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Quarried Rock, Wales A Client Petrographic Report OP1 Example

Quarried Rock, Wales

A Client

Petrographic Report OP1 Example

Petrolab Limited www.petrolab.co.uk tel +44 (0)1209 219541 email petrolab@petrolab.co.uk

C Edwards Offices, Gweal Pawl, Redruth, Cornwall TR15 3AE Registered in England & Wales · Company No. 4777735

Petrographic Report

A Client

Contents

Scope

1) Sample A

1

List of samples

2

Methods of investigation

2

Petrographic description

3

4

2) Sample B

8

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

2 Petrographic description 3 4 2) Sample B 8 Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Issued by

Issued by Petrolab Ltd

i

Petrographic Report

A Client

Report identification

Client

A Client

Report title

Quarried Rock, Wales

Analysis required

Detailed petrographic report by optical microscopy.

 

Client order ref.

--

Client contact

A Contact

Report ID (issue date)

OP1 Example

Issue note

Initial issue

Prepared by

R Garside BA MSci

Checked by

J Fletcher BSc MSc

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

by R Garside BA MSci Checked by J Fletcher BSc MSc Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

Issued by Petrolab Ltd

ii

Petrographic Report

A Client

Scope

This is a petrographic report for A Client to investigate two rock hand specimen samples.

This report relates only to the samples examined (and any materials properly represented by those samples). It presents the findings of a petrographic examination by optical microscopy on thin sections prepared from selected sub-samples.

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

on thin sections prepared from selected sub-samples. Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Issued by Petrolab Ltd

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Petrographic Report

List of samples

A Client

Samples received

 

Report

no.

Sample reference

Mass (g)

Type

Client note

1 Sample A

1445

Rock chip

2 Sample B

1190

Rock chip

Notes:

The samples were reported to represent hand specimen rock samples sourced from a quarry in Wales.

Methods of investigation

The investigation of the rock cores was carried out in accordance with the requirements in BS 5930:1999+A2:2010 1 for the general description of the material characteristics and classification of rocks. A detailed petrographic examination by optical microscopy was also undertaken. In brief, the following work was undertaken.

The submitted samples were examined and photographed as received, and using a Nikon SMZ-U stereoscopic microscope with fibre optic illuminator. A macroscopic description based on visual and manual identification of the material characteristics at the scale of the sample provided was recorded.

One petrographic thin section was prepared from each selected sample. The sub sample used for thin section preparation was first impregnated with epoxy resin containing a yellow dye to aid identification of voids and cracks. A high resolution, low magnification digital image of each thin section was obtained using a film scanner.

The thin sections were examined by conventional transmitted and/or reflected light polarising microscopy using a Nikon polarising microscope. A visual estimate of relative phase abundance was made. Digital photomicrographs were taken using a high resolution digital camera attached to the trinocular head of the microscope.

1 BS 5930:1999+A2:2010. Code of practice for site investigations. Section 6 – Description of soils and rocks. The terms used to describe material characteristics are further defined in BS EN ISO 14689-1:2003.

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

are further defined in BS EN ISO 14689-1:2003. Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Issued by Petrolab

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Petrographic Report

Petrographic description

A Client

A description of each sample received, based on a macroscopic examination, begins over- page. A detailed petrographic description (which includes annotated photomicrographs), based on a high-power microscopical examination of prepared thin-sections, is also presented.

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

of prepared thin-sections, is also presented. Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Issued by Petrolab Ltd Page:

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Petrographic Report

A Client

1) Sample A

Sample details

Sample A

Petrolab ID

Date received

Type · condition · properties

ID Date received Type · condition · properties #### xx/xx/xxxx Rock chip · Damp · 1445

####

xx/xx/xxxx

Rock chip · Damp · 1445 g

#### xx/xx/xxxx Rock chip · Damp · 1445 g Macroscopic (visual) description A Sample A Photograph

Macroscopic (visual) description

A
A

Sample A

Photograph of sample as received (scale in cm).

Image A Fuji S3 Pro digital camera Daylight balanced oblique light

Sample A

Group | Name

Volcanic

Altered BASALT

Colour

Greyish green

Strength

Medium strong (25 - 50 MPa)

Structure

Porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of feldspar and mafic minerals throughout the sample. Fine microfractures throughout sample.

