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If the English had
WON in 1066

David Cowley

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A Bright Pen Book

Copyright © David Cowley 2009

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A thief in the dark ate up noble speech,
and its steadfastness
(Adaptation, after part of Old English Riddle 47 in the Exeter Book)

... sette ... swa swa he hit sweotolost and
andgitfullicast gereccan mihte ...
... set ... as he could reckon it in the
clearest and ongetfullest way
(= most perceptive way)
(King Alfred the Great, from foreword to one of his translations into Old
English, Author’s translation.)


Acknowledgements: To my kinsfolk at home, for bearing with the
writing of ‘daddy’s book’. Sincere thanks to Prof. David Crystal for some
heartening advice and comments at a critical stage. Also to Hindrik Sijens
of the Fryske Akademy, Ljouwert, for Frisian translations (p. 18). Also for
comments/ advice from Joseph Biddulph, Tony Linsell and Martin Cutts.
Steven Jones - technical input with cover. And in the past, to those who
gave helpful words here and there, which can go a long way when one is
working on this kind of ‘big’ idea over many years, not forgetting Steve
Cowley - ‘ta, youth’.
Layout, all illustrations (including handwritten copy in Foreword)
and idea for cover layout - by author.
The Author
A former teacher of English as a foreign language, David Cowley is from
the East Midlands and lives in North Wales, working in an advisory role in
local government. Having an early interest in languages, he became fluent
in Welsh and studied Old English, Scottish Gaelic, Greek, and other
languages. A qualified teacher, he taught in a Welsh-medium school for
some years, later taking CELTA before teaching English in Moscow. He is
the author of a short forerunner to the present work, Eldsay English (1999).




Aims, Background and Why


Outline of Book, with Notes




Lead-in: Some Choices in English


Step 1: Ready and Clear


Step 2: That Sounds Right


Step 3: I Think I get that


Step 4: What’s that Mean Exactly?


Step 5: Weird and Wonderful


Further Examples and Tests


Answers to Tests


I. Words from Steps 1 - 5, with Old English Sources


II. Thesaurus in Order of Loanwords





Foreword The Parker version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1066 includes this stark statement: = And her com Willelm and gewann ængla land = And here came William and won England One could ask the question 'what if things had been different?' about many aspects of history. were also coloured by the conquest. The armies at Hastings had been so evenly matched that they had (unusually for the time) fought most of the day before King Harold was killed and it was clear which side had won. could have led to an outcome other than a Norman king on the throne by the end of that year … The book fills a gap. for those who want to 6 . Many happenings in England. why especially this big 'what if?' The main reason is the undisputed fact that the Norman Conquest was a key time of change in English history which led to the English language taking on many words from French and Latin in the long run. and broken on his helmet. and such a familiar and strong force in the world today. It seeks to do this in a format which will be understandable and entertaining for most folk (and with the Old English source words given in part of a reference section. There were many other things about 1066 which. had 'we' won in 1066. And that could so easily have happened. if only very slightly different. Britain and elsewhere – including many aspects of European and world history. With the English language itself bound up in history. it is especially fascinating to see how we could be talking now had Hastings gone the other way. the arrow has hit a little higher. So. In our cover scenario. because (to my knowledge). there hasn’t before been such a study showing how so many words from Old English might look today.

I hope you'll find it fun. Not least. One more thing: when you've been through the five Steps. English has gained much by borrowing form other tongues.see the evidence). give some thought as to whether something of this wealth of words could find its way back to that many-hued tongue that we know as today’s English. but there are important insights to be had from considering what had been lost too. 7 . I hope that this book can offer something of helpful use for all. interesting and fremeful (useful)! The English-speaking world is a many-hued world. I feel we should spare a thought for the many languages which are today being influenced. and sometimes dying out under the weight of modern English. changed. and there has never been such a variety of folk on earth who have shared the same speech.

because many of our most everyday words are from Old English. though far from all. Background and Why The main aim of this book is to get an insight into how English might have looked had there been no Norman Conquest. many of the most powerful and influential English speakers were swept away by the Norman Conquest and its aftermath. based on updates of known words from the English of and around that time. The earliest English we have written down in any quantity (usually known as Old English or Anglo-Saxon) comes from the time around and a little before a thousand years ago. or translated to English . for reference.are actually meaningful in today's spelling. A quick history lesson will help explain how the need for this book arose. in and after 1066. Over the next few hundred years many French and Latin words replaced earlier English ones. Then. I have always sought to group words under suitable common themes to make for a smooth learning process.Aims. Though the way in which words are presented varies a little to reflect this progression. and Latin tended to replace English in many of the written contexts where it had been used before. In that light the book has a further aim to bring these into the public eye and mind.especially many in Steps 1 to 3 . I have tried to do this in a way that lets those who have little or no knowledge of grammar follow with ease. Whilst a few loanwords from Latin and Greek found their way into English at this time. whilst also giving the main basic grammatical terms (and the original Old English source words) in the appropriate places. the writers and poets that made up/ set down work in English. which will hopefully be fun too! The book also aims to shed a little light into ways in which languages can change.did so mainly using the basic wordstock of Old English. through to the 'weird and wonderful' in Step 5. for potential use once more. English has gone on taking on more and more words 8 . French came to be much used as a spoken tongue in higher circles. I hope that it will be clear from the early chapters that the gaining of foreign loans may not always bring a gain in clarity (see what you think on this). The book runs from the very easy in Step 1. We shall see that quite a few words .

4.. A king with no afterfollower (no successor). are expressive and colourful: Through beholdness. had history been different. furthermore. which can make them sound more friendly. 3. But there has been little thought as to whether there may have been more appropriate alternatives from the wordstock of early English. . less pretentious/ less overawing: Guilty of oathbreach (perjury). and onbeloaded with work (. Many of the words themselves are very interesting because they . here are some key reasons for spending time on this subject: 1.. Why? ..... She was forebusied. ... can sometimes say things that we have no one exact word for today: He yearnfully watched the middaily rush.. A five week old birther (instead of cold medical-speak foetus).. . 2. they saw the behideness of gold (through observation. 5. can sometimes make more sense than the word currently used for the same idea: An upness of 20 degrees (elevation of 20 degrees). .from other languages. misthinking they were better off than him. they saw the concealment of gold). are often like familiar everyday words.... often to great effectiveness.. 9 .Ten Reasons for this Book Linked to the aims above. preoccupied and had had work inflicted upon her). Sayness anewed! (expression renewed!) And. It's fascinating and fun to consider how English could look today.

it is time to think about claiming some of our words back! 10 . 9. Having borrowed so much from Latin. 10. It can also help us learn more broadly about how languages change.6. 8. in the wake of 1066 and its long aftermath. The loss of many words. Leaning about how English changed can help us understand how fragile languages can be in the face of might. is it not time to look back to the roots of English itself? 7. French and other languages. is a wrong that should be righted . The study can foster an interest in language and how words are used for expression.

Step 4 . Step 3 . The tests are broadly geared to the Step in which they are found. Words are still often quite clear and understandable to readers. but generally these have alternatives today which are foreign-derived loanwords. more than anywhere. through to harder. Outline of Steps: Step 1 . These are readily understandable. as you become more used to the way in which they are built up from more than one 'bit'. and meaningful to modern English speakers. The updated words often sound 'right'.Builds further on the kinds of words covered in Step 2. 11 . You'll be building on a language you already speak. we get some insight into just how different English might have looked today. Each step starts with some test examples for the reader to think about and work out. Step 2 .Use of a first set of words modernised from Old English. as every now and then forms from other steps are given to stretch you! You should be able to start to get your head round likely meanings of many words you have not yet met. Answers to all tests are given at the end of Part 1. with Notes The book is in two parts. Part 1 is made up of five Steps. These take you from the easy and clear. Here.A fascinating look at some of the words which have utterly died out of use.More words updated from Old English. Following background material. had the Norman Conquest never taken place.Outline of Book. with some examples of use. but which were once at the heart of English. but there is an element of revision. There are also tests at the end of each step. and cover ideas for which there are sometimes no obvious exact alternatives in current English. and some further examples and tests after Step 5. Step 5 . rather than learning a new one. and sometimes strange-looking words that really would give English a very different feel if still in use. each of which covers a range of words with origins in early English.Words modernised from Old English which need more thought and/ or explanation of their updated forms for today's English. and also surprise.

which has the following entry in Reference List I: engoughful a. (for example) = e. more English alternatives to foreign-derived loans (of the kind looked at briefly in the Lead-in to Part 1). Other than such slight 'exceptions'. and in the Reference section. abundant genyhtful Although it seems that the form 'genyhtfulic' . Authenticity . List I). and would have been completely natural.may not be known in any Old English writings that have survived. (and so forth) = etc.g. Abbreviations: a. it is highly likely to have existed. frimdy means curious. Some Key Notes 1.Does the book make up new words? The answer is no rather updates known words from English around the time of 1066. These kinds of words are found in some examples of updated words in use in the Part B sections. f. List I are updates of authentic Old English examples. This list also includes many current.which gives enoughfully when updated .e. Following this is an Endword. (et cetera). all of the words given as updates in this book are based on known forms (which are given for reference in Part 2.Part 2 is made up mainly of two reference lists. which links back to some key questions which had been asked at the start. The last reference list gives all of the words covered in Steps 1 . Likewise.f. All of the words presented in Part A sections of Steps 1 . so frimdily would be curiously. the first of these gives all of the words covered in Steps 1 – 5 (and some more) with the Old English words upon which these are based. In the Part B sections of Steps 1 – 5 (showing words in use) there are some updated forms used which have been given very normal endings along the lines of the following example: Take the word enoughful. 12 .5 the other way round (loanwords first).

The poet William Barnes in the 1800s made a number of suggestions for coining more English-based words. Words which. How have the updated words here been chosen? Firstly. I have left the possibility of coining brand new words open. we can classify words in Old English into three kinds. but this book focuses on updating what the Old English themselves used. I have given examples of what some modern things would be. though the Old English themselves had no qualms about doing that.are now common. The coining of new words and phrases from what were Old English words still happens (take world wide web). Range of Words Covered and Method for Working out Updates a) Range of Words Covered The book gives a sample only of updated words from the wealth of Old English. but based on straight translation of individual words (for example: Stowly Onwield for Local Authority). List I Further Notes ii). Some of these – such as foreword and handbook .Where updated words are related to words in current English. Words which have lasted into Modern English. had the English won in 1066. on p. though not in Modern English. when updated. 2. Words which are not in Modern English. This said. We'd have had many more though. for convenience. A glance at Clark Hall (see Booklist) shows how broad this wordhoard was. as follows: 1. are close to forms that are. Words of the first kind are ones we use in everyday speech now. But note that in cases where these compete with loanwords today. and which look unfamiliar and unusual in updated forms. Skillful use of words could doubtless yield many new and useful ways of saying things. 2. 3. This means that meanings of updates can be different from what the Old English source-word meant (see Part 2. their meanings have been worked out to reflect modern meanings. 152). and would have been likely to have gone on doing so to great effect. they have an 13 .

and 14 . which is found in English of a later time in the form anleth. List II).important background role in the book. Many words of kind 2 above have been covered in Steps 1 – 3 in particular. also. Take Old English andwlita. In some cases. So the updated form works out as mouthroof (meaning palate). which adds another angle to the working out of updates to fit modern English spelling. because they reflect continuity and can sometimes be closer to modern spelling anyway. but the use of th instead of t is more unexpected. Greek. Where I came across later forms. This is explained in the Lead-in to the five Steps (see p. which developed into mouth and roof in today's spelling. and c) things that would be eye-catching for examples of use (in headlines. a loss of d can be seen (as in a number of other words). many such words are listed in Part 2. it was not so straightforward to work out an updated form. we can summarise three key differences: i). But words which lasted to be recorded in Middle English are sometimes written in dialects not so close to the South Western forms in which much of Old English is written. Latin. in terms of one or more of the following: a) being easy to work with/ learn. but at a basic level. Overall. b) expressing concepts that would be most likely to be familiar (so usually avoiding detailed technical terms). Step 4 is more of a crossover between words like these and the kind 3. For example. I tried to take them into account in working out updates. Old English was inflected. updates can often readily be made along similar lines. Some Key Differences between Old English and Modern English This topic can be studied in detail elsewhere. Old English muðhrof is made up of the words muð and hrof . meaning it had a system of case-endings which were used in different grammatical situations. words were chosen for their most likely potential appeal to readers. 23. signs and suchlike). Based on a knowledge of how current words which are from Old English have changed. Here. b) Working out Updated Words The updating of Old English forms of words is normally fairly straightforward. These are covered particularly in Step 5. 3.

ii).rather than any questions about how i) and ii) might have developed without the Norman Conquest. but use in official contexts lessens quite swiftly after the Conquest. It seems that large numbers of English elite leave and never come back. settling in the 15 . 1066 . Many words were different. 1066 . Old English did not die at Hastings nor in the few years it took the Normans to get their vice-like hold on England.mid 1100s . and grass-roots local government.Bare Facts Of course. Known to have gone to places such as Denmark. especially in the North. Pronunciation could have gone various ways.England is a strong state with organised central. killing King Harold II.modern Russian all have case-endings. Here are some of the main.wherever you're from in the English-speaking world. and a few are still to be found in English (such as the s in my friend's hat). Pronunciation. Large numbers of English ruling class die at Hastings. where.Copies still being made of Old English texts until end of this time.the words . Normans win at Hastings.quite often at the cost of words already in English. 1066 . which are dealt with one after another. key dates/ timespans to help understand what happened: 1066 .early 1200s . but also at Stamford Bridge and Fullford (earlier battles in 1066 against the Norwegians). It borrowed many more words from French and Latin . But as a direct outcome of Hastings. for your normal accent . iii). including that of vowels.1070s . English elite further weakened and replaced by Normans and their followers. This book focuses on key difference iii) . and were not normally based on Latin loans. 4. I would however point out that case-endings are known to have been weakening in English from well before 1066. For updated words here we follow modern English. How English lost Ground after 1066 .various English uprisings. was often quite different. Scotland and Byzantium (the last lands of the Roman Empire.fresh Old English texts known to have been written. English took a very different path to that which it had been on until that time.

But. If one thing about Old English spelling could be brought back. After 1066 there was a shift to use of more continental forms. with a loss of the distinctive script used for writing Old English. it can teic a hwail to get seteld wið it. 1100s . and the drawing below shows how the title of How We'd Talk would look (to be read the same as the actual cover) but with both different spelling and font. this and so forth. This is to let readers focus on the words and their sounds. As a taster of what might have been. 5.1200s and beyond .ever-greater amount of French and Latin words find their way into English. Spelling and Fonts Words are given in line with modern (British) English convention. The older style might well have stayed in use had the English won. let's leave spelling ðere for now! The shapes of the letters used in writing Old English (the font) was also somewhat unlike that used today. rather than burden them with an unneeded layer of unfamiliarity. which is for a long time largely sidelined in high circles. But spelling would very likely have developed differently had there been no Hastings. as well as in Icelandic and some North Frisian. some become Emperors' elite guards. these. Ðe sound comes up so often ðat using it would be likely to save raðer a lot of paper! It is in fact used in phonemic spelling internationally. without changing spelling in any way. Old English becomes less and less understandable to what have now become Middle English speakers. ðat said. With the loss of case-endings and later changes in pronunciation. a tradition which lasted until at least the 1204 fall and sack of the city). we could argue for use of the letter Ð/ ð (‘eth’) for the 'th' sound in the. try to read this: Hwen you ðinc haw Englisc coud luc wið anoðer Constantinople. 16 .

Some key reasons for this were: i) border changes (part of the old Northumbria went to Scotland in the 900s). These include eme (uncle). guttural ch. and vowel-sounds which are sometimes closer to Old English. Scots not only kept some words such as these. by the way.6. These include rolling rs. This king was himself a son of an important branch of old English kingly stock which had wed into the Scottish line soon after 1066. and iii) coming as traders/ settlers under Scottish King David I in the 1100s. Scots It’s a point of interest that a few updated words from Old English in this book happen to be like some words still found in Scots. endure). but also some features of pronunciation that were lost in England. The well-known 'Bricht. moonlicht nicht' is a good example showing some of these features. one of the reasons not to belittle Scots pronunciation! Their survival in Scotland is a result of the differing histories of the two countries. lith (joint) and thole (to suffer. Speakers of early English at various times found themselves in Scotland. ii) coming as refugees (straight after 1066 and from the brutal harrying of the North in 1069). 17 . They are. Consideration of how some of these events would have been different (or rather not happened) had the English won in 1066 would be a key part of trying to answer question v) in Note 8 below.

7. let’s keep an open mind and come back to this at the end of the book (Endword).But what difference would keeping a more English. if you've never heard of it before. bear in mind that 'Frisian' applies to more than the well known cows . this likeness is not surprising. Though this book is based wholly on words updated from Old English. So. So. They came from a stretch of that sea rim roughly from the west coast of what is today Denmark. A few words in Frisian show how close this can be: Ik tink dat it hijr better foar him is = I think that it is better for him here And: Wat as de Ingelsken it wûn hienen yn 1066? Ingelsk en Frysk soenen tichter byinoar bleaun wêze. which is spoken along parts of this coast. less French/ Latin kind of English have made anyway? This question is hard to give clear answers to (harder than the actual working out of updated forms of words from Old English!). Yes . such as Dutch. Which means: What if the English had won in 1066? English and Frisian would have stayed closer to one another. mainly in West Friesland (part of the Netherlands) and North Frisland (the far North Western part of Germany).its the nearest speech to English! 8. south and westwards to what is today the Netherlands. given that Old English grew from the speech of settlers from the North Sea coast. Interesting and ‘fun’. 18 . Closeness to Other Languages Some readers will spot that some words covered in How We’d Talk are closer to some words in other European languages. Danish and German. Its a little-known fact that the closest language to English today is Frisian.

The point here is not to deny that there would have been some loans and we shouldn't go over the top to avoid them. Thus. Old English itself did. lessness is minority. updated words are based on what would make sense to the modern ear. though. Its an accepted fact that languages tend to take on some loans. though the Old English word upon which it is based had other meanings. Ireland and elsewhere if the English had won in 1066? 9. This was another level of borrowing altogether. spelling and font style follow today’s standard English. i) Would less educated people have felt such a gap between their own speech and that of the ruling classes right down to today? ii) Would there have been less social friction and stress as a result? iii) Might England have had a less class-ridden history.could this have been different? v) In light of question iv). often at the cost of older English words. colonial conquest and invasion. Europe and the world . Use of Loanwords in Examples in Steps 1 – 5. how would 'we' talk in Wales. but on a relatively small scale (for example. Some readers will spot that example sentences themselves sometimes use loanwords. Scotland. Where related to words still in use. Follow the book to learn something about what was lost! 10. After 1066.But here for now are some questions in a little more detail on this. which ran through many aspects of England's dealings with the rest of Britain. 2. loans under Norman/ French influence would eventually come in thick and fast. For such cases. Summary Key Assumptions for Updated Words 1. to begin to think about as you read through the book. it has been taken that today’s understandings would still apply. and generally been a fairer place to those who might appear to be underlings? iv) Could the history of fighting. Basic structure. for some churchly terms). 19 .

in 1996 reprint. Blackwell. Concise Dictionary and Thesaurus. 1894. Dennis Freeborn. Clark Hall. Anglo-Saxon Books 1993 (Pollington himself also used Clark Hall as a check for his listings).). Modern English-Old English. Further Reference/ background books: The Pocket Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 1995/ 2001 Old and Middle English An Anthology. Bruce Mitchel.R. 7th Ed. The Plain English Guide. Fr Andrew Phillips. Spellings have been checked to be in line with listings from 4th Ed. 2000 20 . Joseph Biddulph publ. 1999. 1960. OUP. 1996 The Rebirth of England and English. J. rev. Martin Cutts. Anglo-Saxon Books. Elaine Treharne (Ed. 1998 (Gives a lot of detail of how the language changed. 1998/ 2002 An Invitation to Old English and Anglo-Saxon England. 1990 reprint. 1997. A Guide to Late Anglo-Saxon England.Booklist Old English words used as starting points for updated words and given for reference in Part 2 List I are from original texts.. 1996 First Steps in Old English. Stephen Pollington.. Palgrave. Anglo-Saxon Books. Old English forms used here were checked partly against Clark Hall and especially: Wordcraft. Further reference made to: Eldsay English. based on many actual texts). 1999 From Old English to Standard English. David Cowley. The Vision of William Barnes. Stephen Pollington. Standard listing of these is in: A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Anglo-Saxon Books. Donald Henson. Blackwell. University of Toronto Press.

21 . happily) n. (Some words can be both adverbs and adjectives.g. (and so forth) = etc. = noun (normally things and ideas: car. (et cetera). bird. (for example) = e. = negative (such as in words starting with 'un') v.s.) Other abbreviations: a. but should not always be considered hard and fast.PART 1: FIVE STEPS TO HOW WE'D TALK Key to grammatical abbreviations in Part 1 a. f.f. freedom) neg. but a knowledge of grammar is not needed to understand the meanings. to sing) These terms are given after words covered. = verb (doing words like to run. = adverb (shows way in which something is done: fast. Listings seek to define what use sounds most natural to today’s ear. = adjective (describes a noun: 'big' in big house) adv. to write.e.

22 .

and the listing of updated words from Old English.Lead-in: Some Choices in English . have been drilled to write I received your letter. only the former would be in use. of sight (English).) It would be possible to write a whole book on choices between older English words and loanword alternatives in today's English. would be taught differently at many readers. In the 1800s. The more English versions are in bold: you can take that two ways I can't bear it you can't get away from it he may well come that is ambiguous this is intolerable this is inevitable he will probably arrive Barnes argued that the more straightforward English was to be preferred over the loanword versions being foisted on the children. in the Oxford Plain English Guide. Here are a few examples. Here. Dorset poet and linguist William Barnes noticed that children brought up to say things in certain ways. So. The process is still going on . because loanword alternatives would not have come into English. This sheds light on how competition between words meant that many Old English words lost ground and fell out of use altogether. many words still alive today would in fact be used more. we shall look at a few similar words. for example. II. and many such examples are included in Part 2. A few examples (quoted by Philips) show the point. is right to point out how uncalled-for and unreasonable this is. 23 .What would these be like without 1066? Before the main Steps. the first point to note is that. and vision (French). rather than had or got? (Martin Cutts. had the Normans lost in 1066.

for. heartfelt proprietor . on top of. through employment . Some 'high-sounding' words and phrases (more English alternatives for these in bold): accordingly . thus.under refer to .take for the duration of . furthermore in conjunction with . when in view of the fact that . therefore constitute .about. on in the event of .before proceed to . together with in lieu of .as. there again prior to .if. therefore as a consequence of .wordy with reference/ regard to .put off due to the fact that .as on the contrary . have in regard to .1.through. so as to if this is the case . dwell verbose . as well as.put upon in accordance with .while.with.instead of in receipt of line with in addition to . meaning reside . about 24 .so. thanks to ascend .so.talking about.go on to profound . for.about.deep. take off dissuade .if so impose .go up ascertain .make up deduct .find out consequently .get. on with respect to . thus.owner pursuant to .also. stay. as long as for the purpose of .its the other way.

wrong.daily. path incorrect .i. for per se . like.unlike difficult . (exempli gratia) . and suchlike i.?) per annum .such as.f.that is (why not use t. a day pp (per procurationem) .go through/ by way of versus/ vs .?) etc (et cetera) .as such. a year per capita .freedom manner .hard direction .warped predict .way perhaps . a head per diem/ per day .for sic .e.s.maybe perverse .e.g.way.hardship suitable .and so forth a. Phrases and Instructions Still in Latin Suggested alternatives. A few other Examples of Loanword/ Older English Choices: different . e. thus spelled!/ said! via .fitting translate .each. (id est) . nothing (there seems to be an over-use of zero in schools – lets use out good old nought more!) 3.2. some with more English-based shortened forms.foretell succumb .a head. not right insensitive .nought.against. by or in itself pro . playing 25 . each per person .put into zero .. for example (why not use f.unfeeling liberty .so spelled!/ said!. and so on.on behalf of.fall to suffering .yearly.

If address is wrong. Let brake off before backing. Although not aimed at promoting more English words as such.. along with William Barnes.. and avoiding terms that may look pompous. Example sentences given later in the book will also take this background fact on board. Inside leaks likely to stay unseen.. Some examples in use.. 26 ..4. Internal leaks probably remain invisible. Indeed. Supervising distribution of. Outwardly much like kinds made before 1970s. It is hard to see talks starting straight away. More English forms in bold: Choose right settings needed for work in hand.. One in four buyers came back yearly. this often means use of older English words.. One quarter of purchasers returned annually. fill in slip over and send to.. or call us on. I would urge. It is difficult to envisage negotiations commencing immediately. alternatively phone us on.. Externally very similar to types manufactured pre-1970s.. Disengage brake prior to reversing. Needless to say. more English words could well have been the only ones in use today (so we'd say sight and not a mixture of sight and vision). that the more English choices are used when there is a straight choice.. Select correct settings required for current working. Overseeing handout of. Straightforward English The recent move towards plainer English in official documents and some other areas aims at clearer ways of saying things. many of the examples listed above would sit happily in guides for plain English. the first lesson in how English would look without 1066 is that the older.. Plain. There would have been a greater consistency between use of words in various spheres of life. If address is incorrect complete slip on reverse and return to. What’s the Upshot of this? From this Lead-in.

Last Point: Keep Some Less Used Words Alive Here are a few words which are current. rue (v. but could be used more: blithe. doughty.which can basically be traced to that time. harry (v.).). and learned that there is still a kind of competition between the native forms and loanwords .We have also touched on the fact that the use of different words in higher contexts was one of the main reasons that many Old English words fell out of use after 1066. winsome 27 . gainsay. overweening.

day out . but that's unlaughterworthy.ha! What a craftless mess! .Some of the most straightforward words To Think About … Have a look at the examples below – they should all be clear without any helps! Our teachers misteach us ..UNGLADY! Your unrightdeed means you're guilty of lawbreach! 28 . thinking about it … If you misdo your work.Step 1 Ready and Clear . I'll be unblithe! Where's the rhyme that Lee wrote so lovesomely to Laura? Look in the underneathmost drawer Now open the door for me! Yes in.

These first lists are very clearly related to well-known current words.1 Adjectives (sometimes adverbs) of familiar nouns: awe: awely bliss: blissy blossom: blossomy cliff: cliffy craft: craftly earl: earlish evil: evilful.We begin with the easiest kinds of words which would very likely be around still. these are the ones which could fit most easily into use today.1. In fact. I gives actual Old English source examples for these). the fact that some of these words could sometimes be deemed current anyway cannot be ruled out. 1. of all the updated words covered in this book. 3: As it was not possible to check all current English dictionaries. updates of words from Old English which are related to these are in bold (Part 2. had the English won in 1066. evily fake: fakely fen: fenny field: fieldly flood: floodly frost: frostly grim: grimful guest: guesty harvest: harvestly kin: kinly 29 . 2: You’ll know the words in normal lettering. Part A: Breakdown of Words by Type Note 1: Words covered here often lack obvious One-word Equivalents in Today’s English.

) wife: wifely wonder: wonderly wrath: wrathly youth: youthly 1.laughter: laughterful lore: lorely.): teary (a. loresome love: lovesome. mindy mood: moodful qualm: qualmful room: roomly sin: sinny tear (n.2 Adjectives/ adverbs of familiar verbs: bear: wellborn deal: dealtly do: ondoing (like ‘ongoing’) forgive: forgivenly scathe: scathingly wish: wishingly 1.1.3 Two familiar nouns giving one word: book + lore: booklore fake + deed: fakedeed friend + lore: friendlore hand + tame: handtame heavy + mood: heavymood law + breach: lawbreach lore + writer: lorewriter mood + sick: moodsick mood + sickness: moodsickness mood + thought: moodthought right + willing: rightwilling song + craft: songcraft 30 . lovesomely midday: middaily mind: mindily.1.

5 Familiar word(s) + ness to give a noun careful: carefulness Christian: Christianness deathly: deathliness end: endlessness forlorn: forlornness grim: grimness hard + mood: hardmoodness little: littleness mild + heart: mildheartness mood + sick: moodsickness narrow: narrowness nought: noughtness offset: offsetness qualm: qualmness qualm + bear: qualmbearness tight: tightness 31 .4 Adjectives/ adverbs of familiar adjectives: groundless: groundlessly late: latemost.1. latesome manifold: manifoldly old: oldly overseas: overseaish rough: roughful uncouth: uncouthly unsound: unsoundly untamed: untamedly upland: uplandish winsome: winsomely worse: worsely 1.1.sorry + mood: sorrymood stark + mood: starkmood womb + addle: wombaddle womb + hoard: wombhoard 1.

7 Familiar word + other ending to give a noun dizzy: dizzydom fiend: fiendship lore: loredom towards: towardness wife: wifehood 1.8 Familiar word + less: awe: aweless craft: craftless good: goodless hue: hueless loathe: loathless man: manless meat: meatless mood: moodless sorrow: sorrowless way: wayless 32 .6 With other ending + ness: awe + less: awelessness inland + ish: inlandishness love + some: lovesomeness will + some: wilsomness lust + ful: lustfulness 1.uncouth: uncouthness unstill: unstillness unwise: unwiseness weak + mood: weakmoodness wise: wiseness wished: wishedness witless: witlessness witty: wittyness

2. crafty: uncrafty deadly: undeadly 33 . teach: misteach think: misthink write: miswrite 1.2 With un: bearing: unbearing binding: unbindingly blithe: unblithe cleansed: uncleansed craft: uncraft.1.1.11 Fore + familiar word: seek: foreseek token: foretoken 1.1.10 Under + familiar word: do: underdo set: underset 1.1 With mis: birth: misbirth do: misdo hold: mishold live: mislive speak: misspeak shrink: misshrunk.2 Negatives with familiar words 1.2.9 Over + familiar word: drink: overdrink set: overset show: overshow speak: overspeak speech: overspeech 1.1.

hitherward 34 . untrimness truly: untruly whole: unwhole wittily: unwittily witty: unwitty wrought: unwrought 1. untrimly.3.3 Others 1.1 Showing movement/ position: hither: hithercome.ended: unended glad: unglad gladly: ungladly gladness: ungladness good: ungood health: unhealth heed: unheedy little: unlittle marred: unmarred might: unmight mightily: unmightily mightiness: unmightiness mighty: unmighty shrunken: unshrunken speaking: unspeaking trim: untrim.3 Others beginning with un-: deadly: undeadliness heed: unheedly laughter: unlaughterworthy lust: unrightlust mood: unmoodiness right: unrightdeed shameful: unshamefulness 1.2.

3.3 A few more: glad: glading many + hue: manyhuely in + wise: inwise like + worth: likeworthily.2 To show position/ size: here: hereonamong less: lessly much: muchly small: smally 1.3. likeworthiness liking: likingly little + heed: littleheedy qualm + bear: qualmbearingly thus: thusly 35 .nether: netherward thence: thenceward towards: towardly underneath: underneathmost up + spring: upspring 1.

this step does not have tests) Adverts and Signs: • • • • • • For guesthouse or hotel: Homely with guestly feel a laughterful evening of glee and wittiness a bay with sandy beach and cliffy background Fitness workouts: Don’t underdo it. unlike Steps 2 – 5. don’t overdo it! Show Carefulness at all times Warning: Do not mishold tools Headlines: • • • • • • • • Theft case: Man groundlessly hounded Health warnings: many littleheedy More greenfield land lost to townly spread Crash down to narrowness of road Meatless diets: going too far? Stabbing: Guilty man 'well-known for harmheartness' Grimness of northern towns now 'mostly gone' GB's 'forsakeness’ of islander's rights 36 .Step 1. Part B: Words in Use Look at the examples below. reading the sentences and thinking about the meanings. they should all be understandable on their own (note. Because the meanings of these Step 1 examples are so clear and simple.

. but worsely . needwise.. the latemost was the best … had wilfully written out the work again... and that offsetness won the day .. Unmoodiness made x a steadfast worker Right now.. teething problems down to the newness of the setup . Textbooks and suchlike: • • • • • • • Of all her books of the last few years. One thing offset the other... clean water is top of our list . Houses are farly sited from road 37 .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cuts mean caring lessly for ‘most needy’ End to overtime ‘foretoken of coming cutbacks’ Partygoers: unshamefulness ‘shocking’ Undeadliness makes new stun gun a winner Some towns ‘in deep forlornness’ Newly drafted update to oldly made law Man fakely dressed as fire fighter X’s songcraft only smally shown in his youth Leaders said to be sorrowless over cuts Horse’s tiredness ‘from being overshown’ Unwiseness ‘at work in both Houses' Study shows rising feelessness for others X shown to be most manless town! Would-be thieves’ plan ‘evilful’ Builder’s work ‘craftless’ ‘Bad lad’ forgivenly brought back onto front bench Many in 50s and 60s foreseeking advice to deal with elderliness Townly Plan ‘unsoundly written’ Wifely life is 'bliss and weariness' New food rules ‘unrightful' Leader's speech scathingly slams banks Flood warnings: Townsfolk ‘unheedy’ Loathingness against 'backhanders' grows Teachers: 'onbeloaded with paperwork' New health setup 'unworkly' Snippets from Articles.

. most come by car or train.. by car being the mostlyest. best to be really forethinkful on this one .made shift from heathendom to Chrisendom.• The Bight Stream (Gulfstream) heads northeastlong • The Azores: at the endmostness of Europe • Winter brings storms and floodly rains • … late summer bringing dry. • ...... from heathenness to Christianness • Roof frame is underset with breezeblocks Bookly bits: • We can’t foresay what the outcome will be. x is forethankful to you for your time . •.. harvestly weather • ... all the children started in year one as evenlings ...... but they misthink if they write anyone off now • … a dish which smells beckoningly good! • . 38 . • England's kings in the 600s . rows of blossomy apple trees in spring • … grimful grey walls with a hueless townly backdrop • . and those who live hereonamong • .. for this island's homesteads...

a book full of blissy tales of island life … your first time to have your say..: ...V. overseaish tales T... Shetland breed is well known for its littleness Her middaily work was feeding the 20 children A teary love film …a cold stare of deathliness …to stay on the rails and not mislive life . and now the lightmoodness goes on with ... so don’t misspeak … often miswrites from lack of care … looked back at his youthly go at writing a blockbuster … X tends to be latesome an unstill mind in a mood of wishedness Seeking gold from unbearing stones … a lustfulness for gold fed by these old....• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .. What about? Try slipping some of these words into e-mails. or when talking – do they get noticed or are they so natural-sounding that this doesn’t happen much? 39 . likeworthy learner .. Wild weather brought seaupwarp onto the shore .. an open door for those who wish to go selfwillingly .. . a hardworking...

you can check answers on p. 141 You speak well .but both need steerness! He's into idlebliss! He should forlet it for worthwhile bliss I'd be forethankful for any help 40 . one ongetless . she was manless And together they found matchness! One is ongetful.Step 2 That Sounds Right – Words which are quite clear in today’s spellings To Think About … Have a look at the examples below – Test i) What do you think they mean? Think and read on .what wordcraft! I'm wordful in two tongues He was wifeless.

the updates are logical and expressive of their meanings. bone fracture bone + break = bonebreak n. 2. of equal birth even + night = evennight n. ardent folk + free = folkfree a. equinox fire + hot = firehot a. comedian 41 . library borrow + breach = borrowbreach n. bone fracture book + hoard = bookhoard n. Part A: Breakdown of Words by Type Note: 1. book collection book + house = bookhouse n. vain joy laughter + smith = laughtersmith n. Current words in normal lettering. epilogue even + born = evenborn a. agriculture end + speak = endspeak n.1 Words which are made up of from elements which can be clearly seen in current words: after + follow = afterfollow v. sciatica hunger + bitten = hungerbitten a. famished. fratricide cleansing + drink = cleansingdrink n. updated words from Old English in bold (Old English sources are listed in Part 2. starving idle + bliss = idlebliss n. purgative dear + worth = dearworth a. Being based on familiar and commonly used English elements. uninhabited hipbone + ache = hipboneache n. failure to repay loan/ surety borrow + sorrow = borrowsorrow n. loaning/ security trouble brother + slaying = brotherslaying n. to succeed bone + breach = bonebreach n. precious earth + tilth = earthtilth n. List I).This chapter covers updated words for which there are generally loanword alternatives current in today's English. horticulture.

