shown in Fig. is obtained from a constant dc supply of magnitude V s . For the sake of highlighting the principle of chopper operation, the circuitry used for controlling the on, off periods is not shown. During the period Ton, chopper is on and load voltage is equal to source voltage Vs. During the period T off , chopper is off, load voltage is zero. In this manner, a chopped dc voltage is produced at the load terminals.

Chopper Circuit

Voltage and Current Waveform

3. Explain the operating principle single phase bridge inverters.

Single phase uncontrolled rectifiers are extensively used in a number of power electronic based converters. In most cases they are used to provide an intermediate unregulated dc voltage source which is further processed to obtain a regulated dc or ac output. They have, in general, been proved to be efficient and robust power stages. However, they suffer from a few disadvantages. The main among them is their inability to control the output dc voltage / current magnitude when the input ac voltage and load parameters remain fixed. They are also unidirectional in the sense that they allow electrical power to flow from the ac side to the dc side only. These two disadvantages are the direct consequences of using power diodes in these converters which can block voltage only in one direction. As will be shown in this module, these two disadvantages are overcome if the diodes are replaced by thyristors, the resulting converters are called fully controlled converters.

ωt = 2π + α. The same process repeats there after.

 From the discussion above and Fig 10.1 (b) one can write For α < ωt ≤ π 0i i v = v = 2 V sinωt (10.1) 0 i 0 v V i = = 2 sinωt R R (10.2)

3. What is step up chopper? Explain? Choppers may be classified on several bases. On basis of input and output voltage levels:

Step-down chopper Step-up chopper Comparison between step up and step down chopper

In this converter Output Voltage is greater than input voltage. This is achieved by fast switching of a semiconductor device. The increase in output voltage depends on the frequency of switching (i.e.) depends on pulse given to the device. While switch is off the output voltage almost same as input. While switch is ON mosfet is assumed as short hence current flow in

a shortest path so inductor gets energized, and in continues flow we get output voltage greater than input.

Step up Chopper or Boost Converter

Step up chopper or boost converter is used to increase the input voltage level of its output side. Its circuit diagram and waveforms are shown below in figure

Operation of Step up Chopper

When CH is ON it short circuits the load. Hence output voltage during T ON is zero. During this period inductor gets charged. So, V S =

• V L

p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-2" src="pdf-obj-1-2.jpg">

Where ΔI is the peak to peak inductor current. When CH is OFF inductor L discharges through the load. So, we will get summation of both source voltage V S output voltage, i.e.

p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-8" src="pdf-obj-1-8.jpg">
p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-10" src="pdf-obj-1-10.jpg">
p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-12" src="pdf-obj-1-12.jpg">
p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-14" src="pdf-obj-1-14.jpg">

and inductor Voltage V L

as

TYPE OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS

The ac voltage controllers are classified into two types based on the type of nput ac supply applied to the circuit. • Single Phase AC Controllers. • Three Phase AC Controllers. Single phase ac controllers operate with single phase ac supply voltage of 230V RMS at 50Hz in our country. Three phase ac controllers operate with 3 phase ac supply of 400V RMS at 50Hz supply frequency. Each type of controller may be sub divided into • Uni-directional or half wave ac controller. • Bi-directional or full wave ac controller. In brief different types of ac voltage controllers are • Single phase half wave ac voltage controller (uni-directional controller). • Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (bi-directional controller). • Three phase half wave ac voltage controller (uni-directional controller). • Three phase full wave ac voltage controller (bi-directional controller). APPLICATIONS OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS • Lighting / Illumination control in ac power circuits. • Induction heating. • Industrial heating & Domestic heating. • Transformer tap changing (on load transformer tap changing). • Speed control of induction motors (single phase and poly phase ac induction motor control). • AC magnet controls.

Explain the principle of operation of cycloconverter.

A cycloconverter is a device that converts AC, power at one frequency into AC power of an adjustable but lower frequency without any direct current, or DC, stage in between. It can likewise be acknowledged as a static recurrence charger and holds silicon-regulated rectifiers. Cyclo-converters are used in very large variable frequency drives with ratings from few megawatts up to many tens of megawatts. Principles of Cycloconverters:

The operation principles of cycloconverters can be classified into the following three types based on the type of input AC supply applied to the circuit.

Single-Phase to Single-Phase Cycloconverter:

p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-33" src="pdf-obj-1-33.jpg">

Understanding of operation principles of cycloconverters should begin with single-phase to single-phase cycloconverter. This converter is having back to back connection of two full wave rectifiers. Suppose for getting one fourth of input voltage at the output, for the first two cycles of Vs the positive converter operates supplying current to the load and it rectifies the input voltage. In the next two cycles the negative converter operates supplying current in the reverse direction. When one of the converters operates the other one is disabled, so that there is no current circulating between rectifiers. In the below figure Vs represents input supply voltage and Vo is the required output voltage which is one fourth of supply voltage.

Image for One fourth of input voltage at the output using 1-phase to 1-phase Cycloconverter

p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-39" src="pdf-obj-1-39.jpg">

Three-Phase to Single-Phase Cycloconverters:

Like as above converters, three-phase to single-phase cycloconverter applies rectified voltage to the load. Positive Cycloconverters will supply positive current only while negative converters will supply negative current only. The cycloconverters can operate in four quadrants as (+v, +i), (+v, -i) rectification modes and (-v, +i), (-v, -i) inverting modes. The polarity of the current determines if the positive or negative converter should me supplying power to the load. When there is a change in current polarity, the converter previously supplying current is disabled and the other one is enabled. During the current polarity reversal, the average voltage supplied by both the converters should be equal.

Three-Phase to Three-Phase Cycloconverter:

Two basic configurations are available for three-phase cycloconverters such as delta and wye. If the outputs of above converter are connected in wye or delta and if the output voltages are 120º phase shifted the resulting converter is three-phase to three-phase converter. The three-phase converters are mainly used in machine drive systems running three-phase synchronous and induction machines.

Explain switched mode power supply.

A

switched-mode power supply

p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-60" src="pdf-obj-1-60.jpg">

converting voltage

p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-65" src="pdf-obj-1-65.jpg">

(switching-mode power supply,

switch-mode power supply,

SMPS, or

switcher) is an electronic

that incorporates a switching

and

efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like

mains power, to a load, such as a

currentcharacteristics. Unlike a

linear power supply, the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low-dissipation, full-on and

full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power.

is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass

p ower su pp l y converting voltage ( switching-mode power supply , switch-mode power supply , SMPS , or switcher ) is an electronic p ower supply that incor p orates a switching regulator to convert electrical power and efficiently. Like other p ower su pp lies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power , to a load, such as a personal computer , while current c haracteristics. Unlike a linear power supply , the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low - dissipation , full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass Voltage transistor . This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat , and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted. " id="pdf-obj-1-124" src="pdf-obj-1-124.jpg">

higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight.

A linear regulator provides the desired output voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses (e.g., in a resistor or in the collector–emitter region of a pass transistor in its active mode). A linear regulator regulates either output voltage or current by dissipating the excess electric power in the form of heat, and hence its maximum power efficiency is voltage- out/voltage-in since the volt difference is wasted.

In contrast, a switched-mode power supply regulates either output voltage or current by switching ideal storage elements, like inductors and capacitors, into and out of different electrical configurations. Ideal switching elements (e.g., transistors operated outside of their active mode) have no resistance when "closed" and carry no current when "open", and so the converters can theoretically operate with 100% efficiency (i.e., all input power is delivered to the load; no power is wasted as dissipated heat).

The basic schematic of a boost converter.

For example, if a DC source, an inductor, a switch, and the corresponding electrical ground are placed in series and the switch is driven by a square wave, the peak-to-peak voltage of the waveform measured across the switch can exceed the input voltage from the DC source. This is because the inductor responds to changes in current by inducing its own voltage to counter the change in current, and this voltage adds to the source voltage while the switch is open. If a diode-and-capacitor combination is placed in parallel to the switch, the peak voltage can be stored in the capacitor, and the capacitor can be used as a DC source with an output voltage greater than the DC voltage driving the circuit. This boost converter acts like a step-up transformer for DC signals. A buck–boost converter works in a similar manner, but yields an output voltage which is opposite in polarity to the input voltage. Other buck circuits exist to boost the average output current with a reduction of voltage.

 Explain fly back converter. The flyback converter is used in both and conversion with galvanic isolation between the input and any outputs. The flyback converter is a buck-boost converter " id="pdf-obj-2-57" src="pdf-obj-2-57.jpg"> between the input and any outputs. The flyback converter is a with the inductor split to form a transformer, so that the voltage ratios are multiplied with an additional advantage of isolation. When driving for example a or a the rectifying of the boost converter is left out and the device is called a

The schematic of a flyback converter can be seen in Fig. 1. It is equivalent to that of a buck-boost converter, [1] with the inductor split to form a transformer. Therefore the operating principle of both converters is very close:

When the switch is closed (top of Fig. 2), the primary of the transformer is directly connected to the input voltage source. The primary current and magnetic flux in the transformer increases, storing energy in the transformer. The voltage induced in the secondary winding is negative, so the diode is reverse-biased (i.e., blocked). The output capacitor supplies energy to the output load.

When the switch is opened (bottom of Fig. 2), the primary current and magnetic flux drops. The secondary voltage is positive, forward-biasing the diode, allowing current to flow from the transformer. The energy from the transformer core recharges the capacitor and supplies the load.

The operation of storing energy in the transformer before transferring to the output of the converter allows the topology to easily generate multiple outputs with little additional circuitry, although the output voltages have to be able to match each other through the turns ratio. Also there is a need for a controlling rail which has to be loaded before load is applied to the uncontrolled rails, this is to allow the PWM to open up and supply enough energy to the transformer.

Applications

Low-power switch-mode power supplies (cell phone charger, standby power supply in PCs)

Low-cost multiple-output power supplies (e.g., main PC supplies <250W [citation needed] )

High voltage supply for the CRT in TVs and monitors (the flyback converter is often combined with the horizontal deflection drive)

High voltage generation (e.g., for xenon flash lamps, lasers, copiers, etc.)

Isolated gate driver

Drive the basic performance equation of a DC motor.

DC Motor Equivalent circuit The schematic diagram for a DC motor is shown below. A DC motor has two distinct circuits: Field circuit and armature circuit. The input is electrical power and the output is mechanical power. In this equivalent circuit, the field winding is supplied from a separate DC voltage source of voltage Vf. Rf and Lf represent the resistance and inductance of the field winding. The current If produced in the winding establishes the magnetic field necessary for motor operation. In the armature (rotor) circuit, VT is the voltage applied across the motor terminals, Ia is the current flowing in the armature circuit, Ra is the resistance of the armature winding, and Eb is the total voltage induced in the armature.

Torque Developed The equation for torque developed in a DC motor can be derived as follows. The force on one coil of wire F =i l x B Newton Note that l and B are vector quantities /A where A is the area of the coil ,Since B = Therefore the torque for a multi turn coil with an armature current of Ia:

Ia (2)T = K is the flux/pole in weber, K is a constant depending on coil geometry, and Ia is the current flowing inWhere the armature winding.

Note: Torque T is a function of force and the distance, equation (2) lumps all the constant parameters (eg. length, area and distance) in constant K.

mThe mechanical power generated is the product of the machine torque and the mechanical speed of rotation, m TOr, Pm =

Ia (3)m K =

It is interesting to note that the same DC machine can be used either as a motor or as a generator, by reversing the terminal connections.