Grain size

Uniformly fine grained (<0.5mm) groundmass with 2-5mm phenocrysts. Fine disseminated sulphides (<1%).

Weathering

Partially discoloured (iron oxide surface coatings).

Stability

Stable in atmosphere - No changes.

Notes:

The macroscopic description is based on visual and manual identification of the material characteristics at the scale of the sample provided. Colour, strength, structure, grain size, rock material weathering and stability terms used in the description are defined in BS EN ISO 14689-1:2003.

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

description are defined in BS EN ISO 14689-1:2003. Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Issued by Petrolab

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Petrographic Report

Microscopical examination

A Client

Sample A

Texture and fabric, weathering & alteration

The rock is a porphyritic basalt (main original phases plagioclase + clinopyroxene + olivine) that has undergone hydrothermal alteration, resulting in partial mineral replacement. There are rare calcite veins (25 - 200 µm) and microfractures (<25 µm) which are possibly a result of sampling damage. The section shows no weathering or discolouration.

Constituents of concern¹

The basalt contains trace amounts of sulphide minerals (visible in hand specimen only) which have the potential to oxidise producing secondary sulphates that can, in particular circumstances, cause cracking and expansion in concrete and mortar. The presence of fibrous amphibole minerals in the basalt may produce asbestiform 'dust' during industrial processing/ handling.

Phase, abbreviation

Abundance²

Grain size ( min | max | typical )

Plagioclase feldspar, pg

Major+

10 µm

3mm

200 µm

Description

Euhedral twinned laths of plagioclase slightly altered to microcrystalline quartz and sericite, with chlorite inclusions in some phenocrysts. They make up the majority of both groundmass and phenocrysts, with an average size of 75 µm for the groundmass and 1.5mm for the phenocrysts. The phenocrysts are occasionally found clumped together with the laths radiating outwards.

Chlorite, chl

Major

< 2.5 µm

150 µm

20 µm

Description

Fine platy crystal masses pseudomorphing crystals of pyroxene and olivine, often associated with amphibole and serpentine. Also found as small groundmass inclusions in plagioclase phenocrysts.

Amphibole group, amph

Minor

10 µm

200 µm

75 µm

Description

Radiating fibrous and euhedral crystals pseudomorphing earlier pyroxene and olivine phases.

Leucoxene, leu

Minor

5 µm

80 µm

20 µm

Description

Opaque grains and grain clusters distributed throughout the groundmass.

Clinopyroxene group, cpx

Trace

20 µm

1.5 mm

100 µm

Description

Original euhedral-subhedral crystals now mostly replaced by chlorite and amphibole in both groundmass and phenocrysts. Occasionally clumped together with other phenocrysts.

Olivine, ol

Trace

20 µm

700 µm

100 µm

Description

Original euhedral-subhedral crystals which have been almost entirely altered to chlorite, amphibole and serpentine, leaving rare subhedral-anhedral fragments.

Serpentine group, srp

Trace

< 5 µm

30 µm

10 µm

Description

Fibrous crystals found growing perpendicular to curving lines within chlorite and amphibole pseudomorphs. Since this is a characteristic alteration within olivine, these phenocrysts were presumably original olivine crystals which have now been entirely replaced.

Carbonate (calcite), cal

Trace

175 µm

1 mm

400 µm

Description

Subhedral crystals often associated with chlorite-amphibole pseudomorphs and also in rare void fills and veins.

Quartz, qtz

Trace

10 µm

500 µm

100 µm

Description

Fine grained alterations found within plagioclase laths. Also present as xenomorphic crystals in occasional void fills.

Sericite, ser

Trace

< 1 µm

20 µm

10 µm

Description

Usually preserved as ultra-fine grained inclusions within altered plagioclase laths.

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

grained inclusions within altered plagioclase laths. Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Issued by Petrolab Ltd Page:

Issued by Petrolab Ltd Page: 5 of 11

Petrographic Report

A Client

Phase, abbreviation

Abundance²

Grain size ( min | max | typical )

Sphene (titanite), ttn

Trace

5 µm

50 µm

25 µm

Description

Small rhomboidal and prismatic crystals irregularly scattered through the matrix.