2. perjury steep + high = steephigh a. profligate.1 Word + ful: almsful a. powerful scatheful n. deed. guileless haveless a. abundant fakeful a.2. giving 'new' (but really updated) form: 2. desirous 2. industrious yearnful a. active. without deceit.oath + breach = oathbreach n.4 Word + less: fakeless a. impressive work/ action. destitute steerless a.2. acute wonder + work = wonderwork n.2 Currently used word with currently used ending. verbose workful a. injurious soundful a.2. able-bodied 2. deceitful mightful a.3 Word(s) + ish: folkish a. popular. vocabulary word + craft = wordcraft n. native. indigenous ourlandish a. of the people inlandish a. in good condition. unmarried wordful a. fluent. eloquence work + worthy = workworthy a. miracle word + hoard = wordhoard n. prosperous wifeless a. common.2 Word + fully: soundfully a. prosperously 2. out of control 42 . of our country. native 2. charitable engoughful a.

perpetually. literary bridely a. aquatic 43 . naval folkly a. public. maritime sorrowly a. eternity truelessness n. necessary sealy a.2. treachery 2. canine mightly a. popular. unarmed 2. hospitable headly a. lunar needly a. ecclesiastical enoughly a.6 Word + less + ness: endlessness n. deceitful. common footly a. profligately 2. deceit. falsehood. quadruply gatheringly a. solar waterly a. adv.7 Word + ly: beckoningly a. collectively guestly a. miserable streamly a. pedestrian fourfoldly adv. principal. audibly houndly a.5 Word + less + ly: steerlessly adv.2. bridal churchly a. nautical. treacherous weaponless a. possible moonly a. in perpetuity fleetly a. abundantly everly a. riparian sunly a. false.trueless a.2.. marine. enticingly bookly a. infinity. capital hearingly a.

establishment rueness n. liberality deepness n. mediocrity muchness n. affliction. novelty onsetness n.2. centrality. injury shapeness n. size. sobriety steerness n. tribulation wetness n. observation blitheness n. constitution. paucity filledness n. incarnation gripness n.2. seizure growness n. restraint. abundance needness n. compatibility midness n. guidance. extent. formation. surface. discipline suchness n. nourishment fewness n. creation shieldness n. omnipotence beholdness n. fulfillment. expression scatheness n. nature.8 Word + ness: almightiness n. pleasure boundness n. completion fleshliness n. moisture 44 . mystery drenchness n. colouration lessness n. development. necessity newness n. protection. obligation broadness n. joy. distance feedness n. carnality fleshness n. minority matchness n. defence soberness n. immersion fakeness n. regret sayness n. hindrance hueness n. deceitfulness farness n. prosperity hinderness n. profundity. quality threatness n.

abounding. restraint. protector. satisfactory enoughsomeness n. farmer evenlotter n. protractedly longsomeness n. seniority 2. successor comer n. remembrance 2.workness n.9 Word + liness: evenliness n. economy. equality mindiliness n. poor person 45 . horticulturist. equal sharer. devotion longsome a.2.2.12 Word + er. operation 2. abundant. involuntarily 2. injurious person. to give a noun showing doer of an action and suchlike afterfollower n. tediousness. defender steerer n. observance. visitor earthtiller n. custody. pilot.2. preservation. sufficiency. one who commits suicide shielder n. economical. director unhaver n. tediously.11 Word + some (compare lonesome) enoughsome a. partaker inlander n. abundance holdsome a. protracted longsomely adv. tedious.10 Word + ship: eldership n. antagonist selfmurderer n. native scather n. patience unwilsomely a. frugal holdsomeness n.2. workability.

3. prevent foredeem v. relinquish forsaking n. ride round berow v. exhibit. prejudge forego v. surpass. defilement bewarp v. disarm beweep v.3 Fore + word: forebody n.2 For + word (note. reproach. giving 'new' (updated) form: 2. utilise belaugh v. disgrace. ruin.3.2. exhibitor.3. precede forelook v. mourn 2. establish. obscure fordo v. denial forspeaker n.1 Be + word: befasten v. advocate (= speaker for) forspend v.3 Currently used word with currently used beginning. demonstrate. though forspeaker does not): forcome v. defile besmear n. deride beride v. prevent move/ action. destroy forflee v. demonstrator. display beshower n. row round beshow v. demonstration. squander 2. prefer in preference forecome v. disgrace. pervert beweapon v. guide beshowing n. preview 46 . abandon. thorax. reproach. preoccupy forechoose v. block. put safe. most have kind of a negative meaning. evade forlet v. surprise fordim v. exhibition besmear v. sponsor. prevent. chest forebusy v.

predict foreset v. place before foreshow v. preview (showing of) forestep v. anticipate.3. distinguish (compare to 'I get that') ongetful a.foresay v. miscarriage misborn a. proclaim. sober 47 .4 Forth + word (compare forthright): forthfare v. anticipation.3. perceive. recognise. perceptive ongetfully adv.3. perceptively ongetless a. grateful in advance 2. surfeit overfillness n.6 On + word onbeload v. give a preview foreshower n. excess. anget v.3. affliction unbold a. depart forthsay v. degenerate misfare v. alcoholism overfill n.7 Over + word: overdrinker n.5 Mis + word misbirth n. alcoholic overdrunkeness n. timid undrunk a.3. propose. with un + word: unbliss n. lacking perception 2. announce 2. precede forestepping n.8 Negative. excess 2. inflict upon onget. excess. one showing previews foreshowing n. 'mis'-travel 2. surfeit overmuchness n. precedence forethankful a. prevent.

benevolence 2.3. rejection. abandonment 48 . indefatigable unwinsome a.4.4.3 Be + word + ness behideness n. abandonment. disgraceful. unjust unrightly adv. incorrect unrightful a. concealment besmearness n.4 Currently used word with both currently used beginning and ending: 2.9 Well + word: wellwilling a. unrepproached 2. of capital punishment beshowingly adv. lamentably 2.4. unpleasant unwisdom n. infrequent unstiring unmoving unweary a. relinquishment forsakeness n. demonstratively besmearly a. denial. ignorance. reproachful.4 For + word + ness forletness n.unright a. benevolently wellwillingness n. defiling beweepingly adv.2 Be + word + ly: beheadly a.1 Be + word + less besmearless a. incorrectly unseldom adv. benevolent wellwillingly adv. contemptibility 2.4. stupidity 2.

posterity aleasedness n. purpose foreshieldness n. redeem. release ongetness n. save (Compare release) Updated words which are related to currently used word(s) with currently used ending: 2. damage (note: as a noun.1 alease v. recognition outleadness n. broadens use of current word onset.5 Fore + word + ness foresaidness n. rectitude rightsetness n. succession aftergoingness n. prediction foresetness n. redemption. impose (as a verb.6 Related to/ somewhat like currently used word: 2. comprehension.2.4. restoration onset v.3 Word(s) + ness: afterfollowedness n. abduction rightness n. protection 2. renew anewed renewed anewing n. rightful establishment/ appointment/ office 49 . redeemingly 2. increase. posterity afterwardness n. proposition. perception.2 Word + ly: aleasingly adv.6. renewal.6. correction. injury. broadening use of the word) upping n. remission. which is a noun with basic meaning start) scathing n. release. sequel afterfollowingness n.5 Current word used in another way: anew v.6. accumulation 2.

preparation 2. immovably 50 . motionlessly.2 For + word: forbearingly adv. injustice unrightwiseness n. tolerably 2. lethargy soundfulness n. injury. gluttonous overeattleness n.5 Un + word: unmightly a.4 Word + liness: smalliness n. damage slackerness n. uncreated unstiringly adv. injustice.7.7.3 Fore + word: foregearing n.rightwiseness n. depression yearnfullness n. unmovingly. temperance 2. prosperity unmightliness n.7. impossibility unrightness n. gluttony 2.7 Related to currently used word with currently used beginning. error.7. inability. behaviour.4 Over + word: overeattle a. desire 2.7. subtlety 2. not possible. iniquity well-likeworthness n. restraint. likeability woemoodness n. giving 'new' form: 2.1 Be + word: behavedness n. justice. laziness sleepfulness n.6. righteousness scathiness n. and/ or ending. impossible unshapen unformed.

8 Grouping of words which have common elements 2. lethally deathbearness n. dehydrated unweaponed unarmed unweened unexpected unweenedly a. to show sense of justice: righting n. desiccated. well demonstrated 2. correction. unexpectedly 2.4 With right. justification unrightwise a. public meeting folkneed n. reproof rightwise n. just.8. conflagration firefood n. justify rightwisely adv.8. ardent 2.2 With fire: fireburn n. common need. fuel firehot a.8. lethalness unbearingly a. justifiably rightwising n.1 With bear and related forms to show a quality (compare forbearing): deathbearly a.8. basic need 2.untellingly a.3 With folk. public land folkmoot n. indescribably unwatery a. unjust 51 . very likeable wellbeshowed a. common land.7.6 Well + word: well-likeworthy a. showing public/ common: folkland n. in a correct way rightwise v. unbearably 2.

lethargic. vain desire lightmoodness n. uncontested 52 . inclined to laugh sleeple a. somnolent 2. pleasingly. likeable likeworthly adv. malice fleshbesmittenness n. acceptable. preciousness likeworth a. (from unthankworthy) unthankworthy a. carnal attraction (compare smitten) hotheartness n. pleasing. indifferent yearnfully a. worth remembering/ minding/ mentioning unthankworthily a.6 Using yearn and related forms to show quality of desire: lustyearnness n.8. nice. likeably likeworthness n. not desired unbefought a.8. likeable mindworth a. concupiscence unyearnful a. honour worthfully a. frivolity needhood n. mania idlelust n. dignity. preciously dearworthness n.5 Words using worth and related forms to show value (compare newsworthy): dearworthly adv. with dignity.7 With ending -le to make an adjective (compare brittle) laughle a. quality and suchlike: evilwilling a. rage. zeal. malevolent evilwillingness n.9 Made up of what are current forms together to show feelings.2. unopposed. necessity unbecraved a. undeserving of gratitude worthfullness n.8. honourably 2. desirously 2. likeability likeworthy a.

equinoxual guesty a. incarnation oldness n.unbethought a. instability 2.10. colouration infleshness n. protection. not considered..10. defence throughlooking n. unstable unsteadfulness n. vanity selfmurdering n. eliminate 53 . review.10 Mixture of further forms: 2. removal hueing n. independence selflike n.10. trusty 2. old age seaupwarp n. extremity fareing n. perusal. regretful scathy a. egotism. mellifluous midmost a. reliable. eldness n. age elderborough n. suicide shielding n. marine deposits on shore selfdom n.3 Verbs: offdo v.2 Adjectives: erebethought a. summary 2. most central ruey a. not expected unbowingly a. metropolis endmostness n. injurious truefast a. premeditated evennightly a.1 Nouns: elddom n. journey faring n. inflexibly unsteadful a. of guest honeysweet a.

4 Others: rueing regretting mostlyest most particularly.10. most especially togetherward towards unity 54 .2.

Part B: Words in Use and Tests (Some of these should be clear enough without any explanation. • Art Beshowing this Way … 55 . Adverts and Signs: • SLEEPFULNESS KILLS! Have a Break • Wanted: Workworthy Folk! ..for . explanation is in italics. where needed.. see p 141.) For answers to tests.Step 2.

• Wanted: Beshowers - Workful folk to beshow cookers - Demonstraters Active people to demonstrate cookers
• Sun Cream: Foreshieldness for up to six hours ... protection for up to ...
• Warning: Stolen Goods; Beware of Fakeness
Test ii). Do you understand the following five examples?
1. Free Forelook at New Film
2. Feel Free to Look around; No Boundness to Buy!
3. Waterly and sealy gear
4. Unnamed Overdrinkers
5. Beholdness Room

• Health cutbacks 'righwisely made' - ... 'justifiably made'
• Formerly 'steerless' teen heads own business - Previously 'out of control' teen
manages own business
• Sacked overseer showed a 'trueless selflike' - ... displayed a 'false egotism'
• Housing safety outlines ‘beshowingly backward' - ... plans 'demonstratively
• Unsteadfulness may lead to uprising in x - ... Instability may ...
• New road ‘deathbearly narrow’ … ‘lethally narrow’
• Shire seat to go unbefought - County (Council) Seat to go unopposed
• Laughtersmith deemed 'Unlaughterworthy' - Comedian judged to 'lack

• Small lessness still smoking - Small minority still smoking

• Old English had words for Credit Crunch!: 'borrowsorrow'


Test iii). What do the following mean?
1. Rise in overseaish holidaymakers
2. Early election 'mightly'
3. Hothearness for cosmetic surgery lessens
4. Deemer asks: was killing erebethought?
5. Hungerbitten flee drought
Snippets from Textbooks, Articles and suchlike:
• ... why did oathbreach lose out to such an outlandinsh word as perjury,
which even now is not understood by many folk?
• ... an enoughsome supply of oranges all year round - ... an abundant supply
• Sand dunes: suchness is to be unsteadful, shifted by the wind - … nature
is to be unstable ...
• giving sayness by raising and lowering speech loudness - giving expression
by intonation
• From form: ... any kinly history of the following illnesses ... - ... any family
history of ...
• Bought mostly by women from 16 - 30, but mostlyest those in the early
20s - ... most particularly/ especially ...
• The team was unwilsomely held back by heavy rain - ... involuntarily ...
• ... no matchness between the laptop and the older printer - ... no
• ... it was then a more manish world in politics ...
• ... said to be the midmost point on the island ...
• ... with sharp houndly teeth - ... canine teeth
• ... would onset new laws to deal with that unrightwiseness - ... would
impose new ... with that injustice
• ... the steerer foreset that they needed first to get better feedness for the
small children - ... the director proposed that ... better nourishment ...
• ... had been taken ill, and it was thought to be some kind of gripness - ...
some kind of seizure
• … a land shaped by ickly flows and waterwash - …a land shaped by glacial
flows and alluvium

• ... that the unwisdom of those days has now gone and that folk have
evenliness there, whatever their hue - ... the ignorance of those days ... have
equality there ...
• ... would be the faring of these mightful fleetly ships - ... the removal of these
powerful naval ships
• ... well known that we cannot make anything which would work everly … would work perpetually ...
Test iv). What do you think these mean?
1. Steerness for house buying
2. Sunly fire bursts
3. Selfenoughsomeness
4. England: Unoverwon after the late 1000s
5. ... where green meadows were formerly enoughful
Bookly bits:
• ... had a sound house, sound friends and a sound working life; with such
a soundful life, why leave? - ... with such a prosperous life ...
• ... in those first two months together they'd known an endlessness of
new feelings, and felt the bliss of being enoughly happy - ... of being
abundantly happy
• ... saw that they had together gatheringly done this great thing - ... had
together collectively done ...
• A moodful maid might make Mike mad ...
• Summer was beweepingly short - Summer was lamentably brief
• They thought back to their early days together; what hotheartness! what
fleshbesmittenness! ... What mania!, what carnal attraction!
• … had himself called his work that year 'forbearingly middling' - ...
'tolerably mediocre'
• … put her mind to good works in her oldness - her old age
• ... felt that forsakeness of all that would be wrong and that they should
show some holdsomeness - ... felt that rejection (denial/ abandonment) of all that
... show some restraint

• ... that fareing took him out of her life, but brought an unweened
unsteadfulness - ... that journey took him ... an unexpected instability
• ... and mindiliness of the worthfullness of that deed brought a feeling of
well-being - and remembrance of the dignity/ honour ...
• ... there were the wealthy ones and then there were the unhavers - ... were
the poor people
• ... the overmuchness of those times showed no smalliness, so that
afterwardness would barely believe how selfish they'd been - ... the excess of
those times showed no subtlety, so that posterity would ...
What about? Try using some of these words – which are the most useful?


Oh .Step 3 I Think I get that .you can check answers on p.More words that make sense in updated form To Think About … Test i) What do you think the examples below mean? Think and read on .I underget what's going on! Don't let wealth forlead you! It wasn't outly I overfared the seas! . I felt an underdriveness to say that You're moodful and steadless! We'll do a selfwilling seekness into the eviladdle 61 . Tell me a shiply yarn Ah ... my friend! Sorry. 142.

college. calumny high + work = highwork n. become zealous.Building on Step 2.1 Words. (compare piecemeal) earth + kin = earthkin n. exclude over + fare = overfare v. return (compare overcome) bit + meal = bitmeal adv. mountain (compare iceberg) high + bliss = highbliss n. menstruation moon + sick = moonsick a. human race errand + speech = errandspeech n. burglary land + folk = landfolk n. university. visible (compare unseen) fall + sick = fallsick a. traverse 62 . school lore + craft = lorecraft n. here are more words which are quite clear. Part A: Breakdown of Words by Type 3. erudition month + sick = monthsick a. legal right learning + house = learninghouse n. clearly based on elements which developed into currently used words: 3. natives law + right = lawright n. menstruous month + sickness = monthsickness n. become enraged/ angry house + breach = housebreach n. message eye + seen = eyeseen a.1. palate out + fare = outfare n. travel over over + fare = overfare v. epileptic harm + speech = harmspeech n. educational establishment. lunatic mouth + roof = mouthroof n. exultation hot + hearten = hothearten v. outward passage out + shove = outshove v.1 Made up of what came to be two or more current words: again + come = againcome v. excellent work high + berg = highberg n.

safe. discuss work + craft = workcraft n. operation world + kind = worldkind a. having a stable. portent. resident. established (in a home) housefast a.1 Word + fast (compare steadfast) hearthfast a. naval battle speech + house = speechhouse n. secure homefast a. just roof + fast = rootfast a. odiferous stone + berg = stoneberg n. coastal cliff self + willing = selfwilling a. voluntary ship + fight = shipfight n. debate. firmly established (compare held fast. sign of misfortune wonder + token = wondertoken n. argue. superstructure over + work = overwrit n. logic (compare wedlock) word + lore = wordlore n. settled home holdfast a. with a solid.2. steadfast) sea + berg = seaberg n. auditorium steer + speech = steerspeech n. mechanics work + deed = workdeed n. traverse.2 Of currently used word(s) with currently used ending: 3. divorce. itinerant. miracle word + lock = wordlock n. mountain stove + bath = stovebath n.over + go = overgo v. adultery wide + going = widegoing a. action. widely traveled (compare seagoing) woe + token = woetoken n. alluvium wed + breach = wedbreach n. firm roof 63 . secular 3. reproof stench + bringing = stenchbringing a. rocky hill/ crag. affable word + wrestle = wordwrestle v. etymology word + mark = wordmark n. superscription right + doing = rightdoing a. sauna water + wash = waterwash n. occupying/ established in a house rooffast a. definition word + winsome = wordwinsome a. transgress over + go = overwork n.

reliable 3. broadens current use of the word) nethering n.2. diminution mooting n. improvement gearing n. talkative teamful a. dignified. structure weaponing n.shamefast a. abasement. delay. edification. prolific (compare teeming) toungeful a. climax. atrophy thoughting n.2. memorandum overing n. reliably. excess shoting n. exultation littling n. missile smalling n. evil steadless a. condemnation minding n. male. advice.2. honourable 3. remembrance. preparation highting n. happily married wordfast a. valuable.2. talkative trueful a. modest wifefast a. division bettering n.4 Word + ish: mannish a. skating) asundering n.2 Word + ful: speakful a. marrying (a wife) worthing honour. valuing 3. masculine 3. consultation timbering n. consideration. honouring. trusty worthful a. unstable 64 .3 Word + ing to make a noun (compare baking.5 Word + less: goodless a. armour wiving n. reduction. discussion. conversation (as a noun.

dexterously threely adv. edible. triply twofoldly adv. illiterately uply a.. remotely plightly a. operationally. possible.3. doable eatly a. adv. inaccurately. conjugal minely a. horrible loftly a. of no avail. strange shiply a. erratically netherly a. horrible heldly a. hostile. doubly unfilledly adv. in my manner missly adv. active doly a. evidently seldly a. inferior noughtly a. digital goodly a. practically 65 . insatiably unreadly adv. visibly. eatable fallenly a. excellent hately a. high quality winly a. dangerous. aerial matchly a. positively workly a. perilous seedly a. pastoral kinly a. unstable. nautical smithly adv. perishable. rare. without result outly a. seminal seenly adv.2. secure herdly a. safe. charitable deedly a. transient fingerly a. pertaining to family lawly a. universal almsly a.6 Word + ly: ally a. legal loathly a.

inferiority overflowness n. epilepsy furtheringness n. dangerous 3. promotion gatheredness n. superfluity ownness n. ruin. vision standness n. perversion 66 . valuable. of Christian crippleness n. severe disability eatness n. abscess gearingness n. commotion (compare to rear up) seekness n. eloquence. illiteracy upness n. edibility fallness n. preparation healness n.worthly a.7 Word + ness: awaydriveness n. offence fallsickness n. fluency twofoldness n. comprehension unreadness n. parole loathingness n. observance letness n. obedience holdness n. distinguished woundly a. duplicity. duplication understandness n. excess. disturbance.2. commotion. recovery. important. power of motion. donation. hostility netherness n. elevation warpness n. inflation bringness n. property rearness n. disturbance. support Christianness n. existence stirness n. expulsion awayleadness n. removal blowness n. remission. tumult toungeness n. inquiry shineness n. dismissal. status. movement. wound inflicting. salvation hearness n. radiance sightness n. report.

imprison befare v. encircle bework v. traverse. command bebid n. instruct. have regard for besit v.2. dissuade. consider betoken v.i. importance. to complain beclose v. command. entrap beward v. compatibility 3. estimation 3. importance.8 Word + ship (compare hardship): holdship n.1 Be + word: bebid v. adorn. masculinity matchship n. surround befold v. maleness. loyalty. traverse.7 Word + liness: worthliness n. occupy.wasteness/ wastedness n. prevent besee v. insert 67 . value. designate betrap v. construct. delight worthness n. allegiance manship n. envelop.2. posses besorrow v.3. envelop bego v. to have compassion besorrowing n. value. entwine. destruction winsomeness n.3 Of currently used word with currently used beginning. desolation. guard bewind v. protect. order bechide v. provide for. estimation 3. confine. giving 'new' (really updated) form: 3. perform belean v. pleasure. compassion bethink v.

obstruct. resist. prevail forethink v. wrong/ incorrect education forletting n. preamble forestand v. devastation. old age forride v. despise. compare forget. decline forbreak break in pieces forburn to be consumed by fire fordeem v. destroy forstand v. seduce forlearning n. requite 3. prematurely judge forfare v. preside forespeech n. commit adultery or fornication forlose v. ravage forharrying n.s. deteriorate foryield v. prejudge. intercept forharry v.2 For + word (a kind of wayward/ negative meaning. intercept with vehicle/ horse a. consider forewriteness n. obstruct. premeditate. recompense. restrain forlead v. denounce (not the same use of for here as seen in Step 2 in forspeaker = advocate) forspill v. forshape v. oppose. forsake): forbow v. raid forhave v.3. mistrust forthought despaired of forworth v.3. despair. transform forspeak v.f. block forthink v.3. dissolve forolding n. abandon formelt v. prejudice. intermission forlie v. excel. prescription 68 . prevent.3 Fore + word (compare foresee): foresit v.

poor quality unriped a. immodest unsinny a. survive overmarking n. destabilise unshamely a. ineffably unscathedness n. unspeakably. not suffering injury unscatheful a. unmarried unbreakingly a. unseasonableness unthroughfare/ unthoroughfare n. lack of capacity/ inability to injure unscathily a.3. with un + word(s): unbeshowed a. unconquered unrightcrafting n.4 Over + word: overbecome v.5 Negative. not injurious unseenly adv.3. cul de sac untrimness n. deconstruct unworkly a. invisibly unset v. senselessness unwork v.3. state of not being trim untwofold a. superscription oversend v. immature unsayingly a. not displayed. unmasculinely unoverwon a. impractical. not demonstrated unbewedded a. inextricably unhold a. without duplicity unwitful a. unreliable unlikeworthy a. innocent unthank n. senseless unwitfulness n. disloyal. indescribably. not dangerous. not causing suffering injury unscathefulness n. infirmity. redundant 69 . not injuriously unscathy a. transmit 3. displeasing unmenishly adv. not dangerously. supervene overlive v. ingratitude untime n.

6 Under + word: underbear support. to marry (a wife) 70 . also to get something) underreeve n. listed by topic: 3. subjection.3. by degrees.3.4. gradually thankworthy a.7 Well + word: welldeed n. examine.1 Be + word + ness begengness n. unanimous sorrowword n. investigate. excellent wive v. deputy governor underseek v. reprehensible stepmeal adv.4 Of currently used word with both beginning and ending: 3. pleasing thickfold a. lamentation soundy a. suburb underdriveness n.5. meditate 3. deliberatively thrithely a. consider. opinion and suchlike: maidhood n. favourable steerworth a. compulsion underget v. notice (compare understand.3. acceptable. application 3. intend underborough n. dense thoughtingly adv. perceive. scrutinise underthink v. design. beneficial act 3. endure (compare underpin) underbegin v.1 To do with condition.5 More words. virginity sameheart a. purpose.

spoiled.2 Medical Conditions a. lay/ build foundations housestead n. internal disease liveraddle n. site of a house (compare name Housesteads. jaundice 3. liver complaint liversickness n. plumb line wallwork n. scar waterful a. pleurisy sidewark n. hydrophobia woundswathe n. pain in heart inaddle n. dropsical yellowaddle n. pain in the side slitness n.3. foundation stone groundwall n.f. habitation floodward n. manual art stonetimber n. liquid emetic wateraddle n. masonry 71 .5. pain in chest heartwark n.s. foundation groundwall v. flood barrier protection (compare to ward off evil) groundstone n. pain in the bladder breastwark n. disease of liver liverwark n. disease/ trouble bearing addly a.: addlebearing a. asthma bladderwark n. pain in liver shoulderwark n. were Roman groundwalls and ruins are to be seen) smithcraft n. dropsy waterfrightness n. laceration spewdrink n. pain in shoulder sideaddle n. masonry wallthread n.3 Specialist terms for building and suchlike: earthbegoingness n.5. diseased angbreast n.

..Step 3... Part B: Words in Use and Tests Answers to tests on p 142/3... Adverts and Signs: • Get our Holdship card .Horticultural College Headlines: • Worthliness of mild workouts shown ... with confident party • Mankind's early African homelands: Onlightness from new finds . illumination . to driving offence scores debated • 'Seedly' talk 'seenly plightly' .Importance of gentle workouts demonstrated • Leader clashes with headbold party .'Seminal' talk 'evidently dangerous' • Bankers 'back to overing' .back to excess 72 .Get our Loyalty card • Earthtilth Learninghouse ... • Shakeup to driving fallness scores mooted ..

. Laughtersmith's wittiness wellbeshowed 5.. Rise in alcohol forhaveness 3.… of local talks … inextricably linked … 73 . Do you understand the following? 1.… themselves just • … a manifoldly hard thing to underthink the meaning of … .• Better health from deedly life . Lessness of ourlandish goods show unrightcrafting Snippets from Speeches. Businessman did not bename bringness 2. Global Warming heading for disastrous situation Test ii).… to consider/ meditate the meaning of … • Outcome of stowly talks is unbreakingly linked to things in the wider world .… from active life • Worldwide Warming forecasts: heading for eviladdle .. Textbooks and suchlike: • … the need to be seen to be themselves rightdoing . Many yearnful to forshape lifestyles 4. Articles.

…a period of austerity • England's highbergs are not so high! ...• … through the hard times ahead... 74 . the application • ... abundance of wealth declining annually • Instruction: Build model again if misdone .. remission of sins • An upness of 32 degrees ..Reconstruct model if incorrectly assembled • Lawly term: Evilwillingness aforethought ..Legal term: Malice aforethought • ...we shall construct a elevation of 32 degrees • …a time of hardliness .. less duplication • … for a greater understandness of what needs doing ... need to see the begengness of this in daily life ....... dissolve the sugar in warm water • Underbearing the children and in full-time work ... come what may .Property Rights • ..... meaning less twofoldness of work .Supporting the children and in full-time employment • Owness Rights .. mountains are not .. leading to better teaching in some learninghouses . we can forestand.… we can prevail … • We have set down how we shall bework a new.. educational establishments • The Kingly Fleet won many shipfights . aleaseness of sins .. better deal for all … . for a greater comprehension of … • ... formelt the sugar in warm water ..... better … • ... muchness of wealth going down yearly .The Royal Navy won many naval battles • From cookbook: .

.. Doctor's Forewriteness 2.. 4. What do the following mean? 1. Can be workly run 75 .Test iii). the furtheringness of a wordhoard from early English . . The kingly afterfollowingness 3. Last boat to x forthfares 5..

too speakful and longsome . e-mails and reports. Seating set by eldership . What do you think these mean? 1. brightness-bringing burden! • … learned to swim late.. Looking for Healness .an indecent proposition • … saw that if he went that way they would forride him before the stream .. tell them politely that they were written down longer ago than the dictionaries we’ve been using.. 2...would intercept him … • … should forget that and forhave the yearning to stay longer ..... .… to premeditate/ consider … Test iv).. 5.. and that the word(s) you said are actually more English than the ones you’re using them instead of! 76 . a hostility to ...' 4. … put it to them that they had gone out with evilwillingness that night 3.. the vocabulary • A bewarped foresetness .Bookly bits: • Unhealth and unmight went hand in hand • Wisely working with the wordhoard ..... 'Oneness in Mislikeness . from feelings of inferiority • … felt a need to forethink before giving an answer to that … . If someone says they’re not in the dictionary... giving ‘help’ that was unthankworthy in his eyes – giving ‘help’ that was unacceptable/ not deserving of thanks in his eyes • Thoughts of a mum to be: Grow well.. little birther.…and restrain the yearning … • .…held back by hydrophobia… • . What about? Use some of the words in talks. a loathingness of old friends stemming from feelings of netherness .. and still felt somewhat held back by waterfrightness .

77 .

you can check answers on p..wonderful! Now. but not unharmyearn either!!’ 78 . is there a guestly bed and breakfast nearby? .there’s good comelitheness at one two doors down I ween that’ll be alright then Are you under the fortruing that I love you?! WIELD YOURSELF! You’re not so bad ..Step 4 What’s that Exactly? Mean – Words which make one think more about meaning To Think About … Test i) What do you think the examples below mean? Think and read on . 143. I aqueath this new setness building open! From toletness to eftnewing .

control 4. emotion. examine awayen v. surge. quote) ascruten v. imagine ween n. repudiate (compare: to do away (with)) lave n.Words from here on tend to be less clear than those looked at so far. investigate. intellect aqueath v. declare. remnant. vengeance. hope. as in: to wield power) wield n. order eviladdle n. adversely (compare against) breastwhelm n. beak. but usually linked/ related to Current Words 4. endure. hospitable endbirth n. fervour wield v. expectation. suffer (current use . falling somewhere in between those in Steps 3 and 5 in terms of hardness. disastrous situation 79 . express (compare: bequeath. expect.1 Less-familiar Sounding. stupid (compare besotted ) thole v.1. face scruten v.1. Part A: Breakdown of Words by Type 4. revenge ween v. grief comelithe a. scrutinise sot a. terrify.2 Same as/ related to/ something like more than one current word together (sometimes with current ending): againwardly adv. opinion. legacy (compare leavings ) mothren a. thole pins = pegs acting as rowlocks) wrack n. recover afear v. nib n. supposition whelm n. maternal neb. make afraid anget n. examine.1 Same as/ related to/ sounds something like current word: acover v. control (current in narrower sense.

as nouns) beseening n. traverse. rare.2. conduit wayleet n. pledge wreckness n. with the meaning understand) bismearful a. union. pattern likebusning n. exhortation weening n.2 Same as/ related to/ something like current word + current ending. junction (compare mill leet) wedfasten v. a. anniversary scathedeed n. amiably greenhuen a. soporific waterleet n.1 Word + ful: angetful a. unification tholing n. incitement. imitation readthoughting n.2 Word + ing to make a noun (compare following. instigation. sea voyage seldseen a. intelligent (compare to 'get' something.) handweald n. vengeance.friendhold a. personal power handwhile n. injurious deed/ crime seafare n. travel to a place away. endurance. pervade yondsee v. aqueduct waterthrough n. passion tighting n. ignominious shandful a. expectation (compare overweening) 80 . considering literature samening n.f. scandalous 4. suffering.s. extraordinary sleepbear a. giving 'new' (updated) form: 4. green coloured (other would be likewise. example. disgraceful.2. examine 4. quickening . amiable friendholdly adv. instant mindday n. revenge yondfare v.

unanimity roomheartness n. scandalously sidely a. orderly manner ickly a. various leavedly a. continence heartsoreness n.4 Word + ness: acknowness n. reparation. record shandliness n. pride mannishliness n. acknowledgement afoundness n. series. atonement comelitheness n.2. passing. elevation bearingness n. institution. amendment (compare better) betness n. masculinely selfwieldly adv. invention. construction. degree havedness n. arrangement..3 Word + ly: adreadingly a. edification 81 . in succession. grief highmoodness n. institute.2. glacial (compare iceicle) missenly a. masculinity mannishness n. position. scandal timberness n. arbitrarily shandly adv.Note also: whiling a. sagacious 4. terribly bebidingly adv. in order. discrete (compare on the side) wiseheedly a. hospitality endbirthness n. order. fecundity betingness n. imperatively endbirthly a. foundation. device. discovery arearness n. disgracefully. arbitrarily selfwillingly adv. succession. voluntarily. fertility. adv. liberality setness n. temporary 4. permissible mannishly adv. transitory. masculinity onemoodness n. disgrace.

loquacity unhavleness n.3 With more unusual. austerity missenliness n. stupidity 4. liberality. hostility overspeakleness n. community. overtalkitiveness roomgivleness n.2.2.5 Word + liness: hapliness n. variety. economy. companionship sotship n.1 Adjectives ending in -le (compare brittle. retentiveness. generous hattle a. convenience hardliness n.2 Related forms from ending in -le + other endings (compare brittleness): fasthavleness n. lethargy. talkative unhavle a. tenacity forethinkleness n. odious hatethinkle a. but recognisable. with hostile intentions housebreachle a. hostile. destitute 4. burglarious overspeakle a.3. prudent givle a. society.3. bountifulness sleepleness n. destitution 82 . over talkative roomgivle a. retinue. diversity tideliness n. bountiful speakle a. ending 4.6 Word + ship: fareship n. opportunity 4. stinginess. prudence forgetelness n. liberality hattleness n. fickle): fasthavle a. generosity. oblivion givleness n. retentive. tenacious forethinkle a. somnolence speakleness n.4.

deprive (compare: shear menaing cut) beshearedness n. prologue 83 . forsake): forbode n. embrace. deprivation betweenforletness n. abstention. abstinence forhaveness n. prohibition forburnedness n. intermission 4.4. encompass bedidder v. perjury fortrueing n. abstinence forhavingly adv. necessary (current word behove = be a duty/ fitting) bereaver n. in prejudicial way fordeemedness n. despoiler (compare: reevers were a kind of robber-criminal) beruesing n. temperance.4.4 Same as/ related to/ something like current word with current beginning. one who is abstinent forhavedness n. fornication forspilledness n. deterioration 4. precursor forewrit n. which may be related) behovely a. destruction forswornness n. repentance (compare: rueful = regretful) beshear v. prejudice forgoedness n. consumption by fire fordeemedly a. precede foresteppand n.2 For + word (compare forget.4. with temperance forlayness n.3 Fore + word: foregang v. devaluation. deceive (compare: diddle. presumption forwedded pledged forworthness n. self restraint.1 Be + word: beclip v. deprivation forhavand/ forhaver n.4. giving 'new' (updated) form 4.

4. dissimilarity. consciousness inlead v. insight): inbewind v. inspire . enfold inblow v. enter ingang n. institute insetness n. discover ingang/ ingo v. admission infind v. intention inwark n.+ word (compare inside. inflame inheed n. enwrap. intention inthought n. consciousness.5 Mis + word: misholdsomeness n. secretary inwriting n. in way of being present inthink n. incompetence mislikeness n. enlighten inlightness n. diversity. to be present instandingly a. incursion infare n. enlightenment inly a. internal pain inwise in terms of what is popular/ 'in' inwitness n. inscription 4. institution. internal. illuminator inlighten v.these call for some thought about what the words imply and how they are used indrench v. interior inning n. regulation insetted inserted inshowing n. sense. inspection instand v. entrance. gangplank) inheaten v. variety. introduce inlightand n. difference 84 . access (compare: gangway.4. saturate infare v.4 In. demonstration. conscience inwriter n.see also onblowness . illuminate.4. contents inset v. conscience inheedness n. enter. illumination.

incredibly unlievefulness n. dishonour unworthly adv. inoffensive unhearsome a.7 Un (negative) + word: unanewingly a. unrenewingly uncomelithe a.4. not considered. trial.6 Over + word: overfoundness n. incontinence unlievedly a.4. impenetrably untidely a. dishonourably 85 . disobedient unhearsomeness n. not expected unharmyearn a. honourable unforrotedly adv. not contrary. avarice unshearingly adv. inseparably unsunderedly a.4. incorruptedly unforrotingly a. not discordant unwitherwardly a. incorruptibly unforthought a. disobedience unholdsome a. inhospitable unforbowingly a. incredible unlievefully a. not discordantly unworthing n. incredulity unrightyetsing n. unpleasantness unwitherward a. unavoidably unforcouth a. undivided untruefast a. reputable. unreliable unwinsomeness n. inconstant. experiment 4. inseparably unthroughshotingly a. unseasonable untodealed a. incredibly unlieveful a. not contrarily. incontinent unholdsomeness n.

compassion. 4. trouble angset show ideas of equality and/ or similarity: evenlatch v. imitate evenlatcher n. as in: ‘and so betwix the two of them’): betwixalayedness n. contemporary evensorrow v. eruption angsome a. giving aftleasing a. with equanimity evenold a. distressed/ frustrated mood angmoodness n. trouble. restoration These might have developed to have aft instead of show 're'/ doing again (related to after): eftleasing n. anguish): angmood n.(meaning between.3 At-: atgo v.4. pain 4. remember eftmindy remembering eftnewing n. stress (compare anger.4 Betwix. redemption eftmind v.i. some of which are not currently used: 4. troublesomely. approach atsake v. distress. distress.5 show trouble.f. distressingly angsomeness n.5 With beginings. commiserate evensorrowing n. anxiety.5. imitator evenlatching n. deny.5. renounce atstandand n. sympathy 86 . troublesome.1 Eft.5. interjection betwixgoing separating betwixset interposed 4.s. attendant 4.2 Ang. imitation evenmoodly adv. frustration angness n. distressing angsomely adv.5.

t.evensorry a. departure forthgang v. motion forthshaft n. advancement forthlet v. departure fromship n. progress forthyearn v. emit forthly a. advanced forthseen a.often showing movement (physical or otherwise): forthbear v. advance forthstepping n. progressive forthwardness n. progress forthspell n.5. progress. about to depart 4. proposal. proposition. future forthship n. accomplish. complete 87 . action. produce forthbuilding n. advance forthward a. ratify/ apply fully fullgo v.8 Full. show movement away: fromfare n. progress fromward adv. complete. conspicuous forthsetness n. advance forthing n.7 Forth.5. totally responsible fullsomeness show completion/ muchness:fullfasten v. fully perform fullholden a. departing. exercise.5. declaration forthstep v. compassionate 4. encouragement forthfatheren a. paternal forthfroming n. to be impetuous 4. abundance fullwork v.6 from.

section. displease 4. pattern onseen n. in terms of need needwiseness n. displease offthink v.5. requisite needright n. duty needwise adv. necessary (compare behove = ought/ should) needbehovedly a. form. illumination onlikeness n. chief place headward n.f. face onsend show movement. experiment.10 Need. enlightenment onlightness n. inspection. trial onlighten/ onlight v.4. implant 88 . by shooting. illumination. inspiration . allegory.11 Off. necessity needbehovely a. show compulsion: needbehove a. explanation. chief protector 4. perceive. capital offence headstead n. also spoken) onsow v.5.s. introduce into.12 On. amputation offlike to be displeasing. passing.: onbeshowing n. getting a. 84 onfind v. impudent headguilt n.f. parable. experience. examination onblowness n. notice onfoundleness n. attack (f. illuminate onlighting n.: headbold show high/ top position/ strength (compare headstrong) a. p.5. necessarily needbehovedness n. transmit onshot n. and note. necessity 4. experience onfoundness n. necessary needbehoveness show removal or negativity (compare offcut): offcarve n.e.see also inblow.9 Head.