Give comparisons between ZCS (zero current switching) and ZVS (zero voltage switching) converter. The paper presents the concept of Zero Current Switching Technique and Zero Voltage Switching Technique in detail. For the zero current switching technique, the objective is to use auxiliary LC resonant elements to shape the switching device’s current waveform at on-time in order to create a zero-current condition for the device to turn off. The dual of the above statement is to use auxiliary LC resonant elements to shape the switching device’s voltage waveform at off-time in order to create a zero-voltage condition for the device to turn on. This latter statement describes the principle of zero voltage switching. The recognition of the duality relationship between these two techniques leads to the development of the concept of voltage-mode resonant switches and a new family of converters operating under the zerovoltage switching principle.

What are phase controlled rectifiers?

Single phase uncontrolled rectifiers are extensively used in a number of power electronic based converters. In most cases they are used to provide an intermediate unregulated dc voltage source which is further processed to obtain a regulated dc or ac output. They have, in general, been proved to be efficient and robust power stages. However, they suffer from a few disadvantages. The main among them is their inability to control the output dc voltage / current magnitude when the input ac voltage and load parameters remain fixed. They are also unidirectional in the sense that they allow electrical power to flow from the ac side to the dc side only. These two disadvantages are the direct consequences of using power diodes in these converters which can block voltage only in one direction. As will be shown in this module, these two disadvantages are overcome if the diodes are replaced by thyristors, the resulting converters are called fully controlled converters. Thyristors are semicontrolled devices which can be turned ON by applying a current pulse at its gate terminal at a desired instance. However, they cannot be turned off from the gate terminals. Therefore, the fully controlled converter continues to exhibit load dependent output voltage / current waveforms as in the case of their uncontrolled counterpart. However, since the thyristor can block forward voltage, the output voltage / current magnitude can be controlled by controlling the turn on instants of the thyristors. Working principle of thyristors based single phase fully controlled converters will be explained first in the case of a single thyristor halfwave rectifier circuit supplying an R or R-L load. However, such converters are rarely used in practice. Full bridge is the most popular configuration used with single phase fully controlled rectifiers. Analysis and performance of this rectifier supplying an R-L-E load (which may represent a dc motor) write a note on thyristor converter circuits?

A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act exclusively as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across the device is not reversed). A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of its two leads by combining that current with the smaller current or voltage of its other lead - known as its control lead. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to 'switch on' if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large - a value representing its breakdown voltage.

Some sources define silicon-controlled rectifiers and thyristors as synonymous. [1] Other sources define thyristors as a larger set of devices with at least four layers of alternating N and P-type material.

Thyristors have three states:

Reverse blocking mode — Voltage is applied in the direction that would be blocked by a diode

Forward blocking mode — Voltage is applied in the direction that would cause a diode to conduct, but the thyristor has not been triggered into conduction

Forward conducting mode — The thyristor has been triggered into conduction and will remain conducting until the forward current drops below a threshold value known as the "holding current"

Principle of chopper operation?

A chopper is a high speed “on" or “off” semiconductor switch. It connects source to load and load and disconnect the load from source at a fast speed. In this manner, a chopped load voltage as shown in Fig. is obtained from a constant dc supply of magnitude V s . For the sake of highlighting the principle of chopper operation, the circuitry used for controlling the on, off periods is not shown. During the period Ton, chopper is on and load voltage is equal to source voltage Vs. During the period T off , chopper is off, load voltage is zero. In this manner, a chopped dc voltage is produced at the load terminals.

Difference between constant frequency systems and variable frequency systems ? VF:

A variable-frequency drive (VFD) (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive orinverter drive) is a type of adjustable-speed drive used in electro-mechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed andtorque by varying motor input frequency and voltage. [1][2][3][4]

VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to the largest of mine mill drives and compressors. However, around 25% of the world's electrical energy is consumed by electric motors in industrial applications, which are especially conducive for energy savings using VFDs in centrifugal load service, [5] and VFDs' global market penetration for all applications is still relatively small. That lack of penetration highlights significant energy efficiency improvement opportunities for retrofitted and new VFD installations. Over the last four decades, power electronics technology has reduced VFD cost and size and has improved performance through advances in semiconductor switching devices, drive topologies, simulation and control techniques, and control hardware and software.

CFS:Constant Voltage Constant Frequency Systems

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10. Explain the concept of electric drive

A mechanism which transmits motion from one shaft to another and controls the velocity ratio of the shafts by electrical

means.

Electric drives may be classified according to design characteristics into three types: single-motor, group, and multimotor.Single-motor electric drives are used in power tools, simple me talworking and woodworking machine tools, and household appliances. Groupelectric drives are almost never used in modern industry. Multimotor electric drives are used in multiope ration metalworking machine toolsand as individual electric traction drives for railroad transportation equipment. Electric drives may also be divided into reversible andnonreversible t ypes (seeREVERSIBLE ELECTRIC DRIVE) and, depending on the possibility of controlling the flux of the converted mechanicalenergy, into uncontrolled and controlled-velocity ty pes (including automated types with programmed control).

Primary components. All types of electric drives contain primary components that have the same functions: actuating components andcontrol devices.

The actuating components of an electric drive usually consist of one or more electric motors (seeELECTRIC MOTOR) and a drive mechanismthat transmits mechanical energy from the motor to a working element of the driven machine. AC motors are usually used in uncontrolledelectric drives and are connected to the power supply through a contactor or circuit brea ker, which serves as a protective device; inhousehold electric drives the connection is made through a plug connector. The rotation speed of the rotor of the electric motor and,consequ ently, the speed of movement of the working mechanism coupled to the machine vary only with the load on the operatingmechanism. High-power electric drives use induction motors. Starting reactors or autotransformer starters are connected between the motorand the power supply in order to limit starting currents; they are switched out after the motor has accelerat ed. Controlled-velocity electricdrives usually use DC motors, because the rotation speed of the motor armatures can be varied continuously over a wide range with rathersimple control devices.

Four quadrants of chopper Type A Chopper or First–Quadrant Chopper This type of chopper is shown in the figure. It is known as first-quadrant chopper or type A chopper. When the chopper is on, v 0 = V S as a result and the current flows in the direction of the load. But when the chopper is off v 0 is zero but I 0 continues to flow in the same direction through the freewheeling diode FD, thus average value of voltage and current say V 0 and I 0 will be always positive as shown in the graph.

contain a dc source E . When the chopper
is on, v 0

In type A chopper the power flow will be always from source to the load. As the average voltage V 0 is less than the dc input voltage V s Type B Chopper or Second- Quadrant Chopper

solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act exclusively as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across the device is not reversed). A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of its two leads by combining that current with the smaller current or voltage of its other lead - known as its control lead. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to 'switch on' if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large - a value representing its breakdown voltage . Some sources define silicon-controlled rectifiers and thyristors as synonymous . Other sources define thyristors as a larger set of devices with at least four layers of alternating N and P- type material. The thyristor is a four-layered, three terminal semiconductor device, with each layer consisting of alternately N-type or P-type material, for example P-N-P-N. The main terminals, labelled anode and cathode, are across all four layers. The control terminal, called the gate, is attached to p-type material near the cathode. (A variant called an SCS—Silicon Controlled Switch—brings all four layers out to terminals.) The operation of a thyristor can be understood in terms of a pair of tightly coupled cause a self-latching action: bipolar junction transistors , arranged to " id="pdf-obj-4-26" src="pdf-obj-4-26.jpg">

In type B or second quadrant chopper the load must always voltage E drives the current T on of the chopper . When the V s . Because of this the diode starts flowing to the source. load and is treated negative . will be more than the voltage V s so

through the inductor L and the chopper, L stores the energy during the time chopper is off , v 0 =( E+ L . di/dt ) will be more than the source voltage D2 will be forward biased and begins conducting and hence the power No matter the chopper is on or off the current I 0 will be flowing out of the Since V O is positive and the current I 0 is negative , the direction of power flow will be from load to source. The load voltage V 0 = (E+L .di/dt )

the type B chopper is also known as a step up chopper . Type -C chopper or Two-quadrant type-A Chopper Type C chopper is obtained by connecting type –A and type –B choppers in parallel. We will always get a positive output voltage V 0 as the freewheeling diode FD is present across the

load. When the chopper is on the freewheeling diode starts conducting and the output voltage v 0 will be equal to V s . The direction of the load current i 0 will be reversed. The current

i 0 will be flowing towards the source and

it will be positive regardless the chopper is on or the FD conducts. The load current will be negative if the chopper is or the diode D2

conducts. We can say the chopper and FD operate together as type-A chopper in first quadrant. In the second quadrant, the chopper and D2 will operate together as type –B chopper.

solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act exclusively as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across the device is not reversed). A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of its two leads by combining that current with the smaller current or voltage of its other lead - known as its control lead. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to 'switch on' if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large - a value representing its breakdown voltage . Some sources define silicon-controlled rectifiers and thyristors as synonymous . Other sources define thyristors as a larger set of devices with at least four layers of alternating N and P- type material. The thyristor is a four-layered, three terminal semiconductor device, with each layer consisting of alternately N-type or P-type material, for example P-N-P-N. The main terminals, labelled anode and cathode, are across all four layers. The control terminal, called the gate, is attached to p-type material near the cathode. (A variant called an SCS—Silicon Controlled Switch—brings all four layers out to terminals.) The operation of a thyristor can be understood in terms of a pair of tightly coupled cause a self-latching action: bipolar junction transistors , arranged to " id="pdf-obj-4-77" src="pdf-obj-4-77.jpg">

be equal to V s . When v 0 = – V s the two choppers V 0 the average output voltage will be positive when time T off its shown in the wave form below. As the direction of load current will be always positive.

The average voltage will be always positive but the average load current might be positive or negative. The power flow may be life the first quadrant operation ie from source to load or from load to source like the second quadrant operation. The two choppers should not be turned on simultaneously as the combined action my cause a short circuit in supply lines. For regenerative braking and motoring these type of chopper configuration is used.