Fe oxides, FeO

Trace

5 µm

20 µm

10 µm

Description

Rare small irregular grains found throughout the matrix.

 

Notes:

¹ Some constituents present can be of concern in particular circumstances for specific end uses. ² Visual estimate of abundance is approximate: Trace < 2% · Minor > 2% < 10% · Major > 10% · Major+ > 50%.

Thin section(s)

10% · Major > 10% · Major+ > 50%. Thin section(s) Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

> 50%. Thin section(s) Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example B Sample A Low magnification view of
B
B

Sample A

Low magnification view of sample thin section.

Image B Epson scanner White cold cathode light

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Petrographic Report

Photomicrographs

cpx chl 11 mmmm
cpx
chl
11 mmmm
pg pg cpx chl 111 mmmmmm
pg
pg
cpx
chl
111 mmmmmm

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

pg cpx chl 111 mmmmmm Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Sample A A Client General view

Sample Apg cpx chl 111 mmmmmm Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example A Client General view of sample

A Client

General view of sample showing porphyritic texture and some of the mineral alteration, especially to chlorite (chl). An unaltered clinopyroxene crystal (cpx) is also visible.

Image C Nikon Labophot-2 petrological microscope Plane polarised transmitted light

x25

Sample Amicroscope Plane polarised transmitted light x25 View under crossed polars showing original plagioclase (pg)

View under crossed polars showing original plagioclase (pg) and clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts as well as an original olivine crystal that has been replaced by chlorite (chl).

Image D Nikon Labophot-2 petrological microscope Cross polarised transmitted light

x25

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Petrographic Report

A Client

2) Sample B

Sample details

Sample B

Petrolab ID

Date received

Type · condition · properties

Client note:

####

xx/xx/xxxx

Rock chip · Damp · 1190 g

note: #### xx/xx/xxxx Rock chip · Damp · 1190 g Macroscopic (visual) description A Sample B

Macroscopic (visual) description

A
A

Sample B

Photograph of sample as received (scale in cm).

Image A Fuji S3 Pro digital camera Daylight balanced oblique light

Sample B

Group | Name

Hypabyssal

Altered DOLERITE

Colour

Greyish green

Strength

Medium strong (25 - 50 MPa)

Structure

No layering seen at sample scale. Spherulitic texture with radiating feldspars, sometimes with a thin rim of sulphides. Fine microfractures throughout sample.

Grain size

Uniformly medium grained (<2-5mm). Fine grained sulphides (<1%) around the edge of some white feldspar spots.

Weathering

Partially discoloured (iron oxide surface coatings).

Stability

Stable in atmosphere - No changes.

Notes:

The macroscopic description is based on visual and manual identification of the material characteristics at the scale of the sample provided. Colour, strength, structure, grain size, rock material weathering and stability terms used in the description are defined in BS EN ISO 14689-1:2003.

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

description are defined in BS EN ISO 14689-1:2003. Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Issued by Petrolab

Issued by Petrolab Ltd Page: 8 of 11

Petrographic Report

Microscopical examination

A Client

Sample B

Texture and fabric, weathering & alteration

The rock is an equigranular dolerite (plagioclase + clinopyroxene + olivine) that has undergone hydrothermal alteration, resulting in extensive mineral replacement. There are rare microfractures (<25 µm) which are possibly a result of sampling damage. The section shows no weathering or discolouration.

Constituents of concern¹

The dolerite contains trace amounts of sulphide minerals (visible in hand specimen only) which have the potential to oxidise producing secondary sulphates that can, in particular circumstances, cause cracking and expansion in concrete and mortar. The presence of fibrous amphibole minerals in the dolerite may produce asbestiform 'dust' during industrial processing/ handling.

Phase, abbreviation

Abundance²

Grain size ( min | max | typical )

Plagioclase feldspar, pg

Major

70 µm

1.5 mm

600 µm

Description

Euhedral twinned laths of plagioclase with small inclusions of microcrystalline quartz and sericite. In some places largely altered to calcite, while in others starting to alter to chlorite.