5. properly appointed/ established rightsetedness n. rational rightworth a. united. singularity sunderly a. cooperating 4. merged. proper 4.5. power. exit outgoing n.5. pierced. research 89 .15 Same showing unification/ joining: samed a. singular 4. exit. joined. external.16 sunder. examine. passing along and suchlike: throughdrench v. merged samedfast a. special skill sunderliness n. movement onwield show correctness/ straightness: rightfathrenkin n. show separation: sunderborn a. separation. separate.13 Out. transfix throughgo v. show movement from (compare the noun out-take ): outgang n. inquire.14 Right. authority 4. articulate rightset a. holed throughsee v. study. direct paternal descent/ pedigree rightlithely a. show movement. move. penetrate throughholed a. excite onstiredness n. scrutinise throughseek v. born of disparate parents sundercraft n. departure. special. disturb.17 Through. saturate throughfasten v. authority. proper ordinance/ appointment rightwittly a. absorbed. extraneous. seclusion.onstir v. command onwieldness n. agitate. unified samedworking a. foreign 4. exodus outkind a.

dispersal toknowness n. adversity withlead v. repel. to keep vigilant.(compare together. refute 90 .19 Up. arrogantly uphaveness n. benefit. disposition towarpedness n. origin compare outcome uphavely adv. presumptuously. beneficial action (well-do-ness) wellfremeness n. rejection withsetness n. resurrection upcome n. opposition. discernment toletness n.21 With. withstand) withchoose show turning away and related ideas (compare withhold. pursuit tosetedness n.20 Well. keep vigil 4.18 show movement upwards (physical of otherwise): upariseness n. adversely witherwardness n. perversion towarpness n. denial. despondency. adverse witherwardly adv.5. pursuit toseekness n. perversion towriteness n. abduct withleadness n. spaciously 4. presumption. alert. source.5. contrarily.5. beneficial planning wellroomly a.5. reject witherward a. opposition withshove v. arrogance 4.throughwatch v. towards): todrivedness n. spacious.and wither. contrary. description (written) 4. abduction withsaking show benefit: welldoness n. decline toseekening n. withdraw. benefit.

presumptuous 4. certainly. authoritative. pre-eminently elding n. evidently couthness n. unusual.6. authoritativeness elderdomly a. authority. familiarity seldcouth a. human/ common right. public place 91 . adv.6. certain.1 Couth showing certainty/ familiarity (compare uncouth): couth a. people's right folkship n. pre-eminence elderdomliness n.2 From dare: daresty a.5 Far: farsibb a. manifest. people folkstowe n.6. adv. familiarly. tradition 4.. spindle) 4. invention.6.6 Further combinations. dominion. nation. venturesome. ageing (process) eldright n. commonly known/ common knowledge 4. population. ancient right. generally accepted.6.6 Find: findle n. device (compare: thinble.4. seniority.6.. distantly related (compare sibling) 4. ancient world 4. variations and use of words to give noteworthy meanings: 4. manifestly.6. publicly known folkright n. tradition eldsay n.3 Elder: elderdom n. pre-eminence.4 Ere (meaning before): ereworld n. rare.7 Use of folk to show public: folkcouth a. strange (compare seldom) widecouth a. acquaintance. familiar couthly a.

12 Stowe and stead to show place/ location: deathstead n.4. attentiveness 4. irrationalality These might have developed to have shade instead of shed.8 Gain. position. simple. Can still be found in watershed (= unseen line on higher ground.6. obedient. forum showingstowe n. discriminate shedwise a. discretion unshedwise a. unique.6. stow n. also verb stow) stowly a. giving beshade a. meaing distinction. locality. sincere onefoldness n. place of demonstration stead n. beshed n. distinction beshed v. site. local 92 .6. attentive hearsome v. steadfast. The word is related to shade/ shadow. irrationally unshedwiseness n.11 With shed. separation. station (compare instead.for again: gainwrit n.f. obey hearsomely adv. steady) stowe.10 One to show simplicity: onefold a. irrational unshedwisely adv. either side of which rain drains different ways). position. indiscreetly. obedience. location. discrete shedwiseness n.9 Hear + some to show obedience: hearsome a. indiscretion. rewriting 4. simplicity 4. indiscriminately.s. indiscriminate. place of death mootstow n. 4. discretion. station (compare stowaway. indiscrete. single. obediently hearsomeness n.6. place.6.

4.6.13 Use of yearn and yet to show desire/ want:
evilyearness n. malice
feeyearn a. covetous, greedy
feeyetsing n. avarice
idleyearn v. to be indolent
yetsing n. avarice, covetousness, desire
yetsingly adv. avariciously, insatiably
yetsingness n. avarice
4.7 Lists of words by certain topics:
4.7.1 – 4.7.6 Nouns showing qualities/ doers of things:
4.7.1 Ending in -and. This ending, from -and and -end in Old English, has
effectively been ousted in today's English, though still may be in brigand.
Other endings to show functions/ qualities of people in Old English
included -a, -er, -ere and -or. These have tended to become er in today's
English. There are examples in Old English of the same word with more
than one of the above forms, for example: forlicgend and forliger, both
meaning adulterer, fornicator. The updated forms from these are forlieand and
forlier (for here having a wayward/ negative meaning). Clearly, the –er ending
looks the most familiar in today's English, though -and is not so unlike the
ant forms found in some common loanwords (such as: entrant, occupant and
The following are updated from Old English forms ending in -and and –
end. A choice of forms ending in -and and –er have been offered for most:
aleasand/ aleaser n. deliverer, redeemer, liberator
bebidand/ bebider n. commander
foresingand/ foresinger n. precentor
forlieand/ forlier n. adulterer, fornicator
freeand/ free-er n. liberator
furtherand/ further-er n. promoter
healand n. saviour
holdand/ holder n. protector, guardian, ruler
middliand/ middlier n. mediator
onfindand/ onfinder n. discoverer
onlightand/ onlighter n. enlightener
shepand n. creator

wastand n. devastator
witherspeakand/ witherspeaker n. adversary (in speech), contradictor
4.7.2 Ending in -er.:
birther n. embryo/ foetus - and don’t forget that unborn child is from Old
English words
deemer/ deemster a judge (Manx law has deemsters)
earthbeganger n. inhabitant
eatgiver n. host at a meal
feeyetser n. miser
fleshmonger n. butcher
foreganger n. predecessor
forlier n. adulterer, fornicator
highelder n. ruler, prime minister
ingenger/ ingoer n. entrant, visitor
inshower n. demonstrator
ownslayer n. one who commits suicide
readthoughter n. literary commentator
scrutner n. examiner
shipsteerer n. pilot
thoughter n. adviser
unrightdeemer n. unjust judge/ critic
witter n. sage, philosopher
4.7.3 Ending in -ling (compare earthling):
evenling n. equal person
hinderling n. conspirator, betrayer
witherling n. opponent, adversary
4.7.4 Ending in -ward, with the idea of guarding (compare steward, also
warden, warder)
hoardward n. guardian of treasure
lifeward n. lifeguard
seaward n. coast guard
shipward n. ship master

4.7.5 Ending in -man:
boroughman n. town citizen
highshireman n. county council leader
overalderman n. chief officer
shireman n. county council official
Note: Some folk avoid using forms ending in -man. There would though,
be the choice to adopt endings in -woman, or person (though the latter is not
from Old English) or maybe were (see 5.1.17).
4.7.6 Other forms:
highreeve n. chief officer reeve can refer to a king of official in the
Middle Ages. The basic form is also found in sheriff, which is from 'shirereeve'.
withersake n. advesary, enemy Compare namesake
workreeve n. manager
4.7.7 Kith and Kin:
eldfather n. grandfather
eldmother n. grandmother
third, fourth eldfather n. great, (and) great great grandfather; likewise,
third eldmother would be great grand mother and so on.
4.7.8 To do with position, area and suchlike:
beck(o)nand n. indicator, discloser, index
boroughshire n. city/ town administrative area
eastlong adv. extending east
farlen a. remote
fitherdealt a. quartered
landmark n. boundary, border
loften a. aerial
nethergo v. descend
sheeringly adv. in way that mark/ cuts off
southright due south
westnorthlong extending NW


Step 4, Part B: Words in Use and Tests
Answers to tests on p 143.
Adverts and Signs:
• Searim Shieldness - Coastal Defences

Mootstow for the Forthshaft - Forum for the Future
Stowly Health Onwield - Local Health Authority


• Footly Ingang - Pedestrian Access

• Town Showingstowe - Town Exhibition Centre


.Test ii). Holdfast Webstead 5..Simple solution … • Withsetness: health cutback 'warpness' . Body: Forehaveness Fellowship Headlines: • ‘Forthship’ in fight against beshearedness .. The Women's Setness 2.... had special preciousness/ value • Hidden weapons deal now folkcouth . • The Welfare State: how givle now? ...'not proven' • Seekness yields unbethought outcome .how generous now? • Losses down to worker misholdsomeness .Opposition: health cutback 'perversion' • Need for new ring road 'unbeshowed' .…by unmarried couples increases 98 ..Inquiry yields unexpected result • Angsome throng sidestepped weaponless guards . Do you understand the following? 1.Losses caused by staff incompetence • Former homeless now stowly homefast . now publicly known • Shire forsets new deal for business .Frustrated crowd evaded unarmed guards • House ownership by unbewedded twosomes rises ..‘Progress’ …against deprivation' • Felled tree had sunderly dearworthness .Previously homeless now residing locally • Insetness Body: steerworth behaviour 'widespread' – Regulatory Body: reprehensible conduct 'widespread' • Onefold answer to being overweight? . Forthfroming Room 4....County proposes new deal .. Folkly Hapliness 3.

Out of work forecasts found to be untruefast 2.• First Thane . Many Scots said to forechoose selfdom 3.M. Thief forflees being caught 4.P. Fans showed 'lack of holdsomeness' 5. . What do the following mean? 1.Intention to resign? Test iii).Inthought to stand down? . One fourth of stowly folk deem selves unhavers 99 .

.....General Summary • .....Civil disobedience • ..Remembrance Sunday • . town has about 200.....… an analysis of soil fertility • Playgound and field have a betwixgoing wall ....…application of vocabulary depends on people • Folkly unhearsomeness . a need to throughseek more illnesses .. standness of life on other worlds thought to be likely . a separating wall • Leaflet: How to Spend without Forspending . that such hinderlings should be caught straight away . Textbooks and suchlike: • … begengness of wordhoard is down to folk . with a new rightset Stowly Onwield . 100 .. • ....Snipetts from Articles. visitors • . had to show that rightsetedness had been made .. properly appointed/ established Local Authority • .000 overeseas ingoers (or ingengers) yearly .......... that proper appointment . to research . existence of life on other worlds thought to be likely • Overall Throughlooking . such conspirators • .......How to Spend without Squandering • Mindliness Sunday .. a breakdown of soil bearingness .

.......... • .... would need to show toknowness in choosing the best . book proposal in........want progress in the future ..... said that nearly all eftmind something about ‘1066 and all that’ . now saw pursuit of ... nearly all remember ... a great opportunity to restore words Bookly and other bits: • To give careful thoughting give careful consideration • . remembered falling .. was guilty of weeing in a folkstowe . and … 101 .. but fromship would not needbehovedly be made that way . and waited for an answer ........ certainly acknowledged the authoritative work . as being separate things • ....... could ween a folky onbeshowing at any time .... being contemporary • ..... • ... aid for destitute . • . then lost consciousness • .... which is couthly acknowledged the elderdomly work in this field ..not proper ... • ... not rightworth that they should see one another ............ • ..... had withshoved the thief with nothing but loud thuds ..... eftminded falling with a thud....... stop contrarily changing in such a conspicuous way • . the need for rightwittly thinking had overcome withsetness in those talks .. was not for folk of an upaty tosetedness .. the two works shown here being evenold . and then lost inheedness ... is a great tideliness to eftnew words .. to show discernment • . • ..... • . sent his book forthsetness in..obediently • .. for rational thinking had overcome opposition .. could expect a public inspection .. was swith speakle that day .. but progress would not necessarily be made . very talkative ... now saw toseekness of wealth and happiness as being sunderly things .Biodiversity • … giving alms for unhavle children .. of a nervous disposition • .• .. of urinating in a public place • ... that they would stop witherwardly wending in such a forthseen way . • Wildlife missenliness .. following orders hearsomely .. want forthship in the forthshaft on this .. had repelled • .. • ...

such highmoodness would soon be shot down .. an ongetful learner . and was always wary .... liked that it had been so shedwisely done . the indiscretion • .....Special Status • Wellwillingness and givleness go hand in hand .. ...Benevolence and generosity are complimentary • . 102 ... never forgot the unshedwiseness.. the resurrection of the dead . so thought they should inlead more players to the field . so rationally done • .• . introduce more • ...Correct Adjustment of Computer • Sunderly Standness . . What do you think these mean? 1..... such pride .. Needness is the mother of afoundness 2....... Seafares of Afoundness 3.. the upariseness of the dead ... • In Magazine: Bookly Throughlooking . Test iv)....Literary Review • Leaflet Heading: Rightsetness for Computer ....

. What about? See what other names for organisations and out-takes from writing and speech you can come up with.4. one can grow wiser 5. Through onfoundness... not to beshed against folk on grounds of hue . . 103 ..

for frithbreach! You've got a wlitty anleth! It's good now that we've come to thedesomeness It'll be a freme for us both . My mum and dad did have a wastum stall Don't wray me of wending that! You thewless thing! Watch it. a worthwhile howing! 104 . or you'll be nicked can check answers on p.Step 5 Weird and Wonderful . 146.A Taste of some very different English To Think About … Test i) What do you think the examples below mean? Think and read on .

1 Some everyday Words: 5. dangerous gathertang a. pattern (compare behold!) beseen v. or. beauteous 105 . continuous.! (this is actually the stuff of serious scientific theorising. famous. community quide v. noble brook v. proverb. though well beyond the breadth of this book!). mystery smicker a. Words are looked at in different themes. we get a glimpse of just how strikingly different English could have looked today.1..1 Sundries: beswape v. use. phrase. attempt.This last step looks mainly at words which are much less like current words in English. because Old English has left a wealth of other recorded words for which there was simply no room. continuation meanship n. secret. indeed. Some clever use of these words could potentially be made in historical novels .. experience freckenful a. And this is far from being a full list.1. enjoy beseen n. where the English did indeed win Hastings. Part A: Breakdown of Words by Type Whilst familiar elements are common for many words in the other steps. example. and so the breakdown set out here partly follows a different pattern. secrecy. elegant. Here.1. examine. side-by-side worlds. if certain strands of quantum physics are right. it may be that quantum events have led to other. sentence (related to quote) roun n. united gathertangness n. express figuratively downstying descending fand v. persuade breme a. more than anywhere. or where appropriate covered in terms of common key roots. this is less so with Step 5 words. model.. 5.. test. instruct by example. to set an example.

trouble uneathliness n. changing. gracious 106 . transition. excess swithly a. both meaning very: fele adv. transfer.1. very felefold a. excessive. changeable. usual. persistency. very. turn. intensity. revolution wonely a. intense. perseverance throughwoning n. frequent felefoldness n. bounty. multitude felespeakle a. customary 5.1.1. change. exceedingly. severe swithness n. agreeable eathly a. revolve. to live luxuriously estely adv.smickerness n.1. perseverance wharve v. remorse 5. favour: este n.1. ease. pleasure uneath n. elegance throughwoningness n. graciously estful a.2 Fele and swith. excess swithrueness n. severity. with difficulty uneathness n. intensity. convert wharvely a. change. difficulty. transitory wharveness n. conversion. talkative felewordness n. talkative swith adv. trouble uneathly a. troublesomely. severely swither more excessive swithliness n. easily eathness n. severity. inconvenience. pleasure este v. tenacity throughwoness n. difficulty. easy. trouble 5.3 With eath = easy eath a. easiness. favour. perseverance.2 With este = grace. grace.

unprofitable.4.1.estfulness n. to envy evestful a. profitable. profitably. foreign. completely fullfremedness n. rivalry evest n. not negotiated unfremeful a.3 With evest = envy. constructively.4 Words related to modern from: 5. beneficial constructive. rivalry evest v. profitability. estrange fremd a.4.1. perfect fullfremed a. with un-: unfremed a. gracious Negative with un-: unestful a. alien. strange 107 . ungracious 5. imperfection 5. negative.1.1. inconsideration unfulfremed imperfect unfulfremedness n. beneficially fullfreme v. imperfection unfulfreming n. useful.2 Showing otherness: fremd v. positive fremefulness n. envious evesty a. complete. benefit fremeful a. graciousness esty a. usefulness fremely a. usefully. profitable fremefully adv. based on freme v. positively. envious 5. gracefulness estiness n. completed fullfremedly a.1 Showing completion. completion Negatives likewise. = avail. envy. incompletion. not useful unfreming n.

primeval. origin. despise forhowand n. cause frumer n. neglecter. despiser forhowedly adv. anxious (with ful taking things further) howfullness n. original. disregard. despiser overhowedness n. based on frume (still related to modern from): frume n. prudently howship n.4. contempt forhowingly adv. inventor frumly a. foundation frumthly a. disdain 108 . originator. questioning befrine v.1.4. despise overhowand n. curious 5.5 To do with question/ inquiry. built around frayn: frayn n. question frayning v.1. origin. interrogation. neglect.6 With how = prudent howe a. anxiousness forhow v. prudence howful a.3 Showing strangeness: frimdy a. prudent howe v. original construction 5. question 5.1. endeavour howly a. contemptibly overhow v. question frayne v.4 Showing origin. inquire frayness n.1. primitive frumth n. primitive frumwork n. contempt forhowing n. contemptuously forhowedness n. be prudent howing n. questioning frayning n.5.

honourably oreworthness n. respect.1. deceit 109 . deceiver swiking n.1. treachery. agreeable. satisfying.1. mitigation qweming pleasing.5. honourable oreworthyful a. please. suitable. honest. honestly. dishonourably unoreworthness n.7 With ore = honour ore n. deceit swikedom n. honour. respect. indignity. satisfy. dishonour orereadness n. acceptable queme a. satisfaction. deceitful. condition oreworthily adv. comply with quemeness n. fraud deception beswike n. dishonour. honesty oreless a. agreeable. dishonour unoreworthly adv. fraudulent swiker n. right honourable oring n. well pleasing wellquemness n. reverence Negatives: unoreworth v. treachery. satisfying quemely a. favour orefast a. pleasure unqueme a.9 With swike = deception swike v. favour. honour. dishonourable orelessness n. respected. deceit. honour oreworth a. satisfactorily wellquemedly a. pleasant. respectfully. respect. deceive swike n. graciously orefastness n. deception swikeful a. pleasing. pleasure.8 With queme = pleasant. displeasing. acceptable queme v. gracious orefastly adv. irreverence 5. not pleasing 5.

moral. join. necessity. conduct. distress tharf n. destitutely tharfliness n. moral. virtuously thewfastness n.1. miserably.beswike v. to bring up morally/ virtuously thewfast a. subject. poorly. virtuous. destitutely 5. submission.1. poor/ destitute person tharfingly a. associate thede v. immoral. ill mannered. unmannered unthewful a. discipline thewful a. associate thedeness n. honourable thewfastly a. disorderly. fault unthewfast a. society thedesomeness n. custom. habit. customary. poverty.12 With thew = usage. disorderly. distress tharfedness n. inconstant thewly a. moral unthew n. disposition. obedience 5. association. pauper. vice. unmannered 110 .1. subjugate. deception beswiker n. virtuous thewless a. immoral. subjection. morally. manners thew v. agreement underthede v. poverty. deceiver beswiking n.10 With tharf = necessity.11 With thede = to join. subdue underthedeness n. deceive beswikeness n. immoral. without necessity/ distress/ trouble tharfer n. usage. deception 5. custom and suchlike thew n. destitution tharfly a. destitution tharfeless a. obedience.

change. change wender n. divert. sterility 5. productivity.14 Twoly (from the number two) to show ambiguity: twoly a. with un-: unwastmbearness n. meaning patience: thild v. unproductive Negative. temporary. patience thildily adv. changeability. doubtful. with un-: unthild n. to be patient thild n. fruitfulness. mutability. based in wastum: wastum n.15 To do with fruit. subversion wending n. return wend v. rotation wendingliness n. transitory 111 . showing change: atwend v. productivity.5. impatient 5.1. unfruitful. fertility wastumless a. deprive of edwend v. not ambiguous 5. impatience unthildly adv. interpreter wending n.1. unfruitfulness. fruitfulness. product.1. translator.1. equivocal untwoly a. variation of weather bewend v. impatiently unthildy a.13 With thild. changeably weatherwendedness n. alteration. convert whilewendly a. patient Negatives likewise. ambiguous. change wendedness n. turn. fruit. patiently thildy a.16 Based on wend. produce wastumbearingness n. change. changeability wendingly a. fertility wastumbearness n.

blithe. unchangeability 5. notice yemeless a. to make fortunate edmede n. negligence 5. humility. fortunate. reestablishment edyield v.Negative likewise: unwendness n. prosperous.1.1. negligent yemelessly adv.2. innocence. gentleness 112 . restore edstathling n. happy eadily adv. simplicity eady a. human 5. submission smiltness n. werekin n. human race werehood n. fortune eady v. revive edstall v.1 To do with being happy. simple.18 With yeme = to notice misyeme v. and suchlike: bilewhit a. negligently yemelessness n. gentleness. remunerate 5.2 More words to do with everyday life: 5. restorer edquicken v.19 Beginning with ed.1. prosperously eadiness n. restitution ednew v. renew ednewand n. adulthood werely a. restore. show doing again (= re-): edgift n. prosperity. sincere bilewhitness n. meaning human (still found in werewolf). neglect yeme v.17 With were. innocent.

poorly. trouble. difficulty arvethliness n. pollute. poisonously. gentle smoltly adv. venomously attery a. repulsive atelly adv. repulsively athrick v. ignite. degradation. press. deprive beniming n. laboriousness arvethly a. corrupt awemendness n. disfigure. corruption benim v. deceive bepeachand n. tribulation. miserably. pollution beway v.smolt a. frustrate dretch v. poisonous atterly adv. troublesome. poor. productively weal n. terrible. trouble.2. dishonour besnitness n. poisonous. destitute. oppress atter n. prosperity wealy a. affliction dwild n. pity armly adv. poison. inflame. labour. torment dretchedness n. gently wastumly adv. error dwildafterfollowing n. trouble. laborious arvethness n. miserable armheartness n.2 To do with woe. strife and suchlike: anneal v. difficulty. venom atterbearing a. pitiable arveth n. pain atel a. consume arm a. deprival bepeach v. fruitfully. venomous awem v. erroneous movement 113 . prosperous (compare well-off) 5. deception besnit v. incite. terribly. deceiver bepeaching n.

affliction shendle n. corrupt. fierce slithely adv. vigorous. intolerably unwlitty a. severe. reproach. disfigured. fiercely swenche v. malicious shend v. savage. trample. grievously thresting n. strict. trouble swenk n. injure heanhood n. insult.dwolma n. trouble.. ignobility. difficulty heanly a. criminality shildy a. strictly. maliciously nithing n. afflict. confound. discomfit shending n. trouble tharl a. distress hean v. reproach shendness n. cruelly. sternly. confusion shildiness n. affliction. savagely. criminal slithe a. villain nithy a. trouble swenkedness n. afflict. deformed unwlittying n. contrition thrutch v. severely. abject. disfigurement 114 . arrogantly tothundness n. cruel. severely. oppress. cruelly. not pretty. severe tharlwisely adv. strictness tharly adv. poverty. tribulation tothundenly a. torment threstness n. derision nithfully adv. chaos ermth n. humiliation untholingly a. misery. roughly tharlwiseness n. arrogance unathelness n. affliction. poor hoker n. severity. adv. repress thrutchness n. strict tharlwise a. disfigurement unwlittyness n.

comfort. inflammation wark n. announce. test.. provocation grorning n. tribulation 5. with trouble yomerness n. still found in to mete out . testifier kithing n. suffering wlenk n. console froverness n. seduce forspanning n. turn. moderation (from mete. irritate greming n.) 115 . misery. moderate metefastness n. trouble yomerly adv. testimony kither n. enrage.. pain. confirm kithedness n. convenient hedge v. seduction frover n. comforter frovring n. to be miserable yomer a. convert. narration metefast a. proclaim. consolation frovrand n.walm n. avert evenfain v. prove. arrogance wlonk a. consider. astuteness yomer v. provoke. statement. relate. experience afrever v. considerately. determinedly kithe v. consoler. cheer. ponder. proud yepeness n. consolation frover v. complaint hap a. miserably. pride. console awherve v. experience afonding n.2. troubled. miserable yomering n. meditatively. meditate. test. Relationships and suchlike: afond v.3 Feelings. consolation greme v. determine hedgely adv. perform. sympathise forspan v. allurement.

region landstead n.3 Some lists by topic: 5. mutability wilne v. still found in to mete out . glade staith n. innumerably unmeteness n. intemperance. valley. excess. immeasurable. inconstant whurfulness n. intemperate. consent to thavesome a. innocent whurful a. ravine. wold n. adv. desire wray v. port hithely a. extravagance unshildy a. accusingly 5. lack of moderation unmetely a. forest 116 . accuser wraying n. desire wilning n. accusation wrayer n. inconstancy.3. ignorance unmetefast a.) unmetefastness n. river bank westdeal n. accusation wrayingly adv. innumerableness.. excessive (from mete.. permit. consent unlored a. ignorant unloredness n. immoderate. of harbour/ port landship n. accuse wrayedness n.thave v. consenting thavesomeness n.1 To do with Land and Landscape features: crundle n. quarry hithe n.. harbour. west part weald. region slade n.

nobility (class of) ricser n. discourse rerde n. face arine v. touch rining n. beautiful 5.3. not of noble birth 117 . touch atrine v. touch.s.f. aristocratic athel v. countenance wlite n. reach rineness n. uncle inherd n. ruler ricsing n. noble. family unsibb a. joint rerde v.3. voice. contact. domination unathelborn a. voice wlita n.3.2 To do with the Body a. finger joint lith n. (most of our everyday words to do with the body are from Old English.5. touch smatch v. handle atrine n. nobility athelness n.3 Kith and Kin: eme n. touch fingerlith n. to make noble athelborn noble born athelkind n. aspect wlitty a. appearance. unrelated (compare sibling) 5. language rine v. touch. face.4 Nobility/ Aristocracy: athel a. although you mightn't think it sometimes from signs and leaflets in hospitals!): anleth n. taste steven n.

expel. minister ambighter n. minister thane v. direct. noble. summon. page elderthane n. important function lorethane n. captain highthaning n. public officer 5.4 Sundry others: abede v. attendant.s.5. servant ambighthouse n. administration bowerthane n.: 5. trade a. serve. ministry. alienation 118 .3. mayor folkreeve n. disperse afley v. alienate. office. serve. retainer highthane n. office.3 With thane = minister. service. command. prefecture boroughreeve n. chief officer. retainer hallthane n.3.3. administration. ability. hall officer handthane n.2 With reeve = high official reeve n.5.5. loyal thaneship n.1 With ambight = office ambight n. order. officer. servant thane n.f. servant.3.5. chief attendant. brave. high official. commission 5. service. minister thanely a. instructor 5.5. service. chamberlain. command ambight v. declare. announce. valour thaning n. offer afleme v. proclaim. become alienated afremding n. office ambightness n. prefect reeveship n.3. service.5 To do with civil authority. expel afremd v. provost. duty.

investigation wickner n. ennumeration wordsomening n. investigator. trail.) gavelly a. court hovely a. assembling speer v. test fander n. officer. proof fering n. office.E. trader (still found as a surname) chapstow n. rescue. prisoner. ordering. Wales) dight n. practice. bailiff wike n. preacher (still found as a surname) befrining n. national council withmeetedness n. manager dightning n. appoint dighter n. deliver 119 . interest (on loan a. invention wordsomener n. investigation. collation yearmind n. tester. arrange. test.f. disposition fand v. tryer fandere fanding n.6 Some with particular link with/ use in Church contexts: aredde v. captive helmward n. town in S. catalogue. arrangement dight v. treasuary haftling n. courtly moothouse n. place of meeting. arranger dightner n. save. try. warrant officer. function witanmoot n. inquiry begeng n.3.s. observance. market (compare: Chepstow. pilot hove n. yearly commemoration 5. herald. vehicle gavel n.beadle n. investigate speeriand n. practitioner chapman n. inquirer speering n. exercise begenger n. fiscal goldhoardhouse n.

1 Peace with frith and sib frith n. baptiser. prove costiand n.aredding n. trial. glorify wulder n. testimony loreboding n.7. church duty/ service costen v. peace 120 . tempter costness n. show mercy newwhirved a. testing. resurrection bede v. charitable. glorious 5. baptist gospelly a. chapel churchthane n. newly converted wulder v. trial custy a. generous. deliverance arist n. baptise fullought n. atonement. minister of the church churchthaning n. proving. charity. baptism fulloughtbath n. testament. penitence deedboteness n. evangelical kitheness n. temptation.7 Of war and peace: 5. temptation costning n. to have compassion. try. salvation. font fulloughter n. original creation frumshapand n. preaching (teaching) milce n. pray bedehouse n. glorious wulderfully a. atonement.3. glory. virtuous custiness n. splendour wulderful a.3. primeval condition. gloriously wuldry a. benevolence milce v. penitence frumshaft n. creator fullought v. test. compassion. mercy. generosity. virtue deedbote n.

breach of truce/ asylum guth n. campaign. soldiering fird v. pacific. peaceable frithstowe refuge. with sey. protection grithbreach n. truce. (note: name Woolsey is from wolf + sey) sey n.frithbreach n. war. peaceable sibsome v. war heleth n. to go on expedition firdfare n. peace sibsome a. peace agreement. victorious 5. reconcile sibsomeness n.3. quarrelsome unsibsomeness n. battle. triumph seyer n. combat. making peace unsibsome a. contentiousness.3. military service 121 . treaty sib n. victorious seyerfastness n. triumph seyfast a. war. army ferding n. triumphal seyfast v.8 To do with the Military: ferd n. triumph seyly a. seyer. sanctuary frithwrit n. victory seyerly a. expedition. contentious.3 Some others grith n. concord. breach of the peace frithsome a. asylum. victorious seyfastness n.7. victory. argumentative. quarrelsomeness 5.7. combat wye n. contest 5. victory seyerfast a. hero hild n. peace sibsoming n.2 Victory.3. victory. discord.

in manner of foreigners althediness n. defence.firdly a. community. army troop. population. generation. hostage yislehood n. disunited yearve n. company. heritage 122 . the military firdwise a. militarily helm n. nation. martial heraman n. people. social. national.3. provincial thedeship n. tribe thede n. martial firdship n. commander. plunder heraly a. race. general (one who tows = leads the fighters) heriot n. foreign nation althedily adv. military. command houth n. military operations on land landhera n. army (army-like shoals gave rise to the word herring) herahuth n. state of being a hostage 5. soldier heratower n. administration. association unthede a. military equipment hest n. military expedition yisle n. plunder landfirding n. soldier wyesith n. foreignness althedish foreign althedy of foreign nation eastleod n. province thedely a. covering hera n. warrior. country strind n. orientals ethel n.9 To do with Nationality: althede n. land force/ army wered n. band wyeman n. nation. protection.

Exit 123 Junction 35 ...Step 5.Hot Beverages: Self-service Fairtrade Bananas: Frume: Windward Islands ..Main Office Fand our frimdy food! – Try our curious (exotic) food! • On roadsign: OUTGANG Wayleet 35 . Part B: Words in Use and Tests Answers to tests on p 146. Adverts and Signs: • • • • Hot Drinks: Self-thaning ... Origin . Head Ambighthouse .

Nature Reserve Hithe Onwield ..The High Court Wildlife Frithstowe .Social Service • English Yearve .Harbour/ Port Authority Orefastness box .A charitable trust • Title for MP: The Right Oreworthy (or: The Oreworthyful) . 124 .Honesty box Title: Thane of Learning ..The Right Honourable ..• • • • • • The High Hove .Minister of Education Thedely Thaneship .English Heritage • An almsly trust . ..

The Forestry Commission Test ii).• The Weald Setness . The Shieldness Ambightness 4. Title: Forsitting Wike 2. Arvethshooter 125 . Awayleadness Thaning 3. Do you understand the following? 1. Rightwiseness Thane 5.

Headlines: • Calls to bring back firdfare .Calls to restore national (military) service • Threat of herely law 'unknown' to Althedish (or Overseas) Ambighthouse .Threat of martial law 'unknown' to Foreign Office 126 .

Peace talks: Chief Mediator 'encouraged' • Yisles aleased .Minister's position made abundantly clear 127 .Hostages released • Overalderman's behaviour 'besmearly' .• Frith talks: Head Middliand 'heartened' .Chief Officer's behaviour reproachful • Thane's stand made enoughly clear .

Child poverty reduced • Former Thane: 'fullholden for Goldhoardhouse losses' .• New carbon law forthsetness 'fremeful' ..New legislation beneficially transcribed in Plain English 128 .Manager: 'too many indolent' • Wyemen 'unthildy for withdrawal' ..County Council Leader accused of poor control • Frithwrit breakthrough down to 'thild and throughwinningness' .Poisonous snake bite not fatal • Beavers unweenedly back to weald .Peace agreement breakthrough due to 'patience and perseverance' • Attery snake bite undeadly . endeavour now completed • Seekness to Thedely Health Thaneship shendness nears fullfremedness Inquiry into NHS (National Health Service) confusion nears completion • Dightner: 'too many idleyearnful' .New carbon law proposal 'constructive/ positive' • Housing howing now fulfremed .Care home inquiry: 'poorly managed' • Highshireman wrayed of craftless wield ..Officer's comments 'injurious' • Care home seekness: 'armly run' .Former Minister: 'totally responsible for Treasury losses' • New Laws fremefully set out in straight English .Soldiers impatient for withdrawal • Ambighter's words 'scatheful' .Beavers unexpectedly return to forest • Child tharvliness lessened .

thane is 'rueful' .minister 'regrets' 129 .Perception in Home Office was of 'pernicious service breakdown' • Feelessness to brainsick man .• Seekness finds Shortfalls in Health Thaning .Enquiry discovers Shortfalls in Health Service • Ongetness in Home Ambighthouse was of 'qualmful breakdown of thaneship' .Insensitivity to mentally ill man .

The importance of pedestrian awareness at junctions 130 . Selfdom forspeakers meet thane 5.For example • The worthliness of footly awareness at wayleets . Aleased yisle speaks of underdriveness to heavy beatings 4.Call for Investigation into Youth Poverty Test iii) What do the following mean? 1. Textbooks and suchlike: • Beseen . Our Sasha seyerfast with new world best! 3.• Meanship housing: all ‘to be evenlotters’ – Community housing: all ‘to be equal sharers/ partakers’ • Frithwrit now fullfastened .Peace Treaty now ratified • Call for Speering into Youth Ermth . Thane: mightliness of earthquake was 'unbethought' 2. Ferd bebidand 'too forthyearnful' Snippets from Articles.

A statement .. example of an undivided community 131 ..• Mushroom eatness not same for all unatterly kinds . there now seemed to be a quemely answer to that thanely frayn ..result of your English comprehension.......... • . came here as folk from a fremd ethel .... • ............. famous faces... to be continuation on that in this fiscal institution • . though this is still not always clearcut ..... beshowing the need for thedesomeness of all thedes to lessen sea besnitness . • Tothaning breakdown .Administration breakdown • A kithing from no 10 said .. .. . famous places • ... is likely to be gathertangness on that in this gavelly setness . 5 days of continuous/ united opposition .The Pacific Ocean • First Thane’s Frayning Time .. that dishonour • . • Great wendingliness can come with moodsickness ....... demonstrating ....... ... for agreement of all nations to lessen marine degradation/ pollution • ... •.... would only be a whilewendly setup .Famous people. a good beseen of an untodealed meanship . a temporary .. . as a kind of criminality.. would expel the prisoners ...... had seen five days of gathertang withsetness on the streets .. edibility not same for all non poisonous species • The Frithsome Highsea .... from a foreign country • . that the original construction was • . breme steads .Severe changeability can come with depression • Breme folk. with great labour/ trouble/ difficulty . can see from this dig that the frumwork was only small ..... firdly spending having risen twofold in three years .. military spending • ..... would only be with great arveth that he would put right that orelessness .. of negligence ... that it is thewly to see this kind of yemelessness in law as a kind of shildiness.. • . seemed to be suitable answer to that ministerial question . said that they would afleme the haftlings in the coming weeks ....Prime Minister's Question Time • … outcome of your English understandness. is customary to see .. breme anleths..... ..

