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considered international organization. EX:


CIS, EU, UNESCO, ONU, NATO, USAID, APEC,
OPEC, NAFTA, WTO, RED CROSS, UNICEF etc.
Political theory (as a subject)-the early
The concept of political science studies the
systematic study of government. It is also the science of economies as a theory began
through the 19th century.
ability to influence and persuade people to
CONTENMPORANEOUS MEANING OF
achieve the vested political power and
authority to conform the development thrusts POLITICAL ECONOMY is: the social science
that deals with political of the
and directions of the national government
interrelationships between political and
economical process.
The historical chronicles of events have
Public Law- the branch of law that deals
always been related to the political struggle
with the state or government and its
of power and authority. The history of the
relationship with individuals or other
nation originated so much the political
government.
expansion and division of the state that had
shape the history of the nation from the early Public administration- a part of political
civilization and the rise of empire; its division science that denotes the institutions of public
bureaucracy within organization structures
which later form feudal age; the rise of the
state and its role colonial administration; and which form he bases of public decision
making process and implements of it.
the maturity of the individual state. These
are the significant relationship of history with
The term political structure, used in a general
that of political science such as the concept
sense, refers to institutions or groups and
of feudalism, socialism, mercantilism,
their relations to each other, their patterns of
absolutism, and other related term that
interaction within political systems and to
involved the political power and authority of
political regulations, laws and the norms
the state.
present in political systems in such a way
that they constitute the political landscape of
Political science is a social science discipline
the political entity.
concerned with the study of the state,
government, and politics

1.

2.

3.

The genesis and evolution of the


political science.

It originated almost 2,500 years ago with the


works of Plato and Aristotle. The antecedents
of Western politics can be traced back to the
Socratic political philosophers, Plato (427
347 BC), Xenophon (c. 430354 BC), and
Aristotle ("The Father of Political Science")
(384322 BC). These authors, in such works
as The Republic and Laws by Plato, and The
Politics and Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle,
analyzed political systems philosophically,
going beyond earlier Greek poetic and
historical reflections which can be found in
the works of epic poets like Homer and
Hesiod, historians like Herodotus and
Thucydides, and dramatists such as
Sophocles, Aristophanes, and Euripides.

3.

2.

DEMOCRACY is often defined as the


rule of people as a government that is
elected by the people or by elected
representatives.

The object of study and structure of


the Politology
Nation-State studies the various states as
form of political organization in which a group
of people who spare the same history,
traditions, for language life in a particular
area under one government.. When a nation
of people have a state, a country of their
own, it is called a nation state.
Comparative politics-the systematic study
of comparison of the worlds political
systems. It seeks to explain differences
between as well as similarities among the
country. It is particularly interested in
explaining principles processes and
regulations. It looks for trends, changes and
tries to develop general positions or
hypothesis that describe and explain these
trends.
International relations-it is a term used to
descriebe the communication between
different states, regions around the world. It
includes political and business cooperation
and agreements between worlds leaders.
Are institutions that have membership from
at least of 3 states having activities at
several states and whose members are held
together by a formal agreement in

The typology of the contemporary


political systems. The peculiarities
of the political system in RM

Actually the term DEMOCRACY has 3


senses:
The political ORIENTATION of those who
favor government by the people or by their
elective representatives.
The political SYSTEM in which the supreme
power lies in a body of citizens who can elect
people to represent them.
A DOCTRINE which promote that the
numerical majority of an organized group can
make decisions binding on the whole group.

PRECONDITIONS for political


democracy establishing:
Cultural traditions of individual freedom,
worth and responsibility
Acceptable level of material wealth
Advanced educational levels
General consensus of social, political,
economic rules of the game
Demands for economic and social equality
TOTALITARIANISM &
AUTHORITARIANISM
T&A are types of government that are
against democratic government and are led
by dictator, while the power in the
democratic system is in the hands of the
people in the society.
The Power in T&A rests entirely at the
single person of a political party.

TOTALITARIANISM- a political system


where the state holds total authority over the
society and seeks to control all aspects of
public and private life whenever necessary.
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF
TOTALITARIANISM:
Global ideology, single, party and single
leader
Organized terror
Control communications(mass-media)
Control weapons, economy, society
Fanaticism
Militarism
AUTHORITARIANISM- denotes any
political system that concentrates power in
the hands of a leader or a small elite that is
not constitutionally responsible to the body
of the people.
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF
AUTHORITARIANISM:
Single party dominance
Repressive policies
Limited tyranny
Presence of emerging nation states.
PRECONDITIONS for
TOTALITARIANISM/ AUTHORITARIANISM:
Social unrest and instability
Widespread of popular fear
Weakness in government
Organized revolutions
Political system is a system involving
government and its politics which includes
the members who are in power within the
country.
The politics of Moldova takes place in a
framework of a parliamentary representative
democratic republic, whereby the prime
minister is the head of government and of a
multi-party system. Executive power is
exercised by the government. Legislative
power is vested in both the government and
parliament. The judiciary is independent of
the executive and the legislature. The
position of the breakaway republic of
Transnistria, relations with Romania, and
integration into the EU dominate the political
agenda.
4.

The political powers function.

Power- is an authority held by a group within


a society that allows for administration of
public resources and implements policies for
society. May be acquired as a means of
government of direction or its opposition to
at government group.
5.

The human rights, concept, history.