Type D Chopper or Two-Quadrant Type –B Chopper

solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act exclusively as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across the device is not reversed). A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of its two leads by combining that current with the smaller current or voltage of its other lead - known as its control lead. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to 'switch on' if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large - a value representing its breakdown voltage . Some sources define silicon-controlled rectifiers and thyristors as synonymous . Other sources define thyristors as a larger set of devices with at least four layers of alternating N and P- type material. The thyristor is a four-layered, three terminal semiconductor device, with each layer consisting of alternately N-type or P-type material, for example P-N-P-N. The main terminals, labelled anode and cathode, are across all four layers. The control terminal, called the gate, is attached to p-type material near the cathode. (A variant called an SCS—Silicon Controlled Switch—brings all four layers out to terminals.) The operation of a thyristor can be understood in terms of a pair of tightly coupled cause a self-latching action: bipolar junction transistors , arranged to " id="pdf-obj-4-95" src="pdf-obj-4-95.jpg">

The circuit diagram of the type D chopper is shown in the above figure. When the two choppers are on the output voltage v 0 will will be off but both the diodes D1 and D2 will start conducting. the choppers turn-on the time T on will be more than the turn off diodes and choppers conduct current only in one direction the

solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act exclusively as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across the device is not reversed). A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of its two leads by combining that current with the smaller current or voltage of its other lead - known as its control lead. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to 'switch on' if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large - a value representing its breakdown voltage . Some sources define silicon-controlled rectifiers and thyristors as synonymous . Other sources define thyristors as a larger set of devices with at least four layers of alternating N and P- type material. The thyristor is a four-layered, three terminal semiconductor device, with each layer consisting of alternately N-type or P-type material, for example P-N-P-N. The main terminals, labelled anode and cathode, are across all four layers. The control terminal, called the gate, is attached to p-type material near the cathode. (A variant called an SCS—Silicon Controlled Switch—brings all four layers out to terminals.) The operation of a thyristor can be understood in terms of a pair of tightly coupled cause a self-latching action: bipolar junction transistors , arranged to " id="pdf-obj-4-103" src="pdf-obj-4-103.jpg">

4. Explain thyristor chopper circuit.

The power flows from source to load

as the average values of both v 0 and i 0 is positive. From the

wave form it is seen that the average value of V 0 is positive thus the forth quadrant operation of type D chopper is obtained. From the wave forms the Average value of output voltage is given by V0= (V s T on -V s T off )/T = V s .(T on -T off )/T Type –E chopper or the Fourth-Quadrant Chopper

Type E or the fourth quadrant chopper consists of four semiconductor switches and four diodes arranged in antiparallel. The 4 choppers are numbered according to which quadrant they belong. Their operation will be in each quadrant and the corresponding chopper only be active in its quadrant.

solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act exclusively as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across the device is not reversed). A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of its two leads by combining that current with the smaller current or voltage of its other lead - known as its control lead. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to 'switch on' if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large - a value representing its breakdown voltage . Some sources define silicon-controlled rectifiers and thyristors as synonymous . Other sources define thyristors as a larger set of devices with at least four layers of alternating N and P- type material. The thyristor is a four-layered, three terminal semiconductor device, with each layer consisting of alternately N-type or P-type material, for example P-N-P-N. The main terminals, labelled anode and cathode, are across all four layers. The control terminal, called the gate, is attached to p-type material near the cathode. (A variant called an SCS—Silicon Controlled Switch—brings all four layers out to terminals.) The operation of a thyristor can be understood in terms of a pair of tightly coupled cause a self-latching action: bipolar junction transistors , arranged to " id="pdf-obj-4-136" src="pdf-obj-4-136.jpg">

A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act exclusively as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across the device is not reversed). A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of its two leads by combining that current with the smaller current or voltage of its other lead - known as its control lead. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to 'switch on' if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large - a value representing its breakdown voltage.

Some sources define silicon-controlled rectifiers and thyristors as synonymous. [1] Other sources define thyristors as a larger set of devices with at least four layers of alternating N and P- type material.

The thyristor is a four-layered, three terminal semiconductor device, with each layer consisting of alternately

material, for example P-N-P-N. The main terminals,

labelled anode and cathode, are across all four layers. The control terminal, called the gate, is attached to p-type material near the cathode. (A variant called an SCS—Silicon

Controlled Switch—brings all four layers out to terminals.) The operation of a thyristor can be understood in terms of a pair of tightly coupled cause a self-latching action:

p-n junctions (serially named J , J , J from the anode). Layer diagram of thyristor. When the anode is at a positive potential V with respect to the cathode with no voltage applied at the gate, junctions J and J are forward biased, while junction J is reverse biased. As J is reverse biased, no conduction takes place (Off state). Now if V is increased beyond the breakdown voltage V of the thyristor, avalanche breakdown of J takes place and the thyristor starts conducting (On state). If a positive potential V is applied at the gate terminal with respect to the cathode, the breakdown of the junction J occurs at a lower value of V . By selecting an appropriate value of V , the thyristor can be switched into the on state quickly. The gate pulses are characterized in terms of g ate trigger voltage ( V ) and gate trigger current ( I ). Gate trigger current varies inversely with gate pulse width in such a way that it is evident that there is a minimum gate charge required to trigger the thyristor. Switching characteristics [ edit ] V - I characteristics In a conventional thyristor, once it has been switched on by the gate terminal, the device remains latched in the on-state ( i.e. does not need a continuous supply of gate current to remain in the on state), providing the anode current has exceeded the latching current ( I ). As long as the anode remains positively biased, it cannot be switched off until the anode current falls below the holding current ( I ). A thyristor can be switched off if the external circuit causes the anode to become negatively biased (a method known as natural, or line, commutation). In some applications this is done by switching a second thyristor to discharge a capacitor into the cathode of the first thyristor. This method is called forced commutation. Explain three phase bridge inverter? The three-phase square wave inverter as described above can be used to generate balanced threephase ac voltages of desired (fundamental) frequency. However harmonic voltages of 5th, 7th and other non-triplen odd multiples of fundamental frequency distort the output voltage. In many cases such distortions in output voltages may not be tolerable and it may also not be practical to use filter circuits to filter out the harmonic voltages in a satisfactory manner. In such situations the inverter discussed in this lesson will not be a suitable choice. Fortunately there are some other kinds of inverters, namely pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters, discussed in the next lesson, which can provide higher quality of output voltage. The square wave inverter discussed in this lesson may still be used for many loads, notably ac motor type loads. The motor loads are inductive in nature with the inherent quality to suppress the harmonic currents in the motor. The example of a purely inductive load discussed in the previous section illustrates the effectiveness of inductive loads in blocking higher order harmonic currents. In spite of the inherent low-pass filtering property of the motor load, the load current may still contain some harmonics. These harmonic currents cause extra iron and copper losses in the motor. They also produce unwanted torque pulsations. Fortunately the torque pulsations due to harmonic currents are of high frequencies and their effect gets subdued due to the large mechanical inertia of the drive system. The motor speed hardly changes in response to these torque pulsations. However in some cases torque pulsations of particular frequencies may cause unwanted resonance in the mechanical system of the drive. A special notch filter may then be required to remove these frequencies from the inverter output voltage. The input dc voltage to the inverter is often derived from an ac source after rectification and filtering. A simple diode bridge rectifier followed by a filter capacitor is often the most cost effective method to get dc voltage from ac supply. In some applications, like in un-interrupted power supplies, the dc input may be coming from a bank of batteries. In both these examples, the input dc magnitude is fairly constant. With fixed input dc voltage the square-wave inverter can output only fixed magnitude of load voltage. This does not suit the requirement in many cases where the load requires a variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) supply. In order that ac output voltage magnitude is controllable, the inverter input voltage will need to be varied using an additional dc-to-dc converter. What is time ratio control in d.c chopper? Time Ratio Control: As the name suggest, here the time ratio (i.e. the duty cycle ratio Ton/T) is varied. This kind of control can be achieved using 2 ways: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Frequency Modulation Control (FMC) A. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): In this technique, the time period is kept constant, but the ‘On Time’ or the ‘OFF Time’ is varied. Using this, the duty cycle ratio can be varied. Since the ON time or the ‘pulse width’ is getting changed in this method, so it is popularly known as Pulse width modulation. " id="pdf-obj-5-2" src="pdf-obj-5-2.jpg">

Thyristors have three states:

Reverse blocking mode — Voltage is applied in the direction that would be blocked by a diode

Forward blocking mode — Voltage is applied in the direction that would cause a diode to conduct, but the thyristor has not been triggered into conduction

Forward conducting mode — The thyristor has been triggered into conduction and will remain conducting until the forward current drops below a threshold value known as the "holding current"

Function of the gate terminal

The thyristor has three p-n junctions (serially named J 1 , J 2 , J 3 from the anode).

p-n junctions (serially named J , J , J from the anode). Layer diagram of thyristor. When the anode is at a positive potential V with respect to the cathode with no voltage applied at the gate, junctions J and J are forward biased, while junction J is reverse biased. As J is reverse biased, no conduction takes place (Off state). Now if V is increased beyond the breakdown voltage V of the thyristor, avalanche breakdown of J takes place and the thyristor starts conducting (On state). If a positive potential V is applied at the gate terminal with respect to the cathode, the breakdown of the junction J occurs at a lower value of V . By selecting an appropriate value of V , the thyristor can be switched into the on state quickly. The gate pulses are characterized in terms of g ate trigger voltage ( V ) and gate trigger current ( I ). Gate trigger current varies inversely with gate pulse width in such a way that it is evident that there is a minimum gate charge required to trigger the thyristor. Switching characteristics [ edit ] V - I characteristics In a conventional thyristor, once it has been switched on by the gate terminal, the device remains latched in the on-state ( i.e. does not need a continuous supply of gate current to remain in the on state), providing the anode current has exceeded the latching current ( I ). As long as the anode remains positively biased, it cannot be switched off until the anode current falls below the holding current ( I ). A thyristor can be switched off if the external circuit causes the anode to become negatively biased (a method known as natural, or line, commutation). In some applications this is done by switching a second thyristor to discharge a capacitor into the cathode of the first thyristor. This method is called forced commutation. Explain three phase bridge inverter? The three-phase square wave inverter as described above can be used to generate balanced threephase ac voltages of desired (fundamental) frequency. However harmonic voltages of 5th, 7th and other non-triplen odd multiples of fundamental frequency distort the output voltage. In many cases such distortions in output voltages may not be tolerable and it may also not be practical to use filter circuits to filter out the harmonic voltages in a satisfactory manner. In such situations the inverter discussed in this lesson will not be a suitable choice. Fortunately there are some other kinds of inverters, namely pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters, discussed in the next lesson, which can provide higher quality of output voltage. The square wave inverter discussed in this lesson may still be used for many loads, notably ac motor type loads. The motor loads are inductive in nature with the inherent quality to suppress the harmonic currents in the motor. The example of a purely inductive load discussed in the previous section illustrates the effectiveness of inductive loads in blocking higher order harmonic currents. In spite of the inherent low-pass filtering property of the motor load, the load current may still contain some harmonics. These harmonic currents cause extra iron and copper losses in the motor. They also produce unwanted torque pulsations. Fortunately the torque pulsations due to harmonic currents are of high frequencies and their effect gets subdued due to the large mechanical inertia of the drive system. The motor speed hardly changes in response to these torque pulsations. However in some cases torque pulsations of particular frequencies may cause unwanted resonance in the mechanical system of the drive. A special notch filter may then be required to remove these frequencies from the inverter output voltage. The input dc voltage to the inverter is often derived from an ac source after rectification and filtering. A simple diode bridge rectifier followed by a filter capacitor is often the most cost effective method to get dc voltage from ac supply. In some applications, like in un-interrupted power supplies, the dc input may be coming from a bank of batteries. In both these examples, the input dc magnitude is fairly constant. With fixed input dc voltage the square-wave inverter can output only fixed magnitude of load voltage. This does not suit the requirement in many cases where the load requires a variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) supply. In order that ac output voltage magnitude is controllable, the inverter input voltage will need to be varied using an additional dc-to-dc converter. What is time ratio control in d.c chopper? Time Ratio Control: As the name suggest, here the time ratio (i.e. the duty cycle ratio Ton/T) is varied. This kind of control can be achieved using 2 ways: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Frequency Modulation Control (FMC) A. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): In this technique, the time period is kept constant, but the ‘On Time’ or the ‘OFF Time’ is varied. Using this, the duty cycle ratio can be varied. Since the ON time or the ‘pulse width’ is getting changed in this method, so it is popularly known as Pulse width modulation. " id="pdf-obj-5-24" src="pdf-obj-5-24.jpg">

Layer diagram of thyristor. When the anode is at a positive potential V AK with respect to the cathode with no voltage applied at the gate, junctions J 1 and J 3 are forward biased, while junction J 2 is reverse biased. As J 2 is reverse biased, no conduction takes place (Off state). Now if V AK is increased beyond the breakdown voltage V BO of the thyristor, avalanche breakdown of J 2 takes place and the thyristor starts conducting (On state). If a positive potential V G is applied at the gate terminal with respect to the cathode, the breakdown of the junction J 2 occurs at a lower value of V AK . By selecting an appropriate value of V G , the thyristor can be switched into the on state quickly.

