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Lead Slag

A client
Mineralogical Report MP1 Example

Petrolab Limited

www.petrolab.co.uk
tel +44 (0)1209 219541 email petrolab@petrolab.co.uk

C Edwards Offices, Gweal Pawl, Redruth, Cornwall TR15 3AE
Registered in England & Wales · Company No. 4777735

Mineralogical Report
Contents
List of samples & sections..........................................................................1
Methods of investigation ............................................................................1
Sample description.....................................................................................1
1) Sample Lead Slag..................................................................................................2

Cover image notes
Sample Lead Slag. Photomicrograph showing fine zinc
spherules locked in slag. Plane polarised reflected light. Not
to scale.

Lead Slag
MP1 Example

Issued by Petrolab Limited
i

Mineralogical Report
Petrolab document control
Client

A client

Report title

Lead Slag

Analysis required

Quantitative mineralogical investigation by optical microscopy.

Client reference

--

Client contact

--

Number of samples

1

Sample type(s)

Metallurgical test

Report ID (version)

MP1

Report date

Example

Prepared by

J Strongman Msci ARSM

Checked by

J Fletcher BSc MSc

This report relates only to those samples submitted and specimens examined and to any materials
properly represented by those samples and specimens. This report is issued to the Client named
above for the benefit of the Client for the purposes for which it was prepared. It does not confer or
purport to confer on any third party any benefit or right pursuant to the Contracts (Rights of Third
Parties) Act 1999.

Lead Slag
MP1 Example

Issued by Petrolab Limited
ii

Mineralogical Report

A client

List of samples & sections
Samples received & sections prepared
Report
order
1

Sample reference

Mass
(g)

Lead Slag

Sections
prepared

Type
Metallurgical test

1 No. Ø30mm polished block section

Methods of investigation
A detailed mineralogical investigation was requested, with special reference to metallic
phases.
The submitted sample was examined as received using a Nikon SMZ-U stereoscopic
microscope with fibre optic illuminator. One or more sections were prepared from the
sample (see table above). The sections were examined by conventional transmitted and
reflected light polarising microscopy using a Nikon Labophot-2 research polarising
microscope.
Modal analysis was carried out using a Pelcon 64 channel electromechanical point
counter. The precision of point-counting depends on the number of points counted and
the true abundance of the phase of interest in the sample. 1
Digital photomicrographs were taken using a Nikon DMC1200F 13.5 megapixel camera
attached to the trinocular head of the microscope.

Sample description
A detailed description of each sample begins over-page.

1 Van de Plas, L, Tobi, A. C., 1965. A chart for judging the reliability of point-counting results. Am.J.Sci,
(263)65, pp 87-90.
The estimated relative precision for one thousand points counted is, for example, ± 7% for a phase with
an abundance (by volume) of 50% and ± 20% for a phase with an abundance of 10%. Phases with a
true abundance of 2% or less may have a relative error of greater than ± 32%. The estimated precision
of the point-counting technique does not allow for errors caused by sampling and sample preparation.
Lead Slag
MP1 Example

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Mineralogical Report

A client

1) Sample Lead Slag
Sample details
Sample Lead Slag
Petrolab ID

Date received

Type · condition · properties

XXXXX

XXXXX

Metallurgical test

Modal analysis
Sample Lead Slag
Phase, abbreviation

General formula | s.g.

Wt%¹

Slag (silicate glass), slg

sg~2.90

82%

Lead, Pb

Pb | sg~11.37

10%

Zinc, Zn

Zn | sg~7.05

6%

Oxides, oxide

sg~3.80

2%

Comments

Includes metallic zinc & zinc sulphide

¹ Wt% calculated from modal volume using estimated mineral s.g. data. Phases seen in thin section but
not intersected in the modal analysis are noted as trace. Phases with a true abundance of 2% or less (by
volume) may have a relative measurement error of greater than ±32%.

Lead Slag
MP1 Example

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Mineralogical Report

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Phase description
Sample Lead Slag
Phase, abbreviation
Slag (silicate glass), slg

Description

Lead, Pb

Description

Zinc, Zn

Min

Max

Typical

Prominent grain type

200 µm

2 mm

1.2 mm

Composite grains

Irregular conchoidal fractured grains of what appears to be a silicate glass.
The glass host numerous inclusions and attachments of metallic lead and
zinc that occur as spherules, blebs and veinlets. Although grains contain
numerous ultra fine inclusions of lead and zinc, the majority of the lead is
relatively coarse, with an average size of 200 µm, and the zinc has an
average size of 40 - 60 µm.
< 5 µm

Oxides, oxide
Description

200 µm

Spherules

Spherules and irregular blebs of native lead as attachments and inclusions
in gangue silicates. Lead grains show only a minor association with zinc,
when occurring together lead forms the core with a zinc halo.
Lead also shows evidence of minor oxidation with the formation of oxide
rims > 200 µm thick.
<5 µm

Description

800 µm

200 µm

40 µm

Spherules

Spherules, irregular blebs and veinlets as attachments and inclusions in
gangue silicates. Zinc grains show only a minor association with lead, where
occurring together lead forms the core with a zinc halo. Zinc grains are
typically more irregular in shape than lead. Zinc also shows almost no
evidence of oxidation.
The sample contains two possible zinc phases, one metallic and the other
which looks similar to a zinc sulphide (sphalerite), which occur in a ratio of
approximately 7:3.
< 10 µm

300 µm

100 µm

Rims

Irregular oxide rims on lead particles and rare liberated grains.

Sample summary
Sample Lead Slag


The sample is reported to be a lead slag and is composed of what appears to be a uniform
coloured silicate glass. The glass hosts spherules, blebs and veinlets of three distinct metallic
phases: a poorly polished bright white phase (metallic lead), a cream white phase (metallic zinc)
and a grey phase (zinc sulphide).
All phases require SEM/ microprobe analysis to confirm their identities and the exact range of
mineral/ alloy compositions.
However, in terms of recovery, the bright white phase has an average size of ~200 µm, the
cream phase ~60 µm and the grey phase ~40 µm. Locking between phases is minor and
typically simple. The product should not require a high degree of grinding to liberate the majority
of the metal content. Any metal contained in the glass phase is unlikely to be recoverable.

Lead Slag
MP1 Example

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Mineralogical Report

A client

Photomicrographs
A

Sample Lead Slag

General view showing uniform coarse
lead (Pb) and finer grains of zinc (Zn)
View also shows an oxide grain.
Pb

Image A
Nikon Labophot-2 petrological
microscope
Plane polarised reflected light
x25

oxide

Zn

Pb

1 mm

B
Zn

Sample Lead Slag

Zinc attachments and coatings on
slag (slg). The view also shows a
typical lead spherule.

slg

Image B
Nikon Labophot-2 petrological
microscope
Plane polarised reflected light
x40

Pb

slg

500 µm

Lead Slag
MP1 Example

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Mineralogical Report

A client
C

Sample Lead Slag

Fine zinc (Zn) spherules in slag (slg).

oxide
Zn

Image C
Nikon Labophot-2 petrological
microscope
Plane polarised reflected light
x100

Zn
slg

200 µm

D

Sample Lead Slag

Lead (Pb) grain with an oxide coating.
Image D
Nikon Labophot-2 petrological
microscope
Plane polarised reflected light
x100

Pb

Zn

oxide
Pb

slg

200 µm

Lead Slag
MP1 Example

Issued by Petrolab Limited
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