Human rights mean the fundamental rights


humans have by the fact of being human.
Cultural, economic, political rights. Life,
liberty, education, belief, free speech,
information, movement, religion.
Human rights as a phenomenon came into
global discourse about mechanisms for

organization of human community after the


United Nations adopted the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. This
was the first global recognition that all
humans are inherently entitled to rights.
In 2003, various organizations and agencies
met to develop a Common Understanding
of human rights-based approach. There were
elaborated six main principles:
Universality and Inalienability
Invisibility
Inter-dependence and Inter-Relatedness
Equality and Non-Discrimination
Participation and inclusion

Accountability and Rule of Law


6.

The notions of the electoral system


and electoral process.

Electoral systems are the detailed


constitutional arrangements and voting
systems that convert the vote into political
decision. The first step is to tally the votes,
for which various vote counting systems and
ballot types are used. Voting systems then
determine the result on the basis of the tally.
Most systems can be categorized as either
proportional or majoritarian.
An electoral process is a formal decisionmaking process by which a population
chooses an individual to hold public office
Elections may fill offices in the legislature,
sometimes in the executive and judiciary,
and for regional and local government. This
process is also used in many other private
and business organizations, from clubs to
voluntary associations and corporations.
7.

Democracy as a form of societys


organization. The principles of the
representative democracy.

Current interpretation of the term


democracy implies a certain power system:
-

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

In sense it represents a form of organization


of political file that reflects free
uncompetitive public choice of any
alternative of social development.
The democracy is the way of political system
functioning away of social life organization
and investing citizens with wide enough
range of rights and freedoms.

Power- is an authority held by a group within

Managing of public opinion


a society that allows for administration of

Competition of governmental
public resources and implements policies for
actors
society. May be acquired as a means of

Bureaucracy inertion
government of direction or its opposition to

Constitutional constraints/limits
at government group.
Legitimacy- it means a popular acceptance
EX. Political revolution is most lively
or recognition and authority as genuine valid
to successes if the state is
or conforming to establish rules, codes,
vulnerable or lucking social
customs standards of conduct.
legitimacy.
Authority- institutionalized and legal power,
function or position that allows to its holder
In political theory there are two kinds of
to be able to successfully carry out his or her political processes in a state:
responsibility. It is the power that is
delegated normally. This one includes right to
1. Separation of function presidential
command a situation, commit resources and
variety
give orders. Authority has the responsibility
2. Fussion of function - parliamentary
for actions and for a failure of act.
variety
9.

The methods of study and functions


of the political theory.
Methods of study of politics

Observation
Data collection and organization
Development of generations/Deduction
Construction of theories/versions.
Construction of Laws
Achievement of predictability
Political theory is a technique of analysis
which can be used to overturn as well as
uphold.
These theorists have 3 fundamental
functions:
Descriptive
Normative
Prescriptive
10. The essence and the structure of
the political process.
Political opportunity theory, sometimes also
known as the political process theory or
political opportunity structure, is an approach
of social movements heavily influenced by
political sociology.

A political opportunity structure has been


defined as the circumstances surrounding a
political landscape.[5] However, Tarrow - who
has used this term in his earlier publications
himself - now argues it is misleading, as most
FEATURES of modern constitution:
opportunities need to be perceived, and are
Recognition of people as a source of the state situational, not structural.[3] Political
power
opportunity structures are prone to change
Declaration and ensuring rights and
and can alter in days (or last for decades).
freedoms of men and citizens
Demographics and socioeconomic factors
Decision making by the majority and minority create "structure" which affects political
submissions in implementing them
actors.
Societys democratic control of security
ministries using according to their intending
Political process is used to study social
purpose and within the law
movements and is based on arguments.
Domination of coordinating methods: nonvionce, non-suppression
That the success of social movements
Real implementations of principles of
depends not only on the movement
constitutional state including separation of
recourses, but on the state and how its
powers principles.
supported by population. From this
perspective its important to understand the
8. The political power, authority and
complex interaction between the movement
legitimacy.
and large social environment at certain time.
Key concepts of politic

Functions of political processes are:

11. Political party: the notion, structure


and functions.
A political party (from Latin: pars, Genitive
partis, "part", "portion") is a political
organization that typically seeks to influence
government policy, usually by nominating
candidates with aligned political views and
trying to seat them in political office
Structure: A party organizer, also known as
the party activist or party worker. A political
party is typically led by a party leader (the
most powerful member and spokesperson
representing the party), a party secretary
(who maintains the daily work and records of
party meetings), party treasurer (who is
responsible for membership dues) and party
chair (who forms strategies for recruiting and
retaining party members, and also chairs
party meetings).
These are useful for party outreach, training
and employment.
1 REPRESENTATION
2 ELIT FORMATION AND RECRUITMENT
3- GOAL FORMULATING
4 INTEREST ARTICULATION AND
AGGREGATION
5- SOCIALISATION AND MOBILISATION
6 ORGANISATION OF GOVERNMENT
12. The phenomenon of the political
elite.
POLITICAL ELITE AND POLITICAL
LEADERSHIP
The term elite actually cover a distinct
group of people consisting of prominent
social and political individuals, which by
their ability to stay above of other
members of society.
For the first time about elite was written in
the book THE PRINCE OF N(Machiavelli).
This theory was developed and promoted
by Italian scientists G.Machiavelli, W.
Paretto and R. Michels.
Political term ELITISM is used to describe
political class and explain appearance of
political elite by the necessity to be
governed by a small group of individuals
higher gifted with exceptional quality and
outstanding skills.