The gate pulses are characterized in terms of gate trigger voltage (V GT ) and gate trigger current (I GT ). Gate trigger current varies inversely with gate pulse width in such a way that it is evident that there is a minimum gate charge required to trigger the thyristor.

p-n junctions (serially named J , J , J from the anode). Layer diagram of thyristor. When the anode is at a positive potential V with respect to the cathode with no voltage applied at the gate, junctions J and J are forward biased, while junction J is reverse biased. As J is reverse biased, no conduction takes place (Off state). Now if V is increased beyond the breakdown voltage V of the thyristor, avalanche breakdown of J takes place and the thyristor starts conducting (On state). If a positive potential V is applied at the gate terminal with respect to the cathode, the breakdown of the junction J occurs at a lower value of V . By selecting an appropriate value of V , the thyristor can be switched into the on state quickly. The gate pulses are characterized in terms of g ate trigger voltage ( V ) and gate trigger current ( I ). Gate trigger current varies inversely with gate pulse width in such a way that it is evident that there is a minimum gate charge required to trigger the thyristor. Switching characteristics [ edit ] V - I characteristics In a conventional thyristor, once it has been switched on by the gate terminal, the device remains latched in the on-state ( i.e. does not need a continuous supply of gate current to remain in the on state), providing the anode current has exceeded the latching current ( I ). As long as the anode remains positively biased, it cannot be switched off until the anode current falls below the holding current ( I ). A thyristor can be switched off if the external circuit causes the anode to become negatively biased (a method known as natural, or line, commutation). In some applications this is done by switching a second thyristor to discharge a capacitor into the cathode of the first thyristor. This method is called forced commutation. Explain three phase bridge inverter? The three-phase square wave inverter as described above can be used to generate balanced threephase ac voltages of desired (fundamental) frequency. However harmonic voltages of 5th, 7th and other non-triplen odd multiples of fundamental frequency distort the output voltage. In many cases such distortions in output voltages may not be tolerable and it may also not be practical to use filter circuits to filter out the harmonic voltages in a satisfactory manner. In such situations the inverter discussed in this lesson will not be a suitable choice. Fortunately there are some other kinds of inverters, namely pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters, discussed in the next lesson, which can provide higher quality of output voltage. The square wave inverter discussed in this lesson may still be used for many loads, notably ac motor type loads. The motor loads are inductive in nature with the inherent quality to suppress the harmonic currents in the motor. The example of a purely inductive load discussed in the previous section illustrates the effectiveness of inductive loads in blocking higher order harmonic currents. In spite of the inherent low-pass filtering property of the motor load, the load current may still contain some harmonics. These harmonic currents cause extra iron and copper losses in the motor. They also produce unwanted torque pulsations. Fortunately the torque pulsations due to harmonic currents are of high frequencies and their effect gets subdued due to the large mechanical inertia of the drive system. The motor speed hardly changes in response to these torque pulsations. However in some cases torque pulsations of particular frequencies may cause unwanted resonance in the mechanical system of the drive. A special notch filter may then be required to remove these frequencies from the inverter output voltage. The input dc voltage to the inverter is often derived from an ac source after rectification and filtering. A simple diode bridge rectifier followed by a filter capacitor is often the most cost effective method to get dc voltage from ac supply. In some applications, like in un-interrupted power supplies, the dc input may be coming from a bank of batteries. In both these examples, the input dc magnitude is fairly constant. With fixed input dc voltage the square-wave inverter can output only fixed magnitude of load voltage. This does not suit the requirement in many cases where the load requires a variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) supply. In order that ac output voltage magnitude is controllable, the inverter input voltage will need to be varied using an additional dc-to-dc converter. What is time ratio control in d.c chopper? Time Ratio Control: As the name suggest, here the time ratio (i.e. the duty cycle ratio Ton/T) is varied. This kind of control can be achieved using 2 ways: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Frequency Modulation Control (FMC) A. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): In this technique, the time period is kept constant, but the ‘On Time’ or the ‘OFF Time’ is varied. Using this, the duty cycle ratio can be varied. Since the ON time or the ‘pulse width’ is getting changed in this method, so it is popularly known as Pulse width modulation. " id="pdf-obj-5-72" src="pdf-obj-5-72.jpg">

Switching characteristics V - I characteristics In a conventional thyristor, once it has been switched on by the gate terminal, the device remains latched in the on-state (i.e. does not need a continuous supply of gate current to remain in the on state), providing the anode current has exceeded the latching

current (I L ). As long as the anode remains positively biased, it cannot be switched off until the anode current falls below the holding current (I H ). A thyristor can be switched off if the external circuit causes the anode to become negatively biased (a method known as natural, or line, commutation). In some applications this is done by switching a second thyristor to discharge a capacitor into the cathode of the first thyristor. This method is called forced commutation.

Explain three phase bridge inverter?

The three-phase square wave inverter as described above can be used to generate balanced threephase ac voltages of desired (fundamental) frequency. However harmonic voltages of 5th, 7th and other non-triplen odd multiples of fundamental frequency distort the output voltage. In many cases such distortions in output voltages may not be tolerable and it may also not be practical to use filter circuits to filter out the harmonic voltages in a satisfactory manner. In such situations the inverter discussed in this lesson will not be a suitable choice. Fortunately there are some other kinds of inverters, namely pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters, discussed in the next lesson, which can provide higher quality of output voltage. The square wave inverter discussed in this lesson may still be used for many loads, notably ac motor type loads. The motor loads are inductive in nature with the inherent quality to suppress the harmonic currents in the motor. The example of a purely inductive load discussed in the previous section illustrates the effectiveness of inductive loads in blocking higher order harmonic currents. In spite of the inherent low-pass filtering property of the motor load, the load current may still contain some harmonics. These harmonic currents cause extra iron and copper losses in the motor. They also produce unwanted torque pulsations. Fortunately the torque pulsations due to harmonic currents are of high frequencies and their effect gets subdued due to the large mechanical inertia of the drive system. The motor speed hardly changes in response to these torque pulsations. However in some cases torque pulsations of particular frequencies may cause unwanted resonance in the mechanical system of the drive. A special notch filter may then be required to remove these frequencies from the inverter output voltage. The input dc voltage to the inverter is often derived from an ac source after rectification and filtering. A simple diode bridge rectifier followed by a filter capacitor is often the most cost effective method to get dc voltage from ac supply. In some applications, like in un-interrupted power supplies, the dc input may be coming from a bank of batteries. In both these examples, the input dc magnitude is fairly constant. With fixed input dc voltage the square-wave inverter can output only fixed magnitude of load voltage. This does not suit the requirement in many cases where the load requires a variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) supply. In order that ac output voltage magnitude is controllable, the inverter input voltage will need to be varied using an additional dc-to-dc converter.

p-n junctions (serially named J , J , J from the anode). Layer diagram of thyristor. When the anode is at a positive potential V with respect to the cathode with no voltage applied at the gate, junctions J and J are forward biased, while junction J is reverse biased. As J is reverse biased, no conduction takes place (Off state). Now if V is increased beyond the breakdown voltage V of the thyristor, avalanche breakdown of J takes place and the thyristor starts conducting (On state). If a positive potential V is applied at the gate terminal with respect to the cathode, the breakdown of the junction J occurs at a lower value of V . By selecting an appropriate value of V , the thyristor can be switched into the on state quickly. The gate pulses are characterized in terms of g ate trigger voltage ( V ) and gate trigger current ( I ). Gate trigger current varies inversely with gate pulse width in such a way that it is evident that there is a minimum gate charge required to trigger the thyristor. Switching characteristics [ edit ] V - I characteristics In a conventional thyristor, once it has been switched on by the gate terminal, the device remains latched in the on-state ( i.e. does not need a continuous supply of gate current to remain in the on state), providing the anode current has exceeded the latching current ( I ). As long as the anode remains positively biased, it cannot be switched off until the anode current falls below the holding current ( I ). A thyristor can be switched off if the external circuit causes the anode to become negatively biased (a method known as natural, or line, commutation). In some applications this is done by switching a second thyristor to discharge a capacitor into the cathode of the first thyristor. This method is called forced commutation. Explain three phase bridge inverter? The three-phase square wave inverter as described above can be used to generate balanced threephase ac voltages of desired (fundamental) frequency. However harmonic voltages of 5th, 7th and other non-triplen odd multiples of fundamental frequency distort the output voltage. In many cases such distortions in output voltages may not be tolerable and it may also not be practical to use filter circuits to filter out the harmonic voltages in a satisfactory manner. In such situations the inverter discussed in this lesson will not be a suitable choice. Fortunately there are some other kinds of inverters, namely pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters, discussed in the next lesson, which can provide higher quality of output voltage. The square wave inverter discussed in this lesson may still be used for many loads, notably ac motor type loads. The motor loads are inductive in nature with the inherent quality to suppress the harmonic currents in the motor. The example of a purely inductive load discussed in the previous section illustrates the effectiveness of inductive loads in blocking higher order harmonic currents. In spite of the inherent low-pass filtering property of the motor load, the load current may still contain some harmonics. These harmonic currents cause extra iron and copper losses in the motor. They also produce unwanted torque pulsations. Fortunately the torque pulsations due to harmonic currents are of high frequencies and their effect gets subdued due to the large mechanical inertia of the drive system. The motor speed hardly changes in response to these torque pulsations. However in some cases torque pulsations of particular frequencies may cause unwanted resonance in the mechanical system of the drive. A special notch filter may then be required to remove these frequencies from the inverter output voltage. The input dc voltage to the inverter is often derived from an ac source after rectification and filtering. A simple diode bridge rectifier followed by a filter capacitor is often the most cost effective method to get dc voltage from ac supply. In some applications, like in un-interrupted power supplies, the dc input may be coming from a bank of batteries. In both these examples, the input dc magnitude is fairly constant. With fixed input dc voltage the square-wave inverter can output only fixed magnitude of load voltage. This does not suit the requirement in many cases where the load requires a variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) supply. In order that ac output voltage magnitude is controllable, the inverter input voltage will need to be varied using an additional dc-to-dc converter. What is time ratio control in d.c chopper? Time Ratio Control: As the name suggest, here the time ratio (i.e. the duty cycle ratio Ton/T) is varied. This kind of control can be achieved using 2 ways: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Frequency Modulation Control (FMC) A. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): In this technique, the time period is kept constant, but the ‘On Time’ or the ‘OFF Time’ is varied. Using this, the duty cycle ratio can be varied. Since the ON time or the ‘pulse width’ is getting changed in this method, so it is popularly known as Pulse width modulation. " id="pdf-obj-5-97" src="pdf-obj-5-97.jpg">

What is time ratio control in d.c chopper?

Time Ratio Control:

As the name suggest, here the time ratio (i.e. the duty cycle ratio Ton/T) is varied.