.... • ... • .. .Favourable terrain to labour in .. gentle .... • … an athelness in his bearing ....... Don't overdrink.. was in truth swith evesty of her smickerness .... ....... and the might and the wulder.. been swith unthildy to wend and ednew that ...Question Time • .....all those voices .... .... to feel his rining . might beswape him to wend his mind ........... seyer over death . • . and the power and the glory.... and he seemed to have a strength to fight . had..’ ) • ... might persuade him to change his mind • ..… certainly like to try using … • .....The Chief Officer stated there was certainly scope for improving this • .…the pretty ones … • … though looking smolt.victory over death • Soundly ground for arveth ... very impatient to change and renew that • Saying: Don't overeat. .’ Your honour .. . making the mistake of not owning up to being unfulfremed himself in this . Don't have overmuchness! 132 . • .... graciously turned down answering .... very envious of her elegance • . on the orereadness that they could eathly come back ....… a nobility in his posture • The Highreeve said there was indeed room for bettering this .' (… judge: . for ever and ever . for ever and ever • . could easily come back • TV Programme: Frayning Time . on the condition ... said they'd go... honourable thing .Bookly bits and so forth: • Frame a fremeful frayn on the frimdy frume of firdship . get noticed . how amidst all those stevens could someone new get yemed . when young... she was longing to see him again.. when something frumthly kicked in. was . something primeval kicked in .... .. • … would couthly like to fand brooking that .Frame a useful question on the curious origin of military service • Yearnfully watching the wlitty ones come back . not owning up to being imperfect himself .. had estely forbowed answering that with 'yes' or 'no' ... to feel his touch • Talking to a deemer: 'Your oreworthness . that the oreworth thing to do would be to stand down ...

Two-sided talks seeking to end the ongoing frithbreach 2. .. he thought he ought.. In a wayless weald 4. unthildy for onlightness .• Rather than being evestful.. … Test iv) What do you think these mean? 1. to work to do some good . The heratower bid behideness of weapons 3. 5. Long thaning members have eldership What about? Learn some of the terms above and reel them off at dinners and parties. with tholing..… than being envious he …with perseverance. Should get folk talking! 133 .

with more tests on what you've learned.. Adverts and Signs: • Card: In Deep Evensorrowing .In Deep Sympathy • Sad and Angsome? In woemoodness? Friendly Help to be had . Answers to tests are on page 148/9.Buy Cleanse: Fast and Reliable! Headlines: • Awaydriveness of unhearsome staff leads to row . • Buy Cleanse: Fast and Truefast! ..Dismissal of disobedient staff causes dispute 134 . you should be able to get to grips with these quite happily.Further Examples and Tests Here are some last beseens/ examples of words in use. If you've worked your way through the book this far.

.Hostile crowd destroy unsupported defence • One in four townly children in 'unsteadful' homes . justifiably made • Fewness of new teachers leads to 'angsomeness in classroom' . New housesteads unbecraved 5..… communities deprived of schools • Call for end to unshedwise weapons . Boy falls into forlet mineshaft 3. Withsetness to tax havens grows 135 . indiscriminate .• Wike's wraying greeted by unlievefulness .25% of urban children in 'unstable' homes • Unreadness lessened for three years in a row .Illiteracy reduced for three consecutive years Test i). Do you understand the following? 1.. Whole House speaks.Paucity of new teachers causes trouble in classroom' • Hatethinkle throng fordo fulltumless shieldness . • Cutbacks 'cannot be rightwisely made' ... Missing woman: outleadness fears 4...Officer's accusation greeted by disbelief • More meanships besheared of schools . without forgoedness 2..

. that prosperity to go on • . Textbooks and suchlike: • Sunly fire bursts shoot some farness into space ...Snipetts from Articles.. would like to move an amendment • Railway station loudspeaker: the fromward train at platform two is the 7... being unlikely that the Goldhoardhouse would find that fremely ... would like to bring a bettingness .. a wealy thede. and now the stowly news from where you live ...... had been a wending from the shendness that had overshadowed its early days ... . about why such smicker young singers' lives often go downhill . that the fremefulness of these words would be shown by speaking and writing them ... .... in law... • . • . Bewarping the way of rightwiseness 4.. been a mystery • ... a change from the confusion ... Living with Fallsickness 136 ... ween that everyone will do their needright 2... such elegant/ beauteous young singers' lives . how the original building ..... between thavesome grownups . between consenting adults Test ii) What do the following mean? 1........Gluttony … • . saying that seyer in this hild wouldn't be a walkover .. ... A folkly ongetness 5. that victory in this war ... that the Treasuary would find that profitable • .. how the frumly building had looked had until now been a roun .' .. • ........local news • Overeattleness still woeful . ..a prosperous nation .00 to Bangor – the departing train .. had in all over 200 guth fighters in readiness ... and wanting that weal to go on .... Houses betwixset with high hedges flares shoot some distance into space • From TV: '. 200 combat fighters .... • . the usefulness of these words • .. • .

. sought to edquicken business and thereby edyield what wealth had been put into it . such severity • ... would certainly do it ........ • . • . being evestful of what he had..... honour.... they were oreworthily dealt with by the altheodish wyemen .. no pleasure ... severely dealt with • .... reverence • .the trouble/ difficulty which this questioning led to ........ would couthly do it if he showed more throughwoness ..... • .. • . honourably dealt with by the foreign soldiers 137 . much of that region • ..... on a wulderful. whose shildy deeds had been tharly dealt with .. the fires having swept though much of that landstead . unloredness being no shieldness in the eyes of the law ...... immeasurable harm through this impatience • .. knew the arvethliness of going through the names one by one . a warped comfort in the errors .. remunerate what wealth had been invested . • .. sunny day here at . highly dishonourable • .. • . sunny day ... the uneath which this frayning led to was unforeseen ... to revive business . such unoreworthness would not queme anyone there . respect.. said he got no quemeness from showing such tharlwiseness ........ such irreverence would not please anyone there . lack of pity . seem rather poor/ miserable ... had always despised him..... criminal deeds . but taking a warped frover in the dwilds which made him seem rather arm to others .... that having lost.... would at all times show oring for their feelings on this ....ignorance being no defence .... said that unmetely harm had been done through this unthild . • .... showed a lack of armheartness which was highly oreless . knew the laboriousness ..... a glorious. had always overhowed him..... more perseverance • .Journey to the Centre of the Earth • .An impenetrably profound concept • Faring to the Middle of the Earth ...Bookly bits: • An unthroughshotingly deep thought .... being envious ....

. Test iv) What do you think these mean? 1.. would be a frayn for Witanmoot to deal with . and forshape Europe. than . behave forbearingly. Gas flow 'untruefast' 3.better prosperous/ fortunate/ happy.. would have to thildily wait until the feeling of afremding had healed 5. better eady. . Wanted: Worker for Sealy Eftnewing 2.. . .. Test iii) What do you think these mean? 1... but not too greedy .. The old foes underbegan a plan to go togetherward. than too needy. . Growness which doesn't steal from our children 5. Will Scotland choose selfdom? 4. had by now fullfremedly wended 2... 3.• . ... that without any greming had laid into him with heavy blows 4. had showed such tothundness. with a barely hidden atter said 'you are orefastly asked to stay out of this' 138 .....

..... to inherit .at slavery and the corruption that went .. . by the change in surroundings 139 ... an eftthinging which was thungenly talked through ..Loft conversion Bookly Bits: • ... a play which looks at theowdom and the wemness that went with it in a new way . a reconciliation which was excellently … • ..Anxious community joined in unity 'Metefast thwearness' hailed as breakthrough .... lead to a regeneration of expression • Game unhaply for children under 3 ......unsuitable for ...'Moderate agreement' . Books and Suchlike: • ....... Set Names: Overall Coreness . feeling of unanimity .. • . an atiwedness made stronger by the wend in outabstandness ...Deeper and further into How We’d Talk … These last beseens brook some words from the Part 2 lists which you haven’t come across so far! Headlines: Howful meanship samedfast in thwearness ..Park Warden From Articles..General Election Eddish Warden ..... • Loft charing ... a revelation ... was a feeling of onemoodness that this could lead to an eftkenedness of sayness . that the brooking of this evenlatching could be frayned .. at adulthood • . .... the function of this imitation could be questioned .. stood to yearve all of this at werehood .

find new companions Test v) Last test! What do you think these mean? 1.... that werekin would brook it in metefastness 140 . The American Forthspell of Selfdom 3. saw it as an oughting to work for the meanship....... befastening some of that thungness he had learned over many years ... was common knowledge . using some of that competence he had .............• . todrivedness to many steads meant that they could find new siths dispersal to many places . . The Kingly Loftly Ferd 5. • . inaccurately quoted . saw it as a duty . • .. for the community . Drunk and unthewful 4. was widecouth that they'd unwrastly quoted her on that ... and woning the earth in many meanships. Werely suchness 2.

..Free Preview of New Film 2.Aquatic and marine equipment 4.. one ongetless = perceptive and unperceptive . Feel Free to Look around.. No Boundness to Buy! ..what wordcraft! = what eloquence! I'm wordful in two tongues = fluent .No Obligation to Buy 3.but both need steerness! = need control/ guidance He's into idlebliss! = into vain joy He should forlet it for worthwhile bliss = abandon it .Alcoholics Anonymous 5. Rise in overseaish holidaymakers . I'd be forethankful for any help = grateful in advance . 1.. ii). Waterly and sealy gear .Increase in foreign tourists 141 . 1... Unnamed Overdrinkers .Observation Room iii). He was wifeless. Free Forelook at New Film . Beholdness Room .Answers to Tests (Note: Step 1: These should all be understandable!) Step 2 Answers i) Answers to examples at start of Step 2: You speak well . found compatibility One is ongetful. she was manless = without wife/ without man (husband) And together they found matchness! = .

England: Unoverwon after the late 1000s .Famished .. Hungerbitten flee drought .. Steerness for house buying ..2. .I underget what's going on = perceive 142 . iv). Early election 'mightly' . Selfenoughsomeness .. 4. where green meadows were formerly enoughful . Deemer asks: was killing erebethought? .. 1.Early election 'possible' 3. Sunly fire bursts .Self-sufficiency 4.Unconquered since the closing part of the 11th Century 5.. = traversed/ traveled Oh .how I overfared the seas!..Judge asks: was killing premeditated? 5.Guidance for house buying 2.. were previously abundant Step 3 Answers i) Answers to examples at start of Step 3: Tell me a shiply yarn = maritime (adventure) Ah ... Hothearness for cosmetic surgery lessens ..Enthusiasm/ rage for .Solar flares 3.

. Rise in alcohol forhaveness . departs 5. From toletness to eftnewing .....can be practically applied iv).. . Can be workly run ... Seating set by eldership . 'Oneness in Mislikeness .... Lessness of ourlandish goods show unrightcrafting .. to transform lifestyles 4.too talkative and tedious 2.Don't let wealth forlead you! = seduce It wasn't outly mightly.. Many yearnful to forshape lifestyles ...Prescription 2.. .. .wonderful! = . too speakful and longsome ... .Comedian’s wittiness well demonstrated 5.. The kingly afterfollowingness . 3.'Unity in Diversity . that they had gone out with malice that night .' 4. decline to restoration 143 .. 1.Seating arranged according to seniority Step 4 Answers i) Answers to examples at start of this Step: I aqueath this new setness building open! = declare this new institution .. did not declare donation 2. the promotion of a vocabulary from early English 4. . Laughtersmith's wittiness wellbeshowed . Looking for Healness ... the furtheringness of a wordhoard from early English . Doctor's Forewriteness . my friend! = remotely possible Sorry.Minority of homemanufactured goods of poor quality iii)... … put it to them that they had gone out with evilwillingness that night .The royal succession 3. Businessman did not bename bringness .. I felt an underdriveness to say that = a compulsion You're moodful and steadless! = very moody and unstable We'll do a selfwilling seekness into the eviladdle = a voluntary inquiry into the unfavourable situation ii)...Increase in abstinence from alcohol 3... 1.Searching for Salvation 5..... . Last boat to x forthfares .. 1.' .

Body: Forehaveness Fellowship ..Secure Website 5. is there a guestly bed and breakfast nearby? = accommodating to guests ..there’s good comelitheness at one two doors down = hospitality I ween that’ll be alright then = … expect that’ll .. Forthfroming Room . WIELD YOURSELF! = CONTROL YOURSELF! You’re not so bad . Folkly Hapliness ... 1.Public Convenience 3.Temperance Society 144 .. but not unharmyearn either!!’ = … not inoffensive ii). Are you under the fortruing that I love you?! = presumption that . The Women's Setness -The Women's Institution (WI) 2.Departure Room 4.Now. Holdfast Webstead .

Unemployment predictions prove to be Unreliable 2.iii). One fourth of stowly folk deem selves unhavers .One quarter of local people judge selves as deprived/ poor 145 .Many Scots said to prefer independence 3.Fans showed ‘lack of restraint’ 5. Many Scots said to forechoose selfdom . Thief forflees being caught -Thief evades capture 4. Fans showed 'lack of holdsomeness' . Out of work forecasts found to be untruefast . 1.

Needness is the mother of afoundness . one can grow wiser ..iv).Through experience..not to discriminate against people on grounds of colour Step 5 Answers Answers to examples at start: i) My mum and dad did have a wastum stall = fruit stall Don’t wray me of wending that! = Don’t accuse me of changing that! You thewless thing! = ill-mannered Watch it. .Necessity is the mother of invention 2..Yes.Voyages of Discovery 3. a worthwhile howing! = endeavour 146 . not to beshed against folk on grounds of hue ... a perceptive pupil 4... Seafares of Afoundness . or you’ll be nicked – for frithbreach! = breach of the peace You’ve got a wlitty anleth! = a pretty face It’s good now that we’ve come to thedesomeness = agreement It’ll be a freme for us both = a benefit . one can grow wiser 5.. Through onfoundness.. 1. . an ongetful learner . .

Rightwiseness Thane – Justice Minister 5. Ferd bebidand ‘too forthyearnful’ – Army commander ‘too impetuous’ 147 . Arvethshooter – Troubleshooter iii). Awayleadness Thaning – Removal Service 3. The Shieldness Ambightness – Ministry of Defence 4. 1. Aleased yisle speaks of underdriveness to heavy beatings – Released hostage speaks of subjection to severe beatings 4. Title: Forsitting Wike – Presiding Officer 2. 1.ii). Our Sasha seyerfast with new world best . Selfdom forspeakers meet thane – Independence advocates meet minister 5.… victorious with new world record 3. Thane: mightliness of earthquake was ‘unbethought’ – Minister: possibility of earthquake ‘not considered’ 2.

Whole House speaks. into abandoned mineshaft 3. 1. Withsetness to tax havens grows .. Boy falls into forlet mineshaft . Two-sided talks seeking to end ongoing frithbreach – Bilateral talks searching for an end to ongoing breach of the peace 2..abduction fears 4....Opposition to tax havens increases 148 . The heratower bid behideness of weapons – The commander ordered the concealment of weapons 3. New housesteads unbecraved . Missing woman: outleadness fears .. without abstention 2. without forgoedness . tracks or roads 4. Long thaning members have eldership – Long-serving members have seniority Answers from Further Examples and Tests: i). … unthildy for onlightness … – impatient for illumination 5. 1....Can you spot the mistake in the headline above?! (See answer to iii) 1) iv). In a wayless weald – In a forest without paths.New house sites undesired 5.

. expect that everyone will do their duty 2. and transform Europe.Will Scotland choose independence? 4.Gas supply 'unreliable' 3..Living with Epilepsy iii).A common perception 5. 1.. had by now fullfremedly wended .Development . (= a definition of sustainable development) 5. . Gas flow 'untruefast' . interposed with high hedges 3. Wanted: Worker for Sealy Eftnewing . 1... behave forbearingly. .The old enemies designed a plan to work towards unity. The old foes underbegan a plan to go togetherward. behave tolerably.. Growness which doesn't steal from our children ... iv). and forshape Europe. Living with Fallsickness . by now completely changed 149 . Houses betwixset with high hedges .Perverting the course of justice 4. Will Scotland choose selfdom? .Wanted: Employee for Maritime Restoration 2..ii). A folkly ongetness .... ween that everyone will do their needright . 1.. Bewarping the way of rightwiseness ... .

.. that werekin would brook it in metefastness . The Kingly Loftly Ferd . .. without any provocation .. .... 5. Declaration of Independence 3.Drunk and disorderly 4.. ... had showed such tothundness. ...Human nature 2.... feeling of alienation .2.’ v).. 4...... . showed such arrogance ...... with a barely hidden atter said 'you are orefastly asked to stay out of this' .. barely hidden venom said ‘... and inhabiting the earth in many communities.Royal Air Force 5.. that the human race would use it in moderation 150 . Werely suchness . that without any greming had laid into him with heavy blows .. 1.. would have to thildily wait until the feeling of afremding had healed ...... patiently wait . . a question for Parliament 3. and woning the earth in many meanships... The American Forthspell of Selfdom .. would be a frayn for Witanmoot to deal with .. are respectfully asked to . Drunk and unthewful .

. 151 .PART 2: REFERENCE WORD LISTS Finding a hidden wordhoard ..

iii) Words listed here are based on only a part of a broader Old English wordhoard. there is no obvious foreign-derived loanword to express a word. This shows that this current word is itself one with Old English origins (see example in Key below). 'meat' at one time covered a greater range of food than it does today. This also applies for whether an updated word would act as an adjective. and æ is a short 'a'. d) Lastly. e) On Old English letters: ð and þ are 'th' sounds. b) Next comes the grammatical definition (see Summary Key below). adverb.) with word added after. comes meaning of words in today’s standard English. a note on which current word(s) it is related to is given. Meanings of updated words can thus be different from the original meaning of their Old English source words.for example. the Old English source words from which the updated words have come are given in italics (these are known from original texts. as: . and in such cases.List I Words from Steps 1 .5. It is a question of what seems to make sense to the modern ear. Sometimes. c) Then. Notes i) On List I Layout: a) Firstly come words in bold. ii) It is common for words to change their meanings over time . in normal letters. with Old English Sources This list brings together all updated words introduced in Steps 1 to 5 of the book (and more). These are the updated forms. or both. and can be referred to in Clark Hall).from (Eng. 152 . alphabetically.

bird.from (Eng. and lastly the Old English words (upon which words in bold are based) in italics. but should not always be considered hard and fast. diseased adlig adreadingly adv. = negative (such as in words starting with 'un') v. happily) n. to sing) v. announce. recover acofrian addlebearing a. offer abeodan acknowness n.used to show native English words in cases where word lacks an obvious alternative to describe it. to write. disease/ trouble bearing adlberende addly a. direct. summon. Lastly. Listings seek to define what use sounds most natural to today’s ear. followed by suggested English alternatives in normal lettering.) . transitive (Some words can be both adverbs and adjectives. = adverb (shows way in which something is done: fast. the Old English form of the word (egelic) is given in italics. command. . expel. freedom) neg. disperse aflieman 153 . = verb (doing words like to run. terribly ondrædendlic afear v. acknowledgement oncnawennes acover v. A abede v. = noun (normally things and ideas: car.) Summary of Listing layout: Loanword (or phrase with key element which is a loanword) given in italics. terrify.) awe egelic This shows that awely is an adverb from the native English word 'awe'. a.t.Key: Updated word from early English in bold (followed by grammatical definition). make afraid afæran afleme v. spoiled. . Take the listing below: awely adv. order.from (Eng. declare. = verb. = adjective (describes a noun: 'big' in big house) adv. then meaning in current English. proclaim.

redeem. deliverer. curse amansumian amansing n. of foreign nation elðeodig amanse v. office ambihthus 154 . remission. succeed æfterfolgian afterfollowedness n. posterity æftergengnes afterwardness n. adversely ongeanweardlic aleasand/ aleaser n. curse amansumung ambight n. foreign elðeodisc althedy a. command ambiht ambight v. release. redeemer. compare anlician allmight n. device. minister ambihtan ambighter n. test. in manner of foreigners elðeodiglic althediness n. discovery afundennes afremd v. succession æfterfygendnes aftergoingness n. invention. office. become alienated afremdan afremding n. alienate. redeemingly aliesendlic aliken v. successor æfterfylgere afterfollowingness n. expel afliegan afond v. foreign nation elðeod althedily adv. release aliesednes aleasingly adv. sequel æfterfygednes afterfollower n. servant ambihtere ambighthouse n. experience afandian afonding n.afley v. foreignness elðeodignes althedish a. alienation afremðung afrever v. liberator aliesend alease v. experience afandung afoundness n. omnipotence ælmihtignes almsful a. redemption. console afrefran afterfollow v. prove. charitable ælmeslic althede n. omnipotence eallmiht ally a. posterity æfterweardnes againcome v. officer. charitable ælmesfull almsly a. test. universal eallic almightiness n. comfort. return agencuman againwardly adv. attendant. service. serve. save aliesan aleasedness n.

deliverance ahredding arine v. pain earfoðnes ascruten v. inflame. save. troublesomely. poor. asthma angbreost anget n. distress. difficulty. pain angsumnes anleth n. miserable earm armheartness n. terribly.ambightness n. renovation edniwung angbreast n. miserably. deliver ahreddan aredding n. aristocratic æðele 155 . destitute. resurrection ærist arm a. laboriousness earfoðlicnes arvethly a. declare. division asyndrung atel a. service. frustration angmodnes angness n. terrible. incite. salvation. touch. labour. pitiable earmlic arveth n. intelligent andgietful angmood n. distressing angsom angsomely a. trouble. renew edniwian anewed renewed edniwe anewing n. eruption angset angsome a. distress. distressingly angsomlic angsomeness n. face andwlita anneal v. distressed/ frustrated mood angmod angmoodness n. examine ascrutnian asundering n. ignite. anxiety. repulsively atolic atewedness n. poorly. express acweðan arearness n. pity earmheortnes armly a. consume onælan aqueath v. troublesome. trouble. approach ætgangan athel a. elevation arærnes aredde v. rescue. troublesome. difficulty earfoðe arvethliness n. repulsive atol atelly adv. trouble angnes angset n. trouble. laborious earfoðlic arvethness n. handle ahrinan arist n. renewal. commission ambihtnes anew v. manifestation oðiewodnes atgo v. investigate. noble. adv.. intellect andgiet angetful a.

from (Eng. poisonously. preacher bydel bearingness n. port-side. removal onwegalædnes aweless a.athel v. . translate awendan awhene v. touch ætrine atrine v. disfigure. revelation ætywednes atrine n. repudiate awægan awayleadness n.) awe egeleas awelessness n. convert. larboard bæcbord beadle n. warrant officer. nobility æðelcund athelness n. avert ahweorfan B backboard n. . command bebeodan 156 . poisonous atorberende atterly adv. deprive of oðwendan awaydriveness n. disfigurement awemendnes awend. wend v. poison.) awe egeleasnes awely a. vex. nobility (class of) æðelnes athester v. to be eclipsed aðeostrian athrick v.from (Eng. oppress aðryccan atiwedness n. deny. afflict ahwænan awherve v. fecundity berendnes bebid v. attendant ætstandand atter n. grieve. fertility. venom ator atterbearing a. herald. divert. corrupt awemman awemingness n.) awe egelic awem v. to make noble æðelian athelborn noble born æðelboren athelkind n. touch ætrinan atsake v. dismissal. change. instruct. expulsion onwegadrifennes awayen v. venomously atorlic attery a. press. poisonous. venomous ætrig atwend v. renounce ætsacan atstandand/ atstander n.from (Eng. turn. .

bebid n. command, order bebod
bebidand n. commander bebeodend
bebidingly adv. imperatively bebeodendlic
bechide v. to complain becidan
beckonand/ beckoner n. indicator, discloser, index bicnend
beckoningly adv. enticingly bicnendlic
beclip v. embrace, encompass beclyppan
beclose v. confine, imprison beclysan
bede v. pray bedian
bedehouse n. chapel bedhus
bedidder v. deceive bedydrian
befare v. traverse, surround befaran, beferan
befasten v. establish, put safe, utilise befæstan
befold v. envelop befealdan
befrine v. question befrinan
befrining n. inquiry befrinung
begang n. course, circuit begang
begeng n. observance, practice, exercise bigeng
begenger n. practitioner bigenga
bego v. traverse, perform began
begengness n. application begengnes
behavedness n. behaviour, restraint, temperance behæfednes
beheadly a. capital punishment beheafodlic
behideness n. concealment behydnes
beholdness n. observation behealdnes
behovely a. necessary behoflic
belaugh v. deride behlyhhan
belean v. dissuade, prevent blean
benim v. deprive beniman
beniming n. deprival beniming
bepeach v. deceive bepæcan
bepeachand/ bepeacher n. deceiver bepæcend
bepeaching n. deception bepæcung
bereaver n. despoiler bereafere
beride v. ride round beridan
berow v. row round berowan

beruesing n. repentance behreowsing
besee v. provide for, have regard for beseon
beseen n. example, model, pattern bisen
beseen v. to set an example, instruct by example, express figuratively
beseening n. example, pattern bisenung
beshear v. deprive bescier
beshearedness n. deprivation bescierednes
beshed n. distinction bescead (compare watershed in geography)
beshed v. discriminate besceadan
beshow v. exhibit, demonstrate, display besceawian
beshower n. exhibitor, demonstrator, guide besceawere
beshowing n. demonstration, exhibition besceawung
beshowingly a. demonstratively besceawiendlic
besit v. occupy, posses besittan
besmear v. disgrace, reproach, defile bismerian
besmear n. disgrace, reproach, defilement bismer
besmearless a. unrepproached bismerleas
besmearly a. disgraceful, reproachful, defiling bismerlic
besmearness n. contemptibility bismernes
besnit v. pollute, dishonour besnitan
besnitness n. degradation, pollution besnitenes
besorrow v.i. to have compassion besorgian
besorrowing n. compassion besargung
beswape v. persuade beswapan
beswike n. treachery, deceit beswic
beswike v. deceive beswican
beswikeness n. deception beswicenes
beswiker n. deceiver beswica
beswiking n. deception beswicung
bethink v. consider beþencan
betingness n. amendment betendnes
betness n. reparation, atonement betnes
betoken v. designate betacnian
betrap v. entrap betrappan
bettering n. improvement beterung

betweenforletness n. intermission betwinforletnes
betwixalayedness n. interjection betwuxalegednes
betwixgoing separating betwuxgangende
betwixset interposed betwuxgesett
beward v. protect, guard beweardian
bewarp v. pervert beweorpan
beway v. frustrate bewægan
beweapon v. disarm bewæpnian
beweep v. lament bewepan
beweepingly adv. lamentably bewependlic
bewend v. turn, convert bewendan
bewind v. entwine, envelop, encircle bewindan
bework v. construct, adorn, insert bewyrcan
bilewhit a. innocent, simple, sincere bilewit
bilewhitness n. innocence, simplicity bilewitnes
birther n. embryo/ foetus beorðor
bismearful a. ignominious bismerful
bitmeal adv. piecemeal bitmælum
bladderwark n. pain in the bladder blædderwærc
blissy a. - from (Eng.) bliss blissig
blitheness n. joy, pleasure bliðnes
blossomy a. - from (Eng.) blossom blostmig
blowness n. inflation ablawnes
bonebreach n. bone fracture banbryce
bonebreak n. bone fracture bangebrec
bookhoard n. book collection bochord
bookhouse n. library bochus
booklore n. - from (Eng.) book + lore boclar
bookly a. literary boclic
boroughshire n. city/ town administrative area burhscir
boroughman n. town citizen burhman
boroughreeve n. provost, mayor burhgerefa
borrowsorrow n. loaning/ security trouble borg sorg
borrowbreach n. failure to repay loan/ surety borgbryce
boundness n. obligation bundennes
bowerthane n. chamberlain, page burðegn

brainsick a. - from (Eng.) brain + sick brægenseoc
breastwark n. pain in chest breostwærc
breastwhelm n. emotion, grief breostwylm
breme a. famous, noble breme
bridely a. bridal brydlic
bringness n. donation, support brengnes
broadness n. extent, surface, liberality bradnes
brook v. use, enjoy brucan
brooking n. function, occupation brucung
brookingly adv. functionally, serviceably brucendlice
brotherslaying n. fratricide broðerslege

candletree n. candelabrum candeltreow
carefulness n. - from (Eng.) careful + ness carefulnes
chapman n. trader ceapman
chapstow n. market ceapstow
chare n. occasion cierr
charing n. conversion cierring
chisness n. fastidiousness cisnes
Christianness n. - from (Eng.) Christian cristennes
churchly a. ecclesiastical circlice
churchthane n. minister of the church ciricðen
churchthaning n. church duty/ service ciricðenung
cleansingdrink n. purgative clænsungdrenc
cliffy a. - from (Eng.) cliff clifig
comelithe a. hospitable cumliðe
comelitheness n. hospitality cumliðnes
comer n. visitor cuma
coreness n. election corennes
cornhouse n. granary cornhus
cornseed n. grain of corn cornsæd
costen v. try, test, prove acostnian

costiand n. tempter costigend
costness n. proving, trial, temptation costnes
costning n. testing, temptation, trial costnung
couth a. manifest, certain, familiar cuð
couthly adv. manifestly, certainly, familiarly, evidently cuðlic
couthness n. acquaintance, familiarity cuðnes
cove a. active, strenuous, vigorous caf
covely adv. vigorously, actively, strenuously caflic
coveness n. energy, vigour cafnes
craftless a. - from (Eng.) craft cræftleas
craftly a. - from (Eng.) craft cræftlic
crippleness n. severe disability crypelnes
crundle n. ravine, quarry crundel
custy a. charitable, generous, virtuous cystig
custiness n. charitability, generosity, virtue cystignes

daresty a. venturesome, presumptuous dyrsig
davenliness n. opportunity dafenlicnes
dealtly a. - from (Eng.) dealt dæledlice
dearworth a. precious deorwierðe
dearworthly adv. preciously deorwierðlic
dearworthness n. preciousness deorwierðnes
deathbearly adv. lethally deaðbærlic
deathbearness n. lethalness deaðbærnes
deathliness n. - from (Eng.) deathly deaðlicnes
deathstead n. place of death deaðstede
deedbote n. atonement, penitence dædbot
deedboteness n. atonement, penitence dædbotnes
deedly a. active dædlic
deemer/ deemster a judge (Manx law has deemsters) dema
deepness n. profundity, mystery deopnes
dight n. arrangement diht

eaðnes eatly a. prosperously eadilic eadiness n. eatable ætlic eatness n. easiness. easy. doable donlic downstying descending dunestigende drenchness n. prosperity. inhabitant eardbegenga earthbegoingness n. affliction drecednes dwild n. agreeable eaðe eathly adv. appoint diht dighter n. arrange. edibility ætnes 162 . orientals eastleod eastlong adv. happy eadig eadily adv. to make fortunate eadigan earlish a. agriculture eorðilð eastleod n. extending east eastlang eatgiver n. torment dreccan dretchedness n.) earl eorlisc earthbeganger n. . erroneous movement dwildæfterfolgung dwolma n. immersion dryncnes dretch v. host at a meal ætgiefa eath a. arranger dihtere dightner n. . ordering.from (Eng. easily eaðelic eathness n.) dizzy dysigdom doly a. human race eorðcyn earthtiller n. farmer eorðtilia earthtilth n. horticulturalist. disposition dihtnung dizzydom n. manager dihtnere dightning n. pleasure ieðnes.from (Eng. horticulture. possible. fortune eadignes eady v. edible. fortunate. trouble. chaos dwolma E eady a. fortunately.dight v. ease. error dwild dwildafterfollowing n. prosperous. habitation eardbegengness earthkin n. tribulation.

ageing (process) ealdung eldmother n.) elderly ealdorlicnes eldership n. grandmother ealdmodor eldright n. pre-eminence. retainer ealdorðegn eldfather n. authoritativeness ealdordomlicnes elderdomly a. return edwendan edyield v. restitution edgift edmede n. degree endebyrdnes endlessness n. gentleness. series. restore. pre-eminently ealdordomlic elderliness n. infinity. renew edniwian ednewand/ ednewer n. reestablishment edstaðelung edwend v. eternity endeleasnes endmostness n. order. restore edstalian edstathling n.from (Eng. order endebyrd endbirthly a. ancient right. age ealddom elderborough n. seniority ealdorscipe elderthane n. regeneration eftacennednes eftleasing n. dominion. grandfather ealdfæder elding n. submission eaðmedu ednew v.eddish n. restorer edniwigend edquicken v. pre-eminence ealdordom elderdomliness n. park edisc edgift n. redemption eftlising eftmind v. tradition ealdgeriht eldsay n. in succession. revive edcwician edstall v. humility. restoration eftniwung eftthinging n. succession. epilogue endespræc 163 . tradition ealdgesegen eme n. . remember eftgemyndgian eftmindy remembering eftgemyndig eftnewing n. arrangement. metropolis ealdorburg elderdom n. chief attendant. authority. reconciliation eftðingung elddom n. remunerate edgyldan eftkenedness n. orderly manner endebyrdlic endbirthness n. authoritative. extremity endemestnes endspeak n. in order. uncle eam endbirth n. seniority.

equinoxual efenneahtlic evenold a. habitable eardiendlic erdstead n. pleasure est este v. contemporary efeneald evensorrow v. equinox efenniht evennightly a. abode eardung erdingly a. perpetually. graciousness estignes esty a. poverty. compassion. sympathise efengefeon evenlatch v. gracious estful estfulness n. with equanimity efenmodlice evennight n. imitation efenlæcung evenliness n. gracious estig ethel n. satisfactory genyhtsum enoughsomeness n. imitate efenlæcan evenlatcher n. premeditated ærbeðoht ereworld n. of equal birth efenboren evenfain v. misery. abundant genyhtful enoughly adv. equality efenlicnes evenling n. sufficiency. abounding. abundant.i. country eðel ethem n. to live luxuriously estian estely adv. abundance genyhtsumnis erding n. message ærendspræc este n. steam æðm evenborn a. grace. in perpetuity æfrelic 164 . bounty.engoughful a. partaker efenhlytta evenmoodly a. imitator efenlæcere evenlatching n. graciously estelic estful a. abundantly genyhtlice enoughsome a. equal person efnling evenlotter n. ancient world ærworuld ermth n. gracefulness estfulnes estiness n. commiserate efensargian evensorrowing n. compassionate efensarig everly a. vapour. distress iermð errandspeech n. sympathy efensargung evensorry a. equal sharer. favour. habitation eardstede erebethought a.

malice yfelgiornnes eyeseen a.) fake + deed facendæd fakeful a. attempt. experience fandian fander n. removal feorrung farlen a. society. . . proof fandung fareship n. test. unstable. try.) evil yfelic evilyearness n. remote fyrlen farly a. . distance feornes farsibb a. perishable. guileless facenleas fakely adv. to envy æfestian evestful a.from (Eng. . journey færing faring n. . transient feallenlic fallness n. tester. deceitfulness facennes fallenly a. visible eagsyne F fakedeed n. examine. test.) far feorlic farness n. community.evest n. deceitful facenful fakeless a. disastrous situation yfeladl evilful a.from (Eng. without deceit. offence fylnes fallsick a. retinue. envious æfestig eviladdle n.from (Eng.) evil yfelful evilness n.from (Eng. envy. malice yfelwillendnes evily a. trail. companionship ferscip fareing n. epileptic fylleseoc fallsickness n. ruin. distantly related feorsibb 165 . rivalry æfest evest v. trier fandere fanding n.) evil + ness yfelnes evilwilling a.from (Eng.from (Eng. investigation. epilepsy fylleseocnes fand v.) fake facenlic fakeness n. envious æfestful evesty a. malevolent yfelwillende evilwillingness n. .

vehicle fering ferly a. unite.) field feldlic fiendship n.from (Eng. joint. very fela felefold a. avarice feohgitsung fele adv. army fierd ferding n. multitude felafealdnes felespeakle a.from (Eng. digital fingerlic fird v. retentive. military. invention. greedy feohgeorn feeyetser n. diagram feg fay v. connect. stinginess. economy. associated ferlic ferness n. conjunction feging fayness n. military service fyrdfor firdly a. passage. join. companionship. fulfilment. nourishment fednes feelessness n. soldiering fyrding fere n. association.from (Eng.from (Eng. . transition. tenacious fæsthafol fay n. fix. .) fen fennig ferd n. compose fegian faying n. tenacity fæsthafolnes fasthavle a. the military fyrdscip 166 . . to go on expedition fyrdian firdfare n. finger joint fingerlið fingerly a. paucity feawnes fieldly a. completion fylednes findle n. a joining. talkative felaspecol felewordness n. conjunction fegnes feedness n. covetous. composition.fasthavleness n. comrade fera fered a. associated fered fering n. expedition. miser feohgitsere feeyetsing n. connection.) feel + less feohleasnes feeyearn a. frequent felafeald felefoldness n. martial fyrdlic firdship n. talkative felawyrdnes fenny a. associate.) fiend feondscipe filledness n. . passing away fernes ferren from remote place/ time feorran fewness n. retentiveness. campaign. composition. device fyndele fingerlith n.

human/ common right. common. ardent fyrhat fitherdealt a. carnality flæsclicnes fleshmonger n. common need. prohibition forbod forbow v. butcher flæscmangre fleshness n. decline forbugan forbreak break in pieces forbrecan forburn to be consumed by fire forbærnan forburnedness n. people's right folcriht folkship n. public officer folcgerefa folkright n. common land. of the people folcisc folkland n. people folcscipe folkstowe n. publicly known folccuð folkfree a. popular. tolerably forberendlice forbode n. generally accepted. public meeting folcmot folkneed n.firdwise adv. nation.) flood flodlic floodward n. surprise forcuman fordeem v. common folclic folkmoot n. population. basic need folcned folkreeve n. prejudice. carnal attraction flæscbesmitennes fleshliness n. in prejudicial way fordemedlic fordeemedness n. prevent. militarily fyrdwise fireburn n. public. surpass. flood barrier protection flodweard folkcouth a. . prejudice fordemednes fordim v. nautical. quartered fiðerdæled fleetly a. naval flotlic fleshbesmittenness n. incarnation flæscnes floodly a. obscure fordimmian 167 . public land folcland folkly a. pedestrian fotlic forbearingly adv.from (Eng. popular. prematurely judge fordeman fordeemedly adv. conflagration fyrbryne firefood n. public place folcstowe footly a. uninhabited folcfrig folkish a. consumption by fire forbærnednes forcome v. prejudge. fuel fyrfoda firehot a.