Political elite indicates all those who have a


rare political resources in an abundant
volume: money, power, influence, prestige,
culture, skills, and creative ability.
TYPOLOGY OF ELITE:

Interest articulation
Interest agrigation
Policy making
Policy implementation
Policy adjunction
Political socialization - structures who
occupied with socializations; families,
schools, media, churches, and political
parties
Recruitment selection of people for
political activity and government
office.
Political communication
Regulation of behavior
Extraction of recourses and taxes
Distribution of benefits and services to
different groups of population
14. The types of the political leaders
and types of ruling.
Classification of government by
Aristotle:
GOVERNMENT->CORRUNPT;>LEGITIMATE
The rule by ONE: 1. Tyranny (Corrupt); 2.
Monarchy (Legitimate)
+This type of rule is the best for large
empires with many different needs.
The rule by FEW: 1. Oligarchy (Corrupt);
2. Republic( Legitimate)
+ This type of rule is the best for
medium regions that are relatively
homogeneous
The rule by many: 1. Anarchy (Corrupt);
2. Democracy (Legitimate)
+This type of rule is the best for small
nations.

Traditional elites have authority and


influence as a result of ideas, beliefs
whose sources are in the past and is
strengthened
by
tradition(elite
aristocratic, religions).

Economic elites
has authority a
influence over the other elite because
they have income and other assets (big
industrialists, bankers, landowners).

Technocratic elites have authority and


power as they were appointed a elected
because of power (upper range of the
directors of industrial corporations,
financial and senior officials occupying
positions of command in bureaucratic
hierarchies).

Charismatic
elites
possess
extraordinary qualities and exceptional
ability
of
mass
persuasion
and
manipulation.

Ideological elites
are persons or
groups involves define and spread the
political ideas.

Symbolic elites are individuals and


groups who are role models because
they
possess
same
qualities
of
intellectual, artistic, sports and so on,
which attracted political sphere. Can
influence political attitudes and behavior
of other individuals.
15. The politology in the system of
social sciences.
13. The structure and the functions of
the political system.
The historical chronicles of events have
always been related to the political
POLITICAL SYSTEM. BASIC GOVERNMENT
struggle of power and authority. The
STRUCTURES.
history of the nation originated so much
the political expansion and division of
Political system is a system involving
the state that had shape the history of
government and its politics which includes
the nation from the early civilization and
the members who are in power within the
the rise of empire; its division which later
country.
form feudal age; the rise of the state and
its role colonial administration; and the
Exists two types: unitary and federal.
maturity of the individual state. These
are the significant relationship of history
with that of political science such as the
In general exists two levels of political
concept of feudalism, socialism,
system:
mercantilism, absolutism, and other
related term that involved the political
National powers(superior level)
power and authority of the state.
defends, foreign, relations and
2. Philosophy
promotion of general welfare.
Philosophy focuses on the study of logic,
Inferior level(second level) regional
ethics, and morality. It has special
power, including services public safety
interest in the areas of personal and
healths and words.
collective values on wisdom, equality,
freedom, justice and truth. These are the
INTER INDEPENDENCE-social economic
foundation of political science as
changes transforms the political demands in
completed by the study of state and
the electorate.
government. The ideas of people
empowerment, human rights and justice,
THE STRUCTURE OF SYSTEM
revolution and independence were
articulated by the philosophers to
POLITICAL SYSTEM
enforce the democratic and authoritative
role in the society.
Political parties
3. Sociology
Parliaments
Sociology studies the interaction of man
Carts
in the society. The relationship in political
Beurocracy
science reflects of the social activities of
man. It also relates on how they rule the
FUNCTIONS:
society as they have to base it in the

culture, tradition, values, norms, beliefs


and mores. The political practices on the
dynastic rule, respect of the elders and
authority, the formulation of laws
according to the mores and norms,
religious beliefs have its relationship to
the formation of the government and
state.
The relevant relationships of Political
Science with Sociology is the study of
the demographic profile, mobility and
productivity of labor, the social setting of
rural and urban; and the concern on
population
4. Psychology
The psychology studies the human
behavior of the society. The human
desires, motives, needs and attitudes are
the root causes of the political actions
particularly in serving the people. As we
all know politics is the art of persuading
and influencing other people in order to
be elected and gain power and authority
in the society. The political behavior can
also study the general actions and
attitudes of government in dealing with
the people. The political action responds
to the peoples evaluation such as
political survey about the performance of
politicians; demonstrations and other
forms of political grievance mechanisms.
5. Economics
Economics studies the management of
scarce resources for the utilization of
human needs and wants. In political
science, it also studies the economic
growth and development in areas of
employment, income, budget and
expenditures and the production of
public goods and services.
16. The definition of political regime.
The main features and criteria of
political regimes typology.
In politics, a regime is the form of
government: the set of rules, cultural or
social norms, etc. that regulate the
operation of government and its
interactions with society.
DEMOCRACY-Actually the term DEMOCRACY
has 3 senses:
1.

The political ORIENTATION of those


who favor government by the people
or by their elective representatives.
The political SYSTEM in which the supreme
power lies in a body of citizens who can elect
people to represent them.
A DOCTRINE which promote that the
numerical majority of an organized group can
make decisions binding on the whole group.
DEMOCRACY is often defined as the
rule of people as a government that is
elected by the people or by elected
representatives.
Conditions of Political democracy:
Popular participation (direct/indirect)
Limited government
Rule of the law
Majority rule with minority rights
Political equality

6.