This kind of control can be achieved using 2 ways:

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Frequency Modulation Control (FMC)

• A. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM):

In this technique, the time period is kept constant, but the ‘On Time’ or the ‘OFF Time’ is varied. Using this, the duty cycle ratio can be varied. Since the ON time or the ‘pulse width’ is getting changed in this method, so it is popularly known as Pulse width modulation.

modulation . Although this modulation to allow the control of the power supplied to PWM is one of the two principal algorithms used B. Frequency Modulation Control (FMC) In this control method, the ‘Time Period’ is varied while keeping either of ‘On Time’ or ‘OFF time’ as constant. In this method, since the time period gets changed, so the frequency also changesaccordingly, so this method is known as frequency modulation control. Pulse-width modulation ( PWM ) , or pulse-duration modulation ( PDM ), is a technique used to encode a message i nto a pulsing signal . It is a type technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors. In addition, in photovoltaic solar battery chargers , the other being MPPT . 6. Difference between natural and forced commutation The commutation techniques of thyristors are classified into two types Natural Commutation Forced Commutation Natural Commutation Generally, if we consider AC supply, the current will flow through the zero crossing line while going from positive peak to negative peak. Thus, a reverse voltage will appear across the device simultaneously, which will turn off the thyristor immediately. This process is called as natural commutation as thyristor is turned off naturally without using any external components or circuit or supply for commutation purpose. commutating elements for commutation purpose. Natural commutation can be observed in AC voltage controllers, phase controlled rectifiers and cycloconverters . Forced Commutation The thyristor can be turned off by reverse biasing the SCR or by using active or passive components. Thyristor current can be reduced to a value below the value of holdin g current. Since, the th y ristor is turned off forcibly it is termed as a forced commutation process. The basic electronics and electrical components such as inductance and capacitance are used as Forced commutation can be observed while using DC supply; hence it is also called as DC commutation. The external circuit used for forced commutation process is called as commutation circuit and the elements used in this circuit are called as commutating elements. Classification of Forced Commutation Methods The forced commutation can be classified into different methods as follows: Class A: Self commutated by a resonating load Class B: Self commutated by an LC circuit Class C: Cor L-C switched by another load carrying SCR Class D: C or L-C switched by an auxiliary SCR Class E: An external pulse source for commutation Class F: AC line commutation Class A: Self Commutated by a Resonating Load Class A is one of fre q uently used thyristor commutation techniques. If thyristor is triggered or turned on, then anode current will flow by charging capacitor C with dot as positive. The second order under-damped circuit is formed by the inductor or AC resistor , capacitor and resistor. If the current builds up through SCR and completes the half cycle, then the inductor current will flow through the SCR in the reverse direction which will turn off thyristor. Class A-Commutation After the thyristor commutation or turning off the thyristor, the capacitor will start discharging from its peak value through the resistor is an exponential manner. The thyristor will be in reverse bias condition until the capacitor voltage returns to the supply voltage level. Class B: Self Commutated by an L-C Circuit The major difference between the class A and class B thyristor commutation techniques is that the LC is connected in series with thyristor in class A, whereas in parallel with thyristor in class B. Before triggering on the SCR, the capacitor is charged up (dot indicates positive). If the SCR is triggered or given triggering pulse, then the resulting current has two components. The constant load current flowing through the R-L load is ensured by the large reactance connected in series with the load which is clamped " id="pdf-obj-6-2" src="pdf-obj-6-2.jpg">

of modulation. Although this modulation to allow the control of the power supplied to PWM is one of the two principal algorithms used

• B. Frequency Modulation Control (FMC)

In this control method, the ‘Time Period’ is varied while keeping either of ‘On Time’ or ‘OFF time’ as constant. In this method,

since the time period gets changed, so the frequency also changesaccordingly, so this method is known as frequency modulation control.

modulation . Although this modulation to allow the control of the power supplied to PWM is one of the two principal algorithms used B. Frequency Modulation Control (FMC) In this control method, the ‘Time Period’ is varied while keeping either of ‘On Time’ or ‘OFF time’ as constant. In this method, since the time period gets changed, so the frequency also changesaccordingly, so this method is known as frequency modulation control. Pulse-width modulation ( PWM ) , or pulse-duration modulation ( PDM ), is a technique used to encode a message i nto a pulsing signal . It is a type technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors. In addition, in photovoltaic solar battery chargers , the other being MPPT . 6. Difference between natural and forced commutation The commutation techniques of thyristors are classified into two types Natural Commutation Forced Commutation Natural Commutation Generally, if we consider AC supply, the current will flow through the zero crossing line while going from positive peak to negative peak. Thus, a reverse voltage will appear across the device simultaneously, which will turn off the thyristor immediately. This process is called as natural commutation as thyristor is turned off naturally without using any external components or circuit or supply for commutation purpose. commutating elements for commutation purpose. Natural commutation can be observed in AC voltage controllers, phase controlled rectifiers and cycloconverters . Forced Commutation The thyristor can be turned off by reverse biasing the SCR or by using active or passive components. Thyristor current can be reduced to a value below the value of holdin g current. Since, the th y ristor is turned off forcibly it is termed as a forced commutation process. The basic electronics and electrical components such as inductance and capacitance are used as Forced commutation can be observed while using DC supply; hence it is also called as DC commutation. The external circuit used for forced commutation process is called as commutation circuit and the elements used in this circuit are called as commutating elements. Classification of Forced Commutation Methods The forced commutation can be classified into different methods as follows: Class A: Self commutated by a resonating load Class B: Self commutated by an LC circuit Class C: Cor L-C switched by another load carrying SCR Class D: C or L-C switched by an auxiliary SCR Class E: An external pulse source for commutation Class F: AC line commutation Class A: Self Commutated by a Resonating Load Class A is one of fre q uently used thyristor commutation techniques. If thyristor is triggered or turned on, then anode current will flow by charging capacitor C with dot as positive. The second order under-damped circuit is formed by the inductor or AC resistor , capacitor and resistor. If the current builds up through SCR and completes the half cycle, then the inductor current will flow through the SCR in the reverse direction which will turn off thyristor. Class A-Commutation After the thyristor commutation or turning off the thyristor, the capacitor will start discharging from its peak value through the resistor is an exponential manner. The thyristor will be in reverse bias condition until the capacitor voltage returns to the supply voltage level. Class B: Self Commutated by an L-C Circuit The major difference between the class A and class B thyristor commutation techniques is that the LC is connected in series with thyristor in class A, whereas in parallel with thyristor in class B. Before triggering on the SCR, the capacitor is charged up (dot indicates positive). If the SCR is triggered or given triggering pulse, then the resulting current has two components. The constant load current flowing through the R-L load is ensured by the large reactance connected in series with the load which is clamped " id="pdf-obj-6-15" src="pdf-obj-6-15.jpg">

Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a technique used to encode a messageinto a pulsing signal. It is a type technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors. In addition, in photovoltaic solar battery chargers, [1] the other being MPPT.

6. Difference between natural and forced commutation The commutation techniques of thyristors are classified into two types Natural Commutation Forced Commutation

Natural Commutation

Generally, if we consider AC supply, the current will flow through the zero crossing line while going from positive peak to negative peak. Thus, a reverse voltage will appear across the device simultaneously, which will turn off the thyristor immediately. This process is called as natural commutation as thyristor is turned off naturally without using any external components or circuit or supply for commutation purpose.

modulation . Although this modulation to allow the control of the power supplied to PWM is one of the two principal algorithms used B. Frequency Modulation Control (FMC) In this control method, the ‘Time Period’ is varied while keeping either of ‘On Time’ or ‘OFF time’ as constant. In this method, since the time period gets changed, so the frequency also changesaccordingly, so this method is known as frequency modulation control. Pulse-width modulation ( PWM ) , or pulse-duration modulation ( PDM ), is a technique used to encode a message i nto a pulsing signal . It is a type technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors. In addition, in photovoltaic solar battery chargers , the other being MPPT . 6. Difference between natural and forced commutation The commutation techniques of thyristors are classified into two types Natural Commutation Forced Commutation Natural Commutation Generally, if we consider AC supply, the current will flow through the zero crossing line while going from positive peak to negative peak. Thus, a reverse voltage will appear across the device simultaneously, which will turn off the thyristor immediately. This process is called as natural commutation as thyristor is turned off naturally without using any external components or circuit or supply for commutation purpose. commutating elements for commutation purpose. Natural commutation can be observed in AC voltage controllers, phase controlled rectifiers and cycloconverters . Forced Commutation The thyristor can be turned off by reverse biasing the SCR or by using active or passive components. Thyristor current can be reduced to a value below the value of holdin g current. Since, the th y ristor is turned off forcibly it is termed as a forced commutation process. The basic electronics and electrical components such as inductance and capacitance are used as Forced commutation can be observed while using DC supply; hence it is also called as DC commutation. The external circuit used for forced commutation process is called as commutation circuit and the elements used in this circuit are called as commutating elements. Classification of Forced Commutation Methods The forced commutation can be classified into different methods as follows: Class A: Self commutated by a resonating load Class B: Self commutated by an LC circuit Class C: Cor L-C switched by another load carrying SCR Class D: C or L-C switched by an auxiliary SCR Class E: An external pulse source for commutation Class F: AC line commutation Class A: Self Commutated by a Resonating Load Class A is one of fre q uently used thyristor commutation techniques. If thyristor is triggered or turned on, then anode current will flow by charging capacitor C with dot as positive. The second order under-damped circuit is formed by the inductor or AC resistor , capacitor and resistor. If the current builds up through SCR and completes the half cycle, then the inductor current will flow through the SCR in the reverse direction which will turn off thyristor. Class A-Commutation After the thyristor commutation or turning off the thyristor, the capacitor will start discharging from its peak value through the resistor is an exponential manner. The thyristor will be in reverse bias condition until the capacitor voltage returns to the supply voltage level. Class B: Self Commutated by an L-C Circuit The major difference between the class A and class B thyristor commutation techniques is that the LC is connected in series with thyristor in class A, whereas in parallel with thyristor in class B. Before triggering on the SCR, the capacitor is charged up (dot indicates positive). If the SCR is triggered or given triggering pulse, then the resulting current has two components. The constant load current flowing through the R-L load is ensured by the large reactance connected in series with the load which is clamped " id="pdf-obj-6-49" src="pdf-obj-6-49.jpg">

commutating elements for commutation purpose.

Natural commutation can be observed in AC voltage controllers, phase controlled rectifiers and

Forced Commutation

The thyristor can be turned off by reverse biasing the SCR or by using active or passive components. Thyristor current can be reduced to a value below the value of holding current. Since, the thyristor is turned off forcibly it is termed as a forced commutation process. The basic electronics and electrical components such as inductance and capacitance are used as

Forced commutation can be observed while using DC supply; hence it is also called as DC commutation. The external circuit used for forced commutation process is called as commutation circuit and the elements used in this circuit are called as commutating elements.

Classification of Forced Commutation Methods

The forced commutation can be classified into different methods as follows:

Class A: Self commutated by a resonating load

Class B: Self commutated by an LC circuit

Class C: Cor L-C switched by another load carrying SCR

Class D: C or L-C switched by an auxiliary SCR

Class E: An external pulse source for commutation

Class F: AC line commutation Class A: Self Commutated by a Resonating Load

Class A is one of frequently used thyristor commutation techniques. If thyristor is triggered or turned on, then anode current will flow by charging capacitor C with dot as positive. The second order under-damped circuit is formed by the inductor or AC resistor, capacitor and resistor. If the current builds up through SCR and completes the half cycle, then the inductor current will flow through the SCR in the reverse direction which will turn off thyristor.

Class A-Commutation

After the thyristor commutation or turning off the thyristor, the capacitor will start discharging from its peak value through the resistor is an exponential manner. The thyristor will be in reverse bias condition until the capacitor voltage returns to the supply voltage level.

