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Medium Level

1. what is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP
To avoid problems in the network causing by mis-configured DHCP servers, server in
windows 2000 must be validate by AD before starting service to clients. If an
authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server in the network it stop serving the clients
2. Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for
Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site.
Inter-site replication can be done between two different sites over WAN links
BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites.
Inter-site replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site.
We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocols where as Domain
partition is not possible to replicate using SMTP
3. How to monitor replication
We can user Replmon tool from support tools
4. Brief explanation of RAID Levels
Microsoft Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 offer two types of
disk storage: basic and dynamic.
Basic Disk Storage
Basic storage uses normal partition tables supported by MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows
95, Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me), Microsoft
Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP. A
disk initialized for basic storage is called a basic disk. A basic disk contains basic
volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives.
Additionally, basic volumes include multidisk volumes that are created by using
Windows NT 4.0 or earlier, such as volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, and stripe sets
with parity. Windows XP does not support these multidisk basic volumes. Any
sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, or stripe sets with parity must be backed up and
deleted or
converted to dynamic disks before you install Windows XP Professional.
Dynamic Disk Storage
Dynamic storage is supported in Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and
Windows Server 2003. A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk.
A dynamic disk contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes, spanned
volumes, striped volumes, mirrored volumes, and RAID-5 volumes. With dynamic

you can perform disk and volume management without the need to restart Windows. Dynamic Storage Terms . Additionally. and then click OK. Click Performance and Maintenance. A disk system can contain any combination of storage types. after you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. 3. Select the check box that is next to the disk that you want to convert (if it is not already selected). or Windows XP 64-Bit Edition-based computers. 2. 6. and then click Convert to Dynamic Disk. You cannot create mirrored volumes or RAID-5 volumes on Windows XP Home Edition. Warning: After you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. and then click Control Panel. the dynamic volumes cannot be changed back to partitions. However. 8. Enterprise and Data Center versions of Windows Server 2003. and then click OK. right-click the basic disk that you want to convert. Click Start. follow these steps: 1. or NTFS partitions or volumes. 4. However. You can also right-click My Computer and choose Manage if you have My Computer displayed on your desktop. In the left pane. or the Standard. Windows 2000 Advanced Server. To do this. To convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk: Use the Disk Management snap-in in Windows XP/2000/2003 to convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. or Windows 2000 Datacenter Server. and then doubleclick Computer Management. In the lower-right pane. Click Yes when you are prompted to convert the disk. Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group. you must first back up the data or move it to another volume. If you want to keep your data. all volumes on the same disk must use the same storage type. A basic or dynamic disk can contain any combination of FAT16. Click Convert. 7. you can use a Windows XP Professional-based computer to create a mirrored or RAID-5 volume on remote computers that are running Windows 2000 Server. Windows XP Professional. FAT32. You must first delete all dynamic volumes on the disk and then convert the dynamic disk back to a basic disk. 5. local access to the dynamic disk is limited to Windows XP Professional. You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. click Administrative Tools. click Disk Note: Dynamic disks are not supported on portable computers or on Windows XP Home Edition-based computers. Click Details if you want to view the list of volumes in the disk. Storage types are separate from the file system type.

ini.A volume is a storage unit made from free space on one or more disks. It can be a single region on a disk or consist of multiple. Parity (a calculated value that can be used to reconstruct data after a failure) is also striped across the disk array. the same as the system volume. Mirroring is also known as RAID-1. If one of the disks fails. spanned. A simple volume uses free space from a single disk. A mirrored volume cannot be extended. The system volume can be. A mirrored volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is duplicated on two physical disks. Ntldr. the data can still be accessed from the remaining disk. but does not have to be.Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required) RAID 5 – Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required) RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy 5. The boot volume contains the Windows operating system files that are located in the %Systemroot% and %Systemroot%\System32 folders. the same as the boot volume. A striped volume cannot be mirrored or extended and is not faulttolerant. If a physical disk fails. If a simple volume is extended across multiple disks. All of the data on one volume is copied to another disk to provide data redundancy. or RAID-5. it becomes a spanned volume. A spanned volume cannot be mirrored and is not fault-tolerant. What are the different backup strategies are available Normal Backup Incremental Backup . the portion of the RAID-5 volume that was on that failed disk can be re-created from the remaining data and the parity. RAID 0 – Striping RAID 1. but does not have to be. RAID-5 volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is striped across an array of three or more disks. mirrored. Volumes on dynamic disks can have any of the following layouts: simple. The data on this type of volume is allocated alternately and evenly to each of the physical disks. A simple volume can be extended within the same disk or onto additional disks. You can extend a spanned volume onto a maximum of 32 disks. A RAID-5 volume cannot be mirrored or extended. and Ntdetect. striped. A spanned volume is created from free disk space that is linked together from multiple disks. concatenated regions. A striped volume is a volume whose data is interleaved across two or more physical disks. It can be formatted with a file system and assigned a drive letter. Striping is also known as RAID-0. The boot volume can be. The system volume contains the hardware-specific files that are needed to load Windows (for example.

Information in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol 8. what is the physical and logical structure of AD Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows Forests— Trees—Domains—Child Domains—Grand Child—etc Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions 1. What is a global catalog Global catalog is a role.500 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like structure. What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000 After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated which is used to encrypt the time stamp of the client machine. Global Catalog – 3268 . reliable. Universal Group membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GC’s in the forest. Active directory is derived from X. User name and encrypted timestamp information will be provided to domain controller for authentication. What is Active Directory and what is the use of it Active directory is a directory service. Where as Domain partition can be replicated between the domain controllers in the same domain 9. which maintains Indexes about objects. Schema Partition 3. 7. Because of AD hierarchal structure windows 2000 is more scalable.Differential Backu Daily Backup Copy Backup 6. which maintains the relation ship between resources and enabling them to work together. It contains full information of the objects in its own domain and partial information of the objects in other domains.Configuration partition 2. Domain partition 4. what are the port numbers for Kerberos. Then Domain controller based on the password information stored in AD for that user it decrypts the encrypted time stamp information. If produces time stamp matches to its time stamp. Again client decrypts and if produced time stamp information is matching then it will use logon session key to logon to the domain. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket to client in an encryption format. LDAP and Global catalog Kerberos – 88. Schema partitions can be replicated between the domain controllers in the in the entire forest. Active directory depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP. LDAP – 389. Application Partition (only in windows 2003 not available in windows 2000) Out of these Configuration. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket when accessing network resources 10.

How to take DNS and WINS. Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Time synchronization is important because Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information 14. which is used to exchange directory information from server to clients or from server to servers 12. what are the problems that are generally come across DHCP Scope is full with IP addresses no IP’s available for new machines If scope options are not configured properly eg default gateway Incorrect creation of scopes etc 13. We can perform fallowing operations from recovery console We can copy.DHCP backup %System root%/system32/dns %System root%/system32/WINS %System root%/system32/DHCP 16. What is recovery console Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all booting. what is DFS & its usage DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and folders even when they are shared in different servers physically. what is the role responsible for time synchronization PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization.11. We cannot provide redundancy for stand alone DFS in case of failure. We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS 15. or replace operating system files and folders Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer Repair the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record Create and format partitions on drives 17. what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS TTL is Time to Live setting used for the amount of time that the record should remain in cache when name resolution happened. rename. Both the cases we . what is the use of LDAP (X. There are two types of DFS domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name).500 standard?) LDAP is a directory access protocol.

need to create DFS root ( Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links ( A logical link which is pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared) The maximum number of Dfs roots per server is 1. . The maximum numbers of Dfs root replicas are 31.