Free mass-media
FEATURES of modern constitution:
Recognition of people as a source of
the state power
Declaration and ensuring rights and
freedoms of men and citizens
Decision making by the majority and minority
submissions in implementing them
Societys democratic control of security
ministries using according to their intending
purpose and within the law
Domination of coordinating methods: nonvionce, non-suppression
Real implementations of principles of
constitutional state including separation of
powers principles.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

PRECONDITIONS for political


democracy establishing:
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Cultural traditions of individual


freedom, worth and responsibility
Acceptable level of material wealth
Advanced educational levels
General consensus of social, political,
economic rules of the game
Demands for economic and social equality
TOTALITARIANISM &
AUTHORITARIANISM
T&A are types of government that are
against democratic government and are led
by dictator, while the power in the
democratic system is in the hands of the
people in the society.
The Power in T&A rests entirely at the
single person of a political party.
TOTALITARIANISM- a political system
where the state holds total authority over the
society and seeks to control all aspects of
public and private life whenever necessary.
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF
TOTALITARIANISM:

From
this
perspective
the
political
government exists in order to protect civil
society but does not create it.

PRECONDITIONS for
TOTALITARIANISM/ AUTHORITARIANISM:
2.

In most cases global civil society is identified


as a totality of groups and networks involved
in struggles, for global justice, sustainability,
the gender empowerment , respect for
human rights and so on. In shortly the same
kind of movements view in civil society treats
it as the space there questions of public
interests are discussed by individuals or
group organized on voluntary bases.

AUTHORITARIANISM- denotes any


political system that concentrates power in
the hands of a leader or a small elite that is
not constitutionally responsible to the body
of the people.

1. Single party dominance


Repressive policies
Limited tyranny
Presence of emerging nation states.

1. Social unrest and instability


Widespread of popular fear

Economic
Social
Function of stabilization
Democratization
Civil socialization

Political ideology means a set of beliefs


about the proper order and how it can be
19. The essence and the types of the
achieved. Typically an ideology is the
political ideology.
creation of some identifiable groups (political,
economic anf others.)
Political ideology means a set of beliefs
about the proper order and how it can be
This groups are created for the purpose
achieved. Typically an ideologyis the creation
for spreading or maintaining its perspective
of some identifiable groups (political,
on reality among themselves and others. On
economic anf others.)
effect an ideology creates the assumption in
a society that this dominance in natural and
This groups are created for the purpose
desirable. The characteristics of political
for spreading or maintaining its perspective
ideology may be summarized by noting the
on reality among themselves and others. On
following aspects, that are:
effect an ideology creates the assumption in
a society that this dominance in natural and
Coherent set of views on politics
desirable. The characteristics of political
Dissemination among the mass
ideology may be summarized by noting the
population
following aspects, that are:
Subject of alteration
Powerful motivators of human
Coherent set of views on politics
behavior
Dissemination among the mass
Manipulated by political movement
population
leaders
Subject of alteration
Powerful motivators of human
General division of them is:
behavior
Manipulated by political movement
1. Conservative resistance to change
leaders
2. Liberal tolerant to change, not
Etc.
bound by authoritarianism,
orthodoxy or tradition.
General division of of political orientation
18. The phenomenon of civil society:
is:
essential and structural characters.

Other civil society is considerably equal to


NGOs. Modern political theorists are focused
on the question of whether a stronger law in
civil society, in global politics would
automatically
translate
into
the
democratization of the national public
community.

ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF
AUTHORITARIANISM:
2.
3.
4.

17. THE STRUCTURE AND THE FUNCTIONS


OF THE POLITICAL IDEOLOGY.

Global ideology, single, party and


single leader
Organized terror
Control communications(mass-media)
Control weapons, economy, society
Fanaticism
Militarism

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Weakness in government
Organized revolutions

Components of civil society:

Associations
Syndicates
Churches
Schools
Universities (high-schools)
Mass-media
Political parties
NGOs
Academic communities (scientific)
Families

Functions od civil society:

3.
4.

Conservative resistance to change


Liberal tolerant to change, not
bound by authoritarianism,
orthodoxy or tradition.

MODERN POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

ABSOLUTISM/TOTALITARIALISM- the
principle of complete and
unrestricted power of government.
LIBERALISM is a political ideology
that favors reforms and the
distraction of the old order.
MERITOCRACY represents a belief
that leaders/rulers should be chosen
for their superior abilities and not
because of their wealth or births.
LIBERTARIANISM it is an ideological
belief in freedom of through and
speech .
MONARCHISM is an belief in a
advocacy of monarchy as a political
system.
NEGRITUDE is an ideological
position that holds black culture to
be independent and valid on its
own terms. It is an affirmation of the
African cultural heritage.
PROGRESIVISM it is a political
belief of those who favor progress
toward better conditions in
government and the society.
RADICALISM the political belief of
those who favor revolutionary
change in government and the
society.

9.
10.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

23.
24.

25.

26.

27.
28.

29.
30.