Class B: Self Commutated by an L-C Circuit

The major difference between the class A and class B thyristor commutation techniques is that the LC is connected in series with thyristor in class A, whereas in parallel with thyristor in class B. Before triggering on the SCR, the capacitor is charged up (dot indicates positive). If the SCR is triggered or given triggering pulse, then the resulting current has two components. The constant load current flowing through the R-L load is ensured by the large reactance connected in series with the load which is clamped

with freewheeling diode. If sinusoidal current flows through the resonant L-C circuit, then the capacitor C is charged up with dot as negative at the end of the half cycle.rrent flowing through the SCR becomes zero with the reverse current flowing through the SCR opposing the load current for a small a small fraction of the negative swing. If the resonant circuit current or reverse current becomes just greater than the load current, then the SCR will be turned OFF.

Class C: C or L-C Switched by another Load Carrying SCR

In the above thyristor commutation techniques we observed only one SCR but in these class C commutation techniques of thyristor there will be two SCRs. One SCR is considered as main thyristor and the other as auxiliary thyristor. In this classification both may act as main SCRs carrying load current and they can be designed with four SCRs with load across the capacitor by using a current source for supplying an integral converter.

electrical transformer which supplies the reverse recovery current, and for the required turn off time it holds the negative voltage. Class F: AC Line Commutated In class F thyristor commutation techniques, an alternating voltage is used for supply and, during the positive half cycle of this supply, load current will flow. If the load is highly inductive, then the current will remain until the energy stored in the inductive load is dissipated. During the negative half cycle as the load current becomes zero, then thyristor will turn off. If voltage exists for a period of rated turn off time of the device, then the negative polarity of the voltage across the outgoing thyristor will turn it off. Here, the duration of the half cycle must be greater than the turn off time of thyristor. This commutation process is similar to the concept of three phase converter. Let us consider, primarily T1 and T11 are conducting with the triggering angle of the converter, which is equal to 60 degrees, and is operating in continuous conduction mode with highly inductive load. If the thyristors T2 and T22 are triggered, then instantaneously the current through the incoming devices will not rise to the load current level. If the current through the incoming thyristors reaches the load current level, then the commutation process of outgoing thyristors will be initiated. This reverse biasing voltage of thyristor should be continued until the forward blocking state is reached. Bipolar Transistor Basics In the Diode tutorials we saw that simple diodes are made up from two pieces of semiconductor material, either silicon or germanium to form a simple PN-junction and we also learnt about their properties and characteristics. If we now join together two individual signal diodes back-to-back, this will give us two PN-junctions connected together in series that share a common P or N terminal. The fusion of these two diodes produces a three layer, two junction, three terminal device forming the basis of a Bipolar Junction Transistor, or BJTfor short. Transistors are three terminal active devices made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small signal voltage. The transistor’s abilit y to change between these two states enables it to have two basic functions: “switching” (digital electronics) or “amplification” (analogue electronics). Then Bipolar Transistors have the ability to operate within three different regions: • Active Region – the transistor operates as an amplifier and Ic = β.Ib • Saturation – the transistor is “Fully-ON” operating as a switch and Ic = I(saturation) • Cut-off – the transistor is “Fully-OFF” operating as a switch and Ic = 0 Bipolar Transistor Construction " id="pdf-obj-7-8" src="pdf-obj-7-8.jpg">

If the thyristor T2 is triggered, then the capacitor will be charged up. If the thyristor T1 is triggered, then the capacitor will discharge and this discharge current of C will oppose the flow of load current in T2 as the capacitor is switched across T2 via T1.

Class D: L-C or C Switched by an Auxiliary SCR

The class C and class D thyristor commutation techniques can be differentiated with the load current in class D: only one of the SCR’s will carry the load current while the other acts as an auxiliary thyristor whereas in class C both SCRs will carry load current. The auxiliary thyristor consists of resistor in its anode which is having resistance of approximately ten times the load resistance.

electrical transformer which supplies the reverse recovery current, and for the required turn off time it holds the negative voltage. Class F: AC Line Commutated In class F thyristor commutation techniques, an alternating voltage is used for supply and, during the positive half cycle of this supply, load current will flow. If the load is highly inductive, then the current will remain until the energy stored in the inductive load is dissipated. During the negative half cycle as the load current becomes zero, then thyristor will turn off. If voltage exists for a period of rated turn off time of the device, then the negative polarity of the voltage across the outgoing thyristor will turn it off. Here, the duration of the half cycle must be greater than the turn off time of thyristor. This commutation process is similar to the concept of three phase converter. Let us consider, primarily T1 and T11 are conducting with the triggering angle of the converter, which is equal to 60 degrees, and is operating in continuous conduction mode with highly inductive load. If the thyristors T2 and T22 are triggered, then instantaneously the current through the incoming devices will not rise to the load current level. If the current through the incoming thyristors reaches the load current level, then the commutation process of outgoing thyristors will be initiated. This reverse biasing voltage of thyristor should be continued until the forward blocking state is reached. Bipolar Transistor Basics In the Diode tutorials we saw that simple diodes are made up from two pieces of semiconductor material, either silicon or germanium to form a simple PN-junction and we also learnt about their properties and characteristics. If we now join together two individual signal diodes back-to-back, this will give us two PN-junctions connected together in series that share a common P or N terminal. The fusion of these two diodes produces a three layer, two junction, three terminal device forming the basis of a Bipolar Junction Transistor, or BJTfor short. Transistors are three terminal active devices made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small signal voltage. The transistor’s abilit y to change between these two states enables it to have two basic functions: “switching” (digital electronics) or “amplification” (analogue electronics). Then Bipolar Transistors have the ability to operate within three different regions: • Active Region – the transistor operates as an amplifier and Ic = β.Ib • Saturation – the transistor is “Fully-ON” operating as a switch and Ic = I(saturation) • Cut-off – the transistor is “Fully-OFF” operating as a switch and Ic = 0 Bipolar Transistor Construction " id="pdf-obj-7-16" src="pdf-obj-7-16.jpg">

By triggering the Ta (auxiliary thyristor) the capacitor is charged up to supply voltage and then the Ta will turn OFF. The extra voltage if any, due to substantial inductance in the input lines will be discharged through the diode-inductor-load circuit.

If the Tm (main thyristor) is triggered, then the current will flow in two paths: commutating current will flow through the C-Tm-L-D path and load current will flow through the load. If the charge on the capacitor is reversed and held at that level using the diode and if Ta is re-triggered, then the voltage across the capacitor will appear across the Tm via Ta. Thus, the main thyristor Tm will be turned off. Class E: External Pulse Source for Commutation For the class E thyristor commutation techniques, a transformer which can not saturate (as it is having a sufficient iron and air gap) and capable to carry the load current with small voltage drop compared with the supply voltage. If the thyristor T is triggered, then the current will flow through the load and pulse transformer.

electrical transformer which supplies the reverse recovery current, and for the required turn off time it holds the negative voltage. Class F: AC Line Commutated In class F thyristor commutation techniques, an alternating voltage is used for supply and, during the positive half cycle of this supply, load current will flow. If the load is highly inductive, then the current will remain until the energy stored in the inductive load is dissipated. During the negative half cycle as the load current becomes zero, then thyristor will turn off. If voltage exists for a period of rated turn off time of the device, then the negative polarity of the voltage across the outgoing thyristor will turn it off. Here, the duration of the half cycle must be greater than the turn off time of thyristor. This commutation process is similar to the concept of three phase converter. Let us consider, primarily T1 and T11 are conducting with the triggering angle of the converter, which is equal to 60 degrees, and is operating in continuous conduction mode with highly inductive load. If the thyristors T2 and T22 are triggered, then instantaneously the current through the incoming devices will not rise to the load current level. If the current through the incoming thyristors reaches the load current level, then the commutation process of outgoing thyristors will be initiated. This reverse biasing voltage of thyristor should be continued until the forward blocking state is reached. Bipolar Transistor Basics In the Diode tutorials we saw that simple diodes are made up from two pieces of semiconductor material, either silicon or germanium to form a simple PN-junction and we also learnt about their properties and characteristics. If we now join together two individual signal diodes back-to-back, this will give us two PN-junctions connected together in series that share a common P or N terminal. The fusion of these two diodes produces a three layer, two junction, three terminal device forming the basis of a Bipolar Junction Transistor, or BJTfor short. Transistors are three terminal active devices made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small signal voltage. The transistor’s abilit y to change between these two states enables it to have two basic functions: “switching” (digital electronics) or “amplification” (analogue electronics). Then Bipolar Transistors have the ability to operate within three different regions: • Active Region – the transistor operates as an amplifier and Ic = β.Ib • Saturation – the transistor is “Fully-ON” operating as a switch and Ic = I(saturation) • Cut-off – the transistor is “Fully-OFF” operating as a switch and Ic = 0 Bipolar Transistor Construction " id="pdf-obj-7-22" src="pdf-obj-7-22.jpg">

An external pulse generator is used to generate a positive pulse which is supplied to the cathode of the thyristor through pulse transformer. The capacitor C is charged to around 1v and it is considered to have zero impedance for the turn off pulse duration. The voltage across the thyristor is reversed by the pulse from the electrical transformer which supplies the reverse recovery current, and for the required turn off time it holds the negative voltage.

Class F: AC Line Commutated

In class F thyristor commutation techniques, an alternating voltage is used for supply and, during the positive half cycle of this supply, load current will flow. If the load is highly inductive, then the current will remain until the energy stored in the inductive load is dissipated. During the negative half cycle as the load current becomes zero, then thyristor will turn off. If voltage exists for a period of rated turn off time of the device, then the negative polarity of the voltage across the outgoing thyristor will turn it off.

electrical transformer which supplies the reverse recovery current, and for the required turn off time it holds the negative voltage. Class F: AC Line Commutated In class F thyristor commutation techniques, an alternating voltage is used for supply and, during the positive half cycle of this supply, load current will flow. If the load is highly inductive, then the current will remain until the energy stored in the inductive load is dissipated. During the negative half cycle as the load current becomes zero, then thyristor will turn off. If voltage exists for a period of rated turn off time of the device, then the negative polarity of the voltage across the outgoing thyristor will turn it off. Here, the duration of the half cycle must be greater than the turn off time of thyristor. This commutation process is similar to the concept of three phase converter. Let us consider, primarily T1 and T11 are conducting with the triggering angle of the converter, which is equal to 60 degrees, and is operating in continuous conduction mode with highly inductive load. If the thyristors T2 and T22 are triggered, then instantaneously the current through the incoming devices will not rise to the load current level. If the current through the incoming thyristors reaches the load current level, then the commutation process of outgoing thyristors will be initiated. This reverse biasing voltage of thyristor should be continued until the forward blocking state is reached. Bipolar Transistor Basics In the Diode tutorials we saw that simple diodes are made up from two pieces of semiconductor material, either silicon or germanium to form a simple PN-junction and we also learnt about their properties and characteristics. If we now join together two individual signal diodes back-to-back, this will give us two PN-junctions connected together in series that share a common P or N terminal. The fusion of these two diodes produces a three layer, two junction, three terminal device forming the basis of a Bipolar Junction Transistor, or BJTfor short. Transistors are three terminal active devices made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small signal voltage. The transistor’s abilit y to change between these two states enables it to have two basic functions: “switching” (digital electronics) or “amplification” (analogue electronics). Then Bipolar Transistors have the ability to operate within three different regions: • Active Region – the transistor operates as an amplifier and Ic = β.Ib • Saturation – the transistor is “Fully-ON” operating as a switch and Ic = I(saturation) • Cut-off – the transistor is “Fully-OFF” operating as a switch and Ic = 0 Bipolar Transistor Construction " id="pdf-obj-7-32" src="pdf-obj-7-32.jpg">

Here, the duration of the half cycle must be greater than the turn off time of thyristor. This commutation process is similar to the concept of three phase converter. Let us consider, primarily T1 and T11 are conducting with the triggering angle of the converter, which is equal to 60 degrees, and is operating in continuous conduction mode with highly inductive load.