) fore + token foretacn forewrit n. . propose. predecessor foregenga foregearing n. prevail forestandan forestep v. precede foregangan foreganger n.from (Eng.from (Eng. precursor forestæppend forestepping n. precede foresteppan foresteppand/ forestepper n. thorax. grateful in advance foreðancful forethink v. block. consider foreðencan forethinkle a. confound fordwilman fordwine n. protection forescieldnes foreshow v. prejudge foredeman foregang v. proposition. preparation foregearwung forego v. prevent forecuman foredeem v. prologue forewrit forewriteness n. prescription forewriteness 168 . prevent. precede foregan forelook v. predict foresecgan foreseek v. chest foranbodig forebusy v. destroy fordon fordwilm v. precentor foresingend foresit v. preamble forespræc forestand v. prevent move/ action. anticipation. . give a preview foresceawian foreshower n. disappear fordwinan forebody n.) fore + seek foresecan foreset v. anticipate. vanish. purpose foresetnes foreshieldness n. premeditate. prediction foresegdnes foresay v. preview (showing of) foresceawung foresingand/ foresinger n. preoccupy forebisegian forechoose v.fordo v. prefer in preferance foreceosan forecome v. place before foresettan foresetness n. excel. prudence foreðancolnes foretoken n. prudent foreðancol forethinkleness n. preview forelocan foresaidness n. precedence forestæppung forethankful a. ruin. preside foresittan forespeech n. one showing previews foresceawere foreshowing n.

. wrong/ incorrect education forleornung forlet v.f. intermission forlæting forlie v. evade forfleon forgetelness n. self restraint. contempt forhogung forhowingly adv. relinquishment forlætennes forletting n. contemptuously forhogodlic forhowedness n. seduce forspanan 169 . transform forscieppan forspan v. devastation.) forlorn forlorenes forlose v. deprivation forgægednes forharry v. intercept with vehicle/ horse a. abstinence forhæfnes forhavingly adv. abandon. contempt forhogodnes forhowing n. abstinence forhæfednes forhaveness n. abandonment forsacennes forsaking n.from (Eng. abstention. oblivion forgitelnes forgivenly a. obstruct. relinquish forlætan forletness n. adulterer. intercept forfaran forflee v. abandonment. fornicator forliger forlornness n. raid forheriung forhavand/ forhaver n.from (Eng. one who is abstinent forhabbend forhave v. denial. commit adultery or fornication forlicgan forlieand n. neglecter. abandon forleosan formelt v.s. forridan forsakeness n. rejection. .) forgiven forgifenlic forgoedness n. denial forsacung forshape v. despise forhogian forhowand/ forhower n. dissolve formeltan forolding n. adulterer. temperance. restrain forhabban forhavedness n. ravage forhergian forharrying n. disregard. despiser forhogiend forhowedly adv. seduce forlædan forlearning n. with temperance forhæfendlice forhow v. fornicator forlicgend forlier n. neglect.forfare v. old age foraldung forride v. contemptably forhogiendlic forlayness n. fornication forlegnes forlead v.

advance forðgang forthing n. deteriorate forweorðan forworthness n. prevent. destroy forspildan forspilledness n. seduction forspaning forspeak v. obstruct. produce forðberan forthbuilding n. sponsor. block forstandan forswornness n. quadruply feowerfealdlice 170 .forspanning n. progress. denounce forspecan forspeaker n. recompense. conspicuous forðgesyne forthsetness n. oppose. advancement forðung forthink v. advocate forspeca forspend v. proposal. paternal forðfaderen forthfroming n. despair. progress forðwardnes forthyearn v. perjury forsworennes forthbear v. depart forðfaran forthfatheren a. resist. advanced forðlic forthought despaired of forðoht forthsay v. deterioration forweorðenes foryield v. to be impetuous forðgeorn fortrueing n. declaration forðspell forthstep v. allurement. departure forðfroming forthgang v. requite forgieldan fourfoldly adv. despise. advanced. devaluation. announce forðsecgan forthseen a. encouragement forðbylding forthfare v. squander forspendan forspill v. destruction forspildnes forstand v. future forðgesceaft forthship n. mistrust forðencan forthlet v. progressive forðward forthwardness n. advance forðstæppan forthstepping n. progress forðscype forthspell n. emit forðlætan forthly a. motion forðsetennes forthshaft n. proclaim. presumption fortruwung forwedded pledged forweddod forworth v. advance forðstæpping forthward a. proposition.

peaceable friðsum frithstowe refuge. inquisitive. about to depart framweard frostly a. curious frymdig frith n. cause fruma frumer n.from (Eng. usefulness fremfulnes fremely a. interrogation. positively. breach of the peace friðbræc frithsome a. origin.frayn n. originator. . useful. question frignung frayning v. alien. . profitably. peace agreement. consolation frefer. profitability. progress framscipe fromward adv. inventor fruma frumly a. comforter frefrend frovring n. action. questioning frignes frayning n. sanctuary friðstow frithwrit n. consoler. estrange fremdian fremd a. cheer. beneficial constructive. fregenung freckenful a.from (Eng. foreign. usefully. amiably freondhealdlic friendlore n. pacific. benefit fremian fremeful a. questioning frægning. constructively. original. console frefran froverness n. primitive frumlic 171 . strange fremde freme v. profitable fremlic fremefully adv. positive fremful fremefulness n. liberator freogend fremd v. treaty friðgewrit fromfare n. consolation frefrung frume n. frofor frover v. peace frið frithbreach n. exercise. dangerous frecenful freeand n. departure framfær fromship n. amiable freondheald friendholdly adv.) friend + lore freondlar frimdy a. beneficially fremfulic friendhold a. consolation frofornes frovrand n. avail. question fregen frayne v. inquire frignan frayness n.) frost forstlic frover n. departing. profitable.

completion fulfremednes fullgo v. baptise fulwihtan fullought n. without support fultumleas fullwork v. abscess gaderednes gatheringly adv. accomplish. incantation galdorsong gatheredness n. primitive frymðlic frumwork n. support fultum fulltumer n. creator frumscepend frumth n. enchantment galdor galdercraft n. baptism fulwiht fulloughtbath n. continuous. united gadertang 172 . fully perform fullgan fullholden a. support fultuman fulltum n. supporter fultuma fulltumless a. ratify/ apply fully fulfæstnian fullfreme v. foundation frymð frumthly a. baptiser. promotion fyrðringnes G gainwrit n. font fulwihtbæð fulloughter n. perfect fullfremman fullfremed completed fulfremed fullfremedly adv. primeval condition.t. collectively gadrigendlic gathertang a. complete. abundance fullsumnes fulltum v. magic galdorcræft galdersong n. original creation frumsceaft frumshapand/ frumshaper n. promoter fyrðriend furtheringness n. totally responsible fulhealden fullought v. complete fullwyrcan furtherand/ furtherer n. original construction frumgeweorc fullfasten v.frumshaft n. complete. rewriting geangewrit galder n. origin. completely fullfremedlice fullfremedness n. primeval. baptist fulwihtere fullsomeness n.

from (Eng. seizure gripennes grith n. irritate gremian greming n. treasure goldhord goldhoardhouse n. fiscal gafollic gearing n. evangelical godspellic greenhuen a. preparation gearwungnes givle a.f. excellent godlic gospelly a. foundation grundweall groundwall v.s. . battle. preparation gearwung gearingness n. breach of truce/ asylum griðbryce grorning n. generous gifol givleness n. evil godleas goodly a. adorned with gold goldhladen goodless a. provoke. .) guest giestig guth n.from (Eng. prosperity grownes guestly a. complaint grornung groundlessly a. liberality gifolnes glading n. . foundation stone grundstan groundwall n. .) glad gladung goldhoard n.f. war guð 173 . enrage.) grim grimnes gripness n. lay/ build foundations grundweallian growness n. combat.) groundless grundleaslic groundstone n. hospitable giestlic guesty a. generosity. truce.from (Eng. treasury goldhordhus goldladen a.) grim grimful grimness n.from (Eng. green coloured (a. continuation gadertangnes gavel n.from (Eng. interest (on loan a.) gafol gavelly a. development. . asylum. protection grið grithbreach n.gathertangness n. provocation gremung grimful a.) grenhæwen greme v.s.

hostility hetolnes havedness n. difficulty heanhad heanly a. calumny hearmspræc harvestly a. saviour hælend healness n. audibly hierendlic 174 . continence hæbbednes haveless a. prisoner. chief place heafodstede headward n. saint halga hallowand n.from (Eng. personal power handgeweald handwhile n. hall officer healðegn handtame a. instant handhwil hap a. hostile. convenience hæplicnes hardliness n.) hard + mood heardmodnes harmheartness n.from (Eng. hostile. with hostile intentions heteðoncol hattle a. destitute hafenleas headbold a. captive hæftling hallow n. impudent heafodbald headguilt n.from (Eng.) hand + tame handtam handthane n. capital heafodlic headstead n. horrible hetelic hatethinkle a. confident. abject. capital offence heafodgilt headly a. . consecration halgung hallthane n. sanctifier halgigend hallowing n. principal. retainer handðegn handweald n. austerity heardlicnes hardmoodness n.) harm + heart harmheartness harmspeech n. odious hatol hattleness n. . injure hienan heanhood n.H haftling n. afflict. poor heanlic hearingly adv. convenient hæp hapliness n. .from (Eng. salvation hælnes hean v.) harvest hærfestlic hately a. recovery. . chief protector heafodweard healand n.

climax.from (Eng. general heretoga herdly a. covering helm helmward n. pastoral hierdlic herebefore preposition previously herbeforan hereonamong preposition . soldier heremann heratower n. grief heortsarnes heartwark n. obey hiersumian hearsomely adv. consider. chief officer. pilot helmweard hera n. ponder. army here herahuth n. secure hieldelic heleth n. plunder herehuð heraly a. obediently hiersumlic hearsomeness n. hero hæleð helm n. determine hycgan hedgely adv. mountain heahbeorg highbliss n.) heathen hæðendom heathenness n. exultation hihting 175 . obedience. exultation heahbliss highelder n. chief officer heahgerefa highshireman n.from (Eng. ruler. obedience hiernes hearsome a. meditatively. important function heahðegnung highting n. having a stable. county council leader heahscireman highthane n.from (Eng. command hæs highberg n. . pride heahmodnes highreeve n.) heavy + mood hefigmod hedge v. attentive hiersum hearsome v. . defence. safe. martial herelic heraman n.hearness n.) hereon + among herongemong heriot n.) heathen hæðennes heavymood n. military equipment heregeatu hest n. determinedly hycglic heldly a. protection. report. pain in heart heortwærc heathendom n. attentiveness hiersumnes hearthfast a. obedient. . captain heahðegen highthaning n.from (Eng. settled home heorðfæst heartsoreness n. commander. considerately. prime minister heahealdor highmoodness n. meditate.

devotion healdsumnes homefast a. allegiance holdscipe holdsome a. site of a house husstede houth n. court hof hovely a. anxiousness hohfulnes howing n. mania hatheortnes houndly a. become enraged/ angry hatheortan hotheartness n. secure healdfæst holdness n. safe. insult. derision hocor holdand n. economy. occupying/ established in a house husfæst housestead n. courtly a. loyalty.from (Eng. endeavour hogung howly adv. rage. restraint. guardian. betrayer hinderling hinderness n. protector. combat hild hinderling n. . conspirator. economical. sciatica hypebanece hithe n. zeal. custody. port hyð hithely a.from (Eng. excellent work heahgeweorc hild n. anxious hohful howfullness n. prudent hoga howe v. observance healdnes holdship n.) hither + come hidercyme hitherward adv. established (in a home) hamfast honeysweet a. .) hithe = harbour/ port hyðlic hithercome v. . hindrance hindernes hipboneache n. burglarious husbrycel housefast a. frugal healdsum holdsomeness n. observance. preservation. mellifluous hunigswete hothearten v. resident.highwork n. prudently hohlice 176 .from (Eng. hoflic howe a. ruler healdend holdfast a. become zealous. harbour.) hither hiderweard hoardward n. canine hundlic housebreach n. guardian of treasure hordweard hoker n. be prudent hogian howful a. restraint. plunder huð hove n. burglary husbryce housebreachle a. war.

especially huru I ickly a. .) inlandish inlendiscnes inlath v. incursion infaran infare n. starving hungerbiten hure a. access ingang ingo v. entrant. vain desire idellust idleyearn v. to be indolent idelgeorn inaddle n. entrance. native inlenda inlandish a. enter.from (Eng.) hue + less hiwleas hueness n.see also onblowness and note p. conscience ingehygd inheedness n. enter ingangan ingang n. enwrap. admission infær infind v. certainly. vain joy idelbliss idlelust n. consciousness ingehygdnes inherd n. 84 inblawan indrench v.from (Eng. colouration hiwnes hungerbitten a. enter ingan ingoer/ ingenger n. family inhired inlander n. colouration hiwung hueless a. enfold inbewind inblow v. famished. prudence hogascipe hueing n.howship n. incarnation inflæscnes ingang v. saturate indrencan infare v. . introduce inlædan 177 . discover infindan infleshness n. native. internal disease inadl inbewind v. sense. inflame inhætan inheed n. indigenous inlendisc inlandishness n. adv. invite inlaðan inlead v.. glacial gicelig idlebliss n. visitor ingenga inheaten v. inspire .

illumination. institute insettan insetness n. intention in(ge)ðanc inthought n. in way of being present instandendlic inthink n. testament. announce. inscription inawritting K kinly a. interior inlic inning n. relate. secretary inwritere inwriting n. internal pain inwærk inwise in terms of what is popular/ 'in' inwise inwitness n. institution. internal. enlightenment inlihtnes inly a. demonstrator insceawere inshowing n. enlighten inlihtan inlightness n. testifier cyðere kithing n. proclaim. to be present instandan instandingly adv. testimony cyðednes kitheness n. consciousness. intention ingeðoht inwark n. contents innung inset v. illuminator inlihtend inlighten v. pertaining to family cynlic kithe v. confirm cyðan kithedness n.inlightand n. testimony cyðnes kither n. perform. regulation insetnes insetted inserted ingeseted inshower n. illuminate. genuflection cneowbigung 178 . narration cyðung kneebowing n. inspection insceawung instand v. demonstration. statement. conscience ingewitnes inwriter n.

L landfirding n. parole alætnes lifeward n.) liking liciendlic 179 . minority leasnes letness n.) likeworth licwyrþnes likeworthly adv. likeability licwyrðnes likeworthy a. legacy laf lawbreach n. .) laughter hleohterful laughtersmith n. university. natives landfolc landhera n. likeable licwerþe likingly a. frivolity leohtmodnes likebusning n. nice.) late lætsum lathing n.) late + most lætemest latesome a. . . border landmearc landship n. .) law + breach lahbryce lawly a.from (Eng.) less leaslic lessness n.from (Eng. college. comedian hleahtersmið lave n. likeable licwyrðe likeworthily a. region landstede latemost a.from (Eng. imitation licbisnung likeworth a. educational establishment.from (Eng. boundary.) like + worth licwyrþlice likeworthiness n. . likeably licwyrðlic likeworthness n. permissible liefedlic lessly a.from (Eng. remnant. legal lahlic lawright n. region landscipe landstead n. legal right lahriht learningchild n. invitation laðung laughle a. pleasingly.from (Eng. acceptable. lifeguard lifweard lightmoodness n.from (Eng. pupil (child) leorningcild learninghouse n. military operations on land landfyrding landfolk n. land force/ army landhere landmark n. . inclined to laugh hlagol laughterful a. pleasing. remission. . . school leorninghus leavedly a.from (Eng.

horrible laðlic loften a. flexible leoðubige lithebyness n.from (Eng. flexibility leoðubignes littleheedy a. erudition larcræft loredom n.) little + heed lytelhydig littleness n. . tediously.) love lufsum lovesomely a. liver complaint liferadl liversickness n. sincere hlutor luterness n.) lovesome lufsumlic lovesomeness n.from (Eng.from (Eng. sincerity hlutornes 180 .) lore larsum lorethane n. .from (Eng. joint lið litheby a. . protractedly langsumlic longsomeness n. .) lore larlic loresome a.from (Eng.) lore + writer larwita lovesome a. . tediousness.) lustful lustfulnes lustyearnness n. .from (Eng. .from (Eng. disease of liver liferseocnes liverwark n. concupiscence lustgeornnes luter a.) lore lardom lorely a. . . patience langsumnes loreboding n. pain in liver liferwærc loathingness n.lith n. protracted langsum longsomely adv. aerial lyftlic longsome a.from (Eng.) little lytelnes littling n. .) lovesome lufsumnes lustfulness n. diminution lytlung liveraddle n. hostility laðwendnes loathless a.from (Eng. tedious. instructor larðegn lorewriter n. preaching (teaching) larbodung lorecraft n. aerial lyften loftly a. .from (Eng.from (Eng.) loath + less laðleas loathly a.

humane mæðful methely adv.from (Eng. moderately. most central midmest midness n. masculinity manscipe manyhuely a. virgin soil mædeneorðe maidhood n. complexity manigfealdnes manless a. multiplicity.) mild + heart mildheortnes 181 . measure. . powerful mihtful mightly a. moderately metfæstlic metefastness n. virginity mægðhad manifoldly a. .from (Eng. mediator midligend midmost a. to have compassion. borderland mearcland matchly a. maleness.from (Eng. . . mediocrity midnes mightful a. . compassion. masculine mennisc mannishliness n. proportion. moderate metfæst metefastly adv. masculinity mannishness (later English) manship n.) meat + less meteleas metefast a. male. abundance. . proportionally mæðly mething n. masculinely mennisclic mannishness n. compatibility mæcscip meanship n. show mercy miltsian mildheartness n.) manifold = multiply/ multiple manigfealdlic manifoldness n. moderation metfæstnes methe n.M maidenearth n.from (Eng. possible mihtelic milce n. conjugal mæclic matchness n. adjudication mæðung middaily a. degree.from (Eng. humanely. rate mæð metheful a.) midday middæglic middliand n. community mænscipe meatless a. masculinity mennisclicnes mannishly adv.) many + hue monigheowlic marchland n.from (Eng. mercy. centrality.) man manleas mannish a. benevolence milts milce v. compatibility mæcnes matchship n.

diversity missenlicnes missenly a.mindday n. various missenlic missly adv. menstruation monaðseocnes moodful a. diversity.) mis + hold mishealdan misholdsomeness n. place of meeting. erratically mislic misspeak v.from (Eng. . lunar monlic moonsick a. . neglect misgyman monthsick a.) mood modful moodless a.) mis + do misdon misfare v.from (Eng. degenerate misboren misdo v. . . conversation motung 182 . . lunatic monseoc moothouse n.from (Eng. incompetence mishealdsumnes misshrunk . dissimilarity. . difference mislicnes mislive v. . variety.) mis + live mislybban missenliness n. inaccurately. . .) mood + sick modseoc moodsickness n. menstruous monaðseoc monthsickness n.) mis + write miswritan misyeme v.) mis + teach mistæcen misthink v.from (Eng.) mind myndig mindiliness n.) mis + speak misspecan misteach v. .from (Eng.from (Eng. .from (Eng. discussion. .from (Eng.from (Eng. remembrance. memorandum myndgung mindworth a. worth remembering/ minding/ mentioning mynd(e)wyrðe mindy a. remembrance myndiglicnes minely a.) moodsick modseocnes moodthought n.from (Eng.) mis + think misðyncan mistime v.from (Eng.from (Eng.) mind myndiglic minding n.) mis + time mistimian miswrite v.from (Eng.from (Eng. miscarriage misbyrd misborn a.from (Eng. . assembling mothus mooting n.from (Eng. 'mis'travel misfaran mishold v. in my manner minlice misbirth n. . . anniversary mynddæg mindily a.) mood + less modleas moodsick a.) mis + shrunk misscrence mislikeness n. variety.) mood + thought modgeðoht moonly a.

) nether niðerweard newness n. . abundance micelnes N narrowness n.from (Eng. descend niðergan nethering n. forum motstow mostlyest most particularly. necessary niedbehoflic needbehoveness n.from (Eng.mootstow n. . maternal medren mouthroof n. approach nealæcan nighleching n. necessity neadwisnes nethergo v. novelty niwnes newwhirved a. inferior niðerlic netherness n. necessarily niedbehæfdlic needbehovedness n. necessity neadhad needly a. nib n.) narrow nearones neb.) much micellic muchness n.from (Eng. necessity niedbehæfednes needbehovely a. requisite niedbehæfnes needhood n. palate muðhrof muchly a. villain niðing 183 . face neb(b) needbehove a. size. in terms of need neadwis needwiseness n. . necessity nydnes needright n. approach. beak. necessary niedbehefe needbehovedly a. necessary nydlic needness n. vigil nihtwæcce nithfully adv. condemnation niðerung netherly a. inferiority niðernes netherward adv. newly converted nigehwyrfed nighleche v. abasement. duty nydriht needwise adv. most especially mæstlicost mothren a. maliciously niðfullice nithing n. access nealæcung nightwatch n.

recognise. simplicity anfealdnes onemood a. experience onfundelnes onfoundness n.from (Eng. malicious niðig noughtly a. eliminate ofdon offlike to be displeasing. inspection. perceptively andgitfullice ongetless a.from (Eng. perceive. displease ofðyncan oldly a.) old ealdlic oldness n. perjury aðbryce offcarve n. eldness n. amputation ofcyrf offdo v. individuality. experiment. distinguish ongietan ongetful a. discoverer onfindend onfoundleness n. speciality anlipnes onlepy a. single. experience. examination onbesceawung onblowness n. trial onfundennes onget. . perceptive andgietful ongetfully a.from (Eng. special anli(e)pig 184 . unanimity anmodnes onewillness n.) on + doing ondoung onefold a. unique. anget v. unanimous anmod onemoodness n. recognition ongietennes onlepiness n. comprehension. perception. explanation. inspiration . . individual..) offset ofsetnes offthink v.nithy a. old age ealdnes onbeload v.see also inblow. and note p. private. sincere anfeald onefoldness n. inflict upon onbelædan onbeshowing n.from (Eng. lacking perception andgietless ongetness n. . simple. privacy. displease oflician offsetness n. section.) nought nahtnes O oathbreach n. of no avail. without result nahtlic noughtness n. perceive. 84 onblawnes ondoing . notice onfindan onfindand/ onfinder n. obstinacy anwillnes onfind v.

respect. reverence arung oughting n. respect. honestly. gracious arfæst orefastly adv. excite onstyrian onstiredness n. enlightener onlihtend onlighten v. allegory. power. dishonour arleasnes orereadness n. also spoken) onscyte onsow v. respect. introduce into. fount.e. impose onsettan onsetness n. departure. parable. source ord ordfrim a. right honourable arweorðful oring n. illumination. original ordfrymm ordfrume n. requirement eahtung ourlandish a. honour arweorðnes oreworth a. authority onwealdnes ord n. form. illumination onlihtnes onlikeness n. attack (f. exit utgang outgoing n. constitution. agitate. command onweald onwieldness n. movement onstyrednes onwield n.onlightand/ onlighter n. condition arædnes oreworthily adv. transmit onsendan onset v. honourable arweorð oreworthyful a. enlightenment onlihting onlightness n. outward passage utfaru outgang n./ onlight v. authority. honest. move. honour. face ansien onsend v. native urelandisc outabstandness n. implant onsawan onstir v. favour ar orefast a. dishonourable arleas orelessness n. honesty arfæstnes oreless a. exit. surroundings utanymbstandnes outfare n. respectfully. duty. establishment onsetnes onshot n. honour. of our country. graciously arfæstlic orefastness n. honourably arweorðlic oreworthness n. respected. illuminate on(a)lihtan onlighting n. by shooting. source ordfruma ore n. exodus utgong 185 . pattern ongelicnes onseen n. disturb.

excess uferung overlive v. transmit ofersendan overset v.from (Eng. excess. survive oferlibban overmarking n.from (Eng. remotely utlic outshove v. superstructure ofergeweorc 186 .from (Eng. . abduction utlædnes outly a. overtalkative ofersprecol overspeakleness n.from (Eng. exclude utscufan overalderman n. gluttonous oferetol overeattleness n. . traverse oferferan overfill n.) over + speech oferspræc overwork n. .) over + sea ofersæwisc oversend v.outkind a. . trial. alcoholism oferdruncennes overeattle a.from (Eng. superscription ofermearcung overmuchness n. superfluity oferflownes overfoundness n. travel over oferfaran overfare v. surfeit oferfylnes overflowness n. disdain oferhogodnes overing n. foreign utacund outleadness n. excess.from (Eng. alcoholic oferdrencere overdrunkeness n.) over + show ofersceawian overshowand/ overshower n.) over + set ofersettan overshow v.) over + drink oferdrencan overdrinker n. excess. transgress ofergan overhow v. excess ofermicelnes overseaish a.from (Eng. despise oferhogian overhowand/ overhower n. supervene oferbecuman overdrink v.) over + speak ofersprecan overspeakle a. traverse. overtalkitiveness ofersprecolnes overspeech n. surfeit oferfyll overfillness n. external. . .) one who overshows ofersceawigend overspeak v. gluttony oferetolnes overfare v. extraneous. delay. despiser oferhogiend overhowedness n. . chief officer oferaldormann overbecome v. experiment oferfundnnes overgo v.

discourse reordian rerde n. adv. mitigation cwemnes quemely a. phrase. high official. commotion hrernes reeve n. satisfying cweming R readthoughter n. . please.) qualm cwealmnes queme a. superscription ofergewrite ovet n.overwrit n. consideration of literature rædðeahtende rearness n. proverb.from (Eng. . satisfactorily cwemlic quide v. dangerous.) qualm cwealmful qualmness n. property agennes ownslayer suicide victim agenslaga P plightly a. voice. prefect refa reeveship n. fruit ofet ownness n.from (Eng. pleasing. perilous plihtlic Q qualmbearingly adv. pleasant. acceptable cweme queme v. satisfy.from (Eng. suitable. sentence cwide qweming pleasing.from (Eng. ..) qualm + bear + ness cwealmbærnes qualmful a. literary commentator rædðeahtere readthoughting n. prefecture refscipe rerde v. satisfaction. .) qualm + bearing cwealmberendlic qualmbearness n. comply with cweman quemeness n. disturbance. pleasure. agreeable. office. language reord 187 . satisfying.

. regretful hreowig 188 . justice.) rough + ful hreohful roun n.) right + willing rihtwillende rightwise n. firm roof hroffæst roomgivle a. reach hrinan rineness n.from (Eng. righteousness rihtwisnes rightwising n. violent. rational rihtgewittelic rightworth a.from (Eng. justifiably rihtwislic rightwiseness n. fierce. secrecy.) room rumlic roop a. rectitude rihtnes rightset a. proper ordinance/ appointment rihtgesetednes rightsetness n. contact. touch hrining rooffast a. properly appointed/ established rihtgeset rightsetedness n. severe reðig ricser n. regret hreownes ruey a. justify rihtwisian rightwisely adv. justification rihtwisung rightwittly a. articulate rihtliðlic rightness n.from (Eng. rightful establishment/ appointment/ office rihtgesetnes rightwilling a. ruler ricsere ricsing n. liberality ropnes rootfast a. correction. touch. mystery run rueing regretting hreowende rueness n. just. direct paternal descent/ pedigree rihfædrencynn righting n. touch hrinenes rining n.rethy a. liberal rop roopness n. bountifulness rumgifulnes roomheartness n. firmly established rotfæst roughful a. liberality rumheortnes roomly a. . secret. in a correct way rihtwis rightwise v. cruel. domination ricsung rightdoing a. with a solid. . bountiful rumgiful roomgivleness n. reproof rihting rightlithely a. liberality. proper rihtwyrðe rine v. just rihtdonde rightfathrenkin n. correction.

unified samodfæst samedworking a. marine deposits on shore sæupwearp seaward n. antagonist sceaða scathiness n. unified. damage sceaðignes scathing n. strange seldcuð seldly a. visibly. independence selfdom selflike n. seminal sædlic seekness n. rare. marine. examine. merged.S samed a. absorbed. coastal cliff sæbeorg seafare n. cooperating samodwyrcende sameheart a. injurious deed/ crime sceðdæd scatheful n. rare. sewenlic seldcouth a. damage sceaðung scathingly a. unification samnung sayness n. injurious sceaðig scruten v.from (Eng. extraordinary seldsiene selfdom n. vanity selflice selfmurderer n. joined. expression segnes scathedeed n. investigation scrutnung seaberg n. examiner scrutnere scrutning n. merged samod samedfast a. suicide selfmyrðrung selfwealdly adv. injury. coast guard sæweard seedly a. egotism. suicide victim selfmyrðra selfmurdering n. scrutinise scrutnian scrutner n. . maritime sælic seaupwarp n.) scathing sceððendlic scathy a. unanimous samheort samening n. injury sceðnes scather n. injurious person. inquiry secnes seenly adv. arbitrarily selfwealdlice 189 . united. rare. union. sea voyage sæfor sealy a. injury. evidently sienlic. injurious sceaðful scatheness n. unusual. strange seldlic seldseen a.

discreet. scandal scandlicnes shandly adv. corrupt. formation. victorious sigorfæst seyerfastness n. modest scamfæst shandful a. protector. discriminate. separation. voluntarily. discretion sceadwisnes sheer v. triumph sigefæstnes seyly a. triumph sig seyer n. victory. rationally sceadwislic shedwiseness n. confound. victorious sigelic shamefast a. cut off scirian sheeringly a. foundation. arbitrarily selfwillendlice setness n. discrimination. victory sigorfæstnes seyerly a. construction. triumphal sigorlic seyfast v.selfwilling a. rational sceadwis shedwisely adv. protection. reproach scendle shendness n. reproach. rationality. scandalous scandful shandliness n. record setnes sey n. in way that mark/ cuts off sciriendlic shend v. position. mark off. protection. creator scieppend shielder n. discretion scead (compare watershed in geography) shedwise a. victory sigor seyerfast a. defence scildung shieldness n. defender scieldere shielding n. institute asetnes setness n. distinction. affliction scendung shendle n. defence scildnes shildiness n. creation sceapennes shed n. criminal scyldig 190 . triumph sigfæstan seyfast a. criminality scyldignes shildless a. victory. innocent scyldleas shildy a. institution. disgrace. confusion scendnes shepand n. discomfit scendan shending n. voluntary selfwillende selfwillingly adv. victorious sigefæst seyfastness n. discriminately. discreetly. scandalously scandlic shapeness n. disgraceful. disgracefully.

shineness n. somnolence slapolnes slithe a. concord. pilot scopsteora shipward n. subtlety smealicnes smalling n. atrophy smalung smally a.from (Eng. somnolent slapol sleepleness n. valley. nephew sweostorsunu sith n. pain in shoulder sculdorwærc showingstowe n. peace sibb sibsome a. savagely. vision sihðnes sinny a. making peace sibsumung sideaddle n. lethargy slapfulnes sleeple a. radiance scinnes shipfight n.) small smealic smatch v. elegant. lethargic. ship master scipweard shireman n. . laziness sleacornes slade n. beauteous smicer 191 . fiercely sliðelic slitness n. missile scotung shoulderwark n. reduction. peace sibsumnes sibsoming n. reconcile sibsumian sibsomeness n. unguent smeorusealf smicker a. cruel. discrete sidlic sidewark n. taste smæccan smearsalve n. laceration slitnes smalliness n. cruelly. pleurisy sidadl sidely a. . comrade sið slackerness n. pain in the side sidwarc sightness n. naval battle scipgefeoht shiply a.) sin synnig sister's son n. savage. glade slæd sleepbear a. lethargy. county council official scirmann shoting n. soporific slæpbære sleepfulness n. companion. peaceable sibsum sibsome v.from (Eng. nautical sciplic shipsteerer n. fierce sliðe slithely adv. place of demonstration sceawungstow sib n.

from (Eng. gently smoltlice snithe v. dexterously smiðlice smolt a. . prosperous sundful soundfully adv. condition staðol staith n. talkative sprecul speakleness n. smeech n.) sorry + mood sarigmod sorryness n. amputate sniðan snithing n. miserable sorglic sorrowword n.) sorry sarignes sot a. prosperously sundfullic soundfulness n. existence stondnis starkmood n. investigation spyrung spewdrink n. river bank stæð standness n.from (Eng. gentleness smyltnes smitch. .from (Eng. elegance smicernes smiltness n. status. favourable sundig southright due south suðrihte speakful a. investigator.) stark + mood stearcmod 192 . loquacity sprecolnes speechhouse n.from (Eng. vapour smic smithcraft n. investigate spyrian speeriand/ speerer n. state. . position. . inquirer spyrigend speering n. support.smickerness n. talkative spræcful speakle a. lamentation sorgword sorrymood n.from (Eng. manual art smiðcræft smithly adv. in good condition. prosperity sundfulnes soundy a. sobriety syfernes songcraft n. stupid sott sotship n. foundation. base. . station. amputation sniðung soberness n.) sorrow sorgleas sorrowly a.) song + craft sangcræft sorrowless a. stupidity sotscipe soundful a. auditorium spræchus speer v. liquid emetic spiwdrenc staddle n. gentle smolt smoltly adv.

station stede steadless a. location. special. voice stefn stirness n. masonry stangetimbre stovebath n. position. station stow stowly a. position. gradually stæpmælum steven n. born of disparate parents sunderboren sundercraft n. profligately steorleaslic steerness n. separation. power of motion. special skill sundorcræft sunderfreedom n. privilege sunderfreodom sunderliness n. private. guidance. tribe strynd stylt v. race. sauna stofbæð stowe. trouble swenc swenkedness n. to be astonished astyltan suchness n. disturbance. rocky hill/ mountain stanbeorg stonetimber n. place. generation. solar sunlic swenche v. trouble swencan swenk n. odiferous stencbrengende stepmeal adv. movement.stead n. out of control steorleas steerlessly adv. acute steapheah steerer n. profligate. tumult styrenes stoneberg n. nature. commotion. reproof steorsprec steerworth a. reprehensible steorweorð stenchbringing a. singularity synderlicnes sunderly a. site. pilot. deceive swican swike n. unstable stedeleas steephigh a. seclusion separateness. quiet swige swike v. riparian streamlic strind n. stow n. treachery. local stowlic streamly a. deceit swic swikedom n. trouble swencednes swey n. director steora steerless a. singular synderlic sunly a. quality swilcnes sunderborn a. locality. discipline stiernes steerspeech n. silence. separate. by degrees. deception swicdom 193 .

swikeful a. exceedingly. miserably. service. serve. ability.) tear tearig thane n. severe swiðlic swithness n. destitution ðearfednes tharfeless a. duty. administration ðenung thankworthy a. severity. distress ðearf tharfedness n. severity. ministerial ðegnlic thaneship n. severe ðearlwis tharlwisely adv. valour ðegnscipe thaning n. poverty. excess swiðlicnes swithly a. pauper. grievously ðearlic thave v. pleasing þoncwyrðe tharf n. destitution ðearflicnes tharfly adv. servant. fraudulent swicful swiker n. intensity. severely. destitutely ðearfendlic tharfliness n. very. consenting ðafsum 194 . deceitful. necessity. prolific teamful teary a. consent to ðafian thavesome a. poverty. severely swiðe swither more excessive swiðra swithliness n. deceit. strictness ðearlwisnes tharly adv. minister ðegnian thanely a. sternly. .from (Eng. severely. severity. minister ðegn thane v. service. fraud deception swicung swith adv. excessive. vigorous. without necessity/ distress/ trouble ðearfleas tharfer n. severe. ministry. strict. remorse swiðreownes T teamful a. excess swiðnes swithrueness n. destitutely ðearflic tharl a. cruelly. poor/ destitute person ðearfa tharfingly adv. intense. strict ðearl tharlwise a. roughly ðearlwislic tharlwiseness n. acceptable. permit. deceiver swica swiking n. intensity. poorly. strictly.

tribulation ðreatnes 195 . provincial ðeodlic thedeness n. province ðeod thedely a. deliberatively ðeahtendlic threatness n. . to bring up morally/ virtuously ðeawian thewfast a. immoral. discipline ðeawfæstnes thewful a. advice. moral ðeawlic thickfold a. nation. consent ðafumnes thede v. honourable ðeawfæst thewfastly adv. habit. disposition. moral. inconstant ðeawleas thewly a. people. agreement ðeodsumnes thenceward adv. dense ðicfeald thild v.) thence ðanonweard theow n. patience ðyld thildily adv. custom. moral.thavesomeness n. patient ðyldig third. administration. suffer ðolian tholing n. fourth eldfather n. obscure ðeostorlic thew n. endurance. society ðeodnes thedeship n. social. virtuous ðeawful thewless a. to be patient ðyldian thild n. instantly. conduct. community. passion ðolung thoughter n. usage. population. endure. join. feowerða ealdfæder thole v. customary. consultation ðeahtung thoughtingly adv. nation. ill mannered. great great grandfather ðridda. virtuously ðeawfæstlice thewfastness n. consideration.from (Eng. nationality. slave ðeow theow v. association. immediately ðærrihte thester v. association ðeodscipe thedesomeness n. enslave ðeowian theowdom n. national. great. morally. obedience. associate ðeodan thede n. patiently ðyldelic thildy a. slavery ðeowdom thereright adv. suffering. obscure ðeostrian thesterly a. virtuous. affliction. adviser ðeahtere thoughting n. manners ðeaw thew v.