REACTIONISM the political belief of


candidates for political office-made
those who fight against changes in
within them. Some associate legitimacy
society.
with the justification of coercive power
REPUBLICATNISM the political
and with creation of political authority.
belief of those who holds that a
Others associate it with the justification
republic is the best form of
of existinfg political authority. Next there
government.(ex. Republic of
are questions about the requirements of
Moldova).
legitimacy. When are political institutions
RIGHTISM in an ideology of the
and the decisions made within them
political rights.
appropriately called legitimate? Some
SOCIALISM the political theory
have argued that this question has to be
advocating state ownership of social
answered primarily on the basis of
order and relationships.
procedural features that shape these
THEOCRACY it is the belief in
institutions and underlie the decisions
government by divine guidance (ex.
made. Others argue that legitimacy
Vatican).
dependsexclusively or at least in part
UTOPIANISM the political belief in
on the substantive values that are
impossible idealistic schemes of
realized. A related question is: does
social perfection.
political legitimacy demand democracy
DOVISHNESS any political belief
or not? This question is intensely
favoring compromise to avoid
debated both in the national and the
conflicts.
global context. Insofar as democracy is
IMPERIALISM it advocates imperial
seen as necessary for political
interests.
legitimacy, when are democratic
ANARCHISM favor the abolition
decisions legitimate? Can that question
(dont recognize) of governments.
be answered with reference to
AUTOCRACY favoring unlimited
procedural features only, or does
authority by a single individual
democratic legitimacy depend both on
CENTRISM avoiding the extremes
procedural values and on the quality of
of left and right by taking a
the decisions made? Finally, there is the
moderate position.
question which political institutions are
COLLECTIVISM promotes that
subject to the legitimacy requirement.
people should own the means of
Historically, legitimacy was associated
production.
with the state and institutions and
COMMUNISM - favoring collectivism
decisions within the state
in a classless society.
CONSERVATISM theological believe
The principle of legality is the legal ideal
advocating preservation of the post
that requires all law to be clear,
in society and apposing radical
ascertainable and non-retrospective. It
changing.
requires decision makers to resolve
SEGREGATIANISM a political
disputes by applying legal rules that
believe favoring political or racial
have been declared beforehand, and not
segregation.
to alter the legal situation retrospectively
CONSTITUTIORALISM - is advocacy
by discretionary departures from
of a system of government
established law. It is closely related to
according to constitutional
legal formalism and the rule of law and
principles.
can be traced from the writings of
DEMOCRACY is a political believe
Feuerbach, Dicey and Montesquieu.
of those who favor government by
people or by their elected
The principle has particular relevance in
representatives.
criminal and administrative law. In
SOCIAL DEMOCRACY is gradual
criminal law it can be seen in the general
transition from capitalism to
prohibition on the imposition of criminal
socialism by democratic methods or
sanctions for acts or omissions that were
means.
not criminal at the time of their
ELITISM the society must be
commission or omission. The principle is
government by an elite group of
also thought to be violated when the
individuals.
sanctions for a particular crime are
EXTREMISM political act for outside
increased with retrospective effect.
the perceived political center of a
society or otherwise claimed to
In administrative law it can be seen in
violate common moral standarts.
the desire for state officials to be bound
FASCISM political theoru
by and apply the law rather than acting
advocating an authorian hierarchical
upon whim. As such advocates of the
govern.
principle are normally against
FEDERALISM an ideology about a
discretionary powers.
federal organ of more or less self
government units.
21. The typology of the states according
HAWKISHNESS- aggressive method
form of government and state
of politics
structure.

20. The problem of the legality and


legitimacy of political power.
Problem of legitimacy-of political power
is a treasure of political institutionsand
of the decitions about laws, policies, and

NATION STATES AND GOVERNMENT


NATION STATES - were formed as a
phenomenon just beginning from 19th
century. The bases of the formation of nation

states from same fundamental elements:


people, theory, sovereignty, culture,
government, economic system.
STATE- group of people which have
international recognition as an independent
country and which have a population, a
common language and a distinct territory.
Classification of government by
Aristotle:
GOVERNMENT->CORRUNPT;>LEGITIMATE
The rule by ONE: 1. Tyranny (Corrupt); 2.
Monarchy (Legitimate)
+This type of rule is the best for large
empires with many different needs.
The rule by FEW: 1. Oligarchy (Corrupt);
2. Republic( Legitimate)
+ This type of rule is the best for
medium regions that are relatively
homogeneous
The rule by many: 1. Anarchy (Corrupt);
2. Democracy (Legitimate)
+This type of rule is the best for small
nations.
Actual classification of government.
Constitution: -written; -unwritten
Degree of power: - diffusion;
-concentration: personal freedoms, property
rights
Degree of government centralization:
UNITARY GOVERNMENT: a system of
governments in which one central
government holds most of the political power.
A unitary state Is a state governed as one
single unit, in which the central government
is supreme and any administrated divisions
exercise only powers that their central
government chooses to delegate.
ADVANTAGES: central coordination issues can
overcome by allocating power to a singular
authority. DISADVANTAGES: individual
subunits of the lack initiative or ability to act
an their own interests.
FEDERALISM: a system of government in
which power is divided between a central
authority and federal political units ( RUSIA,
CANADA, USA)
CONFEDERATIONS: a group of nations or
states in which the component states
reatains considerable independence. The
members often delegate a few powers of the
central authority (EU, SWITZERLAND)
EXECUTIVE AN LEGISLATIVE
RELATIONS
PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM (PRESIDENTIAL
REPUBLIC)- a system of government where
the executive power is led by a president
who serves as both of head state and head of
government. (There is no premiere ministerUSA, VENEZUELA) In such a system the
branch exists separately from legislature to
which cannot in normal circumstances to be
dismiss.
PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM- parliamentary
republic or constitutional monarchy is the
type of republic in which a system with no
clear separation of powers between an
executive and legislative branches.
has a number of variations.Most have clear
differentiation between the head of
government and the head of state, where the
first is holding the real power.
22. The mechanism of functioning of the
political system.

Political system is a system involving


government and its politics which includes
the members who are in power within the
country.
Exists two types: unitary and federal.
In general exists two levels of political
system:
-

National powers(superior level)


defends, foreign, relations and
promotion of general welfare.
Inferior level(second level) regional
power, including services public safety
healths and words.