Carbonate (calcite), cal

Major

5 µm

1 mm

125 µm

Description

Subhedral crystals pseudomorphing original plagioclase and (to a lesser extent) olivine and pyroxene. Also found as occasional void fills.

Chlorite, chl

Major

< 2.5 µm

300 µm

50 µm

Description

Fine platy crystal masses pseudomorphing crystals of pyroxene and olivine, often associated with amphibole and serpentine. Sometimes forms complex intergrowths with calcite. Also found replacing plagioclase along with microcrystalline quartz and sericite.

Olivine, ol

Minor

20 µm

250 µm

100 µm

Description

Original euhedral-subhedral crystals which have been almost entirely altered to chlorite, amphibole and serpentine, leaving rare subhedral-anhedral fragments.

Clinopyroxene group, cpx

Minor

20 µm

300 mm

100 µm

Description

Original euhedral-subhedral crystals now mostly replaced by chlorite, amphibole and calcite.

Amphibole group, amph

Minor

< 5 µm

200 µm

75 µm

Description

Fibrous and euhedral crystals pseudomorphing earlier pyroxene and olivine phases, associated with chlorite and calcite.

Quartz, qtz

Trace

5 µm

300 µm

50 µm

Description

Fine grained alterations found within plagioclase laths. Also present as xenomorphic crystals in occasional void fills.

Sericite, ser

Trace

< 1 µm

20 µm

10 µm

Description

Usually preserved as ultra-fine grained inclusions within altered plagioclase laths.

Serpentine group, srp

Trace

< 1 µm

10 µm

5 µm

Description

Fibrous crystals found growing perpendicular to curving lines within chlorite and amphibole pseudomorphs of olivine.

Leucoxene, leu

Trace

5 µm

225 µm

75 µm

Description

Opaque grains and grain clusters distributed throughout the groundmass.

Sphene (titanite), ttn

Trace

5 µm

50 µm

25 µm

Description

Small rhomboidal and prismatic crystals irregularly scattered through the matrix.

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

crystals irregularly scattered through the matrix. Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Issued by Petrolab Ltd Page:

Issued by Petrolab Ltd Page: 9 of 11

Petrographic Report

A Client

Phase, abbreviation

Abundance²

Grain size ( min | max | typical )

Apatite group, ap

Trace

5 µm

20 µm

10 µm

Description

Small prismatic crystals scattered through the matrix.

 

Fe oxides, FeO

Trace

5 µm

20 µm

10 µm

Description

Rare small anhedral-subhedral grains found throughout the matrix. Includes some haematite.

Notes:

¹ Some constituents present can be of concern in particular circumstances for specific end uses. ² Visual estimate of abundance is approximate: Trace < 2% · Minor > 2% < 10% · Major > 10% · Major+ > 50%.

Thin section(s)

10% · Major > 10% · Major+ > 50%. Thin section(s) Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

> 50%. Thin section(s) Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example B Sample B Low magnification view of
B
B

Sample B

Low magnification view of sample thin section.

Image B Epson scanner White cold cathode light

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Petrographic Report

Photomicrographs

cal pg amp chl 1111 mmmmmmmm
cal
pg
amp
chl
1111 mmmmmmmm
cal pg amp chl 1111 mmmmmmmm
cal
pg
amp
chl
1111 mmmmmmmm

Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example

pg amp chl 1111 mmmmmmmm Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example Sample B A Client General view

Sample Bpg amp chl 1111 mmmmmmmm Quarried Rock, Wales OP1 Example A Client General view of sample

A Client

General view of sample showing an unaltered plagioclase (pg) and the predominant alteration products of chlorite (chl), calcite (cal) and amphibole (amp).

Image C Nikon Labophot-2 petrological microscope Plane polarised transmitted light

x25

Sample Bmicroscope Plane polarised transmitted light x25 View as per image 'C' with cross polarised

View as per image 'C' with cross polarised transmitted light.

Image D Nikon Labophot-2 petrological microscope Cross polarised transmitted light

x25

Issued by Petrolab Ltd Page: 11 of 11