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CCB 4423

POLYMER PROCESS
ENGINEERING
MAY 2015
EXPERIMENT 3: COMPOSITE

NURALIA SYAIRAH BT OSMAN


15669
NURUL FATIEHAH BT ABDUL HALIM
15592
LECTURER: DR ZAKARIA MAN
DATE SUBMISSION: 22 JUNE 2015

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Composite is defined as a material composed of two or more different


materials, with the properties of the resultant material being superior to the
properties of the individual materials that make up the composite. Composites
are made from matrices of epoxy, unsaturated polyester and some other
thermosets,

and

few

thermoplastics.

The

reinforcements

are

glass,

graphite,metal, ceramic.
Hand lay-up is an open contact molding in one-sided molds are the lowestcost and most common processes for making fiberglass composite products and
is the most common method of producing composites materials.

Although epoxy resins are very attractive due to their high strength,
stiffness, high temperature resistance, low volatility and good adhesion to metal
and ceramic, as organic polymers, they are very vulnerable to the absorption of
surrounding media of either liquid or gasses which can diffuse into the polymer
matrix

causing

reduction

of

their

mechanical

properties.

Therefore,

determination of water absorption will be carried out.


2.0

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this experiment is to help student to understand the concept


of composite material and to acquire knowledge on the formation of composite
material and to relate the effect of curing temperatures on mechanical properties
of composite.
3.0

PROCEDURE
a. The mold (glass) is first waxed.
b. Fiber glass mat is cut and lay 2 pieces of fiber glass mat into the mold.
c. Epoxy with molecular weight EPOLAM 50, Mw - 700 g/mol and diamine is
mixed with MW 448 g/mol until gel time is reached.
o

The ratio of difunctional epoxy/diamine is 20/6.4 (wt/wt).

d. The epoxy resin is poured onto the fibre glass and flat the composite
using roller and wait around 10 minutes.
e. The composite is cut into dimensions of 50 mm x 50 mm x 3 mm.
(Prepare at least 4 samples for two different curing temperatures).
f.

Two sample is allowed to react (cure) at room temperature for 24 hour


and another two to react (cure) at 120C for 2 hours in the oven. These
samples will be used for water absorption

3.1

Water absorption

The percentage of water absorption is characterized using gravimetric


method.
a. All samples must be polish to ensure a flat surface.
b. Their initial weights is obtained at room temperature.
c. The dimension of each sample is measured, average of thickness, length
and width at room temperature before immersion. Measure again after 1
week immersion in water.
d. The samples is immersed in water at room temperature and 50C and
then periodically remove from the water bath, wipe with tissue paper,
and weigh before immersing the samples again. These steps to be
repeated for one week period
e. The amount of water absorbed by the sample is then calculated using
the following equation

Mt (%) =

Wt W0
W0

x 100

Mt is water content at any given time,


Wt is sample weight at the time of measurement,
Wo is initial sample weight.

4.0

RESULT AND DISCUSSION


4.1Write down your observation. Explain how the curing temperature may
affect the water absorption of epoxy resin.
Sample

Curing Temperature

120oC

120oC

RT

RT

Water absorption at room temperature

Sample
A
C
Sample
A
C

Initial

Weight (day

Weight (day

Weight (day

Weight
5.91
5.50

1),g
6.15
5.84

2),g
7.32
6.25

3),g
7.45
6.47

Mt (%), day 1
0.041
0.062

Mt (%), day 2
0.239
0.136

Mt (%), day 3
0.261
0.176

Total Mt (%)
0.541
0.374

The results has been shown that the composite material which was curing
in temperature (120 oC), absorbed more water than the material which was
curing at room temperature. The structure of the composite material
which was curing at 120 oC, gave higher free volume to absorb than the
composite material which was curing at room temperature.

Water absorption at water bath 50 oC


Sample
B
D

Sample
B
D

Initial

Weight (day

Weight (day

Weight (day

Weight
6.85
5.20

1),g
7.47
5.61

2),g
8.50
5.93

3),g
8.90
6.27

Mt (%), day 1
0.070
0.079

Mt (%), day 2
0.218
0.140

Mt (%), day 3
0.275
0.206

Total Mt (%)
0.563
0.425

The composite materials which immersed at temperature 50 oC in water


bath, absorbed more water is the curing at 120 oC, compared with the
curing at room temperature. Hence, the temperature also effect to the
water absorption. The materials immersed in higher temperature will
absorb more water, comparing to the lower temperature.
In summary, the higher temperature which used to cures the epoxy resin
affected more water absorption. The reason is that when the resin is cured
with higher temperature, the density will be decreased. Hence, there is
more free volume of epoxy resin which will allow more water to be
absorbed through the layer of resin.