ENVIRONMENT IN SOCIETY.
Input -> -> P.S.->->output
^<<inter independence<<^
Political system in this case if it is set
institutions and agencies that implement
goals of the society.
INPUT-domestic economy(societys
expectations)
OUTPUT-culture of society(political decisions)
INTER INDEPENDENCE-social economic
changes transforms the political demands in
the electorate.
23. The models and types of the
contemporary political systems. The
type of the political systems of RM.
PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM (PRESIDENTIAL
REPUBLIC)- a system of government where
the executive power is led by a president
who serves as both of head state and head of
government. (There is no premiere ministerUSA, VENEZUELA) In such a system the
branch exists separately from legislature to
which cannot in normal circumstances to be
dismiss.
PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM- parliamentary
republic or constitutional monarchy is the
type of republic in which a system with no
clear separation of powers between an
executive and legislative branches. Has a
number of variations.Most have clear
differentiation between the head of
government and the head of state, where the
first is holding the real power.
POLITICAL REGIMES
1.

DEMOCRACY
DEMOCRACY is often defined as the
rule of people as a government that is
elected by the people or by elected
representatives.
TOTALITARIANISM &
AUTHORITARIANISM
T&A are types of government that are
against democratic government and are led
by dictator, while the power in the

democratic system is in the hands of the


people in the society.
The Power in T&A rests entirely at the
single person of a political party.
TOTALITARIANISM- a political system
where the state holds total authority over the
society and seeks to control all aspects of
public and private life whenever necessary.
AUTHORITARIANISM- denotes any
political system that concentrates power in
the hands of a leader or a small elite that is
not constitutionally responsible to the body
of the people.
Political system is a system involving
government and its politics which includes
the members who are in power within the
country.
Exists two types: unitary and federal.
The politics of Moldova takes place in a
framework of a parliamentary representative
democratic republic, whereby the prime
minister is the head of government and of a
multi-party system. Executive power is
exercised by the government. Legislative
power is vested in both the government and
parliament. The judiciary is independent of
the executive and the legislature. The
position of the breakaway republic of
Transnistria, relations with Romania, and
integration into the EU dominate the political
agenda.

24. The political socialization of the


personality.
Political Socialization-how individuals form
their political attitudes and thus how citizens
form their political culture
How citizens view their political roles
Participants-involved as actual or potential
participants in the political process
Subjects-passively obey government officials
and the law but do not vote or actively
involve themselves in politics
Parochials-Hardly aware of government or
policies
Political Socialization
Direct and Indirect Socialization
Direct-involves the explicit
communication of info, values, or
feelings towards politics
Indirect-when political views are
inadvertently molded by our experiences
Socialization continues throughout
individuals life
Unifying or divisive patterns
Unifying: example international conflict
which brings a country together
Divisive: example subcultures

25. International policy: the essence


and present tendencies of the
development.
International relations mean a totality of
national foreign policies, diplomacy as
negotiatios among nations, international law.
Governamental motivations for participating
in internationam politicas are:
-

National survival and security.


Ideological model
Economic advantage
Military advantage.

Nations interact through a wide variety of


formal and informal arrangements. Formal
ones include diplomatic relations, military
and economic alliances, and global
organizations such as the United Nations
and the World Bank. Unlike national
governments, however, global
organizations often have only limites
authority over their members. Other
arrangements include cultural exchanges,
the flow of the toruists, students
exchanges, international trade and the
activities of NGOs woth worldwide
membership(red Cross).
26. The theoretical approaches of the
political leadership.
Leadership through political institutions has
great effects on social systems. According to
PSA, studies on contemporary political
leadership have been observed to have a
theoretical inclination on political factors
such as political parties, national
governments, supranational bodies,
comparative studies, subnational and
regional bodies.
Weber's Political Leadership Theory
According to Max Weber, leadership in a
political system is spearheaded by three
types of leaders: bureaucrats, charismatic
leaders and traditional leaders. They operate
under either a transactional or
transformational political leadership model.
According to Weber's political leadership
theory, transactional political leaders use
their knowledge or legal authority to achieve
results. On the other hand, transformational
leaders utilize their personal charisma to
achieve their objectives.
According to Burns as quoted in
Moneyzine.com, amoral political leaders are
not regarded as true leaders.
Transactional Political Leaders
In addition to Weber's description of
transactional leaders, Burns distinguished
five categories of transactional political
leaders. They include opinion political
leaders, who have an ability to sway public
opinion; political party leaders holding
various positions in a given country;
executive leaders, such as heads of state;
bureaucratic leaders who occupy positions of
political power; and legislative leaders who

work behind scenes to shape political


systems.

10. Societys democratic control of security


ministries using according to their intending
purpose and within the law
11. Domination of coordinating methods: nonTransformational Political Leadership
vionce, non-suppression
12. Real implementations of principles of
According to Burns, transformational political
constitutional state including separation of
leaders include political scholars who shape
powers principles.
political societies through their clarity and
vision on political affairs, reform political
PRECONDITIONS for political
leaders who address issues of societal
democracy establishing:
morality, revolutionary leaders who bring
about rapid political transformations in
societies and charismatic political leaders
Cultural traditions of individual freedom,
who utilize their personal charm to change
worth and responsibility
political systems in societies.
Acceptable level of material wealth
Advanced educational levels
General consensus of social, political,
Goleman's Political Leadership Theory
economic rules of the game
10. Demands for economic and social equality
The theory leans heavily on emotional
intelligence, and among the aspects of
TOTALITARIANISM &
emotional intelligence highlighted in
Goleman's political leadership theory are self- AUTHORITARIANISM
awareness, self-regulation, social skills,
empathy and motivation amongst political
T&A are types of government that are
leaders.
against democratic government and are led
by dictator, while the power in the
27. The definition of the political regime democratic system is in the hands of the
people in the society.
and the typology of it.
POLITICAL REGIMES In politics, a
regime is the form of government: the
set of rules, cultural or social norms,
etc. that regulate the operation of
government and its interactions with
society.
DEMOCRACY
Actually the term DEMOCRACY has 3
senses:
4.
5.
6.