If the thyristors T2 and T22 are triggered, then instantaneously the current through the incoming devices will not rise to the load current level. If the current through the incoming thyristors reaches the load current level, then the commutation process of outgoing thyristors will be initiated. This reverse biasing voltage of thyristor should be continued until the forward blocking state is reached.

Bipolar Transistor Basics

In the Diode tutorials we saw that simple diodes are made up from two pieces of semiconductor material, either silicon or germanium to form a simple PN-junction and we also learnt about their properties and characteristics. If we now join together two individual signal diodes back-to-back, this will give us two PN-junctions connected

together in series that share a common P or N terminal. The fusion of these two diodes produces a three layer, two junction, three terminal device forming the basis of a Bipolar Junction Transistor, or BJTfor short.

Transistors are three terminal active devices made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small signal voltage. The transistor’s ability to change between these two states enables it to have two basic functions: “switching” (digital electronics) or “amplification” (analogue electronics). Then Bipolar Transistors have the ability to operate within three different regions:

 • Active Region – the transistor operates as an amplifier and Ic = β.Ib • Saturation – the transistor is “Fully-ON” operating as a switch and Ic = I(saturation) • Cut-off – the transistor is “Fully-OFF” operating as a switch and Ic = 0

Bipolar Transistor Construction

p otential applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed toward the junction, the distance between them decreases. This lowers the barrier in potential . With increasing forward-bias voltage, the depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the zone's electric field cannot counteract charge carrier motion across the p–n junction, as a consequence reducing electrical resistance. The electrons that cross the p–n junction into the P-type material (or holes that cross into the N-type material) will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode. Reverse bias Connecting the P-type region to the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type region to the positive terminal corresponds to reverse bias. If a diode is reverse-biased, the voltage at the cathode is comparatively higher than the anode. Therefore, no current will flow until the diode breaks down. The connections are illustrated in the diagram to the right. single phase full wave diode with lc filter. Shown in Fig. 1 (a) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source, and shown in Fig. 1 (b) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source. Yup, they are identical. In ENEL 585 we will use the Fig. 1 (b) representation. The use of a four diode full-bridge implies full-wave ie, 120Hz ripple, rectification. The reverse relationship is not necessarily true: Full-wave rectification may also be accomplished using a half-bridge diode rectifier fed by a 2-phase ac source (a.k.a. split ac), as may be obtained from a single-phase source using a centretapped transformer. There is another type of half-bridge diode rectifier, consisting of a rectifying diode and free-wheeling diode, fed directly by a single- phase source. This converter provides half-wave rectification, ie, with 60Hz ripple. Of course a single diode may be used for half-wave rectification, generally employed for low-inductance or pure resistive loads. Interestingly the single diode rectifier is not referred to as a quarter-bridge Rectifier (Topologically, we could refer to the single diode rectifier as a single-phase twowire half-bridge rectifier. What a mouthful huh?). For completeness of discussion, we can note that there exists an analogy between single-phase and 3-phase diode bridges. A single-phase full-bridge (2-wire 4 diode) rectifier produces 120Hz ripple. A 3-phase fullbridge (3-wire 6 diode) rectifier produces 360Hz ripple. A single-phase half-bridge (2-wire 1 or 2 diode) rectifier produces 60Hz ripple. A 3-phase half-bridge (4-wire 3 diode) rectifier produces 180Hz ripple. To understand the single-phase full-bridge operation, refer to Fig. 1 and consider the case where the line voltage, aka the source voltage, vs , goes positive. For the moment, assume no filter components are present and the load is purely resistive. It makes sense that diode, D1 , will tend to turn on (since its anode is going positive). At the same time, diode, D4, will tend to turn on (since its cathode is going negative). Thus, with both D1 and D4 on, the output voltage is positive. During the next half cycle, ie, the ac source goes negative, diodes, D2 and D3 , now turn on simultaneously, and again the output voltage is positive. In this way, the current that flows into the load is always positive. " id="pdf-obj-8-2" src="pdf-obj-8-2.jpg">

The Common Emitter Amplifier Circuit

The Common Base Transistor Circuit

p otential applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed toward the junction, the distance between them decreases. This lowers the barrier in potential . With increasing forward-bias voltage, the depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the zone's electric field cannot counteract charge carrier motion across the p–n junction, as a consequence reducing electrical resistance. The electrons that cross the p–n junction into the P-type material (or holes that cross into the N-type material) will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode. Reverse bias Connecting the P-type region to the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type region to the positive terminal corresponds to reverse bias. If a diode is reverse-biased, the voltage at the cathode is comparatively higher than the anode. Therefore, no current will flow until the diode breaks down. The connections are illustrated in the diagram to the right. single phase full wave diode with lc filter. Shown in Fig. 1 (a) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source, and shown in Fig. 1 (b) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source. Yup, they are identical. In ENEL 585 we will use the Fig. 1 (b) representation. The use of a four diode full-bridge implies full-wave ie, 120Hz ripple, rectification. The reverse relationship is not necessarily true: Full-wave rectification may also be accomplished using a half-bridge diode rectifier fed by a 2-phase ac source (a.k.a. split ac), as may be obtained from a single-phase source using a centretapped transformer. There is another type of half-bridge diode rectifier, consisting of a rectifying diode and free-wheeling diode, fed directly by a single- phase source. This converter provides half-wave rectification, ie, with 60Hz ripple. Of course a single diode may be used for half-wave rectification, generally employed for low-inductance or pure resistive loads. Interestingly the single diode rectifier is not referred to as a quarter-bridge Rectifier (Topologically, we could refer to the single diode rectifier as a single-phase twowire half-bridge rectifier. What a mouthful huh?). For completeness of discussion, we can note that there exists an analogy between single-phase and 3-phase diode bridges. A single-phase full-bridge (2-wire 4 diode) rectifier produces 120Hz ripple. A 3-phase fullbridge (3-wire 6 diode) rectifier produces 360Hz ripple. A single-phase half-bridge (2-wire 1 or 2 diode) rectifier produces 60Hz ripple. A 3-phase half-bridge (4-wire 3 diode) rectifier produces 180Hz ripple. To understand the single-phase full-bridge operation, refer to Fig. 1 and consider the case where the line voltage, aka the source voltage, vs , goes positive. For the moment, assume no filter components are present and the load is purely resistive. It makes sense that diode, D1 , will tend to turn on (since its anode is going positive). At the same time, diode, D4, will tend to turn on (since its cathode is going negative). Thus, with both D1 and D4 on, the output voltage is positive. During the next half cycle, ie, the ac source goes negative, diodes, D2 and D3 , now turn on simultaneously, and again the output voltage is positive. In this way, the current that flows into the load is always positive. " id="pdf-obj-8-8" src="pdf-obj-8-8.jpg">

This type of amplifier configuration is a non-inverting voltage amplifier circuit, in that the signal voltages Vin and Vout are “in-phase”. This type of transistor arrangement is not very common due to its unusually high voltage gain characteristics. Its output characteristics represent that of a forward biased diode while the input characteristics represent that of an illuminated photo-diode.

p otential applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed toward the junction, the distance between them decreases. This lowers the barrier in potential . With increasing forward-bias voltage, the depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the zone's electric field cannot counteract charge carrier motion across the p–n junction, as a consequence reducing electrical resistance. The electrons that cross the p–n junction into the P-type material (or holes that cross into the N-type material) will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode. Reverse bias Connecting the P-type region to the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type region to the positive terminal corresponds to reverse bias. If a diode is reverse-biased, the voltage at the cathode is comparatively higher than the anode. Therefore, no current will flow until the diode breaks down. The connections are illustrated in the diagram to the right. single phase full wave diode with lc filter. Shown in Fig. 1 (a) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source, and shown in Fig. 1 (b) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source. Yup, they are identical. In ENEL 585 we will use the Fig. 1 (b) representation. The use of a four diode full-bridge implies full-wave ie, 120Hz ripple, rectification. The reverse relationship is not necessarily true: Full-wave rectification may also be accomplished using a half-bridge diode rectifier fed by a 2-phase ac source (a.k.a. split ac), as may be obtained from a single-phase source using a centretapped transformer. There is another type of half-bridge diode rectifier, consisting of a rectifying diode and free-wheeling diode, fed directly by a single- phase source. This converter provides half-wave rectification, ie, with 60Hz ripple. Of course a single diode may be used for half-wave rectification, generally employed for low-inductance or pure resistive loads. Interestingly the single diode rectifier is not referred to as a quarter-bridge Rectifier (Topologically, we could refer to the single diode rectifier as a single-phase twowire half-bridge rectifier. What a mouthful huh?). For completeness of discussion, we can note that there exists an analogy between single-phase and 3-phase diode bridges. A single-phase full-bridge (2-wire 4 diode) rectifier produces 120Hz ripple. A 3-phase fullbridge (3-wire 6 diode) rectifier produces 360Hz ripple. A single-phase half-bridge (2-wire 1 or 2 diode) rectifier produces 60Hz ripple. A 3-phase half-bridge (4-wire 3 diode) rectifier produces 180Hz ripple. To understand the single-phase full-bridge operation, refer to Fig. 1 and consider the case where the line voltage, aka the source voltage, vs , goes positive. For the moment, assume no filter components are present and the load is purely resistive. It makes sense that diode, D1 , will tend to turn on (since its anode is going positive). At the same time, diode, D4, will tend to turn on (since its cathode is going negative). Thus, with both D1 and D4 on, the output voltage is positive. During the next half cycle, ie, the ac source goes negative, diodes, D2 and D3 , now turn on simultaneously, and again the output voltage is positive. In this way, the current that flows into the load is always positive. " id="pdf-obj-8-18" src="pdf-obj-8-18.jpg">

In this type of configuration, the current flowing out of the transistor must be equal to the currents flowing into the transistor as the emitter current is given as Ie = Ic + Ib.

By combining the expressions for both Alpha, α and Beta, β the mathematical relationship between these parameters and therefore the current gain of the transistor can be given as:

p otential applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed toward the junction, the distance between them decreases. This lowers the barrier in potential . With increasing forward-bias voltage, the depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the zone's electric field cannot counteract charge carrier motion across the p–n junction, as a consequence reducing electrical resistance. The electrons that cross the p–n junction into the P-type material (or holes that cross into the N-type material) will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode. Reverse bias Connecting the P-type region to the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type region to the positive terminal corresponds to reverse bias. If a diode is reverse-biased, the voltage at the cathode is comparatively higher than the anode. Therefore, no current will flow until the diode breaks down. The connections are illustrated in the diagram to the right. single phase full wave diode with lc filter. Shown in Fig. 1 (a) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source, and shown in Fig. 1 (b) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source. Yup, they are identical. In ENEL 585 we will use the Fig. 1 (b) representation. The use of a four diode full-bridge implies full-wave ie, 120Hz ripple, rectification. The reverse relationship is not necessarily true: Full-wave rectification may also be accomplished using a half-bridge diode rectifier fed by a 2-phase ac source (a.k.a. split ac), as may be obtained from a single-phase source using a centretapped transformer. There is another type of half-bridge diode rectifier, consisting of a rectifying diode and free-wheeling diode, fed directly by a single- phase source. This converter provides half-wave rectification, ie, with 60Hz ripple. Of course a single diode may be used for half-wave rectification, generally employed for low-inductance or pure resistive loads. Interestingly the single diode rectifier is not referred to as a quarter-bridge Rectifier (Topologically, we could refer to the single diode rectifier as a single-phase twowire half-bridge rectifier. What a mouthful huh?). For completeness of discussion, we can note that there exists an analogy between single-phase and 3-phase diode bridges. A single-phase full-bridge (2-wire 4 diode) rectifier produces 120Hz ripple. A 3-phase fullbridge (3-wire 6 diode) rectifier produces 360Hz ripple. A single-phase half-bridge (2-wire 1 or 2 diode) rectifier produces 60Hz ripple. A 3-phase half-bridge (4-wire 3 diode) rectifier produces 180Hz ripple. To understand the single-phase full-bridge operation, refer to Fig. 1 and consider the case where the line voltage, aka the source voltage, vs , goes positive. For the moment, assume no filter components are present and the load is purely resistive. It makes sense that diode, D1 , will tend to turn on (since its anode is going positive). At the same time, diode, D4, will tend to turn on (since its cathode is going negative). Thus, with both D1 and D4 on, the output voltage is positive. During the next half cycle, ie, the ac source goes negative, diodes, D2 and D3 , now turn on simultaneously, and again the output voltage is positive. In this way, the current that flows into the load is always positive. " id="pdf-obj-8-34" src="pdf-obj-8-34.jpg">
p otential applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed toward the junction, the distance between them decreases. This lowers the barrier in potential . With increasing forward-bias voltage, the depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the zone's electric field cannot counteract charge carrier motion across the p–n junction, as a consequence reducing electrical resistance. The electrons that cross the p–n junction into the P-type material (or holes that cross into the N-type material) will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode. Reverse bias Connecting the P-type region to the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type region to the positive terminal corresponds to reverse bias. If a diode is reverse-biased, the voltage at the cathode is comparatively higher than the anode. Therefore, no current will flow until the diode breaks down. The connections are illustrated in the diagram to the right. single phase full wave diode with lc filter. Shown in Fig. 1 (a) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source, and shown in Fig. 1 (b) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source. Yup, they are identical. In ENEL 585 we will use the Fig. 1 (b) representation. The use of a four diode full-bridge implies full-wave ie, 120Hz ripple, rectification. The reverse relationship is not necessarily true: Full-wave rectification may also be accomplished using a half-bridge diode rectifier fed by a 2-phase ac source (a.k.a. split ac), as may be obtained from a single-phase source using a centretapped transformer. There is another type of half-bridge diode rectifier, consisting of a rectifying diode and free-wheeling diode, fed directly by a single- phase source. This converter provides half-wave rectification, ie, with 60Hz ripple. Of course a single diode may be used for half-wave rectification, generally employed for low-inductance or pure resistive loads. Interestingly the single diode rectifier is not referred to as a quarter-bridge Rectifier (Topologically, we could refer to the single diode rectifier as a single-phase twowire half-bridge rectifier. What a mouthful huh?). For completeness of discussion, we can note that there exists an analogy between single-phase and 3-phase diode bridges. A single-phase full-bridge (2-wire 4 diode) rectifier produces 120Hz ripple. A 3-phase fullbridge (3-wire 6 diode) rectifier produces 360Hz ripple. A single-phase half-bridge (2-wire 1 or 2 diode) rectifier produces 60Hz ripple. A 3-phase half-bridge (4-wire 3 diode) rectifier produces 180Hz ripple. To understand the single-phase full-bridge operation, refer to Fig. 1 and consider the case where the line voltage, aka the source voltage, vs , goes positive. For the moment, assume no filter components are present and the load is purely resistive. It makes sense that diode, D1 , will tend to turn on (since its anode is going positive). At the same time, diode, D4, will tend to turn on (since its cathode is going negative). Thus, with both D1 and D4 on, the output voltage is positive. During the next half cycle, ie, the ac source goes negative, diodes, D2 and D3 , now turn on simultaneously, and again the output voltage is positive. In this way, the current that flows into the load is always positive. " id="pdf-obj-8-36" src="pdf-obj-8-36.jpg">

Where: “Ic” is the current flowing into the collector terminal, “Ib” is the current flowing into the base terminal and “Ie” is the current flowing out of the emitter terminal.

Pn junction:

The p–n junction possesses some interesting properties that have useful applications in modern electronics. A p-doped semiconductor is relativelyconductive. The same is true of an n-
doped semiconductor, but the junction between them can become depleted of charge carriers, and hence non-conductive, depending on the relative voltages of the two semiconductor
regions. By manipulating this non-conductive layer, p–n junctions are commonly used as diodes: circuit elements that allow a flow of electricity in one direction but not in the other
(opposite) direction. Bias is the application of a voltage across a p-n junction; forward bias is in the direction of easy current flow, and reverse bias is in the direction of little or no
current flow.
The space charge region is a zone with a net charge provided by the fixed ions (donors or acceptors)
that have been left uncovered by majority carrier diffusion. When equilibrium is reached, the charge
density is approximated by the displayed step function. In fact, the region is completely depleted of
majority carriers (leaving a charge density equal to the net doping level), and the edge between the
space charge region and the neutral region is quite sharp (see figure B, Q(x) graph). The space
charge region has the same magnitude of charge on both sides of the p–n interfaces, thus it extends
farther on the less doped side in this example (the n side in figures A and B).
Forward bias
In forward bias, the p-type is connected with the positive terminal and the n-type is connected with
the negative terminal. With a battery connected this way, the holes in the P-type region and
the electrons in the N-type region are pushed toward the junction. This reduces the width of
the depletion zone. The positive potential applied to the P-type material repels the holes, while the

negative potential applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed toward the junction, the distance between them decreases. This lowers the

barrier in

potential. With increasing forward-bias voltage, the depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the zone's electric field cannot counteract charge carrier motion

across the p–n junction, as a consequence reducing electrical resistance. The electrons that cross the p–n junction into the P-type material (or holes that cross into the N-type material) will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode.

Reverse bias

Connecting the P-type region to the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type region to the positive

terminal corresponds to reverse bias. If a diode is reverse-biased, the voltage at

the cathode is comparatively higher than the anode. Therefore, no current will flow until the diode breaks down. The connections are illustrated in the diagram to the right.

single phase full wave diode with lc filter.

p otential applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed toward the junction, the distance between them decreases. This lowers the barrier in potential . With increasing forward-bias voltage, the depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the zone's electric field cannot counteract charge carrier motion across the p–n junction, as a consequence reducing electrical resistance. The electrons that cross the p–n junction into the P-type material (or holes that cross into the N-type material) will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode. Reverse bias Connecting the P-type region to the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type region to the positive terminal corresponds to reverse bias. If a diode is reverse-biased, the voltage at the cathode is comparatively higher than the anode. Therefore, no current will flow until the diode breaks down. The connections are illustrated in the diagram to the right. single phase full wave diode with lc filter. Shown in Fig. 1 (a) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source, and shown in Fig. 1 (b) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source. Yup, they are identical. In ENEL 585 we will use the Fig. 1 (b) representation. The use of a four diode full-bridge implies full-wave ie, 120Hz ripple, rectification. The reverse relationship is not necessarily true: Full-wave rectification may also be accomplished using a half-bridge diode rectifier fed by a 2-phase ac source (a.k.a. split ac), as may be obtained from a single-phase source using a centretapped transformer. There is another type of half-bridge diode rectifier, consisting of a rectifying diode and free-wheeling diode, fed directly by a single- phase source. This converter provides half-wave rectification, ie, with 60Hz ripple. Of course a single diode may be used for half-wave rectification, generally employed for low-inductance or pure resistive loads. Interestingly the single diode rectifier is not referred to as a quarter-bridge Rectifier (Topologically, we could refer to the single diode rectifier as a single-phase twowire half-bridge rectifier. What a mouthful huh?). For completeness of discussion, we can note that there exists an analogy between single-phase and 3-phase diode bridges. A single-phase full-bridge (2-wire 4 diode) rectifier produces 120Hz ripple. A 3-phase fullbridge (3-wire 6 diode) rectifier produces 360Hz ripple. A single-phase half-bridge (2-wire 1 or 2 diode) rectifier produces 60Hz ripple. A 3-phase half-bridge (4-wire 3 diode) rectifier produces 180Hz ripple. To understand the single-phase full-bridge operation, refer to Fig. 1 and consider the case where the line voltage, aka the source voltage, vs , goes positive. For the moment, assume no filter components are present and the load is purely resistive. It makes sense that diode, D1 , will tend to turn on (since its anode is going positive). At the same time, diode, D4, will tend to turn on (since its cathode is going negative). Thus, with both D1 and D4 on, the output voltage is positive. During the next half cycle, ie, the ac source goes negative, diodes, D2 and D3 , now turn on simultaneously, and again the output voltage is positive. In this way, the current that flows into the load is always positive. " id="pdf-obj-8-79" src="pdf-obj-8-79.jpg">

Shown in Fig. 1 (a) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source, and shown in Fig. 1 (b) is a schematic of a full-bridge diode rectifier with single-phase ac source. Yup, they are identical. In ENEL 585 we will use the Fig. 1 (b) representation. The use of a four diode full-bridge implies full-wave ie, 120Hz ripple, rectification. The reverse relationship is not necessarily true: Full-wave rectification may also be accomplished using a half-bridge diode rectifier fed by a 2-phase ac source (a.k.a. split ac), as may be obtained from a single-phase source using a centretapped transformer. There is another type of half-bridge diode rectifier, consisting of a rectifying diode and free-wheeling diode, fed directly by a single- phase source. This converter provides half-wave rectification, ie, with 60Hz ripple. Of course a single diode may be used for half-wave rectification, generally employed for low-inductance or pure resistive loads. Interestingly the single diode rectifier is not referred to as a quarter-bridge Rectifier (Topologically, we could refer to the single diode rectifier as a single-phase twowire half-bridge rectifier. What a mouthful huh?). For completeness of discussion, we can note that there exists an analogy between single-phase and 3-phase diode bridges. A single-phase full-bridge (2-wire 4 diode) rectifier produces 120Hz ripple. A 3-phase fullbridge (3-wire 6 diode) rectifier produces 360Hz ripple. A single-phase half-bridge (2-wire 1 or 2 diode) rectifier produces 60Hz ripple. A 3-phase half-bridge (4-wire 3 diode) rectifier produces 180Hz ripple. To understand the single-phase full-bridge operation, refer to Fig. 1 and consider the case where the line voltage, aka the source voltage, vs , goes positive. For the moment, assume no filter components are present and the load is purely resistive. It makes sense that diode, D1 , will tend to turn on (since its anode is going positive). At the same time, diode, D4, will tend to turn on (since its cathode is going negative). Thus, with both D1 and D4 on, the output voltage is positive. During the next half cycle, ie, the ac source goes negative, diodes, D2 and D3 , now turn on simultaneously, and again the output voltage is positive. In this way, the current that flows into the load is always positive.