Dimension
Sampl
e
A
C
B
D

Initial (cm)
Thickness
Width
0.1
4.9
0.1
5.9
0.1
4.5
0.1
7.4

Length
9.7
8
9.4
8.6

1 week after (cm)


Thickness
Width
Length
0.1
5.5
10.2
0.1
6.1
8.1
0.1
5.5
9.5
0.1
7.6
8.8

After one week, the size of the composites also increase showing that it held
water that absorbed.

4.2

Explain how the arrangement of fiber can affect the modulus

and strength of composite materials.


The arrangement of fiber in composite effect the strength and modulus by
producing a strong bond between the fiber and epoxy resin. Epoxy resin
transmits loads to the fiber glass through shear loading at the interface.
4.3

Explain how the curing temperature may affect the water

absorption and other mechanical properties.


Water absorption decreasing with increase in curing temperature. When
temperature of curing increased the flexural and tensile strength of the
composite also increased. High temperature provides heat that drives the
rate of polymerization reaction and cross-linking in the material. So, the
strength also increases.

4.4 Using the literature values, obtain the density and modulus
for DGEBA epoxy resin and fiber glass (E-Glass). Calculate the
theoretical modulus of your composite sample.(using the
known volume, and known density of epoxy, calculate the
theoretical weight of epoxy without fibers.)

5Modulus
ofof a
elasticity
resistance
stiffness
body
deformato
elastic
an
applied
force.
The
modulus
maof
measured
destructive
using
methods
tensile
like
compressive
tests
nondestructive
and
like
approaches
ultramethods.

From Kishore, Gyaneshwar and Gregory, the density of diglycidly ether


of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin is 1170 kg/m3. The E modulus for
carbon fiber/epoxy composite at 0 orientation is 220 MPa. Table below
is the details about E-Glass fiber

From www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=764

Modulus
of
stiffness
resistance
body
to
elastic
of
a
deformaan
force.
applied
The
modulus
elasticity
of
mameasured
using
methods
destructive
like
tensile
tests
compressive
and
approaches
nondestructive
like
ultrasonic
methods.
4.5

What are the advantages of using thermoset as matrix as

compared to thermoplastic?
Thermoset polymers are better compared to thermoplastic because they
have low viscosity and thus can be introduced into fibres at low pressure.
Cross-link between the thermoset polymers form an irreversible chemical
bond, this properties eliminates the risk of the product remelting when
heat is applied.

4.6

Which one is more suitable for making aircraft body,

epoxy/glass or epoxy/carbon fibers? Explain your answer.


Epoxy/carbon fibers is more suitable for making aircraft body. This is
because it is extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced polymer
compared to epox/glass materials.

4.7

Give ONE application of composite material based on glass,

carbon and aramide fibers. Explain your answer.


Composite Material
Glass fiber

Application
As a thermal insulator in

Explaination
Internal combustion

internal combustion
engines

Carbon fiber

limited
to
strategic
structural
components
such as aircraft body,
expensive sport goods and
biological implants

engines produce a lot of


heat during their
combustion cycle. This
can have a negative
effect when it reaches
various heat-sensitive
components such as
sensors, batteries and
starter motors. As a
result, thermal
insulation is necessary
to prevent the heat
from the exhaust
reaching these
components.
much costlier
compared to glass and
other organic fibers

Aramid fibers belong to a class of materials known as liquid crystalline


polymers. They have a superior strength to weight ratio when compared to
glass fibres and also provide excellent abrasion resistance in a composite.
They are the fibres of choice in bullet-proof vests. Aramide fibers are aromatic
polyamide fibres. Kevlar is the trade mark for the commercially available
aramid fibres. Kevlar is commonly used in security and military related field.
Kevlar fibres are very weak in compression (due to buckling of fibrils), but
exhibit good impact resistance. They are cheaper, non-magnetic, x-ray
transparent and bio-compatible and resistant to flame, organic solvents, fuels
and lubricants.

5 REFERENCES
http://www.modorplastics.com/thermoset-vs-thermoplastics
http://www.eirecomposites.com/services/thermoplastic-composites-explained
Long-Term Durability of Polymeric Matrix Composites by Kishore V. Pochiraju,
Gyaneshwar Tandon, Gregory A. Schoeppner