) tight tyhtnes timbering n.from (Eng. alert. excellently ðungenlice thungness a. agreeably ðwærlic thwearness n. structure timbrung timberness n. afflict. perseverance ðurhwunenes thrutch v. affliction. tenacity ðurhwunung throughwoness n. pursuit tosocnes 196 . pursuit tosocnung toseekness n. excellence ðungennes thusly a. holed þurhholod throughlooking n. transfix ðurhfæstnian throughgo v. saturate ðurhdrencan throughfasten v. review.) thus ðæslice thwear a. agreement ðwærnes tideliness n. distinguished ðungen thungenly adv. competent. exhortation tyhting tightness n. penetrate ðurhgan throughholed a. consent ðwærung thwearly adv. affliction. persistency. harmoniously. competency. summary ðurhlocung throughsee v. agreement. decline tolætnes toseekening n. examine. united. torment ðræstung threstness n. inquire. edification timbernes todrivedness n. research ðurhsecan throughwatch v. instigation.from (Eng. contrition ðræstnes thrithely a. keep vigil ðurhwæccan throughwoningness n. edification. to keep vigilant. trample. oppress. excellent þryþlic throughdrench v. agreeable ðwære thwearing n. discernment tocnaw(en)nes toletness n. competently. trouble. perseverance. tribulation ðrycnes thungen a. harmonious. perusal. excellent. unity.threely adv. scrutinise ðurhseon throughseek v. opportunity tidlicnes tighting n. . triply ðrilic thresting n. dispersal todræfednes togetherward towards unity togæderweard toknowness n. harmony. study. repress ðryccan thrutchness n. perseverance ðurhwunungnes throughwoning n. incitement. despondency. pierced. .

. deceitful. unrenewingly ungeniwiendlic unathelborn a. disposition tosetednes tothundenly adv.tosetedness n. not of noble birth unbearing a. arboretum treowstede truefast a. .. equivocal tweolic twofoldly adv. unbearably un(a)berendlic unbecraved a. not desired unbecrafod unbefought a. ambiguous.. treachery treowleasnes tudder n. deceit. trusty treowful trueless a. separate in two twæman tweming n. uncontested unbefohten 197 . arrogance toðundnes toungeful a. not of noble birth unæðelboren unathelness n. fluency tyngnes towardly a. .from (Eng. treacherous treowleas truelessness n. false. humiliation unæðelnes unathelborn a. duplicity.) town tunlic towriteness n. description towritennes treestead n. duplication twifealdnes U unanewingly adv.from (Eng. ignobility. descendant tudor tweme v. separation twæming twilly a. perversion towarpnes townly a. double twilic twoly a.from (Eng. eloquence. doubly twifealdlic twofoldness n.) toward toweardnes towarpedness n. trusty treowfæst trueful a.from (Eng. unopposed.) bearing unberende unbearingly a. reliable. . talkative tungful toungeness n. neg. reliable. perversion toworpednes towarpness n.) toward toweardlic towardness n. arrogantly toðundenlic tothundness n. adv. doubtful. falsehood.

difficulty. scrutinise undersecan underset v. inextricably unabrecendlic uncleansed neg. .) undead undeadlic underbear support. subject. comprehension understandennes underthede v.from (Eng.from (Eng. . .from (Eng. neg.) uncouth uncuðnes uncraft n. neg. intend underbeginnan underborough n.) cleansed unclænsod uncomelithe a. subjugate. deputy governor undergerefa underseek v. obedience underðeodnes underthink v. neg. difficulty. not displayed.) undeadly undeadlicnes undeadly a. trouble uneaðlicnes uneathly adv. affliction unbliss unblithe a. troublesomely.unbeshowed a.) underneath underniðmest underreeve n.) under + set undergesett understandness n. submission. inhospitable uncumliðe uncouthly a.from (Eng. . subjection. inflexibly unabygendlic unbreakingly a.) craft uncræft uncrafty a.from (Eng. neg. with difficulty uneaðlic uneathness n. investigate. . . design.from (Eng. . meditate underðencan undrunk a.) blithe unbliðe unbold a. examine. subjection. not expected unbeðoht unbewedded a. not considered.) under + do underdon underdriveness n. sober undruncen uneath n. perceive. inconvenience.) binding unabindendlic unbliss n. notice undergietan underneathmost adv.from (Eng. .from (Eng. not demonstrated unbesceawod unbethought a. . timid unbeald unbowingly adv.) crafty uncræftig undeadliness n.from (Eng.t. trouble uneaðe uneathliness n. consider. . trouble uneaðnes 198 .) uncouth uncuðlic uncouthness n. suburb underburg underdo v. purpose. endure underberan underbegin v. .from (Eng.from (Eng. neg. compulsion underdrifennes underget v. subdue underðeodan underthedeness n. unmarried unbeweddod unbindingly a.from (Eng. .

poor person wanhafa unhavle a. neg. not expected unforðoht unfremed a. neg. neg. . . imperfection unfulfremming unglad a. unencumbered ungehefegod unheedly adv.) good ungod unhaply a.) laughter + worthy unleahtorwyrðe unlievedly a. not useful unfremful unfreming n. unafylledlic unforbowingly adv. reputable. incontinence unhealdsumnes unlathed uninvited ungelaðod unlaughterworthy a. unsuitable ungehæplic unharmyearn a. neg. inconvenient. disloyal. neg.) heedly wanhydig unheedy a. . incorruptibly unforrotiendlic unforthought a.) health wanhælð unhearsome a.from (Eng. ungracious unestful unfightingly a.) unglad unglædlic ungladness n.from (Eng.) unglad unglædnes ungood a. . unprofitable. negative.from (Eng.from (Eng. .) glad unglæd ungladly adv. disobedience unhiersumnes unheavied a. imperfection unfulfremednes unfulfreming n.from (Eng. neg. honourable unforcuð unforrotedly adv. neg.from (Eng. not negotiated ungefremed unfremeful a.from (Eng. insatiably a. . destitute wanhafol unhavleness n. incompletion.from (Eng.unended a. . incontinent ungehealdsum unholdsomeness n. .from (Eng. incredibly ungelifedlic 199 . .) heedy unhydig unhold a. unavoidably unforbugendlic unforcouth a.from (Eng. inoffensive unhearmgeorn unhaver n. not considered. incorruptedly unforrotedlic unforrotingly adv.) ended ungeendod unestful a. inconsideration ungefremmung unfulfremed imperfect unfulfremed unfulfremedness n. unreliable unhold unholdsome a. neg. . destitution wanhafolnes unhealth n. disobedient unhiersum unhearsomeness n.) fighting unafehtendlic unfilledly adv.

ignorant ungelæred unloredness n. dishonour. . immoderate. impossible unmihtlic unmighty a. illiteracy ungerædnes unright a. displeasing. not pleasing uncweme unreadly adv. lack of moderation ungemetfæstnes unmetely a.from (Eng. incredible ungeleafful unlievefully a. unjust judge/ critic unrihtdema unrightdoand/ unrightdoer n. . . .) little unlytel unlored a. neg.) right + deed unrihtdæd unrightdeemer n. neg.from (Eng. neg. .from (Eng.from (Eng. impossibility unmihtiglicnes unmightly a. intemperance. unmasculinely unmenisclic unmete a. ungemete unmete a.) unright + do unrihtdond 200 .) mighty unmihtignes unmightliness n. incredibly ungeleaffullic unlievefulness n. innumerable unmæte unmetefast a.) mean unmæne unmenishly adv. ignorance ungelærednes unmarred neg. neg. excessive ungemetfæst unmetefastness n.from (Eng.from (Eng.from (Eng. extraordinary ungemæte. excess.) might unmiht unmightily a.) moodiness unmodignes unoreworth v. poor quality unrihtcræfting unrightdeed n. unconquered unoferwunnen unqueme a. illiterately ungerædlic unreadness n. . . dishonour unarwurðian unoreworthly a. inability. incredulity ungeleaffulnes unlikeworthy a. . immense.) mightily unmihtiglic unmightiness n. indignity.unlieveful a. intemperate. immesurable. neg. immeasurably. innumerably ungemetlic unmeteness n.from (Eng.) marred unamyrred unmean a. neg. . neg. dishonourably unarwurðlic unoreworthness n. . not possible. irreverence unarwurðnes unoverwon a.from (Eng. displeasing unlicwyrðe unlittle a. innumerableness.from (Eng.) mighty unmihtig unmoodiness n. neg. extravagance ungemetnes unmight n. incorrect unriht unrightcrafting n.

unrightful a. error. innocent unscyldig unshrunken a. indiscrimination. immature ungeriped unsayingly a. destabilise unsettan unshedwise a. indescribably. quarrelsomeness ungesibsumnes unsinny a.from (Eng. not injurious unscæððig unseenly a. immodest unscamlic unshapen unformed. indiscriminate. evil-disposed person unrihtwillend unrightwise a. . lack of capacity/ inability to injure unscæðfulnes unscathily a.from (Eng. contentiousness. avarice unrihtgitsung unriped a.from (Eng. indiscreetly. . not injuriously unsceððiglice unscathy a. unstable unstydful 201 . neg. not dangerous. neg. unjust unrihtwis unrightwiseness n. . indiscretion ungesceadwisnes unshamefulness n. unrelated ungesibb (compare sibling) unsibsome a. not causing suffering injury unscæðful unscathefulness n.) shrunken unascruncen unsibb a. indiscriminately. unrihtlic unrightness n. uncreated ungesce(a)pen unshearingly adv. neg. invisibly ungesynelic unseldom adv.from (Eng. irrationality.) shamefulness unscæmfulnes unshamely a. unspeakably. quarrelsome ungesibsum unsibsomeness n.from (Eng. discord.) speaking unsprecende unsteadful a. not dangerously. injustice unrihtnes unrightwilland/ unrightwiller n. injustice.) soundly ungesundlic unspeaking neg. unjust unrihtful unrightlust n. . neg. infrequent unseldan unset v. iniquity unrehtwisnis unrightyetsing n. argumentative.) right + lust unrihtlust unrightly adv. indiscreet. . irrationally ungesceadwislic unshedwiseness n. non suffering injury unscæððednes unscatheful a. irrational ungesceadwis unshedwisely a. contentious. innocent unsynnig unsoundly a. incorrectly a. inseparably unascyrgendlic unshildy a. ineffably unasecgendlic unscathedness n.

unsteadfulness n.from (Eng. fault unðeaw unthewfast a. inseparable untodælic untrim a. . unmovingly unastyriendlic.) untrue untreowlic 202 . disunited. disagreement. . intolerably unðoligendlic unthroughfare/ unthoroughfare n. unreliable untreowfæst untruly a.from (Eng. immovably. indescribably untellendlic unthank n.from (Eng. immoral. . neg. . disunited ungeðeod unthew n. inseparably unasundrodlic untamedly a. motionlessly. unseasonableness untima untodealed a. . disagreeable ungeðwære unthwearly adv. impatiently ungeðyldelice unthildy a.) untamed untemedlic untellingly a. unmannered unðeawfæst unthewful a. disharmony. instability unstydfulnes unstill a.) still unstille unstillness n. inharmonious. unseasonable untidlic untime n. lack of unity ungeðwærnes untidely a. undeserving of gratitude unðancwurðe unthede a.from (Eng. immoral.) unthankworthy unðancwyrðlice unthankworthy a. disagreeably ungeðwærlic unthwearness n. inharmoniously. impatient un(ge)ðyldig untholingly adv. disorderly. cul de sac unðurhfære unthroughshotingly a. impatience ungeðyld unthildly adv. discord.) trim untrum untrimly a.from (Eng. undividedness untodælnes untodealy a.from (Eng. inconstant. unstyrendlic unsunderedly a. . undivided untodæled untodealness n. disorderly.) untrim untrumlic untrimness n. unmoving unstyrende unstiringly adv. ingratitude unðanc unthankworthily a.from (Eng.) unstill unstillnes unstiring a. disturbance. neg. impenetrably unðurhsceotendlic unthwear a. infirmity. state of not being trim untrymnes untruefast a. vice. . unmannered unðeawful unthild n. neg.

not pretty. stupidity unwisdom unwiseness n. dishonourably unweorðlic unwrast a.) whole unhal unwilsomely adv. incongruously unwræstlic unwrought a. . deconstruct unwyrccan unworkly a. not ambiguous untweolic unwastmbearness n. indefatigable unwerig unweened unexpected unwened unweenedly adv. disfigurement unwlitignes unwork v. resurrection uparisnes upcome n. disfigured. unfruitfulness. not discordantly unwiðerweardlic unwittily a. unpleasant unwinsum unwinsomeness n. involuntarily unwilsumlice unwinsome a.) unwitty ungewittiglice unwitty a. dehydrated unwæterig unweaponed unarmed ungewæpnod unweary a.from (Eng. . not discordant unwiðerweard unwitherwardly a. desiccated. . unchangeability ungewendnes unwharving unchanging unwhearfiende unwhole a. neg. inaccurate. incongruous unwræst unwrastly adv. deformed unwlitig unwlittying n.) wrought ungeworht unyearnful a. not contrary. source. indifferent ungeornful upariseness n.from (Eng.from (Eng. neg. disfigurement unwlitegung unwlittyness n. neg.untwofold a. ignorance. . arrogantly upahafenlice 203 . origin upcyme uphavely adv. impractical. senselessness ungewitfulnes unwitherward a.) witty unwittig unwlitty a. unexpectedly ungewenedlic unwendness n. neg. senseless ungewitful unwitfulness n. sterility unwæstmbærnes unwatery a. inaccurately. not contrarily.from (Eng. redundant unweorclic unworthing n. presumptuously.from (Eng. . without duplicity untwiefeald untwoly a.) unwise ungewisnes unwitful a. dishonour unweorðung unworthly adv. unpleasantness unwinsumnes unwisdom n.

inflammation wielm wark n. dropsical wæterful waterleet n.) up + spring upspring W wallthread n. productively wæstmlic wateraddle n. devastator awestend wasteness/ wastedness n. destruction awest(ed)nes wastum n.from (Eng.uphaveness n. fertility wæstmbærnes wastumless a. unfruitful. productivity. fruitfulness. accumulation ypping upspring n. dropsy wæteradl waterfrightness n. pain. fertility wæstmberendnes wastumbearness n.from (Eng. alluvium wætergewæsc wayleet n. aqueduct wætergelæt waterly a. perversion aworpness wastand n. product. produce wæstm wastumbearingness n. junction wegglæte wayless a. . increase. productivity. fruitfully. wold n.from (Eng. aquatic wæterlic waterthrough n. unproductive wæstmleas wastumly adv. plumb line wealðræd wallwork n. masonry wealweorc walm n. .) upland uplendisc uply a. presumption. high quality uplic upness n. . prosperity wela weald. suffering wærc warpness n. fruitfulness.from (Eng. desolation. prosperous welig 204 .) weak + mood wacmodnes weal n. elevation upnes upping n. hydrophobia wæterfyrhtnes waterful a. conduit wæterðruh waterwash n. forest weald wealy a. arrogance upahafennes uplandish a.) way + less wegleas weakmoodness n. fruit. .

adv. change. variation of weather wederawendednes wedbreach n.. armour wæpnung weaponless a. change. favour. rotation wendung wendingliness n. alteration. adultery wedbryce wedfasten v. corruptibly wemmendlic wemness n. changeability.from (Eng. defile. unarmed wæpenleas weariness n. benevolent welwillende wellwillingly a. well demonstrated welbesceawod wellborn a. change wendan wendedness n.weaponing n. expect. . adv. likeability welgelicwirðnes well-likeworthy a. interpreter wendere wending n.from (Eng. tumour wenn wend v.) weary + ness werignes weatherwendedness n. hope. spacious. translator. benevolently welwillendlice wellwillingness n. pleasure welgecwemnes wellroomly a. changeably wendendlic 205 . well pleasing welgecwemedlic wellquemness n. very likeable welgelicwirðe wellbeshowed a. benevolence welwillendnes wem v. beneficial act weldæd welldoness n. corrupt wemman wemmedly v. benefit. benefit. imagine wenan ween n. corruptible wemmedlic wemming n. pledge wedfæstan ween v. spaciously welrumlice wellwilling a. expectation wenung well-likeworthness n. expectation. .. changeability awendendlicnes wendingly a. defilement. supposition wen weening n. hope. subversion awending wending n. opinion. divorce. corruption wemnes wen n. beneficial action weldonnes wellfremeness n.) well + born welboren welldeed n. change awendednes wender n. corruption wemming wemmingly a. mutability. beneficial planning welfremnes wellquemedly a.

company.) wife + hood wifhad wifeless a. transition. band werod werehood n. human race wercyn werely a. inconstant hwurful whurfulness n.from (Eng. human werlic westdeal n. . . function wice wilfully a. west part westdæl westnorthlong extending NW westnorðlang wetness n.) wife wiflic wike n.) wilful wilfullic wilne v. . transitory hwearflic wharveness n. change.) winsome wynsumlic winsomeness n. army troop. . happily married wiffæst wifehood n. changing. desire wilnung wilsome a.from (Eng.from (Eng. convert hweorfan wharvely a. office.) wil + some wilsum wilsomely adv. adulthood werhad werekin n. . moisture wætnes wharve v. inconstancy. temporary. . turn. common knowledge widcuð widegoing a.wered n. unmarried wifleas wifely a.from (Eng. transitory. change.) wilsome wilsumnes winly a. desire wilnian wilning n.from (Eng. pleasure. bailiff wicnera widecouth a. transfer. positively wynlic winsomely a. change. itinerant.from (Eng.from (Eng.) wilsome wilsumlic wilsomeness n. officer. widely travelled widgenge wield v. revolution hwearvnes wharving n. revolution hwearfung whelm n. mutability hwurfulnes wickner n. sagacious wishydig 206 . control wield wifefast a. conversion. transitory hwilwendlic whiling passing. changeable. fervour wylm whilewendly a. . revolve. surge. delight wynsumnes wiseheedly a. control wieldan wield n. temporary hwilende whurful a.

adversary. adversely wiðerweardlic witherwardness n. abduct wiðlædan withleadness n.from (Eng. sign of misfortune weatacn wombaddle n. national council. philosopher wita wittyness n. .from (Eng. marrying (a wife) wifung wlenk n. portent.) wise wisenes witanmoot n. countenance wlita wlite n. impressive work/ action.from (Eng. adverse wiðerweard witherwardly adv. denial. . rejection wiðsacung withsetness n. inhabit wunian wonely a. appearance.) womb + hoard wambhord wonderly adv.from (Eng. face.from (Eng. contrary. sage. . .wishedness n.) witty wittignes wive v. deed. repel. . usual.) womb + addle wambadl wombhoard n. aspect wlite wlitty a. .) wishing wyscendlic wiseness n. contradictor wiðersprecend witherward a. miracle wundortacn wonderwork n. adversary wiðerling withersake n.from (Eng. . enemy wiðersaca witherspeakand n. contrarily. beautiful wlitig wlonk a. adversity wiðerweardnes withlead v. .) wonder wundorlic wondertoken n. invention wiðmetednes withsaking n. miracle wundorweorc wone v. opposition wiðsetnes withshove v.from (Eng. pride. adversary (in speech). parliament witangemot withchoose v. refute wiðscufan witlessness n.) wished wyscednes wishingly adv. depression weamodnes woetoken n. proud wlanc woemoodness n. opponent. abduction wiðlædnes withmeetedness n.from (Eng. customary wunelic 207 .) witless witleasnes witter n. opposition. reject wiðceosan witherling n. marry (a wife) wifian wiving n. arrogance wlenc wlita n.

vocabulary wordhord wordlock n. valuable. reliable wordfæst wordful a. habitation wunenes woningly a. estimation weorðlicnes worthly a. honourable weorðful worthfullness n. revenge wræc wrathly a. affable wordwynsum wordwrestle v. practically weorclic workness n. manager weorcgerefa workworthy a. distinguished weorðlic worthness n. operationally. definition wordgemearc wordsomener n. honouring. habitually wuniendlic wordcraft n. logic wordloc wordlore n. dignity. active. verbose wordful wordhoard n. discuss wordum wrixlan workcraft n. value. honour weorðfulnes worthfully adv. importance. value. estimation weorðnes woundly a. with dignity. eloquence wordcræft wordfast a.) wrath wraðlic wray v. operation wyrcnes workreeve n. catalogue. operation weorcdæd workful a. . mechanics weorcræft workdeed n. wound inflicting. fluent. action.from (Eng. . valuable.) worse wyrslic worthful a. importance. dangerous wundlic woundswathe n. workability. enumeration wordsomnere wordsomening n. industrious weorcful workly adv. vengeance. important. scar wundswaðu wrack n. etymology wordlar wordmark n.from (Eng. accuse wregan wrayedness n. collation wordsomnung wordwinsome a. argue. dignified.woneness n. debate. able-bodied weorcwyrðe worldkind a. honourably weorðfullic worthing honour. accusation wregedness wrayer n. valuing weorðung worthliness n. accuser wregere 208 . secular woruldcund worsely a.

military expedition wigsið Y yearnful a. warrior. hostage gis(e)l yislehood n. to be miserable geomrian yomer troubled.wraying n. covetousness. glorious wuldorful wulderfully adv. glorify wuldrian wulder n. jaundice gealladl yeme v. accusingly wregendlic wreckness n. contest wig wyeman n. vengeance. heritage ierfe yearve v. splendour wuldor wulderful a. inherit yrfan yellowaddle n. desirous geornful yearnfullness n. negligence giemeleasnes yepeness n. desire gitsung yetsingly adv. glorious wuldrig wye n. desirously geornfullic yearmind n. negligently giemeleaslic yemelessness n. insatiably gitsiendlic yetsingness n. negligent giemeleas yemelessly adv. revenge wrecnes wriels n. war. soldier wigman wyesith n. avarice gitsiendnes yisle n. covering wrigels wulder v. accusation wregung wrayingly adv. notice gieman yemeless a. state of being a hostage gislhad yomer v. astuteness geapnes yetsing n. yearly commemoration geargemynd yearve n. glory. desire geornfulnes yearnfully adv. avariciously. miserable geomor 209 . gloriously wuldorfulic wuldry a. avarice.

with trouble geomorlic yomerness n. travel to a place away. miserably. tribulation geomornes yondfare v. pervade geondfaran yondsee v. traverse.yomering n. examine geondsean 210 . trouble geomrung yomerly a. misery.

and more.5. These are: a) loan words. These often have no obvious equivalents (loanword or otherwise) to which they could be linked in the main list here. rather than a mixture of sight and vision). in italics. A section after the end of the main list gives words of the kind covered in Step 1. or c) words which are mixed loan/ early-English derived.All Words from Steps 1 . its only the ones which came from Old English which would have been likely to have been in use today (so English would always use sight. There are also many current forms like those in the Lead-in (p. 211 . b) phrases that have key words which are loans. You'll recall that in our 'if England had won' scenario for 1066. The loans are followed by suggested alternatives in normal lettering. and more This list takes foreign-derived loanwords as a starting point and. Layout: first come the loans. lets you look up alternative suggestions to these words.List II Thesaurus in Order of Loanwords .5. 23). in alphabetical order. These suggestions include all updated words covered in Steps 1 .

) = adjective (describes a noun: 'big' in big house) (adv. suggested alternatives may cover more or less of the word/ terms they are suggested for .Notes: i) As in normal woth a thesaurus. bird. this gives a sample of updated words. Key: (a. freedom) (neg. 212 . to write. to sing) Summary of List II layout: Loanword (or phrase with key element which is a loanword) given in italics. In such cases.) = noun (normally things and ideas: car. happily) (n. iii) As with List I. the loan element is given in italics: for example: eatable. followed by suggested English alternatives in normal lettering.) = verb (doing words like to run.) = negative (such as in words starting with 'un') (v. Neither do the current alternatives make a full list.use shedwiseness (discretion) here! ii) There are a few words in the English-based suggestions which themselves hold some loaned elements. unbelievable.) = adverb (shows way in which something is done: fast.

take. self-restraint: forhaveness. get absorbed. sufficiently: enoughly accelerate: speed up. thus. size: muchness abundant: 1 engoughful 2 abounding. therefore accumulation: hoarding. most. association. upping accumulate: hoard. wrayedness accuse: wray accuser: wrayer accusingly: wrayingly acknowledgement: acknowness acquaint: get to know action: 1 deed 2 operation: workdeed active. fully perform: fullgo accordingly: so. industrious: 1 workful. forhavedness abstinent. forlose 2 relinquish: forlet abandonment. one who is: forhavand/ forhaver abundance: wealth of. forsake. denial: forsakeness abasement. satisfactory: enoughsome abundantly. vigorous: cove acute: high. nice. quicken accept: take up. community. satisfactory: enoughsome abscess: gatheredness absence: lack. stick to. unified. stand by adjudication: mething administration. deedly 2 strenuous. and additional: more. merged: samed abstention. ministry: thaning administration. poor: heanly able-bodied: workworthy abode: erding abounding. service. condemnation: nethering abduct: withlead abduction: outleadness. rejection. whole. temperance. likeable: 1 likeworthy 2 pleasing: thankworthy 3 pleasant.A abandon: 1 forgo. to: deal with. withleadness abject. fullsomeness abundance. see to set about adhere: stick. go for acceptable. steephigh add: put on. agreeable: queme access: nighleching accident: mishap accomplish. sharp. population: thedeship admission: infare . relinquishment: forletness abandonment. downright absorb: take in. want absolute: thorough. further address. enoughsomeness. gather accusation: wraying. deprivation: forgoedness abstinence. take up. nation. gathering.

loyalty: holdship allegory: likening. harmoniously: thwearly agreeable. doubtful. againwardly adversity: witherwardness adversary (in speech): witherspeakand adversary. own up. consideration: thoughting advise (meaning inform): tell. thrutchness age: elddom 214 aggregate: whole. consent: thwearing agriculture. loften affable: wordwinsome affectionate: loving afflict. grieve: awhene 3 trample. more than one meaning ambiguous.): forthgang. oppress. scrap altitude: height ambiguous: can be taken two ways/ more than one way.admit: own. repress: thrutch affliction: 1 unbliss. opponent. consultation. let on. to. say adolescence: youthhood adopt: take on.): overdrinker alcoholism: overdrunkeness alien. become alienated: afremd alienation: afremding allegiance. dretchedness 2 torment: thresting 3 tribulation: threatness. take up adorned with gold: goldladen adulterer. strange. harmonious: thwear agreeably. acceptable: queme agreement: thedesomeness agreement. hold with agreeable. horticulture: earthtilth alcoholic (n.): forthstepping advance (v. let know adviser: thoughter advocate. sponsor: forspeaker aerial: loftly. foreign: fremd alienate. change: wendedness altercation: fight. forthstep advanced: 1 ahead. foe advice. altogether aging process: elding agree (with) : go along with. withersake. lower allow: let allurement. allegory. harmony: thwearness agreement. enemy: witherling. pleasant. fornicator: forlier. equivocal: twoly ambush: waylay amendment: betingness amiable: friendhold amiably: friendholdly . forlieand adulthood: werehood advance (n. shending. parable: onlikeness alleviate: lessen. forthly 2 progressive forthward advancement: forthing adverse: witherward adversely: witherwardly. unity. progress (v.). united. seduction: forspanning alluvium: waterwash alteration. injure: 1 hean 2 vex.

proclaim: forthsay announce. access: nighleching approach (v. order (v. rightful: rightsetness apprise: tell. atgo.): come near/ close. offcarve amputation: snithing analyse: break down. quarrelsome: unsibsome aristocratic. rightful/ establishment. cut off.). proclaim. bend: bight angry: wrathful annihilate: wipe out. injurious person: scather anti: against.). snithe. trouble: angness anxious: howful anxiousness: howfullness apart: asunder 215 apart from: other than. series: afterfollowingness. discuss. deal amplify: up. succession. middliand arboretum: treestead ardent: firehot argue. appoint: dight arrangement. selfwealdly arbitrator: gobetween. selfwillingly. but (as in all but two) apparent: seeming apparently: seemingly. familiarity: couthness aquatic: waterly aqueduct: waterleet arbitrarily: at whim. look through. agin anticipate: 1 foresee 2 prevent: forestall. nighleche acquaintance. rightful/ office. boost amputate: take off. bay. endbirthness arrangement: dight arranger: dighter . summon. set (up) appointed properly: rightset appointment. present (v. it seems/ would seem appearance. declare. debate: wordwrestle argumentative. bring to nought anniversary: mindday announce. band: wered arrange.amicable: friendly amount: lot. precedence: forestepping anxiety. direct. hera army troop. head off 3 precede: forestep anticipation. confirm: kithe announce. command (v. let know approach. offer: abede annual: yearly antagonist. noble: athel armour: weaponing army: ferd.). go through ancestor: forebear ancestral (paternal): forthfatheren ancient: olden ancient right: eldright ancient world: ereworld anemometer: windmeter anger: wrath angle. aspect: wlite application: begengness apply/ ratify fully: fullfasten appoint: dight. company. corner.

presumptuously: uphavely arrogantly: tothundenly articulate: rightlithely as a consequence of: through. strengthen. seniority. thanks to ascend: go up ascertain: find out assimilate: even out assist: help assistance: help associate: to do/ go/ deal/ have dealings with. take it as so asthma: angbreast astonish: amaze astonished. unrightyetsing. benefit (v. get attempt. listening. protection: grith atonement. to: earmark. coming in arrive: come. desire: yetsing avariciously. dominion. examine. preeminence: elderdom avail. test. covetousness. pre-eminent: elderdomly authoritativeness. boost austerity: hardliness authoritative. penitence: deedboteness. wike attentive: heedful. population: thedeship assume: take it. also spoken): onshot 216 attain: reach. society: fellowship. comrade: fere associated: fered. deedbote atonement. thedeness association. by shooting. to. functionary: ambighter. reparation: betness atrophy: smalling attack (f. officer. might authority. truce. make better. spend time with associate (v. yetsingness avarice. get to. stylt astuteness: yepeness asylum. ferly association. hearsome attentiveness: hearsomeness attract: draw attribute. pride: wlenk arrogantly. get here/ there arrogance: tothundness arrogance. put down to au fait: know well audible: hearable audible: hearingly auditorium: speechhouse augment: go with. companionship. nation. experience: fand attend: come/ go to attendant: atstandand attendant. power: onwieldness.arrival: coming. conjunction: fayness association. to be: amazed. community. insatiably: yetsingly .).e. pre-eminence: elderdomliness authority. command: onwield authority.): freme avarice: feeyetsing. connection.

fighting bay. compassion: milce 217 benevolent: wellwilling benevolently: wellwillingly bilateral: two sided biography: lifestory block (v. bonebreach book collection: bookhoard borderland: marchland born of disparate parents: sunderborn boundary: landmark bountiful: roomgivle bountifulness. become enraged/ angry: hothearten bend. condition: staddle battle. position. nib beauteous. corner. kindness. support. prevent. obstruct: forstand block/ prevent a move/ action: forecome bone fracture: bonebreak. baptist: fulloughter baptism: fullought base. foundation. company: wered baptise. to: fullought baptiser. pleasure: este brave. bay. station. bend: bight beak. corner. restraint. angle. gulf. state. face: neb. benefit: wellfremeness beneficially. gradually: stepmeal C calculate: work out calumny: harmspeech candelabrum: candletree .): freme benefit (n. angle: bight behaviour. temperance: behavedness beneficial. loyal: thanly breach of loan/ surety: borrowbreach breach of the peace: frithbreach breach of truce/ asylum: grithbreach break in pieces: forbreak bridal: bridely bring up morally/ virtuously: thew burglarious: housebreachle burglary: housebreach butcher: fleshmonger by degrees. war: guth. favour.). wellwillingness 2 mercy. usefully.B bailiff: wickner balanced: fair. evenhanded band.): 1 welfare 2 beneficial action: welldoness 3 beneficial planning: wellfremeness benevolence: 1 goodwill. noble. wlitty because: for become zealous. elegant: smicker beautiful: lovely. profitably: fremefully benefit (v. benefit: welldoness beneficial planning. liberality: roomgivleness bounty. grace. profitable: fremeful beneficial act: welldeed beneficial action.

): origin: frume cause (v. familiar: couth certainly. certainly.). collation: wordsomening collect: gather. exultation: highting coast: searim coast guard: seaward coastal cliff: seaberg cognate: akin to. runs) certain. virtuous: custy cheer. crash . page: bowerthane changeable.). overalderman chief officer. enumeration: wordsomener caterpillar: leafworm cause (n. p.f. university: learninghouse collision: smash. 1 alteration: wendedness 2 revolution: wharving 3 rotation. know about coherent: understandable. console: frover chief attendant.): beheadly captain: highthane captive (n. manifestly. transitory: wharvely chaos: dwolma chapel: bedehouse charitability. changeable. transitory: wharvely changeably: wendingly change (v. service: churchthaning circa: about circuit.f. revolve. (a. to. make cease: stop. transfer. end century: hundred (years.s. retainer: elderthane chief officer: highreeve.s. awend change (n. especially: indeed chamberlain. familiarly. evidently: couthly certainly: that's so/ was so a.canine: houndly capability. conversion.). captain: highthane chief place: headstead chief protector: headward church duty.): bring about. the same time/ thing as a. resources: wherewithal capital: headly capital offence: headguilt capital punishment . prisoner: haftling carnal attraction: fleshbesmittenness carnal nature: fleshliness carnivorous: meat eating carte blanche: a free hand. subversion: wending 4 transition. easily followed coincide: the same as. like cognizant of: aware of.of c. manifest. freedom catalogue. convert: 1 wharve 2 translate: wend. course: begang city/ town administrative area: boroughshire climax. school. revolution: wharveness changeability/ variation of weather: wetherwendedness 218 changing. virtue: custiness charitable: 1 almsful. almsly 2 generous. hoard collectively: gatheringly college. changing. generosity.

). basic need: folkneed common. whole. perception: understandness. society. connection: fayness companionship.). diagram: fay comprehension. comrade: sith companionship: fareship companionship. excellently: thungenly complain: bechide complaint: grorning complement: go with complete: 1 done. please (v. consoler: frovrand command (v. conjunction: faying composition. lots of things. proclaim. benevolence: milce compassion. announce. folkly commotion. ready. phalanx: sheltron compare: aliken compassion: 1 besorrowing 2 mercy. association: 1 thedeship 2 retinue. to have: 1 besorrow 2 show mercy: milce compassionate: evensorry compatibility: matchness. wholly. present (v.colour: hue colouration: hueness. unite. fix: fay composed of: made up of composition. excellence: thungness competent. public: folkish. fullwork 2 (such as c. hueing coloured (green. begin commiserate: evensorrow commit adultery or fornication: forlie common knowledge: widecouth common land. fullfremedly completion: fullfremedness completion. matchship competency. rearness community: meanship community. society: fareship 219 company. popular. distinguished: thungen competently. direct. administration. disturbance: stirness. joining.s. fully.).).). war: guth combination: things building/ adding up.). hest command (v. nation.) satisfy: queme compose. subjection: underdriveness comrade. population. fulfilment: filledness comply with. summon. band: wered company of troops. battle. joint. association. companion: sith . heretoga. a. a spell of time): fullgo 3 to perfect: fullfreme completed: fullfremed completely: all. connect.f. declare. companion. offer: abede command (n. console: afrever comforter. together comedian: laughtersmith comfort (v. bebidand commence: start. order (v. public land: folkland common need. order: bebid. ongetness compulsion.): greenhuen colourless: hueless combat. general: heratower. service: ambight commander. excellent.

therefore consider: 1 think about.): thave consenting: thavesome consequently: so. habit. meditatively. institution. record: setness construction (original): frumwork constructive. determine: hedge considerately. support. betrayer: hinderling constitute: make up constitution. advice.concealment: behideness concede: give in/ up. what happened concord. ignite. positive: fremeful constructively. foundation. positively: fremefully construe: work out consume. state: staddle conditional: hangs on condone: go along with.). deem. usage. inflame. disposition. wittingly 220 consciousness: 1 inheedness 2 conscience: inwitness consecration: hallowing consent (n. establishment: onsetness construct: build (up) construct. determinedly: hedgely consideration. to: is against/ at odds with confound: fordwilm confound. foundation. to be: forburn . impudent: headbold confine. yield concerning: about conclusion: upshot. position. thavesomeness consent.): leave. throng conjugal: matchly conjunction: linkword conjunction. association. unite. corrupt. thus. companionship: fayness conscience: inwitness. custom. know of consciously: knowingly. position. underthink 2 premeditate: forethink 3 ponder. insert: bework construction: building.). permit (v. peace: sibsomeness concupiscence: lustyearnness condemnation. station. manners: thew conduit: waterthrough confident. agreement: thwearing consent (v. fix. frovring consoler. working/ building up construction. companionship. association. base. compose: fay connected: linked connection: 1 link 2 conjunction. inheed conscious: aware. overlook conduct (n. meditate. see as. connection: fayness connect. adorn. abasement: nethering condition: orereadness condition. comforter: frovrand conspicuous: forthseen conspirator. incite: anneal consumed by fire. froverness. discomfit: shend confuse: muddle confusion: shendness congregate: gather. imprison: beclose conflagration: fireburn conflict. consultation: thoughting considering literature: readthoughting consolation: frover.

consumption by fire: forburnedness
contact, touch: rineness
contemplate: yondthink
contemporary: at the same time,
with the times, evenold
contempt: forhowedness,
contemptibly: forhowingly
contemptibility: besmearness
contemptuously: forhowedly
contentious, argumentative, quarrelsome:
contentiousness, discord,
quarrelsomeness: unsibsomeness
contents: inning
continence: havedness
continuation: gathertangness
continue: go on
continuous: ongoing
continuous, united: gathertang
contract, to: get
contradictor: witherspeaker
contrarily, adversely: witherwardly
contrary, adverse: witherward
contrition: threstness
control (n.): wield
control (v.): wield
convenience: hapliness
convenient: hap
conversation, discussion: talk, mooting
conversion: 1 charing 2 transition,
change, revolution: wharveness
convert to: make into
convert, turn (v.): bewend
convert, turn, avert: awherve

convert, revolve, change, transfer:
cooperating: samedworking
copious: lots, loads, many
cordial: friendly, warm hearted
corner, bay, angle, bend: bight
corporal: bodily
corpse: body, dead body
correct: right
correction, rectitude: rightness
correction, reproof: righting
corroboration: backup, backing
corrupt (v.): 1 shend 2 defile: wem
corruptible: wemmedly
corruptibly: wemmingly
corruption: wemness, wemming
country: land, ethel
county council leader: highshireman
county council official: shireman
courageous: stout-hearted
course, circuit: begang
court (n.): hove
courtly: hovely
cover: overlay, do/go over
covering: helm, wriels
covetous: feeyearn
covetousness, desire: yetsing
crazy: mad
create: make, shape
creation: shapeness
creator: maker, shepand/ sheper,
frumshapand/ frumshaper
criminal: shildy
criminality: shildiness
cruel: hardhearted, hard, ruthless

cruel, fierce, violent, severe: rough,
wild, grim, rethy
cruel, savage, fierce: slithe
cruelly, savagely, fiercely: 1 slithely 2
severely, grievously: tharly
cry: weep
cul de sac: unthroughfare,
cultivate: work, till, help
curious, inquisitive: frimdy
curse (v.): amanse
curse (n.): amansing
custody, preservation, restraint:
custom, usage, habit, conduct (n.),
disposition, manners: thew
customary, usual: wonely

damage, injury: scatheness,
scathiness, scathing
dangerous, perilous: plightly,
debate, argue, discuss: wordwrestle
debris (on shore): seaupwarp
decapitate: behead
deceit, fraud, deception: swiking
deceit, falsehood, treachery:
truelessness, swike, beswike
deceitful, fraudulent: fakeful, swikeful
deceitful, false, treacherous: trueless
deceitfulness: fakeness


deceive: bedidder, beswike, swike,
deceiver: swiker, beswiker,
deception: beswiking, swikedom,
beswikeness, bepeaching
deception, deceit, fraud: swiking
decide: choose, make one's mind
deciduous: leafshedding
declaration: forthspell
declare, express: aqueath
declare, order (v.), proclaim, summon,
present (v.), command (v.), direct,
announce, offer: abede
decline (v.): forbow
decline (n.), despondency: toletness
deconstruct: unwork
decrease: lessen, lower
deduct: take away, take off
defence, protection: shieldness,
shielding, foreshieldness
defer: put off/ on hold, leave for
deficiency: lack, shortfall
defile, corrupt (v.): wem
defile, disgrace, reproach (v.): besmear
defilement, corruption: wemming
defilement, disgrace, reproach (n.):
defilingly, reproachfully: besmearly
define: set, mark
definite: sure
definition: wordmark
defoliate: deleaf
degenerate: misborn

degradation, pollution: besnitness
degree, measure, proportion, rate:
dehydrated, desiccated: unwatery
dejected: downcast
delay: overing
deliberate: wilful
deliberately: wilfully, knowingly
deliberatively: thoughtingly
delight, pleasure: winsomeness
deliverer, redeemer, liberator:
aleasand / aleaser
delude: mislead
demonstrate, exhibit, display: beshow,
demonstration, exhibition:
beshowing, inshowing
demonstratively: beshowingly
demonstrator, exhibitor, guide:
demonstrator: inshower
denial, abandonment: forsakeness
denial, rejection: forsaking,
denigrate: slight, belittle, do down
denounce: forspeak
dense: thick, thickfold
deny: gainsay, say one hasn't a.s.f.
deny, renounce: atsake
depart: forthfare
departing, about to depart: fromward
departure: leaving, going, fromfare,
departure, exit: outgang
depend: hang on, hinge on
depilate: dehair

deposit: leave, put in, drop
deposits (on shore): seaupwarp
depressed: down, downcast, low
depression: woemoodness
deprival: beniming
deprivation: forgoedness,
deprive: beshear, benim
deputy governor: underreeve
deride: belaugh
derision, insult: hoker
descend: go down, lower, nethergo
descendant: tudder
descending: downstying
descent: going/ coming down,
discrete: sidely, on the side
describe: tell, put into words, say
description: outline, towriteness
desert: wilderness
desiccated, dehydrated: unwatery
designate (v.): betoken
design (v.), purpose (v.), intend:
desire (n.): wilning, yearning,
desire, covetousness: yetsing
desire (v.): wilne, yearn
desirous: yearnful
desirously: yearnfully
desist: stop, end, leave off
desolation: waste, wasteness,
desolation, destruction: wasteness,
despair (v.); despise, mistrust: forthink

despaired of: forthought
despatch: send, send off/ out
desperate: grim, hard
despise: loath, look down on, hate,
despise, disregard, neglect (v.): forhow,
despiser: overhowand, overhower
despiser, neglecter: forhowand
despite: although, even though
despoiler: bereaver
despondency, decline: toletness
destabilise: unset , upset
destitute: haveless, unhavle
destitute/ poor person, pauper: tharfer
destitutely, poorly: tharfly
destitutely, miserably: tharfingly
destitution, poverty: unhavleness,
tharfliness, tharfedness
destroy, ruin (v.): fordo, forspill,
waste, wipe out
destruction: forspilledness,
wasteness, wastedness
detain: hold/ keep back, hold
deter: put off
deteriorate: worsen, get worse, go
downhill, forworth
deterioration: worsening, fall,
determine: 1 work out, tell, deem
2 ponder, meditate: hedge
detestable: loathsome, hateful
detrimental: harmful, bad for
devaluation: forworthness
devastation, raid: forharrying
devastator: wastand

develop: unfold, build up, grow,
spread, happen
development, prosperity: growness
device, invention, discovery:
afoundness, findle,
devise: think up, make up
devotion, economy, restraint,
preservation, observance:
dexterously: smithly
diagram, joining, joint, composition: fay
difference, dissimilarity: mislikeness,
difficulty, trouble: hardship, hard
time/ thing, uneath, uneathness,
heanhood, arvethness
digital: fingerly
dignified, honourable: worthful
dignifiedly, honourably: worthfully
dignity, honour: worthfullness
dilapidated: ramshackle
diminish: lessen, lower, wane, fall,
bring down
diminution: littling
direct, order (v.), proclaim, summon,
present (v.), command (v.), announce,
declare, offer: abede
direct paternal descent/ pedigree:
direction: way, path
director: steerer
disadvantage: drawback
disagreeable, disunited, inharmonious:

disagreeably, inharmoniously:
disagreement, disturbance, discord,
disharmony, lack of unity:
disappear, vanish: go, fordwine
disarm: beweapon
disastrous situation: eviladdle
discard: ditch, leave
discernment: toknowness
discipline, guidance: 1 steerness
2 obedience: thewfastness
discloser, indicator, index:
beckonand/ beckoner
disconnect: cut off, undo, unfasten
discontinue: stop, end
discord, quarrelsomeness:
discord, disturbance, disharmony,
disagreement, lack of unity:
discourage: put off
discourse, to: rerde
discover: find, infind
discoverer: finder, onfinder,
discovery, invention, device:
afoundness, findle,
discrete: sidely, shedwise
discreetly, discriminately, rationally:
discretion: 1 shedwiseness 2
distinction, separation: shed
discriminate: to beshed

discriminately, discreetly, rationally:
discuss: talk through/ over, moot
discuss, argue, debate: wordwrestle
discussion, conversation: mooting, talk
disdain: overhowedness
disease of liver: liversickness
disease/ trouble bearing: addlebearing
diseased: addly
disfigure, corrupt: awem
disfigured, deformed, not pretty:
disfigurement: unwlittyness,
unwlittying, awemingness
disgrace, reproach, defile (v.): besmear
disgrace, reproach, defilement (n.):
disgrace, scandal: shandliness
disgraceful, scandalous: shandful
disgracefully, scandalously: 1 shandly
2 reproachfully, defilingly: besmearly
disharmony, disturbance, discord,
disagreement, lack of unity:
dishonour: 1 unworthing,
orelessness, unoreworth 2
indignity, irreverence:
unoreworthness 3 pollute: besnit
dishonourable: oreless
dishonourably: unoreworthly,
dislocate: put out
disloyal, unreliable: unhold
dismiss: send/ throw out
dismissal, expulsion: awaydriveness

movement: 1 unstillness. to displease: offlike dispose: get rid off. top. neglect (v. scatter. habit. misyeme disseminate: give out. usage. not the same dissimilarity. separation.). main player domination: ricsing . variety: mislikeness. frustration: angmoodness distress. necessity: tharf distressed/ frustrated mood: angmood distribute: send/ give/ deal out disturbance. manners: thew dispute: wrangle disregard. disharmony. to be. tumult: stirness 3 commotion: rearness disturbance. leading. demonstrate. discretion: shed 226 distinguish. exhibit: beshow displease: offthink. unqueme displeasing. unthewfast disperse: scatter. unpleasing: unlikeworthy. not alike.disobedience. poverty. recognise: onget distinguished. transgress: misdo doable: doly domestic: home. ofthink displeasing. discord. competent: thungen distinguished. disagreeable: unthwear diversity. disagreement. waste dissuade: put off dissuade. despise: forhow. adultery: wedbreach do incorrectly/ wrongly. abode. conduct (n. spread dissimilar: unalike. broadcast. prevent: belean distance: farness distantly: farly distantly related: farsibb distinction: beshed distinction. unmannered: unthewful. difference: mislikeness. uppermost. rebellious: unhearsome dissolve: formelt disorderly. dwelling dominant: foremost. homely domicile: home. missenliness divert. to the fore. ditch disposition: tosetedness disposition. upsetting disunited: 1 unthede 2 inharmonious. valuable: worthly distress. lack of unity: unthwearness disturbing: unsettling. important. afleme dispersal: todrivedness display. send throughout. perceive. highest. throw away/ out. custom. deprive of: atwend division: asundering divorce. excellent. rebelliousness: unhearsomeness disobedient.). onstiredness 2 power of motion. unlikeness dissipate: spread out. in the lead. misery: ermth distress.

seniority. ease. (exempli gratia): such as. passion: tholing endure. pick election: coreness elegance: smickerness elegant. ambiguous.dominion. structure: timbering educational establishment: learninghouse egotism.s. pleasure: eathness easily: eathly easiness: eathness easy. eatable edification: timberness edification. beauteous: smicker elevation: upness. support: bringness double: twofold. encompass: beclip embryo. suffering. devotion: holdsomeness 227 3 retentiveness. together encircle. twilly doubly: twofoldly doubtful. preeminence: elderdom donation. entwine. vanity: selflike eject: throw out elect: choose. tenaciousness: fasthavleness edibility: eatness edible: eatly. get from/ out of eliminate: do away with. business. rid. for example f.f. get. suffer: thole . valour: thaneship E e. envelop: bewind encompass. do twice over duplication. to be: athester economical.): howing endurance. foetus: unborn child. duplicity: twofoldness duplicity. arearness elicit: draw out. get rid of. needright. through duplicate: do twice. stinginess. equivocal: twoly dropsical: waterful dropsy: wateraddle due south: southright (likewise. oughting duty. duplication: twofoldness duty: something one has to/ should/ ought to do. authority.g. agreeable: eath eatable: eatly ecclesiastical: churchly eclipsed.e. for. observance. birther emit: forthlet emotion: breastwhelm employment: work en bloc: as a whole. can be eaten. preservation. northright a. like. fluency: toungeness eloquent: wellworded elucidate: throw light on emanate (from): come/ stem from embrace. embrace: beclip encouragement: forthbuilding endeavour (n. thrifty economy: 1 thrift 2 restraint. frugal: holdsome. offdo eloquence: wordcraft eloquence.) due to the fact that: as.

with: evenmoodly equinox: evennight equinoxual: evennightly equitable: fair. value: worthness. use: befasten established custom/ habit/ conduct/ manners a. mistaken erroneous movement (such as socially): dwildafterfollowing error: 1 mistake.f: thewfast established (in a home).): underbear. certainly: hure establish: set up. illuminate: inlighten. see. onlightness enumeration. importance. rivalry: evest envy (v. all.s. ingang entrance. irritate: greme enslave: to theow enter: go in(side).): to evest enwrap. begin. onlight. onlighter enlightenment. withal entitlement: right entrant. doubtful: twoly erratically. evesty envisage: foresee. yondshine enlightener: onlightand. visitor: ingenger. think there will be envy. inlightness. for ever etymology: wordlore . utilise. hit and miss erroneous: wrong. fully. dwild 2 injustice: unrightness erudition: lorecraft eruption: angset especially. envelop. and so on. provoke. resident (a. encircle. and suchlike eternal: everlasting. onlighten.): brook enlighten. vigour: coveness enflame: inheat enjoy.. bolster enemy: foe energy.): homefast establishment: onsetness estimation. use (v. infare. access: ingang enthusiasm: keeness enthusiastic: keen enticingly: beckoningly entirely: wholly. entwine: bewind envious: evestful. encircle: bewind envelop: befold. envelop. inaccurately: missly. ingo. put safe. catalogue: wordsomener enrage.endure. illumination: onlighting.s. partaker: evenlotter equality: evenliness equanimity. bestow establish. start. worthliness estrange: fremd etc (et cetera): and so forth a. support (v. even handed equivocal: 1 twofold meaning 2 ambiguous. ingoer entrap: betrap entreat: beg entwine. enfold: inbewind epilepsy: fallsickness epileptic: fallsick 228 epilogue: endspeak equal person: evenling equal sharer.f.

yondsee 2 investigate. make faster . not let in. up expect: look to. to set.). beseening exceedingly. prevail: forestand excellence . inshowing exhibitor. severely: swith excel. distinguished: thungen excellently. intemperate: unmetefast excessive. hope: ween. demonstrator. manifestly. instigation: tighting exile: throw out. over: exclude: shut/ keep out. display: show. ascruten 4 study.evade: forflee evangelical: gospelly eventuate: happen. out. severity: swithliness. progress: fromship exercise. weening expedite: speed up. model. call out ex: former exaggerate: overdo it exaggerated: far fetched. look out for expect. too. swithness 3 intemperance: unmetefastness 229 4 surfeit: overfill. overflowness. severe. to. imagine: ween expectation. departure: outgang exodus: outgoing. certainly. guide: beshower exhortation. test: fand examiner: scrutner example. familiarly: couthly evoke: bring to mind. intense: swithly excessively: overly. outcast. outgang 2 exodus: outgoing. beshow exhibition. overmuchness 2 intensity. too much. thrithely. outshove excrescence: outgrowth excusable: forgively except: but. ban from existence: standness exit: 1 way out. scrutinise: underseek 3 scrutinise: scruten.): thing shown exhibit (v. broaden. leave out. overdone exalt: make high. action. overfillness excessive. other than. outgang. come from evidently. express figuratively: beseen example. only exercise. outgang. incitement. outflow expand: make bigger. competently: thungenly excellent work: highwork excess: 1 too much/ many. practice: begeng exhale: breath out exhibit (n. demonstration: beshowing. demonstrate. pattern: beseen. competent. goodly excellent. inspection: onbeshowing examine: 1 look at/ into. hope. competency: thungness excellent: outstanding. scrutinise: throughsee 5 experience. instruct by example. great. but for. outflow exit. raise up examination. immoderate.

experiment. let off exultation: highbliss. nib face. experience. not cheap experience: 1 afonding. trial: onfoundleness experience (v. unless you fallacious: misleading. not right false. gather from extraneous. deceit. broaden extending east: eastlong extending NW: westnorthlong extent. onfoundness 2 explanation. put over. evidently: couthly family: kin. too far extremely: highly. certainly. most. treacherous: trueless falsehood. pertaining to: kinly famished. soldiering: ferding. manifest. run out explain: go over/ through. treachery: truelessness familiar. outlay expensive: dear. highting F face: onseen. starving: hungerbitten famous. liberality: broadness external(ly): outward(ly). trial: onfoundness express: say.). dismissal: awaydriveness extend: building onto. beak: neb. 1 test (v. folks. onfoundness experiment. tell expression: sayness expressive: say a lot. firding expel: 1 throw out. manifestly. deceitful. overly extremity: endmostness exude: give off. horticulturalist: earthtiller fastidiousness: chisness fatigue: weariness . tell why explanation. inherd family/ kin. countenance: wlita faculty: skill fail: fall short of. test: fand experiment: overfindness. afley 2 disperse: afleme expenditure: spending. explanation. utter. well worded expulsion.expedition. trial: overfoundness expire: end.). get from. set out. outside extract: get/ draw out. experiment. trial: onfoundness experiment. miss the mark. external. certain: couth familiarly. blow it failure to: if you do not. experience. foreign: outkind 230 extraordinary 1 immense: unmete 2 rare: seldseen extravagance: unmeteness extreme: over the top. noble: breme fantastic: great farmer. campaign. unsound false: wrong. anleth face. prove: afond 2 examine. surface.

groundwall 2 f. as long as for the purpose of: to. outlandish 231 foreign nation: althede foreign. wastum fruit. deceitful: fakeful. produce: wastum fruitfully.): to be for favourable: soundy fecundity. birther font (baptismal): fulloughtbath for the duration of: while. record: setness foundation. felefold frequently: often. stone: groundstone 3 position. grounding. thrifty fruit: ovet . condition: staddle fount. fertility: bearingness feminine: womanly fertility. make. shapen. institution. deception. wastumbearness fierce. position. violent. connect. at last finger joint: fingerlith finish: end. grim. verbose: wordful fluency. station. compose: fay flexibility: lithebyness flexible with leeway. blunt fratricide: brotherslaying fraud. break off firm: hard. support. base. steadfast fiscal: gavelly fix. rethy finally: lastly. vice: unthew favour (n. unite. ending. cruel. pattern: onlikeness formation: 1 setting up 2 creation: shapeness fornication: forlayness fornicator: forlier fortunate. severe: rough. strange: fremd foreignness: althediness forest: weald. 1 start. litheby flood barrier/ protection: floodward flower: bloom fluctuate: go up and down fluent. productivity. source: ordfrume frank: straight. wild. eloquence: toungeness foetus.fault. groundwork.). state. product. tough firmly established: rootfast . embryo: unborn child. so as to foreign: althedish. swikeful frequent: often. prosperously: eadily fortune: eadiness forum: mootstow foundation n. setting up. prosperous: eady fortunately. construction. alien. wold form: shape. set up form. economical: holdsome. productively: wastumly . open. deceit: swiking fraudulent. many times frivolity: lightmoodness from remote place/ time: ferren frugal. build. pleasure: 1 este 2 pleasure: wellquemness favour (v. fruitfulness: wastumbearingness. frumth. bendy. fecundity: bearingness fertility. grace. steadfast. bounty.

completion: filledness function. givle generous. officer: ambighter. overeattle 2. to gluttony: overeattleness go on expedition: fird grace. time/ days to come/ to be. discipline: steerness . productivity.fruitfulness. favour. slade 232 glorify: wulder glorious: wulderful. vex. forthshaft G generous: big hearted. cruelly: tharly group: team. holdand guardian of treasure: hoardward guidance. splendour: wulder glossary: wordlist gluttonous: 1. kind.f. fertility: wastumbearingness.): aftertime. holder. with future (a. hinder. honestly: orefastly gradually: stepmeal graciousness: estiness grandfather: eldfather grandmother: eldmother granary: cornhouse grateful (in advance): forethankful gratitude: thankfulness gratitude. wastumbearness frustrate: thwart. gathering.: thankworthy gratuitous: uncalled for. wike furnish: set up with. race. tribe: strind generosity. deserving g. protect: beward guardian: ward. afflict: awhene grievously.: overeat. give. severely. virtuous: custy general. unmean. to be future (n. esty 2 respected. commander: heratower generation. forthcoming. flock guard (v. beway frustrated mood/ distressed: angmood frustration. liberality: givleness gentle: smolt gentleness: 1 smiltness 2 humility.): coming.s. wuldry gloriously: wulderfully glory. pleasure. occupation: brooking functionally. = fourth eldfather a.) grief: heartsoreness grieve. dene. attendant. bounty: este gracefulness: estfulness gracious: 1 estful. hereafter. serviceably: brookingly functionary. distress: angmoodness fuel: firefood fulfilment. honest: orefast graciously: 1 estely 2 respectfully. valley: dale. submission: edmede gently: smoltly genuflection: kneebowing give a preview: foreshow glacial: ickly glade.). needless great grandfather: third eldfather (great great g. to be g.

custom. odious: hately. oreworthness 2 respect. settled home: hearthfast herbivorous: plant eating heritage: yearve hero: heleth hiatus: break. agreeable: thwear harmoniously. generally accepted: folkright humane: metheful humanely. port: hithe harmonious. reverence: oring 3 dignity: worthfullness honouring. unity. oreworthily hope. submission: edmede humble. usage. expectation. with: hatethinkle hostility: harmheartness. exhibitor: beshower guileless: fakeless honour. respect. hattleness. gap high official. state of being: yislehood hostile. disposition.). mild humility. demonstrator. earthbegoingness. guestly hospitality: comelitheness host at a meal: eatgiver hostage: yisle hostage. proportionally: methely humble: loathingness human race: earthkin human/ common right.). provide for: besee having a stable. hattle hostile intentions. to: make low/ meek. bring down H habit. virtuous: thewfast 3 reputable: unforcouth honourably. expect. conduct (n. opinion. manners: thew habitable: erdingly habitation: erdstead. oreworth 2 moral. supposition: ween hope (v. loathly. with dignity: worthfully. imagine: ween horrible: loathly. woneness habitual: thewful habitually: woningly hall officer: hallthane handle: arine harbour. agreement: thwearness have regard for. moderately. favour: 1 ore. hately horticulture: earthtilth horticulturalist: earthtiller hospitable: comelithe. dignified: 1 worthful. united. prefect: reeve high quality: uply hilarious: laughterful hindrance: hinderness honest: truthful 233 . meek. valuing: worthing honourable. agreeably: thwearly harmony.

): ween imitate: evenlatch imitation: evenlatching.s. from now immediately. enlighten: inlighten. see in the mind 234 imagine. incite. ibid (ibidem): in the same work. humiliation: unathelness ignominious: bismearful ignorance: unloredness ignorance. undying immovably. thereright immense.e. expect. graciously: orefastly honesty. yondshine illumination. right there/ then. (id est): that is. respectfully. go ahead with. thewless immortal: deathless. if this is not the case: if not if this is the case: if so ignite. hope (v. unmovingly. enlightenment: onlighting.honest. give impatience: unthild impatient: unthildy impatiently: unthildly impenetrably: unthroughshotingly imperatively: bebidingly imperfect: unfulfremed imperfection: unfulfremedness. unfulfreming impertinence: cheek impetuous. introduce into: onsow implement: do. to be: forthyearn impractical. unthewful. stupidity: unwisdom ignorant: unlored ill mannered. i. let know. steadfastly impart: tell. set about/ to. inflame. motionlessly: unstiringly. gracious: orefast honestly.w. respect: orefastness human: werely human race: werekin hydrophobia: waterfrightness hyphen: dash I i. inconstant: thewless illegible: can't be read illiteracy: unreadness illiterately: unreadly illuminate.i. likebusning imitator: evenlatcher immature: unriped immeasurable: unmete immeasurably: unmetely immediate: straight away. instantly: straight away. inlightness. get started on implore: beg. onlight. redundant: unworkly implant. respected. immoral. straight off. consume: anneal ignobility. beseech . t. onlightness illuminator: inlightand/ inlighter imagination: mind's eye. onlighten. extraordinary: unmete immersion: drenchness immodest: unshamely immoral: unthewfast.

worthness important function: highthaning important. inflame: anneal incitement. trouble: uneathliness inconvenient: awkward inconvenient. prejudgementally: fordeemedly in receipt of: get. unright . also. furthermore. onset impossible. take up. ill mannered. distinguished: worthly impose put upon. unreliable: untruefast. miracle: wonderwork imprison. instigation. on top of in conjunction with: with. embody incorrect: wrong. estimation: worthliness. on in terms of need: needwise in the event of: if. exhortation: tighting inclination: want. together with in good condition. withal in addition to: as well as.importance: weight importance. inaccurate: unwrast incongruously. consume. whurful inconstant. not possible: unmightly impressive work/ action. prosperous: soundful in lieu of: instead of in manner of foreigners: altheodily in my manner: minely in order/ succession: endbirthly in perpetuity. when in the eventuality of: if. not right.. deed. incongruous: unwrast inaccurately. confident: headbold.. erratically: missly incantation: galdersong incarnation: infleshness. value. mutability: whurfulness inconstant. with . when in view of the fact that: as in way that marks/ cuts off: sheeringly 235 inability: unmightiness inability to injure: unscathefulness inaccuracy: offsetness inaccurate. perpetually: everly in prejudicial way. such as. fleshness incidence: how often incite. unsuitable: unhaply incorporate: bring in. cheeky in accordance with: in line with in addition: as well. immoral: thewless incontinence: unholdsomeness incontinent: unholdsome inconvenience. confine: beclose impudent. feeling inclined to laugh: laughle including: with.too/ also incompetence misholdsomeness incompletion: unfulfreming incongruous. have in regard to: about. incongruously: unwrastly inaccurately. inaccurately: unwrastly inconsideration: unfreming inconstancy. ignite. valuable.

indiscrimination. rise incredible: unlieveful.): idleyearn industrious: hard working. unyearnful indigenous. irrationally: unshedwisely index. state of not being trim: untrimness inflame. mean 236 indicator. irrationality: unshedwiseness indiscreet. privacy. consume: anneal inflame: inheaten inflammation: walm inflation: blowness inflexibly: unbowingly inflict upon: onbeload infrequently: unseldom ingratitude: unthank inhabit: live/ dwell in. discloser. irrationally: unshedwisely indiscretion. accumulation: upping. indiscriminately. index: beckonand/ beckoner indifferent: neither one way or the other. swell. less. deedly ineffable: untellable. disagreeably: unthwearly inherit: yearve . broaden increase (n. special: onlepy individuality.incorrect/ wrong education: forlearning incorrectly: unrightly incorruptedly: unforrotedly incorruptibly: unforrotingly increase (v. indicator. indescribably: unsayingly inevitably: unfightingly inextricably: unbreakingly inferior: lower. native: inlandish individual. up. get incursion: infare indefatigable: unweary independence: selfdom indiscreetly. disunited. private. ineffably: unsayingly indiscrimination. disagreeable: unthwear inharmoniously.): raise. indiscriminate. irrational: unshedwise indescribably: untellingly indescribably. indiscretion: unshedwiseness indiscriminate. cannot be told ineffably. incite. discloser: beckonand/ beckoner indicate: show. netherly inferiority: netherness infirmity. ignite.). speciality: onlepiness indolent (v. workful. wone inhabitant: earthbeganger inhale: breath in inharmonious. raise up. step incur: run up. unlievedly. irrationality. lower/ less than. unbelievable incredibly: unlievefully. mark. indiscreet. irrational: unshedwise indiscriminately. can't be believed. indiscreetly. unbelievably incredulity: unlievefulness increment: raise.

design (v. damage: scatheness. set up. record: setness institution. befrining inquisitive. inthought inter alia/ alios: among others/ other things .). right there/ then. iniquity: unrightwiseness innocence. injustice: unrightwiseness. curious: frimdy insane: mad. simplicity: bilewhitness innocent: 1 unshildy. excessive.): setness institute (v. scathiness. examination: onbeshowing 237 inspiration: onblowness (see note: p. get going institution. severity.inhospitable: uncomelithe iniquity. wickedness initiate: begin. learning instructor: lorethane insult. position. derision: hoker intellect: wit. scathe injurious: scatheful. to: begin. scathy injurious deed/ crime: scathedeed injurious person. construction. excess: swithliness. brains intelligent: angetful intemperance: unmetefastness intemperate. regulation: insetness instruct. exhortation: tighting institute (n. unshearingly inserted: insetted inspection: inshowing inspection. start. swithness intention: inthink. lay down. thereright instigation. scathing injustice. excessive: unmetefast intend. shildless 2 simple. avariciously: yetsingly inscription: inwriting insensitive: unfeeling insensitivity: feelessness inseparable: untodealy inseparably: unsunderedly. frayne inquirer. immediately: straight away. incitement. 84) inspire: inblow (see note: p. command: bebid instruct by example: beseen instruction: teaching. 84) instability: unsteadfulness instant: handwhile instantly. purpose (v. anget intelligence: wit. harm. immoderate. start injure: hurt. sincere: bilewhit innumerable: unmete innumerableness unmeteness innumerably: unmetely inoffensive: unharmyearn inquire: throughseek. wrong. unsinny. severe: swithly intensity. investigator: speeriand/ speerer inquiry: seekness. brainsick insatiably: unfilledly insatiably.): inset institute. antagonist: scather injury. foundation.): underbegin intense. wrongdoing. wits.

s. proof: fanding investigator. provoke. merged. can't bear/ stand intolerably: untholingly. inlead introduce into. enrage: greme irritating: irksome. bug irritate. composition. scrutinise: underseek.f. break intolerable: unbearable. can't be seen invisibly: unseenly invitation: lathing invite: inlath involuntarily: unwilsomely irrational. betwixset interpreter. come up with inventor. inly international: worldwide interpolate: put in. scrutning 2 trail. indiscrimination: unshedwiseness irrationally.f. translator: wender interrogation. interior: inly. internal: inly. originator: frumer invention. inward interjection: betwixalayedness intermission: betweenforletness.: forride interest (on loan a. speer 238 investigate. joint. indiscriminate: unshedwise irrationality. withmeetedness invert: put upsidedown/ the other way up investigate: underseek. united. with vehicle/ horse a. implant: onsow inundate: flood over invent: : think up. forletting internal disease: inaddle internal pain: inwark internal. indiscriminately: unshedwisely irreverence. misleadingly put in/ say interposed: set between. compose: fay joined. connect. device. indignity: unoreworthness irritate: irk. diagram: fay . widely travelled: widegoing J jaundice: yellowaddle join 1 associate: thede 2 unite.): gavel interim: meantime.intercept: 1 forfare 2 i.s. inside. fix. test. discovery: afoundness. unified: samedfast joining. indiscretion. think of. examine. indiscreet. spread. inquirer: speeriand/ speerer invisible: unseen. findle. questioning: frayness interrupt: cut in. ascruten investigation: 1 speering. inside. inwardly. for now interior. inward internally: inside. break in. bugging isolate: cut off issue: give out/ off/ forth itinerant. indiscretionately. unbearably introduce: bring/ lead/ let/ put in.

speech. disturbance. alert. to juvenile: young. arvethliness labour: 1 work 2 trouble. somnolent: sleeple lethargy: 1 sleepfulness 2 somnolence: sleepleness liberal: free minded. winsome judge (v. happy. generousness: givleness liberating: aleasinglike joint: lith journey: fareing joy of youth: youthmirth joy. roopness liberality. rerde latitude: leeway: lay foundations (v. youth. rightwiseness justice.f. unshackle liberality: roomheartness. in a correct way: rightwise justice: fairness. keep vigil: throughwatch L laborious: arvethly 239 . fair. roop liberalise: free up. right just: only. discord. unfetter.): groundwall. younger just: rightdoing. disagreement: unthwearness lacking perception: ongetless lament: beweep lamentably: beweepingly lamentation: sorrowword land force/ army: landhera language: tongue.laboriousness: longsomeness.): deem judge (n.) just. bountifulness: roomgivleness liberality. but (as in 'all but‘. ’none but' a. difficulty: arveth laceration: slitness lack of unity. youngster. to laziness: slackerness legal: lawly legal (in sense not breaking law): lawful legal right: lawright legible: can be read.): deemer/ deemster jump: leap junction: wayleet junior: young. pleasure: blitheness joyful: blithe. righteousness: righwiseness justifiably: rightwisely justification: rightwising justify: rightwise. child K keep vigilant. readable lethally: deathbearly lethalness: deathbearness lethargic.s. youthful. disharmony. rightness.

rage: hotheartness manifest. likeworth likeably. redeemer: aleasand/ aleaser liberty: freedom library: bookhouse lifeguard: lifeward likeable: likeworthy. familiar: couth manifestation: atewedness. brave: 1 thanly 2 l. likeworthness limit: bound. evidently: couthly manner: way manners. usage.: readthoughting literary commentator: readthoughter live luxuriously: to este liver complaint: liveraddle loaning/ security trouble: borrowsorrow local: stowly locality. maritime: sealy maritime. keep to liquid emetic: spewdrink literary: bookly literature. disposition: thew manual: handbook manual art: smithcraft marine. keep down. habit. custom. workreeve mania. uphold. to a lord: lordhold loyalty. zeal. position. conduct (n. familiarly.liberator: 1 freeand 2 deliverer. consideration of l.). hold. stay on/ with make fortunate: eady make noble: to athel making peace: sibsoming male. stow. (known root: atew) manifestly. site. station: stowe. stowe logic: wordlock loquacity: speakleness loyal. masculinity: manship malevolent: evilwilling malice: evilwillingness. certainly. masculine: mannish maleness. allegiance: holdship lunar: moonly lunatic: moonsick 240 M magic: galdercraft magnanimous: great minded maintain: keep up/ going. noble. position. station: stead. certain. stead location. marine: sealy market: chapstow married (man): wifefast marry: wed marry (a wife): wive marrying: wiving martial: heraly . evilyearness malicious: nithy maliciously: nithfully manager: dightner. pleasingly: likeworthly likeability: well likeworthness. place.

troubled: unblithe. in the head mention: talk/ speak of mercy. administration: thaning minority: lessness miracle: 1 wondertoken 2 impressive work/ action. compassion.): firdship military equipment: heriot 241 military expedition: wyesith military operations on land: landfirding military service: firdfare military. determine: hedge melancholy: down (hearted). manship masculinely: mannishly masonry: wallwork. martial: firdly minister: thane minister of the church: churchthane ministerial: thanely ministry. satisfaction: quemeness model. proportion.masculine. benevolence: milce merged. heavyhearted mellifluous: honeysweet memorandum: minding menace: threat menstruation: monthsickness menstruous: monthsick mental: mind. thing(s) mayor. unified: samedfast message: errandspeech metropolis: elderborough militarily: firdwise military (the) (n. lack of luck missile: shoting mitigation. pattern. yomering 2 poverty. distress: ermth misfortune: mishap. workcraft mediator: middliand mediocre: middling mediocrity. male: mannish. humanely. of the mind. manly. unified. woe. low. mannishness masculinity. ponder. yomer miserably 1 pitiably: armly 2 destitutely: tharfingly 3 with trouble: yomerly misery. degree. maleness: mannishliness. mothren matter: stuff. rate: methe mechanics: workings. stonetimber maternal: motherly. centrality: midness meditate: underthink meditate. beseening moderate: metefast moderately: metefastly moderately. proportionally: methely moderation: metefastness modest: shamefast modus operandi: way of working . deed: wonderwork miscarriage: misbirth miser: feeyetser miserable. trouble: 1 woe. joined. united. example: beseen. service. absorbed: samed merged. sorrowly. provost: boroughreeve measure.

needwiseness. misyeme neglecter. whurfulness mystery.): overseer monitor (v. despiser: forhowand/ forhower negligence: yemelessness negligent: yemeless negligently: yemelessly negotiations: talks nephew: brother's/ sister's son .): thewly. population. people: folkship 3 n. tumult: stirness multiple: manifold. thewfast. association: 1 thedeship 2 population. virtuously: thewfastly mortality: deathliness most central: midmost most particularly. needbehovedness necessity. excite: onstir movement 1 disturbance: unstillness. indigenous: inlandish natives: landfolk nature. look after more excessive: swither moral (a. needbehove necessitate: need. agitate. many in multiple ways: manifoldly multiplicity. proposition. despise: forhow. purpose: forthsetness. of our country: ourlandish native. changeability. inconstancy: wendingliness. onstiredness 2 power of motion. needbehovedly. have to necessity: needness. distress: tharf negative: unfremeful neglect: lack of care. statement: kithing 242 nation. province: thede 4 foreign nation: altheod national. profundity: 1 deepness 2 secret. needed. foresetness motionlessly.): 1 overlook 2 disregard. parliament: witanmoot native : inlander native. behovely necessary: needful. thewful morally.moisture: wetness monitor (n. abundance. disturbance. proposal.): oversee. social. to. needly. needhood . secrecy: roun N narration. disturb. most especially: mostlyest motion.. quality: suchness nautical: shiply naval: fleetly naval battle: shipfight navigation: wayfinding necessarily: needbehovely. complexity: manifoldness multiply by: times multitude: felefoldness mutability. provincial: thedely national council. carelessness neglect (v. immovably: unstiringly mountain: highberg move. community. administration.

hearsomely obey (v.): hearsome obligation: boundness obliged: have to oblique: slanting oblivion: forgetelness obscure: thesterly obscure. impossible: unmightly not pretty. hearsome obediently: heedfully. deformed: unwlitty not useful. onfind. hinderness obstinacy: onewillness . thester observance: 1 holdness 2 practice. restraint. to: fordim. not planned: unfremed not desired: unbecraved not discordant/ contrary: unwitherward not displayed. brave. excessive: unmetefast not planned.). loyal: thanly noble class: athelkind non suffering injury: unscathedness. yeme noticeable: marked notion: thought nourishment: feedness novelty: newness O obedience: 1 hearsomeness 2 submission: underthedeness 3 discipline: thewfastness obedient: heedful. aristocratic: athel noble. preservation. not dangerous: unscathy not injuriously. disfigured.newly converted: newwhirved nobility: 1 athelness 2 noble class: athelkind noble born: athelborn noble. not injurious: unscathy not dangerously. unforthought not contrary/ discordant: unwitherward not dangerous. intemperate. perceive: underget. not injuriously: unscathily not described. not demonstrated: unbeshowed not injurious. unprofitable: unfremeful notice (v. unscathefulness not ambiguous: untwoly not causing suffering/ injury: unscatheful not contrarily/ discordantly: unwitherwardly not considered. not dangerously: unscathily immoderate. exercise: begeng observance. devotion: holdsomeness observation: beholdness obsolete: out obstacle: thing on/ in the way. not described: unfremed not of noble birth: unathelborn 243 not possible. not expected: unbethought.

without result: noughtly of our country. resist: be/ go/ stand/ set against. chare occupy: 1 busy. davenliness oppose. summon. secular: folkish offence. trample. declare: abede office: 1 ambighthouse 2 prefecture: reeveship 3 service. oppose. working. running 2 workability: workness 244 operationally. offer: abede order . inventor: frumer ornithology: birdlore out of control. eldness. declare. repress: thrutch order: endbirth order (v. announce.. hostile: hattle of equal birth: evenborn of foreign nation: althedy of harbour/ port: hithely of no avail.). keep busy 2 posses: besit occupying/ established in a house: housefast occurrence: happening ocean: sea. primeval condition: frumshaft originate: stem/ start/ begin from originator. disposition: dightning orientals: eastleod origin: 1 from. profligate: steerless outward passage: outfare overtalkative: overspeakle overtalkitiveness: overspeakleness . wike old age: oldness. forstand obtain: get occasion: time. direct.obstruct: 1 hinder 2 prevent: stand in the way of. the deep odiferous: stenchbringing odious. functionary: ambighter. in succession: endbirthly ordering. forolding omit: leave out/ off. ordfrim 2 primitive: frumly original creation. present (v.). direct. native: ourlandish of the people. overlook omnipotence: almightiness. practically: workly opinion. proclaim.). over against opposition: 1 withsetness 2 adversity: witherwardness oppress. forstand opposite: straight over from. hope (n.). there again op cit (opus citatum): work quoted operation: 1 work.): fallness offer. proclaim. command ( o. ruin (n. almight on the contrary: its the other way. frume 2 cause: frume 3 foundation: frumth original: 1 first. announce. expectation: ween opponent. command: ambight officer.). order (v. stem. adversary: witherling opportunity: tideliness.). high sea. present (v. attendant. afflict. command (v.). supposition. summon.

deedbote penultimate: last but one people: 1 folk(s) 2 nation. onfind perceive. nation: folkship people's right: folkright per annum: yearly. f. oathbreach P pacific. throughgo penitence: deedboteness. recognition: ongetness perception. model: beseen. endurance: tholing past (n.): eddish parliament. ongetness perceptive: ongetful perceptively: ongetfully perform: 1 bego 2 proclaim. bit part.e. passage: ferness passing. deal. west p. chamberlain: bowerthane pain. national council: witanmoot part: share. sidewark palate: mouthroof parable. treaty: frithwrit pedestrian: footly penetrate: get into.s. breastwark. poor/ destitute person: tharver peaceable: sibsome peace: frith.f. heathenness page. a head per se: as such. dangerous: plightly. a day per person: each. heartwark. transitory. longsomeness patient: thildy patient.: westdeal. province: thede 3 population. example. each per day: daily. peaceable: frithsome paganism: heathendom. found in: bladderwark. sib peace agreement. freckenful perishable. a year perceive. a day per diem: daily. allegory: onlikeness park (n. suffering: wark. also: eastdeal a. passing away: ferness passing away. distinguish: onget perception. transient: fallenly perjury: forswornness. spend passage. by or in itself per year: yearly. to be: thild patiently: thildily pattern. suffering. a year per capita: a head. shoulderwark. relate: kithe perhaps: maybe perilous. participate: take part pass: go by. recognise. liverwark. comprehension: understandness. beseening 245 .): time(s)/ days gone by pastoral: herdly paternal (ancestral): forthfatheren paternal: fatherly patience: thild. temporary: whiling passion.pattern. notice: underget. form: onlikeness paucity: fewness pauper.

tenacity: throughwoning. throughholed pilot: 1 shipsteerer. those (who) persuade: beswape perusal: throughlooking peruse: read. acceptable: queme please (v. bounty: este pledge. stow place before. position. grace.): bewarp philosopher. sage: witter phobia: fear. a bit at a time. also poison. station: stead 2 of death: deathstead 3 of demonstration/ exhibition: showingstowe 4 of meeting. venom: atter poisonous. throughwoness persevere: go/ fight on. winsomeness. to: wedfasten pledged: forwedded pleurisy: sideaddle plumb line: wallthread plunder: herahuth. wellquemness 2 satisfaction. likeably: likeworthly pleasure 1 delight. assembling: moothouse place (v. satisfactorily: quemely 4 deserving gratitude: thankworthy pleasingly. helmward 2 director: steerer pitiably. towarpedness pervert (v.permanent: settled. consent to: thave perpetually. fright phrase. bitmeal pierced: holed. mitigation: quemeness 3 ease: eathness 4 favour. in perpetuity: everly perseverance. suitable. agreeable. atterly. propose: foreset pleasant. keep at it persist: keep on/ up persistency. ongoing. perseverance. throughwoness person who is evil-disposed: unrightwilland/ unrightwiller personally: for one's self. steady.): set. go over/ through. comply with: queme pleasing 1 likeable: likeworth 2 satisfying: qweming 3 satisfying.). look over/ through pervade: yondfare perverse: warped perversion: warpness. proverb. throughwoningness. throughwoningness. joy: blitheness.) satisfy. atterbearing 246 . towarpness. steadfast permissible: leavedly permit: let permit (v. sentence: quide physical: bodily piecemeal: bit by bit. houth plural: more than one plus: and. tenacity: throughwoning. miserably: armly pity: armheartness place 1 location. in one's self personal power: handweald persons: folk(s). persistency. venomous: attery.

afterwardness poverty. going before. dominion. base. for practically. site. miserable: arm poorly: 1 destitutely: tharvly 2 miserably. could/ might be. tumult: stirness powerful: mightful. tharver poor quality: unrightcrafting poor. operationally: workly practice. background prefecture: reeveship prefer: would rather/ sooner. foresay prediction: foresaidness pre-eminence. foundation. foundation. tharfedness poverty. forego. foregang. state. condition: staddle positive. dishonour: besnit pollution. authoritativeness: elderdomliness pre-eminently. construction. station. nation. disturbance. place. stead position. foresteppand predecessor: foreganger predict: foretell. like better/ more . seniority: elderdom pre-eminence. the last precentor: foresingand precious: dearworth preciously: dearworthly preciousness: dearworthness precursor: forerunner. stow. meditate. record: setness position. nation.pollute. misery. authority. forestep precedence: forestepping preceding: foregoing. people: folkship population. forestepper. folk 2 public. administration. population. association: thedeship portray: outline. station: stowe. might 2 p. authority: 1 onwieldness. distress: ermth 247 power. support. constructively: fremefully positive attitude: winsomeness positively: winly possible: maybe. mightly possibility: mighliness posterity: aftergoingness. destitution: tharfliness. of motion. pauper: unhaver. outliken portent. authoritatively: elderdomly preface: foreword. determine: hedge poor/ destitute person. mighty pp (per procurationem): on behalf of. common: folkly popular: in terms of what is p. community. constructive: fremeful positively. pitiably: armly popular: 1 well-liked. exercise: begeng practitioner: begenger pray: bede preaching: loreboding preamble: forespeech precede: go before. destitute. locality. institution. sign of misfortune: woetoken position. degradation: besnitness ponder.

summon. way: fordeemedly prejudice (n. First Thane primeval condition. proclaim. last time pride 1: highmoodness 2 arrogance: wlenk prime: foremost. venturesome: daresty presumptuously. oppress: athrick presumption: 1 fortrueing 2 arrogance: uphaveness presumptuous. in way of being p.): gift present (adj. herebefore. individual.): haftling privacy.): forebusy preparation: gearing. command (v. individuality. offer: abede present (n. direct.). foremost. here present. announce.). singular: sunderly private. speciality: onlepiness private.): main. devotion: holdsomeness preside: foresit press. special: onlepy privilege: sunderfreedom pro: for probability: likelihood proceed to: go on to .). ruler: highelder.prefer. be more/ greater prescription: forewriteness present (v. prejudice: fordeem premeditate. original creation: frumshaft primeval. custody. foregearing. declare. cut off. now. gearingness prepare: ready. forechoose prejudge: fordeem. stay. foreshowing (as in to show a p.) previewer: foreshower previous: former. primitive: frumthly primitive: frumly principal 1 (a. in preference: would rather. top. first prime minister. special.: instand presently. highest 2 capital: headly prior to: before priority: high up. high(er) on the list prisoner. forestall.: instandingly preservation. observance. order (v. before. at this time. foredeem prejudicial. one(s) before previously: formerly. keep from. head off 2 resist. surprise: forcome preview: forelook (as in to see a p. oppose: forstand 3 dissuade: belean 4 surpass. arrogantly: uphavely 248 prevent: 1 stop.). prematurely judge: fordeem prematurely judge. get ready preponderate: weigh more.). captive (n. consider: forethink premeditated: erebethought premier: foremost. restraint. economy.): fordeemedness prejudice (v. top preoccupy (v. separate. in p. to be p.): right now.

wealthy. beneficially: fremefully profligate. fruitfulness. produce.): set/ ongoing plan programme. purpose: forthsetness. bring forth. foresetness propose. usefulness: fremefulnes profitable. fruitfully: wastumly productivity. heartfelt profundity. measure. tedious: longsome protractedly. humanely: methely proposal. asylum: grith protector. present (v. announce. fruit. fremely profitably.): headway. perform: kithe produce (v. defender: 1 shielder 2 guardian.). ruler: holdand. trail.). wealy prosperous. out of control: steerless profligately: steerlessly profound: deep. fortunate: eady prosperously: soundfully prosperously. forthbear produce (n. usefully. place before: foreset proposition. fortunately: eadily protect. furtherand promotion: furtheringness pronounce: say proof. test: fanding 249 proper: rightworth proper ordinance/ appointment: rightsetedness properly: 1 rightly. command (v. forthwardness. declare. announce: 1 forthsay 2 order (v.). weal 2 fortune: eadiness 3 development: growness prosperous: doing well. proposition. proposal. product: wastum product. to: set to do progress (n. beneficial: fremeful. purpose: forthsetness.proclaim. fertility: wastumbearingness. wastumbearness profitability. tediously: longsomely proud: wlonk . advance: forthgang progressive forthward prohibit: forbid prohibition: forbode prolific: teamful prologue: foreword. motion. forewrit promoter: furtherer. holder protracted.): come up with. moderately. guard: beward protection. defence: shieldness.). foreshieldness 2 covering: helm 3 truce. forthship progress (v. foresetness proprietor: owner prospect: outlook prosperity: 1 soundfulness. motion. right. aright. rate: methe proportionally. offer: abede proclaim. summon. shielding. 2 properly appointed/ established: rightset property: ownness proportion. degree.). direct. relate. mystery: deepness programme (n. fruit: wastum productively.

zeal. irritate: greme provost. test: 1 costen 2 show 3 experience: afond provenance: from proverb. set off. proposal. one in four quartered: fitherdealt question: frayning.v. try. proportion: methe ratify/ apply fully: fullfasten rational: rightwittly . nature: suchness quarrelsome: unsibsome quarrelsomeness: unsibsomeness quarry. howe prudently: howly public meeting: folkmoot public officer: folkreeve public place: folkstowe public. to: befrine questioning: frayning quiet. forethought. proposition. foresetness pursue: go/ run after.). degree. strange: seldcouth rate. forethinkleness. temptation: costness provocation: greming provoke: 1 bring about. frayn question. use: befasten Q q. strange: seldly rare. ravine: crundle quarter: fourth. intend: underbegin purpose (n.). common: folkly publicly known: folkcouth pupil (child): learningchild purchase: buy purgative: cleansingdrink purport: reckon. howship prudent: with forethought. national: thedely proving. design (v. follow pursuit: toseekness. establish. get 2 enrage. say purpose (v. nation: thede provincial. toseekening pursuant to: under push: shove pusillanimous: weakminded 250 put safe.prove. sentence: quide provide for. (quod vide): see quadruple: fourfold quadruply: fourfoldly quality. have regard for: besee province.). swift rare. popular. mayor: boroughreeve prudence: care. extraordinary: seldseen rare. unusual. tribe: strind radiance: shineness/ sheenness rage. measure. foresight. phrase. trial. motion: forthsetness. forethinkle. utilise. social. mania: hotheartness rapid: fast. silence: swey R race. generation.

of late. cutting down. discreetly: shedwisely ravage: forharry. perform: kithe related: linked. requite: foryield reconcile: sibsome reconciliation: eftthinging record. wordfast relieve: soothe. back. cut. cast aside/ outside. kin relative(s): kinsman/ woman/ folk. distinguish. bring down reducing: lessening. eftleasing reduce: lessen. rueness regretful: rueful. aleasedness. perception: ongetness recompense. sanctuary: frithstowe refute. aleasedness. denial: forsaking. release (n. alease release (n. perceive: onget recognition. latterly recognise. lessening reestablishment: edstathling 251 refer to: talking about. endmost reason: ground.): aleseness. trueful. lessen relinquish: forlet relinquishment: forletness remember: keep/ bear in mind. eftmind remembering: eftmindy remembrance: 1 mindiliness 2 memorandum: minding . not forget. trusty: truefast. let out. liberator.). smalling reduction: cut. have r. hold. harry ravine.): leave.): rise up. repel: withshove regard . disobedience: unhearsomeness rebellion: uprising recently: lately. lowering. meaning refrain: not do. redemption. provide for: besee regarding: about. kith and kin release (v. acover recovery. institution. remission. remission: aleseness. on that regeneration: eftkenedness region: landstead. foundation. straighten out. deliverer: aleasand redemption. abandonment: forsakeness rejection. quarry: crundle reach: rine rear: behind. position. construction: setness recover: get better/ over/ back. reserve. wit rebel (v. rise/ go against rebellious. eftleasing reliable. stay refuge. ruey regretting: rueing regulation. help.rationally. put to rights rectitude: rightness redeemer. salvation: healness recrimination: backblaming rectify: put right. landship regret: sorryness.): let go. find again. withchoose rejection. disobedient: unhearsome rebelliousness. withsaking relate. proclaim. institution: insetness reimburse: give back reject (v. discriminately. for.

do/ go without.remission. gracious: orefast respectfully. restoration: anewing renewer. obedience: hearness reprehensible: steerworth repress: keep/ hold down. favour: ore. faring remove: take away/ off. stay. capability: wherewithal respect. oppress. awayleadness. take the stead (of) report (n. honourable: unforcouth require: need requirement. dwell residence: home abode.). trample. legacy: lave remorse: swithrueness remote: slight. aleasedness.): aleseness. give. farlen remotely: outly removal: taking away/ off. small. stand it. shift remunerate: edyield render: send.): besmear 252 reproof: steerspeech reptile: slinkand repudiate: awayen repulsive. recompense: foryield rescue. anew renewal. little. atonement: betness repeat: say/ do again repel. hold oneself. to: throughseek resemblance: likeness reserve: 1 misgiving 2 sanctuary. refute: withshove repentance: beruesing replace: go instead. established (in a home): homefast resist: oppose: withstand. oreworthness respect. graciously: orefastly restitution: edgift restoration: 1 eftnewing 2 renewal: anewing restore: edstall restore. duty: oughting requisite: needbehoveness requite. where one lives resident. defilement: besmear 3 affliction: shending reproach (v. redemption. terrible: atel repulsively. quell repress. terribly: atelly reputable. disgrace. restore: ednew. outside. reverence: oring respected. defile (v. honestly. save: aredde research. go against. eftleasing remnant. honesty: orefastness respect.).): 1 shendle 2 disgrace. anew . refuge: frithstowe reside: live. parole: letness remission. honour. afflict: thrutch reprimand: tell off reproach (n. not have renounce. make renew. restorer: ednewand renounce: give up. renew: ednew. stand up to. release (n. honest. deny: atsake reparation. far off/ away. forstand resources.

highelder S safe. respect: oring review. offence: fallness ruler: ricser. temperance: 1 behavedness 2 preservation. holdand ruler. stinginess. keep down to result: outcome. conversion: wharveness revolve.). economy. againcome. custody: holdsomeness restraint.restorer. edwend revelation: atiwedness revenge. transfer. society. rise/ go against 253 revolt: uprising revolution. upshot resume: go on. keep/hold back retainer: handthane. change. wholesome salvation: 1 recovery: healness 2 deliverance: aredding sanctifier: hallowand . elderthane retentive. holder. change. wrack revenue: income reverence. philosopher: witter saint: hallow salubrious: healthy. convert: wharve rewriting: gainwrit rich: wealthy ride round: beride right honourable: oreworthyful righteousness. hold. destroy: fordo ruin (n. heldly sagacious: wiseheedly sage. arist retain: keep. subversion: wending row round: berow ruin (v. devotion: holdsomeness restrict: keep to/ within.): rise up.). change. forhave restraint: hinderness restraint. tenaciousness: fasthavleness reticent: keeping quiet. leave. holding back retinue. summary: throughlooking revive: edquicken revolt (v. vengeance: wreckness. economy. secure: holdfast. companionship: fareship retire: withdraw. tenacious: fasthavle retentiveness. preservation. prime minister: first thane. go return: go/ come back. withhold. change: wharving revolution. hold. transition. justice: righwiseness rightful establishment/ appointment/ office: rightsetness riparian: streamly river bank: staith rocky hill/ mountain: stoneberg rotation. renewer: ednewand/ ednewer restrain: hold/ keep back. take up again/ once more resurrection: upariseness. observance.

singularity: sunderliness.): feel senseless: unwitful senselessness: unwitfulness sensitive: thinskinned sentence. endbirthness servant: 1 ambighter 2 minister: thane serve: 1 minister (v. but not. higher seniority: elderliness. singularity: sunderliness. abstinence: forhaveness. seclusion separateness. arrangement: afterfollowingness. refuge. disgraceful: shandful scandalously. separation. seclusion. reserve: frithstowe satisfaction. allurement: forspanning seizure: gripness 254 selective: choosy self-restraint. disgrace: shandliness scandalous. suitable: quemely satisfactory: enoughsome satisfy.). secrecy. eldership seniority. break up separate in two: tweme separate. investigate: underseek sea voyage: seafare search: seek. tweming separation. private. forhavedness seminal: seedly senior: elder. singularity: sunderliness. forspan seduction. fierce. cruel: slithe savagely. temperance. singular: sunderly separateness. distinction. special. amputate: offcarve secular: worldkind seduce: forlead. satisfying.): 1 way 2 conscience: inheed sense (v. comply with: queme satisfying: qweming satisfying. succession: afterfollowedness seratim: at one time series. look for seclusion. please (v. discretion: shed sequel. disgracefully: shandly scar: woundswathe scare: frighten school. suitable. proverb: quide separate: put asunder.sanctuary. though not saviour: healand scandal. authority. separateness. mystery: roun secretary: inwriter section (v.): thane 2 command: ambight . preeminence: elderdom sense (n. phrase. tweming separating: betwixgoing separation.). separation. university: learninghouse sciatica: hipboneache scrutinise. indrench sauna: stovebath savage. succession. college. cruelly: slithely save (coordinator): but. satisfactorily: quemely saturate: throughdrench. dominion. mitigation: quemeness satisfactorily. fiercely. tweming secret.

seclusion separateness: sunderliness. tough. privacy. swithness severely 1 cruelly. single. private. still. spaciously: wellroomly special. fierce. rough. ability. oneness with somnolence: sleepleness soporific: sleepbear sort (n. unique: onefold sincerity: luterness single. individual: onlepy special skill: sundercraft speciality. special. tweming site of a house: housestead site. violent: rough. upcome. locality. functionally: brookingly severe: 1 hard. luter sincere. strictness: tharlwiseness severity. abundance: muchness slave: theow slavery: theowdom sober: undrunk sobriety: soberness social. national: thedely society. tharlwise 3 cruel. individuality: onlepiness splendour. tough. private: sunderly singularity. rough. deep. roughly. advocate: forspeaker squander (v. unspeaking. private. unspoken similar: like. grim. stow. ord space: room spacious. provincial. glory: wulder sponsor. wild. over the top 2 strict: tharl. intensity. administration: thaning 3 duty.): forspend stabilise: make steadfast . fareship. akin to. heraman soldiering: ferding. hard. tharlwisely ship master: shipward sic: so spelled!/ said!. stead size. origin: frume. unique. sincere: onefold 255 singular. thedeness solar: sunly soldier: wyeman. separate. unique. grievously: tharly 2 exceedingly: swith 3 strictly: sternly. firding solidarity: steadfastness. toughly. separate.): kind source. singular: sunderly special. alike. separation. valour: thaneship serviceably. rethy 4 intense. station: stowe. sincere: onefold 3 sincere: bilewhit simplicity: 1 onefoldness 2 innocence: bilewhitness sincere: heartfelt. quiet: swey silent: soundless. excessive: swithly severe disability: crippleness severity. thus spelled!/ said! silence.service: 1 ambightness 2 ministry. association: fellowship. much like simple: 1 straightforward 2 single. position. unuttered. excess: swithliness. stern.

liverwark. sidewark sufficient: enough sufficiently: enoughly suffix: ending suicide: selfmurdering suicide . rough. daftness. vigorously. retentiveness. rare: seldly strange. actively: covely strict. foundation. position. condition: staddle state of not being trim. sotship subdue. base. roughly. subjugate: underthede subject.: endbirthly succumb: fall to suffer. subdue: underthede 256 subjection. obedience: underthedeness subjugate. support. position. place. dim/ slow witted.e. sot stupidity: silliness. tenaciousness: fasthavleness stupid: daft. station. endure: thole suffering. shoulderwark. vapour: ethem sterility. narration: kithing state. location. locality: stowe. breastwark. sequel: afterfollowedness succession . condition: staddle station. compulsion: 1 underdriveness 2 submission. heartwark. rare: seldcouth station. standness steam. hard. position. toughly.statement. silly. obedience: 1 underthedeness 2 humility: edmede substance: stuff substitute. found in: bladderwark.): underwater. foundation. alien: fremd who commits: selfmurderer. position: stead status: standing. endurance. tharl. foreign. dimness. to: 1 put through. up stipulate: set. tough. say strange. passion: tholing suffering: hardship suffering. subdue: underthede submarine (a. f. severely: sternly. state. unusual. make go through 2 subjugate. base. pain: wark. endbirthness succession. take away/ off suburb: underborough succession. unfruitfulness: unwastmbearness stimulate: get going. vigorous: cove strenuously. arrangement: afterfollowingness. tharlwisely stinginess. support. stow. ownslayer suitable: fitting . undersea submission. set/ lay down. infirmity: untrimness station. stead strenuous. severe: stern. s. site. raise. tharlwise strictly. to: put instead/ in the stead of subterfuge: underhandedness subtlety: smalliness subtract: take. economy.

think.). stop . watch over supplementary: more. command (v.). passing. testing. fulltum support. proclaim. perseverance. order (v. bolster supporter: fulltumer suppose: take it as.suitable. overfillness surpass: go over. trial: costning temptation. overmarking superstructure: overwork supervene: overbecome supervise: oversee. it seems supposition. foundation. further. declare. forhavedness temperance. self-restraint.). do better/ more surpass. surprise: forcome surprise: take aback surprise. surpass: forcome surrender: give in/ up/ over surround: befare surroundings: outabstandness survive: live on. opinion. satisfactorily: quemely summon. proving. outlive. offer: abede superficial: shallow superfluity: overflowness superior: higher. speakle. persistency: throughwoning. haughty. wordless talkative: felespeakle. retentiveness. protracted: longsome tediously. state. endure: underbear. base. present (v. hope. direct. throughwoningness. trial: costness tempter: costiand tenacious. on top of support: bolster. guess. economy: fasthavleness terminate: end. high superscription: overwrit. protractedly: longsomely tediousness: longsomeness temperance. announce. expectation: ween supremacy: the upper hand surfeit: overfill.). to: smatch tedious. above. overlive 257 sympathise: evenfain sympathy: evensorrowing synonym: same meaning as T tacit: unspoken. station. restraint: behavedness with temperance: forhavingly temperate: mild temporary. throughwoness tenacity. transitory: whiling temporary. late taste. toungeful tardy: slow. speakful. abstinence: forhaveness. position. stinginess. condition: staddle support (v. satisfying. transitory: whilewendly temptation. retentive: fasthavle tenacity. felewordness.

passing. trial: costning theatre: playhouse thorax.): 1 atrine 2 handle: arine 3 reach: rine towards unity: togetherward town citizen: boroughman trader: chapman tradition: eldsay transgress. trail. showing through travel: fare travel over: overfare travel with trouble: misfare traverse: 1 overfare 2 pervade: yondfare 3 surround: befare 4 transgress: overgo 5 perform: bego treacherous. change. change: put into.). perishable: fallenly trial.): thresting torment (v. oppress. temporary: 1 whiling 2 temporary: whilewendly 3 changing. beswike treasure: goldhoard treasury: goldhoardhouse trial. experiment: overfoundness. trier: fander testifier: kither testimony: kithedness testimony. revolve. repulsive: atel terribly: 1 adreadingly 2 repulsively: atelly terrific: great test (v. change. testing. temptation: costning trail. prove. do incorrectly/ wrongly: misdo transition. test.): dretch totally responsible: fullholden touch (n. falsehood. onsend. prove: costen 3 examine. chest: forebody timid: unbold tolerably: forbearingly torment (n. passing away: ferness transitory.): rining touch (v. deceit: swike. traverse: overgo transient. proof: fanding testament. deceit: truelessness treachery. convert: wharve transfix: throughfasten transform: forshape transgress. proof: fanding trample. awend translator. changeable: wharvely translate.). afflict. repress: thrutch transfer: shift 258 transfer. testimony: kitheness tester. conversion. onfoundness . wend. experience: fand test (n. oversend transparent: seethrough. revolution: 1 wharveness 2 passage. deceitful: trueless treachery.terrain: ground terrible. temptation. experience: afond 2 try. interpreter: wender transmit: broadcast. false. testament: kitheness testing.

): sey. swenkedness. uncreated: unshapen . temptation: costness tribe.). victory (n. onemood unarmed: weaponless. experience: onfoundness trial. difficulty: 1 angsomeness. feeding into trier. uneathness. generation: strind tribulation: 1 yomerness. miserable: yomer troublesome: 1 angsome 2 laborious: arvethly troublesomely. proving. seyfastness triumphal: seyerly trouble (n. uneathly truce.): dretch trouble. wordfast try: fand try. threatness. tester: fander triple: threefold triply: threely triumph (v. disturbance: stirness turn (v. unformed: unshapen undeserving of gratitude: unthankworthy a. heanhood. convert: wharve type: kind U ultimate: last. with difficulty: angsomely. of unthankworthy: unthankworthily undivided: untodealed undividedness: untodealness unencumbered: unheavied unexpected: unweened unexpectedly: unweenedly unformed. hard time/ thing. swenk. trueful.): 1 swenche 2 torment (v. prove: costen tumour: wen 259 tumult.): seyfast triumph. difficulty: hardship. thrutchness 2 affliction: dretchedness tributary: sidestream. unweaponed unavoidably: unforbowingly unbearably: unbearingly unchangeability: unwendness unchanging: unwharving uncle: eme unconquered: unoverwon uncontested: unbefought uncorrected: unright uncreated. convert: 1 bewend 2 revolve. endmost unabated: unlessened unanimity: onemoodness unanimous: sameheart. race. change. transfer. reliable: truefast. explanation. protection: grith trusty. test. power of motion.trial. arvethness trouble/ disease bearing: addlebearing troubled. experiment. uneath. arveth 2 contrition: threstness 3 inconvenience: uneathliness trouble (v. asylum.).

put safe. habit. merged: samed unified. sterility: unwastmbearness ungracious: unestful unguent: smearsalve unification. put safe. harmonious. transient: fallenly unsuitable. agreement: thwearness universal: everywhere. ally university. utilise. merged. disorderly: unthewful. unstill unmovingly. illstarred unfruitful. not useful: unfremeful unrelated: unsibb unreliable. custom. conduct. rare. profitably. compose: fay united. unthewfast unmarried: unbewedded. unified: samedfast united. harmony. beneficial: fremeful usefulness.). whurful unrenewingly: unanewingly unrepproached: besmearless unseasonable: untidely unseasonableness: untime unstable: 1 unsteadful. beneficially: fremefully usual. fix. agreeable: thwear unity. joined. unfruitful: wastumless unprofitable. single. steadfastly unnecessary: needless unopposed: unbefought 260 unpleasant: unwinsome unpleasantness: unwinsomeness unproductive. unrightwise unjust judge/ critic: unrightdeemer unmannered. inconvenient: unhaply unusual. steadless. connect. joined. wifeless unmasculinely: unmenishly unmoving: unstiring. merged. disposition. absorbed. immovably: unstiringly.). enjoy: brook use (n.unfortunate: unlucky. immoral. manners: thew use (v. establish: befasten use (v. use: befasten . establish. school. unproductive: wastumless unfruitfulness. strange: seldcouth urban: townly usage.). college: learninghouse unjust: unrightful. united: samedfast unique. customary: wonely utilise. neat 2 profitable. union: samening unified. profitability: fremefulnes usefully. luckless. not steadfast 2 perishable. function: brooking useful: 1 handy. inconstant: untruefast. sincere: onefold uninhabited: folkfree uninvited: unlathed union: samening unite.

about visible: seen. strenuously: covely villain: nithing violent. rethy virgin soil: maidenearth virginity: maidhood virtuous: 1 generous: custy 2 moral: thewfast. fele 2 exceedingly. thinking view (v. severely: swith very likeable: well likeworthy vex.V v. seyfast.s. important. grim. right. ingenger. seenly. duty: thaneship valuable. (vide supra): see above vain: empty. deem as vigil: nightwatch vigilant: watchful. morally: thewfastly vis-à-vis: on. worthwhile valley. actively.): outlook. wilsomely 2 arbitrarily: selfwillingly . wordstock/ list vocation: calling voice: 1 steven 2 language: rerde. think. cove 2 severe. distinguished: worthly value. guest. wrack venturesome. seyerfastness victory. poisonous: attery. atterly. disappear: go. downright. playing very: 1 highly. dene. slade valour. steam: ethem variety. cruel. fault: unthew victorious: seyerfast. seeable. presumptuous: daresty verbose: wordy verbose. severe. good. fluent: wordful verification: ground truthing versus/ vs: against. afflict: awhene via: go through/ by way of vibrate: shake 261 vice. idle vain desire: idlelust vain joy: idlebliss valid: true. ingoer viz (videlicet): namely vocabulary: wordhoard. seyfastness view (n. worthliness vanish. fierce: rough. diversity: mislikeness. triumph: sey. speech. missenly vehicle: fering venomous. grieve. most. keep eyes peeled vigorous: 1 strong. healthy. seyly victory: seyer. estimation: worthness. wild. smeech vapour. sightness visitor: comer. importance. missenliness various: sundry. eyeseen vision: sight. fordwine vapour: smitch. strict: tharl vigorously. tongue volition: will voluntarily: 1 wilfully. thewful virtuously. atterbearing vengeance. glade: dale. thoughts. revenge: wreckness.): look at/ on watch.

combat: 1 hild 2 battle: guth 3 contest: wye warrant officer. lowminded wrong/ incorrect education: forlearning Y yearly commemoration: yearmind W war. be sick.voluntary: wilful. awe: aweless. wellborn bind: unbindingly birth: misbirth bliss: blissy blithe: unblithe blossom: blossomy book: booklore careful: carefulness . rage. nothing Updated Words related to current words. wilsome vomit: spew. sick/ throw up voracious: greedy vulgar: low. preacher: beadle warrior. herald. mentioning/ minding: mindworth wound inflicting. but generally without obvious modern loanword equivalents (many of these are in Step 1): Key: Updated words in bold. awelessness. selfwilling. troublesomely: angsomely. soldier: wyeman well demonstrated: wellbeshowed well pleasing: wellquemedly widely travelled. dirty. awely bear: unbearing. dangerous: woundly 262 Z zeal. about with temperance: forhavingly without deceit. mania: hotheartness zero: nought. guileless: fakeless without duplicity: untwofold without necessity/ distress/ trouble: tharfeless without support: fulltumless with trouble. firm roof: rooffast with difficulty. uneathly with reference to: about with regard to: about with respect to: for. itinerant: widegoing with a solid. miserably: yomerly worth remembering.

unglad. loresome. hitherward hold: mishold hue: hueless. moodthought. unended evil: evilful. undeadly deal: dealtly dizzy: dizzydom do: misdo. ungladly. likingly little: littleheedy. uncraft. littleness. craftly. heavymood. moodsickness. fakely fen: fenny field: fieldly fiend: fiendship flood: floodly forgive: forgivenly forlorn: forlornness friend: friendlore frost: frostly glad: gladding/ glading. smally.Christian: Christianness cleanse: uncleansed cliff: cliffy craft: craftless. moodful. unmoodiness. moodsick. unmightily. moodless. latesome laughter: unlaughterworthy law: lawbreach less: lessly like: likeworthily. unmighty mild: mildheartness mind: mindily. likeworthiness. evilness. ondoing. unlittle loathe: loathless live: mislive lore: loredom. ungladness good: goodless. unrightlust manifold: manifoldly man: manless marred: unmarred meat: meatless might: unmight. songcraft. mindy mood: hardmoodness. lorewriter love: lovesome. lovesomeness lust: lustfulness. lorely. manyhuely 263 in: inwise inland: inlandishness kin: kinly late: latemost. unheedy here: hereonamong hither: hithercome. grimness groundless: groundlessly guest: guesty harvest: harvestly health: unhealth heed: unheedly. ungood grim: grimful. unmightiness. lovesomely. weakmoodness much: muchly narrow: narrowness nether: netherward nought: noughtness . underdo drink: overdrink earl: earlish end: endlessness. starkmood. sorrymood. uncrafty day: middaily deadly: undeadliness. evily fake: fakedeed.

): teary (a. wishingly wit: unwittily. towardness trim: untrim. untrimness true: untruly uncouth: uncouthly.old: oldly overseas: overseaish qualm: qualmbearingly. unrightdoand/ unrightdoer scathe: scathingly seek: foreseek set: overset. wittyness womb: wombaddle. witlessness.) thence: thenceward think: misthink thus: thusly tight: tightness token: foretoken 264 towardly. underset shame: unshamefulness show: overshow. wombhoard wonder: wonderly worse: worsely wrath: wrathly write: miswrite youth: youthly . untamedly teach: misteach tear (n. overshowand. overspeak. unspeaking speech: overspeech still: unstillness tame: handtame. qualmbearness. qualmness room: roomly rough: roughful right: rightwilling. unwitty. untrimly. uncouthness underneath: underneathmost wrought: unwrought upland: uplandish spring: upspring way: wayless whole: unwhole wife: wifehood. unwiseness wish: wishedness. unshrunken sin: sinny sorrow: sorrowless sound: unsoundly speak: misspeak. overshower shrink: misshrunk. wifely will: wilsomness winsome: winsomely wise: wiseness. qualmful. unrightdeed.

ii) Would there have been less social friction and stress as a result? Answer: If the answer to i) is basically clear. before Step 1). There would be other words which really do look strange. On being a fairer place or not. exactly how is something which we cannot tell. We have seen that there would be lots of words which don't really look strange. This would be true both in the times when French was the elite language (particularly 1066 to the mid 1300s or so). But in exactly what ways is hard to tell. then there would surely have been less stress. less class difference in speech would have meant at least one less barrier to those at the bottom. with some suggested answers: i) Would less educated people have felt such a gap between their own speech and that of the ruling classes right down to today? Answer: This has really got to be 'no. recall the needless use of received instead of had or got in the Lead-in. in as far as words got and get one access to jobs and power. under what difference would it have made anyway?. they wouldn't have'. iii) Might England have had a less class-ridden history. If we now come back to the questions asked in Note 8. and generally been a fairer place to those who might appear to be underlings? Answer: In as far as there may have been less stress and friction. and also in terms of the posher words and phrases (of the kinds William Barnes noted) which are often still being pushed as ‘higher’ alternatives (for example.but we can only go some way on this! Here are the questions from Note 8 again. are we any closer to answering this now than we were at the start of the book? I think yes . and yet they haven't been part of how we talk for a long time.Endword The book has looked at some key areas of how English might look today had the English won at Hastings in 1066. then some negative effects of such a class-ridden society in history could have been less. 265 . or only a little so. and thus quite likely to have been less social friction too.

colonial conquest and invasion.iv) Could the history of fighting. they might have developed with Welsh and Irish being stronger languages. as a ‘fun’ look at what might have been . then Gaelic could have been stronger there.could this have been different? Answer: We can say very little here. Europe and the world . So drop one in an e-mail or slip it into a conversation! You may arouse positive interest and comment. speakers of English! We have seen many words that can give English even greater expression. but we can at least say that where English would have been spoken. If Wales and Ireland had not each been hit by a scramble of Norman land-grabbers.but was lost or can we go further? Its up to you. which ran through many aspects of England's dealings with the rest of Britain. Scotland. Might we at least dare to say that it seems unlikely that it would have been worse? v) In light of question iv). It would only take the use of a word in a popular newspaper or TV/ radio show. or in novels and poetry for it to become noted as a current word. Ireland and elsewhere if the English had won in 1066? Answer: Very hard to tell! But if there hadn't been so many English nobility and other settlers fleeing to Scotland.isn’t it now about time that we ‘wake up’ some of these amazing words from the earlier wealth of English itself? 266 . Brand new words are always coming into the language . For elsewhere its harder to tell. it would have been more like the English in this book. Do we leave it here. how would we talk in Wales.