The political ORIENTATION of those who


favor government by the people or by their
elective representatives.
The political SYSTEM in which the supreme10.
11.
power lies in a body of citizens who can elect
12.
people to represent them.
A DOCTRINE which promote that the
numerical majority of an organized group can
make decisions binding on the whole group.
DEMOCRACY is often defined as the
rule of people as a government that is
elected by the people or by elected
representatives.
Current interpretation of the term
democracy implies a certain power system:

7.
8.
9.

In sense it represents a form of organization


of political file that reflects free
uncompetitive public choice of any
alternative of social development.
The democracy is the way of political system
functioning away of social life organization
and investing citizens with wide enough
range of rights and freedoms.
FEATURES of modern constitution:
Recognition of people as a source of the state
power
Declaration and ensuring rights and
freedoms of men and citizens
Decision making by the majority and minority
submissions in implementing them

The Power in T&A rests entirely at the


single person of a political party.
TOTALITARIANISM- a political system
where the state holds total authority over the
society and seeks to control all aspects of
public and private life whenever necessary.
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF
TOTALITARIANISM:
Global ideology, single, party and single
leader
Organized terror
Control communications(mass-media)
Control weapons, economy, society
Fanaticism
Militarism
AUTHORITARIANISM- denotes any
political system that concentrates power in
the hands of a leader or a small elite that is
not constitutionally responsible to the body
of the people.
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF
AUTHORITARIANISM:
Single party dominance
Repressive policies
Limited tyranny
Presence of emerging nation states.
PRECONDITIONS for
TOTALITARIANISM/ AUTHORITARIANISM:
Social unrest and instability
Widespread of popular fear
Weakness in government
Organized revolutions
28. The types of political parties and
systems of parties.
A political party (from Latin: pars, Genitive
partis, "part", "portion") is a political
organization that typically seeks to influence

government policy, usually by nominating


candidates with aligned political views and
trying to seat them in political office.[1]
Parties participate in electoral campaigns and
educational outreach or protest actions.
Parties often espouse an expressed ideology
or vision bolstered by a written platform with
specific goals, forming a coalition among
disparate interests.
An individual who either volunteers for, is
employed by, or helps to establish and
operate a political party is known as a party
organizer, also known as the party activist or
party worker.
A political party is typically led by

a party leader (the most powerful


member and spokesperson representing
the party),

a party secretary (who maintains the


daily work and records of party
meetings),

party treasurer (who is responsible for


membership dues)

and party chair (who forms strategies


for recruiting and retaining party
members, and also chairs party
meetings).
It is also customary for political party
members to form wings for current or
prospective party members, most of which
fall into the following two categories:

identity-based: including youth wings,


women's wings, ethnic minority wings,
LGBT wings, etc.

position-based: including wings for


candidates, mayors, governors,
professionals, students, etc.
Cadre parties and mass parties.
Cadre parties were political elites that were
concerned with contesting elections and
restricted the influence of outsiders, who
were only required to assist in election
campaigns.
Mass parties tried to recruit new members
who were a source of party income and were
often expected to spread party ideology as
well as assist in elections.
Socialist parties are examples of mass
parties, while the British Conservative Party
and the German Christian Democratic Union
are examples of hybrid parties. In the United
States, where both major parties were cadre
parties, the introduction of primaries and
other reforms has transformed them so that
power is held by activists who compete over
influence and nomination of candidates.
29. The structure and functions of the
political culture
Three levels of political culture
System Level-involves the citizens and
leaders views of the values and organizations
that hold the political system together
Examples: National Pride, national
identity, and legitimacy of government

Process Level-expectations of how politics


should function and individuals relationship
to the political process
Examples: principles of government,
role of citizens, perceptions of political
rights
Policy Level-Deals with citizens and leaders
policy expectations from the government
Examples: role of government,
government policy priorities

A DOCTRINE which promote that the


numerical majority of an organized group can
make decisions binding on the whole group.
DEMOCRACY is often defined as the
rule of people as a government that is
elected by the people or by elected
representatives.
Conditions of Political democracy:

Popular participation (direct/indirect)


Limited government
Rule of the law
10. Majority rule with minority rights
Facets that impact political culture on a
11. Political equality
national level are generally created by
shared concepts that the society possesses.12. Free mass-media
These paradigms are the position in which
the society takes on issues such as morals,
Current interpretation of the term
economics and government power. Due to
democracy implies a certain power system:
the legal and social structure of the society,
the overall political culture determines how
In sense it represents a form of organization
the structure of power is established and
of political file that reflects free
which traditions are adopted to determine
uncompetitive public choice of any
that structure.
alternative of social development.
The democracy is the way of political system
30. The contemporary global problems
functioning away of social life organization
and its influence on international
and investing citizens with wide enough
relations.
range of rights and freedoms.
FEATURES of modern constitution:
Contemporary Global Issues includes:
1. Recognition of people as a source of
Protection of human rights
the state power
Controlling nuclear weapons
Declaration and ensuring rights and
Terrorism
freedoms of men and citizens
Natural resource degradation
Decision making by the majority and minority
Population growth.
submissions in implementing them
Societys democratic control of security
31. The state as main institution of the
ministries using according to their intending
political system.
purpose and within the law
Domination of coordinating methods: nonvionce, non-suppression
NATION STATES AND GOVERNMENT
Real implementations of principles of
constitutional state including separation of
1. NATION STATES - were formed as a
powers principles.
phenomenon just beginning from 19th
century. The bases of the formation of
PRECONDITIONS for political
nation states from same fundamental
democracy establishing:
elements: people, theory, sovereignty,
culture, government, economic system.
2. STATE- group of people which have
1. Cultural traditions of individual
international recognition as an independent
freedom, worth and responsibility
country and which have a population, a
Acceptable level of material wealth
common language and a distinct territory.
Advanced educational levels
General consensus of social, political,
economic rules of the game
32. The democratically political regime. Demands for economic and social equality
The actual forms of democracy.
33. The civil society and the state:
correlations.
DEMOCRACY-the term democracy
originates from the antiquity and denotes
peoples power. It has become most widely
At present civil society is widely recognized
spread politics, but as a result of wide use
as a key factor in global politic as and a key
lost the clear contact. Up to now, political
factor for democratization in both: domestic
science has not worked out approaches to
politics and the still developing public
start the definition of democracy.
community.
Actually the term DEMOCRACY has 3
senses:
7.
8.

The political ORIENTATION of those who


favor government by the people or by their
elective representatives.
The political SYSTEM in which the supreme
power lies in a body of citizens who can elect
people to represent them.

Other civil society is considerably equal to


NGOs. Modern political theorists are focused
on the question of whether a stronger law in
civil society, in global politics would
automatically
translate
into
the
democratization of the national public
community.
Civil society must be analyzed not only as a
space that needs to be protected but also as
space of power that is developed and
exercised which illustrate the processes of
transforming democracy.
34. The definition of civil society. The
peculiarities of the civil society in
RM.
Civil society is the arena outside of the
family, the state, and the market where
people associate to advance common
interests.[1] It is sometimes considered to
include the family and the private sphere and
then referred to as the "third sector" of
society, distinct from government and
business.[2] Dictionary.com's 21st Century
Lexicon defines civil society as 1) the
aggregate of non-governmental organizations
and institutions that manifest interests and
will of citizens or 2) individuals and
organizations in a society which are
independent of the government.[3]
Sometimes the term is used in the more
general sense of "the elements such as
freedom of speech, an independent judiciary,
etc, that make up a democratic society"
(Collins English Dictionary).[4]
Moldova Civil Society Strengthening Program
The Moldova Civil Society Strengthening
Program strengthens representative
democracy in Moldova through support for a
constituent-driven, sustainable civil society
sector. The program provides on-site
technical assistance towards: (i) enhancing
the skills of civil society organizations to
effectively represent citizen interests; (ii)
improving the governance and management
of civil society organizations; (iii)
strengthening the legal and fiscal framework
for civil society; (iv) promoting the
diversification of financial resources available
to civil society organizations.
35. The definition of political
leadership. The role of the political
leaders in a society.

Leadership through political institutions has


great effects on social systems. According to
PSA, studies on contemporary political
leadership have been observed to have a
theoretical inclination on political factors
such as political parties, national
In most cases global civil society is identified governments, supranational bodies,
as a totality of groups and networks involved comparative studies, subnational and
in struggles, for global justice, sustainability, regional bodies.
the gender empowerment , respect for
human rights and so on. In shortly the same Weber's Political Leadership Theory
kind of movements view in civil society treats
it as the space there questions of public According to Max Weber, leadership in a
interests are discussed by individuals or political system is spearheaded by three
group organized on voluntary bases.
types of leaders: bureaucrats, charismatic
leaders and traditional leaders. They operate
under either a transactional or

transformational political leadership model.


According to Weber's political leadership
theory, transactional political leaders use
their knowledge or legal authority to achieve
results. On the
other hand, transformational leaders utilize
their personal charisma to achieve their
objectives.
According to Burns as quoted in
Moneyzine.com, amoral political leaders are
not regarded as true leaders.
Transactional Political Leaders
In addition to Weber's description of
transactional leaders, Burns distinguished
five categories of transactional political
leaders. They include opinion political
leaders, who have an ability to sway public
opinion; political party leaders holding
various positions in a given country;
executive leaders, such as heads of state;
bureaucratic leaders who occupy positions of
political power; and legislative leaders who
work behind scenes to shape political
systems.
Transformational Political Leadership
According to Burns, transformational political
leaders include political scholars who shape

political societies through their clarity and


vision on political affairs, reform political
leaders who address issues of societal
morality, revolutionary leaders who bring
about rapid political transformations in
societies and charismatic political leaders
who utilize their personal charm to change
political systems in societies.
Goleman's Political Leadership Theory

1. Plurality electoral systems


2. Majority electoral systems
3. Proportional representation
37. The concept of politics. The main
approaches of the politics
interpretations.

Generally the common definition of POLITICS


is the ability to persuade and influence in the
The theory leans heavily on emotional
sovereign electorate to provide political
intelligence, and among the aspects of
power and authority in the governmental
emotional intelligence highlighted in
affairs of the state. These are the other
Goleman's political leadership theory are self- definitions to conceptualize the term
awareness, self-regulation, social skills,
POLITICS
empathy and motivation amongst political
leaders.
1. It is the science of governance in the
control of the external and internal affairs of
36. The definition of electoral system.
the state.
The electoral systems types.
2. It is the political administration and
Electoral systems are the detailed
management of the governmental affairs
constitutional arrangements and voting
based on the development agenda of the
systems that convert the vote into political
party affiliation of public officials.
decision. The first step is to tally the votes,
for which various vote counting systems and
3. It is the management of the political
ballot types are used. Voting systems then
parties to deal with the peoples interest in
determine the result on the basis of the tally. government through manipulation and
Most systems can be categorized as either
influence to obtain, power and control of the
proportional or majoritarian
society.
Electoral systems can be divided into three
general types: