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31 October 1969, Volunmc 166, Number 3905

oration, trade. and tribute in

Settlement, Farming Technology, ani
Environment in the Nochixtlan Vallc
A valley of Oaxaca provided the geographical base ffor
development of Mixtec culture: 700 B.C. to A.D. 1 6C 0.
Ronald Spo res

Six decades of intenisive reseairch
have produced numerous studies on the
r-ise of civilization in Mesoamerica.
Conventional archeological and ethnohistorical investigations of the prehistoric developments in central Mexico
and in the Maya area hCave been auLgmenited in recent years hy several more
rigorously defined problem-oriented
studies. Multidimensional reseairch on
the cultuLral ecology of the valleys of
Ntexico, Tehuacan, and Oaxac(a hals
Vielded substantial, knowledge of culturIal evoluLtion in Mesoamerica aLnd at
the saim.e time has served to refine the
theoretical framework for observing
and explaining devclopmiiental processes
that were operative in the rise of civilization here and elsewher-e (1, 2).
During the past 3 years these studies
have been extended into still another
area, the Mixteca Alta of northwestern
O1axac,a (Fig. ). Abundant archeological and docunmentary resouLrces and the
existence in the larea of the modern
descendants of ancient peoples afford
an exceptional opportunity to employ
what Strong callled the "direct historical
lapproach" for studying the long-range
cultural change from prehistoric and
protohistoric time.s to the historic period (3). Starting with living peoples
and the early historic aIccounts of peoThe aUthor is associate profcssor of anthli-opoloev, Vanderbilt Uniicrsit\, Nashvillc. Tennicssce



ple who haid lived in the area, we
pLished our inquiry far ther back into
the prehistoric past to isearch for CaIltural origins, for patter ns of development and change, and f(or explanations
of these developments w ithin a specific
m icrogeographical conttext-the Nochixtlaln Valley of north west Oalxacal.
This article examines Ithe relationiship
of populltion growth, Ic call adaptation,
and cultural developnme nt in the Nochixtlan Valley. Our parrticulaLr orienltation has been set forth to soniec extenit
by Cook and Fletche r who hrietly
treated relationships be tween populaltion and cultural devellopment in the
Valley of Mexico duririg ancient, historic, and modern time s (4). Fletcher
staites that "the Valley of Mexico has
a long historv ot overp)opulation.
One w ay of relieving psopulation pressure wias by maintenanc e of systems of
trade and tribute whicl h allowed nonagricultural specialists t-o be fed f'rom
the agricultural produt ction of other
areas." Another respons e to these pressures, in both ancientt and modern
ti mes, has been temnpoIrary or permianent emigration. These related factors
have heen of particulcatr sociopolitical
aInd economilc significan .ce in determining the course and di.rection of caIltural developmnent, not only in central
Mexico hut throughout Middle America.
In accdition to the

imlportance otf mi-


the maiintenance of populations too
large to be supported by local agricultulral production, I believe that there
tlre two additional alternative responses:
territorial expansion by political means
(possibly, hut not necessarily. related
to tributary expansion) and technological innovation. These five alternatives
have heen available to expanding civilizations in both hemispheres since farming, village life, the accumulation of

exploitable surpluses, and higher levels

ol social and political integration became possible in Neolithic and Formnative timiecs. While all variables are worthy
of consideration, we will be concerned
with only one-technological innovation and its relationship to population
-rowth. Archeological, historical. and
ethnological stuLdies in the Nochixtlan
Valley suggest that there is a causal
relationship between demographic pressure and certain technological innovations that have taken place in the Vallev dtLiring anicietnt, protohistoric, and
historic times.

The iXlixteca and the Xlixtecs

The Nfixteca is the geographically
diversified area which comprises the
western third of the modern state of
Oaxaca. Parts of the region are high,
cool, and moderately moist (the Alta):
other atreas are low, hot. and semiiarid
(the Baja); and still other areas are low.
hot. and humid (the Costa alnd portions
of the Baja). These three mnajor zones
were occupied by closely related Mlixtec-speaking peoples at the time of the
Spanish conquest, and more than 250,000 of their descendants continue to
reside in the area (5). Their most notable cultural achievements, however,
were centered in the Mixteca Alta
(Fig. 2).
When the Spaniards arrived in the
1 520('s, the Mixtec people were organized into many small kingdonms which
were governed by powerful rLuling lineages that controlled the most productive lands in the Nochixtlan Vallley and
elsewhere in the Mixteca. In return for
political, social, and ceremoniial leader557

2. Map of central and western Oaxaca. 166 . the Valley measures apppoximately 25 kilometers. and continued in gradually altered form for many decades after the Spanish conquest. with gneiss outcrops appearing particularly in the southeastern end of the Valley. Interbedded with and overlying these formations were the buff to deep red clays of the Yanhuitlan-Huajuapan series of deposits.Mixteca AJit Costs Fig. ship. and piedmont spurs. more than 200 kilometers to the north. From the northern and northwestern extremities to the southeast margin. The institution of the Mixtec regional or community kingdom (termed "cacicazgo" by the Spaniards) was firmly established long be- Fig. serves as the basis for direct historical inferences about the ancient culture of the Nochixtlan Valley (6). buttes. to support the religious cult. Level lands are found only in the central portions of the large and small valleys and in areas where artificial terracing has altered the natural contours of the land. others of Cenozoic volcanics. 1. economic security. 3). The Valley is composed of four major sectors: Yanhuitlan in the northwest.of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. and to serve in war. Yucuita in the north. the valleys of Nochixtlan and Oaxaca. still only partially utilized. and the Jaltepec sector in the southeast below the confluence of rivers flowing from the other three sectors. Nochixtlan in the east. is the largest area of relatively open and level land between the Valley of Oaxaca 100 kilometers to the south and the Nexapa Valley at Izucar and the Tehuacan Valley. and several of the principal towns in the area. Much is known of the Mixtec community and the cacicazgo because of the existence of abundant documentation as a result of litigation over royal lands and titles in the 16th century and because of the preservation of pictographic historical documents. Map of Mexico. indicating the loccation of Oaxaca and the three subareas of the Mixteca. and intensively settled of the several valleys of the region (Fig. about 450 kilometers southeast of Mexico City on the Pan American Highway. VOL. Preliminary geomorphological investigations conducted by Michael and Anne Kirkby during the summer of 1968 indicate -that the basic understratum of the Valley is a fairly resistant rock formation composed of some deposits. and protection which were provided by the ruling elites. several of them dating to pre-Hispanic times. The Nochixtlajd Valley. It was probably the single most important area in the Mixteca throughout its occupational history and continues to be the most fertile. the citizens of a kingdom were required to pay tribute. It varies from 5 to 10 kilometers across and consists of a series of narrow valleys situated between and among high mountain ranges and is punctuated by numerous hills. 558 fore the Europeans colonized the area. productive. indicating locations of the three Mixtecas. The well-developed soils which have formed on the Yanhuitlan beds consist of up to 60 centiSCIENCE. This corpus. to provide labor for the fields and houses of the rulers.

overlying a 50... manos.- Fig.nd 700 B.e CruL7 pha. in Chialipas.@-.In iiportainit occuLpationail zone after this pattern Wlas well estalbflished in other regiolns.asee) sites.ands. and the location (if five of the I. hbUt at present very little is kinowtn of the totall material culture ot architecture of these eatrly vallev farmers.ition cover proably natura11-.iro.. rubbish disposal.. Sotmne otf the structures foLnd in test trenches were hbilt of cuit o1r roLugThlN shaped stone and formled into s traliht-sided malsonrv walls which intersected to tfor-mi contigluoLsaISpartmentlike cells of indetermina. to aLhout 20t) B. Large Tan jars. / Nochixtian :::Etlaton go: Nochixtlan Valley Modern communities Major classic sites | > ~~~Piedmont . inmd .ggiThi< 0 i Mountains . P'resenit indicaLtions are thait the Nochixtlan Valley was peripherall to carliest devclopmaents in aigriCuLltuLre and scttled village life.ant Valley touns. indkicating the fouLr major geographic zind survey sectors of 10 km Ja itepec. and metates.ated with severail decorated Grav and Red-and-White wares and distinctive figurines which serve to link the Nochixtlan Valley with Oaxaca. set at around 700 B. bLit onlv S of these sites were intensively occupiedl or Lttilized (2). At the site of YuLzalnIuu near Y. The (ruLz phIlase Nwas cncounlitercd stratigraphical ly in excaivations at YucUita. and th. 2500-meter elevation of the Vallcy..Ialtepec: six import. just above hittadjacent to fertilc and lcvel hottomllands.C.axca (11). These are associ. this sLIggests a heallthyr veta. which itself usually overlies littleweathered Yanhuitlan beds contalining sonie lime nodLules.. '...-. no site coulld definitely be said to predate the 1--ate Formitive.troeTcst nmd most important Classic Period (Lazs Flores ph. and Chiapas (hiring the Late F-ormatlie perivodL. usuLally painted on the sides . 1tromm stratiti-raphic tests will help greatly in estaLblishing the nItTre of enxvironmentail con ditions dLI-iurinj0 of the 1 30 sites surveyed.:Yucunudahui hlase ()).te tise. Asso- Formait ve and( later tilmlcs. While two yNpes of land verc axvailahle to the first farm- 'i.. pottery griddles. Ceramic inclicators of the Lalte Formaitiv.meters of dark grtav to gray-hrow n clay soil. Settlemielnts were locatedL otl the projecting sptirs of land which are invaria1by area...% I. I oretizo recovered a very cruide asseniblage of chipped stone tools fromii deep ailluviIIm in aIssociation with a hearth that dated to approximately 2000 B.anhuitlaIn.l oalik and pine forest appropriate to the 21(100. The lime aCCumIlulation lalyer has a tough claylike consistency in the soil.and rims with red or dark orange paint. conforms to a pattern obserx ed in contemporaneous aind Clearlier mnlifestations in the Vallev of O...( ( 10)..-'. were produced and utilizedt b\v the thous.. I his contrasts mairkedly with the situLaltion in the vailleys of Oaxaca antd I ehulacan.. aind on the coalst ( (juatitelil"11a where sedentarx villages fretound in Early Formaztive times 31 OCTOBER 1969 ciated shallow pits were dug for cooking... Prohably this caliche cover extended over miost of the Valley in presettlemcint tinies.. 3. tY~~~~ucuita }. but hardens on exPosuIc to a tOugh catliche niaterial (locally tcrimned "endceque") which has b-een uLsed in the VLilley s a huilding stoIne sinic Fornaitive timiles. Most sites were located on low-lying piedmont spurs that projected inlto the vldley from hills. .. In fact.& alec. S site sUrvev of the Vailleyv no evidence of contemporaineous hunian life c Uld he lfound in excavaltions carried out at the point of discovery (7).se are presenit in 2 1 .. it certainly precdiates the extensive visible er-osion in the area and nmuLst have fornimed ulndlel conditionsi which did not Cecourage gullving. 5 .C. Tehuacaln. . or for other purposes and were found to contain animal hones. (8). buttes. pollen salnp1cs taken. C hachoapan fIthouIgh r emiltins ot ossifiedl mamlmioth were dliscovered duirinm the . YucUit. and peripheral mountain ranges. Nochixtlitn.. large pottery fragments. When it becamie .to 250-centimeter 1Iale gray to xshitish lime accumulation layer.C.. Fo)rmaiative Stage: lie Criuz contexts. 559 . N..n \alle. The choice of locacition for settletiietit. SuirVeVs of 130 sites failed to produice ainother precerianmic site. I-he eairliest substantial occupation in the Nochixtlan Valley is assigned by cerlillic crossties with the ValCle\ of ()a\aca and by rellatixve stratigraphic placement to a period extending fr:om . ap tof the Nochixtia. Very few chipped stone implements have beeti encountered in Cruz phase I .Is oft diark brown soils overlying(y red clav soils.

a substantial change in the size and elaborateness of settlements. 5). and sometimes one or two subsidiary plaza-mound complexes. Population was at least double that fertile. One cluster of mounds.D. coupled with the fact that unusually heavy and extensive deposits of Las Flores ceramics are found on 36 of these sites. 250 or 300. Cerehave rendered the valley floor and its monialism is clearly important and this peripheries more fertile and productive is reflected in the massive architecture than the irregular contours of the oak. Four Ramos phase figurine frag. These lesser sites consisted of from one to three central mounds. stepped terraces. or on mountaintops. erted against the productive potential of the Valley. plazas. Experimentation with a new occupational niche is suggested by the appearance of a few sites on mountain. and architecturally Fig. Yucuita remained extremely important. There is no indication of hillside erosion. -~ -~ 200 B. vast areas of flat. 56 Ramos phase sites have been found. on high ridges. and it can be assumed have been available with little or no that increased pressure was being expressuLre on land resources. 4). VOL. and together with a fine tempered variety of orange painted Orange or Tan-Cream ware. a plaza area that was paved or plastered. 166 . however. ments from YUcUita.D. but most notably in the Nochixtlan sector. 300 and gradually phased out sometime between 900 and 1 100. and 24 of them seem to have been intensively used. To date. relatively drab. stelae. prior had been a concentration of economic to the massive alluviation of the valley resources and political power sufficient floor. The ceramic inventory associated with Las Flores sites is simple. but excellent modeled figurines continued to be made (Fig. black soils a square kilometer (Fig.much more complex than Cruz phase settlements. and buildings at Yucuita is linked by an extensive systenm of subers-valley bottom and hillside-the terranean tunnels and covers more than level. A marked increase in the number of nor is there any significant disconformsites is noted for the Ramos phase ity between Cruz and Ramiios deposits which is believed to have begtun around that would suggest substantial altera560 No less than five major ceremonial aLnd civic centers were developed during the period which began around A. There is. steep slopes apparently not being utilized for agriculture at this time. importance was YucLfiudahui which sits astride a high. and easily tillable land wouLld of earlier times. probably increased clustering of population.ble shift in the location of sites is observed. as evidenced by massive extensions and relocations which took place during this phase.C. Dozens of smaller sites are found in analogOUS locations in all parts of the Valley. dominate the ceramic complex (13). and undistinguished. and valley lands were farmed as before. on the piedmont spurs.and hilltops. nevertheless. but no apprecia. did not vary greatly from the Early Classic Stage: The Ramos Phase preceding phase. There is no indication of appreciable alluviation at this time. Plain Gray wares reemerge. usually several stone alignments of undetermined function.and evidence of ritual (including cancovered slopes and mountaintops. These sites were either clustered on and around high buttes rising from the valley floor. Later Classic: The Las Flores Phase Cm.tion in settlement-environmental relationships. would indicate an upsurge in population (14). At that time. in the valley. and coarse Brown jars. or perhaps even greater. 4. Not only are more sites being occupied but there is also a new emphasis on larger centers. Farming strategy. 6) and directly across the Yucuita arm of the Valley from Yucuita (12). Relative frequencies of Red-on-Tan jars and plain or decorated Gray wares are much lower than in the preceding phase. They are more numerous. Ramos sites and levels are defined by the presence of a ceramic complex dominated by three varieties of plain Tan bowls and jars. at Etlatongo in the central region of the Valley. a medium to coarse tempered OrangeRust ware. generally more fertile. and to have lasted until A. Settlements were in the same areas as before. steep-sided mountain ridge just north- west of the modern town of Chachoapan (Fig. Similar civic-religious centers were developed at Cerro Jasmin near Yanhuitlan. Settlements continued to hug the spurs and low-lying ridges. It is of sufof the valley floor and margins would ficient dimension to suggest that there have been preferred. With nibalism) in and around Ramos phase so few sites being intensively occupied strLIctures. The valSCIENCE. Of equal. Ninety-two sites were occupied. low. and at Jaltepec in the far southeastern extreiiity of the Valley. larger. and a shift from earlier times in the choice of site location. seasonal flooding and relatively to command the creative participation easy diversion of streanm waters would of a large number of people. and this.

[Mexicana Aereofoto] 31 OCTOBER 1969 561 . and 78 of them were in- Fig. and Modern-are represented in the site which measures more than 2 kilometers north to south and 1 kilometer east to west. 1000 to the Spanish conquest. and to the northwest. but these have not yet been clearly defined (15). many of which are presumed to be agricultural. There are certain affiliations with Monte Alban III A-B sites in the Valley of Oaxaca. shown in the lower portion of the photograph. is the ancient site of La Pefia. External ties. and possibly as far away as Xochicalco and TeotihuLacan.D. Across the river from Yucuita. At least 111 of the 130 sites show definite signs of occupation. and location of sites. The black layer can still be found in undisturbed areas on the mountaintops and on certain steep slopes. The number and size of sites and the heavy concentrations of ceramics suggest at least a doubling of population since Ramos times. The desire to open additional farmland along the formerly occupied lomas and piedmont may well have furnished the impetuLs for the shift in settlement. as reflected by ceramic inventories. but many settlements were moved above the low-lying ridges and spurs onto higher elevations. Hillside terraces. Postclassic Stage: The Natividad Phase From around A. The existence of a black stratum in the valley alluvium is proof that the mountains and slope6 were being intensively utilized in response to increasing demographic pressure. are very strong with the north. to the west. 5. is the modern town of Chachoapan.ley floor continued to be intensively farmed. Examination of alluvial deposits re- veals the existence of a medium layer of black soil which contained Las Flores and earlier materials that were deposited during Las Flores times. The ancient archeological site and modern community center of Yucuita. The inferred intensity of occupation and the number of large quasi-urban centers (five covering at least 1 square kilometer) indicate that a 150 percent increase in population would not be out of reason. manifestations being found in the Tamazulapan Valley in the Mixteca Alta. Natividad. Ramos. Remains from all major phases of cultural development-Cruz. Convento. are found adjacent to major Las Flores centers. the number and size of sites greatly increased. in the upper right. architecture. at Huajuapan and Tequixtepec in the heart of the Mixteca Baja. Las Flores.

VOL. 166 . lines. associated with the appe. and geomletr-ic forms applied with red or brown paint (Fig. The ancient Classic (Las Flores phase) site of Yucufiudahui extends along the summit and uipper slopes of the mountains northwest of Chachoapan and can be seen in the uipper-right corner of the photograph. it preceded the Spanish conquest by several hundred vears and continued to be a featuLre of the culture long after. were abandoned or only partiallVy utilized. Three varieties of incense bulrlners. but the very extensive aCCUImIUlations of pottery and scattered stone mlake it apparent that a massive expansion did occur.stem running fronm Yanhuitlan to Sayultepec and Etlatongo. with 52 of 58 sites in the sector showing signs of moderate to heavy occupation. Even a few of the alluvial lands. The northern end of the Valley around Yanhuitlan seems to h.tensively used. 6. is the community of Coyotepec. the dominanit Creami or Orange bowls were decorated with v ariable combinations of' well-execuLted portraits.arance of several additional formiis and some impressive new decorative techniques. and sonme distinctive incised and punctuated minia- Fig. some 1 to 2 kilometers wide and 10 kilometers long. The surviving Natividad architecture pales beside the impressive Las Flores strUctural complexes. A descending ridge sy. At center right. Identical design elements were also combined to decorate a beaultil'ul new polychrome ware ("Mixtec Polvchronme") which appears in the area f'or the first time.ave been filled to near capacity. Instead of having an overall coaLting of thin orange paint as in eairlier times. mold-made figurines. and lowlying ridges (16). so valuable for agTriculture. reveal limited occupation: this is particularly noticeable in the Yanhuitlan sector and in the vicinity of Nochixtlan. Many mlounitain top settlements of the Las Flores phase. northeast of Chachoapan. trough-handled ladles. Continuities in vessel fornis. A number of new cultural fealtures appear in the Nochixtlan Valley. pottery graters. although not f'requenitly. paste texture. 7). The basic Natividad wares reflect the same kind of slow persistent change thalt had characterized the total material culture of the Vallev for many centuries. AlthouLgh positive dating on the initial appearanice of the various components of the complex is lacking. including several large centers. [Me\xicna Aereofoto] 562 SCIENCE. and persisting nucleationi of settlement is quite evident. reflecting the pronounced tendency for settlements to once again cluster along the piedmont. fine Gray vessels with effigy tripod legs. Distributions of sherds are frequenitly found to extend continuously ftrom 1 to 3 squLare kilometers. shows an almost continuous concentration of Natividad phase ceramiiics. dots. The mlost prominenit feature of this emergin*g pattern is the Mixtec ceramic comIlplex xvhich wNe know to have been carried hy the Mixtec-speaking people of the Valley in 1520 and later. piedmonit spurs. and modeling techniquLes are. however. At left is the modern community of Chachoapan.

in murals. or ho)rdo) to form level and quite fertile farm plots. and that these contacts and migrations were responsible for mi. techniques.ture vessels. Purposive Erosion The Mixtecs of the Valley responded to these needs by constructing stone and rubble dikes designed to trap water and eroding soils as they descended the natural drainage channels that extended from the mountain to the valley floor during the period of heavy summer runoff. The new strategy devised in response to increasing need led to appreciable expansion of arable land and productive potential. and vegetables. it wals necessary. progressively undercutting the caliche layer upslope. Modern farmers. find that in 2 to 3 years sufficient soil (lamza) can be accumulated in a new terrace (ter-raza. 8). However. and apparently almost total dependency on rainfall and some diversion irrigation. grain. The conclusion which must be drawn is that the disastrouls erosion so apparent in the Nochixtlan Valley today was not simply the result of deforestation. can be worked for as long as the system is maintained. called 'ollitas. triticlierar.and hilltops where the old dark soil overlying the caliche could be retained on more or less level plots (iii) to trap the black top soil or underlying red soils in small V-shaped valleys and at the heads of larger valleys. bone. and goods evolving in the Valley were "fed back" to the north. the predictable sequence must have been clear to every farmer in the Valley. once the black soils from the slopes had been removed by ta combination of use (and erosion. that there was more or less continuous social and econom ic contact and interaction with the PueblaTehuacan areas. if the laina-bordo system was to be mIaintained. Many of the specific design elements found on materials pertaining to the Cholula phase at Cholula and to the Venta Salada phase in the Tehuacan Valley are repeated in Nochixtlan. Once an initial experiment or accident of this sort had occurred. of course. which range from a few hundred square feet to 10 hectares. were I to 4 meters high aind from 10 to 200 meters long. to intentionally cut down through the caliche layer at the edge of the valley and expose the underlying soils of the Yanhuitlan beds. Unusual demographic pressures in the Nochixtlan Valley made it necessary to use all available bottomland that was not occupied. and many terraces have been worked since antiquity (19) (Fig. Moser] stone and rubble. A "Red-on-Cream' vessel of the Natividad phase from the Nochixtlan Valley. farmers could trap and farm the red soil which was washing down and create new farmland (Figs. the use of the digging stick. and in stone. Few traces of intact architecture have survived more than 400 years of stone robhing and reuse. bone. The Kirkbys' preliminary geomorphological investigations indicated that. scattered building stones. who continue to construct these terrace systems. 9 and 10). and locall productivity was substantially increased. and that this cultural interchange existed for many centuries before and after the Spanish conquest. even this appears to have been inadequate to meet the needs of a rapidly expanding population. [Courtesy C. that customs. built of coursed 31 OCTOBER 1969 Fig. but that it was in large part intentionally induced and encouraged by pre-Hispanic 563 . Below the gullied area. (ii to till limited areas on mountain. or agriculture that followed the Spanish conquest. These dikes. intemperate grazing. hut. these tend to be absent in areas farther to the south. But without substantial improvement in an agricultural technology based on hand labor. Niany of the svmbols used in decoriating pottery wer-e also found in picture manuscripts. with the exception of Polychrome and rather distinctive Gray tripod vessels. Gullying cut back the red Yanhuitlan beds. and they produce excellent yields of corn. It is also likely. The plots. Level and wellwatered farm plots could thereby be produced in areas that had previously been considered unsuitable for agriculture. 7.any of the cultural modifications in the Nochixtlan Valley dLuring the Postclassic period (18). and wood carvings. and stone tools make it clear that unprecedented pressure had been exerted on the productive resources of the Valley. It is probable that normal population gro\vth was augmented by movements of other NM ixtec-speaking groups into the area from the north." ar-e comnmonlv found together (17). no substantilal increase in productivity could he expected. but mlassive acCUMUlations of sherds. Farming strategy in Natividad times was (i) to continue to work the valley lands.

VOL. however. The continuing needs of a large popLIlItion. chapels. It is significant that this effective but not always farsighted manipulation of the environment continues in 1969. 166 . It seems likely that local farmers continued the pralctice of cutting into the Yanhuitlan deposits through most of the 16th cenWry. Ancient and moder-n mlama-ordo terrmces radiating fr-oml the commtunity of Amtlaln. Grazing and intentional removal of plant cover served only to exacerbate the destruction of the slopes that had been caused by the creation ais well as the abandonment of the ter- Fig. and it was probably necessary to expand the lama-hor(do systenm to an unprecedented level. technology. and settlement patterns. and the privileged native nobil- ity. Although the Spaniards introduced several new crops to the area. placed (additional strain on the re- sources of the Valley. Natividad phase (continuing Postclassic Mixtec) mnaterial persisted in unadulterated form ill many areas known through documentation to have been occupied both before and after Spianish contaict.nds for goods and services by the Fncomenderos. aInd social and political institutions for matny decades after the Spanish con- luest (21). Other sites reveal strongly persistent Natividad technology. a fact that coincides quite well with a documented persistence of native art. and monastery built by the Dominicans that European architectural innovations and ceramics are well represented. The Spanish Conquest: The Convento Phase Clear archeological indications of the European culture that began to penetrate the Nochixtlan Vatlley in the 1 520's are relatively rare. the clergy.Mixtec farnmers who wanted to expand and improve the lauia-bordo terrace system (20). [Mexicana Aereofoto] >64 SCIENCE. 8. depopulaltioni tand a corresponding reduction in demands for tribute led to decreasing pressure oin land resources and probably to abandonment of much of the terrace svstem. material culture. being foundl in trace amounts on 44 sites but intensively on only 7 sites. coupled with increasing dema. In fact. During the last quarter of the century. they fostered no substantial technological innovation in farming methods. the Spanish crown. It is only in the important civic centers or around the churches. it has not been possible to detect any change in the cultural remains of many 'sites that are known to have been occupied during the early Spanish period.

CC. brut-LIs 56I . or MoIdlerIn Uama- l ((lI [s111 tCr r.umilc behird dIikcs *f 1o0tS.2). 9 ( 9f it Y hli LUI.l m.1-cc -ire formcd b1.Uit ion f iI. I cti-t.

scxci at lareci conininiliics.U000 (22). 1t0() 1`20) A I ).tIaInIt \t hicti is considcratlhv hitivcr thti taI.ctcoiiilli tic ccIIItcrs of .1 I3.t/i ci icc a OI ta1 a1 tor c'ilInlrct aIlnd Sctioot nLpoi sniatt1 Cjido aIt tilC Conininit atH ( tiii CltaniitixI1 t11iitd ihc1d 1i\tctx Iiidixi\dualdCI111'i\ OCIVzl . C- III.Ut1 \'-% t C )C ti pict 11 (I .rcC7s ot iitcitlsi\ c acciipatiii lld occalsian ( oiivciito pt1sc nlliltcl-ils ioIilidan11.i to 1mat C tiaii 2 00() ticctai tcC (ncn11VCto litialsc.(. \Mlan\ h old tcrraccd tlands tav c ticc atiandOnIcI d aiidl dCstr-\vcd tiv crIosioII (IiF.dn)nI.atiN dadl stici dfs aic Itonid inl . A\ c ra.-liii lhc fi ltllrlll dt . sld.lIri.pccts at ttlc Cultune. ( i-ol)II P)'I 1. adiid C sI i Iti cc] iui)iui IIi ii. to tic oniId Sctt]Ciiiciits ContiIitnIL aloiie tfic till 11flan<>ks o ttic \Vattcv oii iiicillont 1iLus. Aftcr scveral tLnctLinationss . Oatcal (' i 5 VM1..C k tIs td izosi Is cotita iii ii accs.D).PctlChk ('it\ the Uniteid n tol staltcs.(Z) 1. . OuLr ethnog.. I)emiiographic IIifereIlces: 700 IB. Aithongli this hiS iTilicdcd cpniAOnl 1 p)OpntaItiOI.l til1' d1( 1 t Cl ({I Iri 11t- tiC \ tAICV (23). aIs in otticil. I 1l Ci IV Ci I . .q.Otticrs. |)h'.drIa-.I 1"'. I tixiclixil \. 1id ctsc tic-hrc it.I. tirOtIhtit silicc alitiqUits :otthci-s tit\ c )ccii t Iit t IcI\ ttirot .'l' tc ( uoIoliI Il 'i L tilIc i tll IiTll C ict iuiO it t' aiLiIh ic ( tiit'. 1 ic 'I lua ti" IO(W ins utn phic AD A. aiid oil los 5 VinI rilgCs. to A.raphic -csearches re\cat thalt cniueratioii to \ic\ico (Itv. \Witti ttic t c2\CCc)tiOIl Osiiiatl Co0iintIM11 toldi2tiNs Iplut on 1 -4 S1. Itc-. It hias sitCs c IIIi1h1a atdso rcllve\d plrCssiIr-c onl Vala . ): othcrs hia\ Ictccii jiiaiiiitalincod..'s pciCYccit Of thIC 1p0opntotlieswise rcodc In ii uh i1 (78 inienie 6 ' * 4 iicn sl\c tics 0:cLcop' Ir)cisCse tic Si nic aIid' IItit ticls didi iII Nmtivsdad tiliic S a11id calrticr.i0oii itld tioh c thcsc ciiaillns sLIe(ecst at1 thcrc swa.ilirk Colilllticl i.il2 ii i- 0)0()()() 4. 1tic iii.lctin C\ anilillnatil i aiiisli I ritiitc rccords lndiciatcs tiat tilC )OPLntaLtiOI1 ol thIC ValIlcV W5as a)(tiont 0(). scsr\ c to IIiAkc Ls avware thait Sp anmish cntLtnIr-c tict outs! siitit cit cct ol iiiaIMi nati\e palttcl ls.i 90 l1r\ 11Ct\\ CCII 25 .c t otdI11iLs II -c ror to 2) ti hctaics 1)tL.1 )()() 0() B1 . itIt in otlicr ltocaliticS tIlcic x\as littlc atlltc Ou at cnliiinllity haltcernis th.l ..-nd 3 S tat iOn thlalt \oiitd A iliOn \ ak I I11TIIC'. 1600 -I-hc popaIL.t \\I1t '1W tII ct cI c(t cliii'' ' IC 'u tii)1t1iiii pccl rt (st\cctd. at i-SLtolt discase POI)LILatiO11 I-sALIrcdncc to I20)00) h\ 16(()) [his is tlic filst tiiiic in tilc othscrvalilc (Ic\cloti- rc .. on at1 6th lcctiin r a(.(.tCd'( 1101)L5I . II 11 0 1dI IS v a r\ li-onii 4 or 5 hlectar-Cs u1.'h arc cithicr atiandoiicd.ltioui oi ttiicN Oc liIxttal I \'alltc toildav is EipprxO\iil iatctv 3 5. ( I-ll i aiids wshi. ic rItI on Ct>I III. Itic Sinai ds siucccctc in rclocali iiandI-.llcit i. A ost a111 flat or yentlt irr-cLIit r tiottontan ds ll nC Lillticr CultisatioVn.cI N)) tI I() C'. oi1 tIaken 0 cr i\ Cnamintict0tis cs (i1. 'Noctili\tlal.( .I"II 011i p7l-'sC'lit. (II st%1 i. I)i .i Iouu / o1(-1h)1'dt) 1tccti n qLJnc 1r iv iiachiliic.s no0 dIccr-CasCc III alt1LVlatlol dILin..'icci li. aiid pr1'' titv pci sistciit thcics ill sctttcllciit. N\t lii at tilc 1u1iid-cr coniiiiii- R cpi-i1t tiidl c\ isted inI pi-c-Hispaii ic tilils.ottic jrpats at thc listcca. on shta rcs. n1iiicls haclihoapanl.i)0)() ini 1t520.o OCCLil1tCd -1 ollllI%c tilm--t 1<8o tt Ic W I) 1'.

however.ment of the area that there wals a decline in population. aIs a resuLlt. and proceeding froml there to a consideration of the relative nuLmber and intensity of occupation ol sites. and a rapid economiiic decline which heg. it is clear th. In many cases. and it amounts to around 35 percent in 80 years (24). there was more than suLffiCient bottomland to support the farming activities needed for the subsistence of the estimated population of 4000. an increase in technology during the last decalde has made it possible for the Valley to support a sizable popullation but on considerably less arable land than was available before the conqLuest. as population declined after the conqu1eSt and Spaniards were forced to rIedLice tribute assesstmients. when population was at its lowest level. Competition tfor these lands during the last fouLr decades trequLently led to violenit interfamilv feuLding.telV. has removed uip to one third of the land formerly tinder cultivation in the Valley. it is possible to infer a tentative population profile for the Nochixtlan Valley (Table 1). This led first to the clevelopment of hillsidte terracing in Las Flores times and latter. factional Splits. such here at there was no substantial population recovery here or elsewhere in Mexico until well into the present century. Since the 16th century nearly one third of the productive land ha. Machinery. Renewed demands for farmii landcls. the escLape valve of emigriation has opetied in recent years and. eager to amass and concentrate wealth. abandonment of terraces aindc settlemients on slopes and lonms. and 50's led to renewed attempts to check crosion for the purpose of reoreating usable terrace fields along the hills and a-rroyos. FortuLna. in the late 16th century with no significant recovery uLntil the mid-9Oth century. but in Late Classic and Postclassic times. and1ti i ntcrcomilm IuLnity warfare. suggest that the population may have dropped to a low of 8000 around 1745! With the 1 6th centuLry as a demographic base line. fertilizers. particularl) during the 1930's. Thus. This sufficiency continued into Early Classic timnes. as 567 . many terraced lands were abandooned and lower- slopes were allowed to erode. a breakdown of native polity which had served as the coordinating and directing force in the Valley. most notably since 1930 (25). Then. in fact. placing tertile bottomlands and reclaimiable slope lands aIt a premium. During the Cruz phase. 11. 40's. The destructionl of the land was dlirectlyr correlated xvith a sharp declinie in populatioll. Available data. and more judicious uise of available lands have made it possible for farrmers who remain in the area to make better use of the productive resources of the Valley.lands. a SUbstantial proportion of the populaktion has becn siphoned off by the induLIstriaKlized u1rban1M centers and effectively removed from the explosive competition for land. Unchecked erosion. expanding population and stripped the ability of modern farmers to respond effectively with ancient techniques. The erosion of higher elevations was induced during Natilidad timles in order to fabricate fertile terraces in the lower drainage channels.s bIeen remiioved froml the slopes aItnd Iredeposited over already fertile bottomIl.. to the dliscoveriy and development of the lamna-bordo technique. the crosional process has out31 OCTOBER 1969 Fig. resulted in growing pressure on the available level fields favored by Mixtec farmers. in the Natividad phase. Spalnish probably increased tributary demiands bl a native nobility.

276 (1963). Mexico City. Oaxaca (Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia. J. Bernal. . J. 531 (1964). Interpretacidn del Cddice Bodley (2858) (Sociedad Mexicana de Antropologia. Pub. probably as a result of the mixing of local traditions with dramatic new influences from the Cholula-Puebla area. political.000 Mixtec Polychrome sherds (never thoroughly studied and now lost) from a refuse pit. T. Paddock.. attain the level of influence and urban complexity enjoyed by Cholula and in this respect seems to have lagged behind other key areas throughout its history. but only during the Postclassic period. (Stanford Univ. Intensity of occupation at each site has been estimated by rating localities where ceramics were noted on the surface on a scale from 1 (light concentration) to 5 (heavy concentration). and the Orange wares represent a further refinement of the earlier Ramos Tan wares. M. Ed. R. Archaeology of Southern Mesoamerica. K. in Dumbarton Oaks Conference on the Olnmec (Trustees for Harvard University. then much later in Natividad times. Kirkby. Stanford. (Stanford Univ. tribute. It is believed that investigations currently under way will serve not only to further illustrate the connection between demographic pressure and technological innovation but also that all other variables can be placed in their proper functional contexts as related to the development of culture in the Nochixtlan Valley. Caso. Dixon.. Contact with groups outside the Valley was always maintained. Norman. and there seems little doubt about the sustained importance of the other regions. Paddock. Paddock. but not beneath. Lorenzo. E. MacNeish. the Valley of Mexico. 4 (medium-heavy). Found. 6. 1947). But it must be concluded that the Nochixtlan Valley-and by extension. 1966).Conclusion: Nochixtan and the "Nuclear Hypothesis" These investigations suggest a steady evolution of culture and growth of population in the Nochixtlan Valley from Formative times to the Spanish conquest. I. D. Based on the Mexican National Census of 1960. which also contained part of a Spanish sword) leads to agreement with Bernal that Mixtec Polychromo. I. 10. In many cases the ware upon which Polychrome designs are applied does not seem to arise from local Tan. Cook. Bernal. B. Caso. The contemporaneity of man and mammoth in the Valley remains in doubt. Smithsonian Contrib. D. Lorenzo) found that the mandible and associated materials were the result of redeposition. Plain Gray does in fact reemerge. 18. Sanders. in Ancient Oaxaca. Hist. Kirkby. F. the surface (with the exception of Caso's test pit. Willey. The size and intensity of occupation of the Las Flores sites. A. The Nochixtlan Valley did not. 2. La Cerdmica de Monte Albdn (Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia. Classic." which were hypothesized to have "maintained their key importance from Archaic times right up to the time of the Spanish Conquest" (2. are much greater than for Ramos sites. I. C. 5 (1959)." vol. 1958). Mexico City. Acosta. or royal marriage) played roles of varying importance in allowing adjustments to the needs of a growing population (27). MacNeish. however. Historical and pictographic manuscripts have served as the basis for several ethnohistorical studies. Mexico City. Cream. Localities rated 3 (medium). Fletcher. but these affiliations seem to have been strongest during the Formative Cruz phase. Extensive survey of the large Las Flores phase site of Yucufiudahui brought to light only one very small area in the entire site that showed signs of utilization during Natividad phase times. Two runs on radiocarbon samples from Cruz phase context (Geochron Laboratories) are inconclusive. 1965). . but it is inappropriate to speak of it as an area of "massed economic and demographic power" relative to contemporaneous developments in Puebla. radical political reorientations. in ibid. S. 1954). J. culture Mixtec Conquest-level emerged during the Postclassic. University Park. 17. L. Design elements found on Polychrome and SCIENCE. R. J. in ibid. 1967). R. Misc. Press. Chicago. L. 16. meters of alluvium. was a relatively late introduction to the area. The Mixtec Kings and Their People (Univ. 7. "Excavations in the Mixteca Alta. . Ed. Caso's 1937 excavation at Iglesia Vieja. Coe. (Univ. the Mixteca Alta-did not maintain "nuclearity" throughout the three major periods. and in the Valley of Oaxaca. Antiquity 13. Un Sitio Precerdmico en Yanhuitldn. Amer. Panamericana Geograf. in Ancient Oaxaca. 1961). technological innovation has played a highly significant role in the development of Mixtec culture. Washington. 531 (1964). W. 26). The importance of the area in Postclassic times is not denied. Anthropol. 3. Harvard Univ. emigration. 166 . Dahlgren. and economic 568 influence attained by the other nuclear areas. Teotihuacan to Tierra Caliente (mimeographed paper. 1953). Ed. Collections 100. D. Inst. probably Puebla. Ethnol.. Warren. A. J. including the foliowing: A. Strong. "The Cultural Ecology of the Teotihuacan Valley" (Pennsylvania State Univ. the large Brown jars seem to evolve from the large Red-on-Tan jars of the preceding phase. Tlalocan 4. K. Bemal. Immigration. alliance. J. Austin. 34 (1938). 1965). in ibid. New World Archaeol. 353 (1940). 53 (1961). The frequency with which sherds of this ware are found on. and we are tempted to derive most Mixtec Polychrome from some point totally outside the Nochixtlan Valley. K. A.. 1. Mexico. 1967). that virtually no doubt exists as to the proper temporal placement of the Cruz phase in the last half of the Formative period. depletion of wild plant and animal resources. Experimentation during the Formative was followed by a period of internal stability and consolidation during the Classic and then -by a time of primarily externally induced elaboration of the material culture during the Postclassic. however. R. S. 9. Science 158. Examination of the long record of cultural development in the Nochixtlan Valley has produced no convincing evidence of massive displacement of population. Science 143. Press. or any comparable cataclysm that would account for the changes in settlement and use of land which have been observed. M. 5. and Guatemala City in Wolf and Palerm's group of five Mesoamerican "nuclear areas. Smith. La Mixteca: Su Cultura e Historia Prehispdnicas (Universidad Nacional de M6xico. The Mixteca Alta has been included with the valleys of Oaxaca. There has been a long and continuous occupation by Mixtec-speaking people who came into the Valley in Formative times and continued to come and settle there until late Postclassic times. of Chicago Press. 1967). References and Notes W. produced an estimated 10. In addition. Careful excavation of the site by archeologists from the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (under the direction of J. Flannery. and K. 4 of Mesoamerican Notes (1953). Mexico City. 15. B. large-scale warfare. Caso. Mexico City. Color differences are attributed to changes in firing techniques. in Hand1966). A. M. These demonstrations will lead to a greater understanding of the processes of cultural development in the Valley and in all areas where similar variables can be shown to be operative. although an important component of the Mixtec complex. vol. Paddock. 4. (Univ. book of Middle American Indians. Smithsonian Inst. Ed. however. and Postclassic periods. Calif. but detailed study of paste composition and form suggests that the Gray wares of the Las Flores phase are probably derived from the Tan wares so common in Ramos times.. Clearly. S. My excavations at this site in 1967 produced less than 100 examples of Polychrome out of a total of more than 7000 Natividad phase sherds. 13. Flannery. significant climatic shift. or 5 (heavy) are considered for present purposes to have been intensively occupied. It is clear from historical documents. and territorial expansion through political means (warfare. When we compare the level of internal development and probable degree of social. that hilltop sites were employed for ceremonial purposes in Colonial and Natividad times. Gray. 45 (1947). 11. VOL. Calif. trade. it must be concluded that the Nochixtlan Valley occupied a decidedly inferior position of power. Ed. in Anthropology Today. 3 (1967). of Texas Press. Puebla. 1968). Papers Peabody Museum Archaeol. A.. and even this must be qualified. Science 143. 14. or Brown traditions. . of Oklahoma Press. and I feel secure in inferring a doubling of population between the end of Ramos and the end of Las Flores. J. Ceramic ties between the Cruz phase and the late Guadalupe and Monte Alban I phases of the Valley of Oaxaca are so clear. possibly even during the Postclassic period. Pub. Chachoapan. A. but the former phase seems to have endured perhaps 200 years longer than the latter. 3. Paddock. Kroeber. In 1966 a mammoth mandible in loose association with lithic implements was found embedded in an arroyo bank under 6 to 7 8. Stanford. 1960). Spores. G. however.C. in Aetas del 27° Congreso Internacional de Americanistas (Mexico City. in VIII Mesa Redonda: Los Mayas del Sur y sus Relaciones con los Nahuas Meridionales (Sociedad Mexicana de Antropologia. There are nearly twice as many Las Flores sites as Ramos sites. 12. Williams. 445 (1967).. Flannery. Flannery and associates have demonstrated the continuing "nuclearity" of the Valley of Oaxaca throughout the Formative.

J. Paddock. In postwar Japan. in some of the smaller towns (Tecomatlan and Tillo) the incidence of emigration would be even Major observations by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission are evaluated. and W. Puebla City. 22. Rattray in Mesoamerican Notes 6 (1967). 14 (1949). C. L. Chachoapan. and modem terraces mtLch like those in the Nochixtlan Valley are fotund in the Valley of Mexico. National Institutes of Health. of Denver Dept. Ed. E. Army and Navy made observations concerning the immediate effects of exposure to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. and M. pregnant women were allowed an extra ration of rice. of Texas Press. Spores [The Mixtec Kings and Their People (Univ. Thus the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission came into existence (1). Tecomatlan. Maryland. Cook. however. McIntire. G. White. Austin. Broster. M. W. De la Pefia.S. Monograph No. Butterworth. and L. I believe that Cook's estimatebased on general population trends in Mexico Delayed Radiation Effects in Atomic-Bomb Survivors The pace at which radiation effects in the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs are being reported has recently quickened.Cream wares in the Nocihixtian Valley appear in both painted and incised form in the Cholula phase at Cholula and in the Venta Salada phase in the Tehuacan Valley and probably begin earlier here than in Nochixtlan. F. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council conduct a study of the long-range biomedical effects of the exposures. D. The Commission's present staff of 725 Japanese and 36 foreign nationals. 1967). Smith. It is essential to state that the interpretations of the last mentioned writers might well be at variance with mine. Immediately after World War II. 1954). Paddock. begun in 1948. 39 (1950). when food was in short supply. Geomorphological studies were conducted by M. Kirkby and A. Garcia Pimentel. A. Mexico City. of Geography Technical Paper 65-1 (1967).. R. Bethesda. Lorenzo. Sinaxtla. Winter.()()0 for the Valley at the time of the Spanish conquest is far out of reason and not supported by our town-by-town assessment [S. Mexico City. Historical documentation [for example. F. of Oklahoma Press. 1). C. and the Japanese National Institute of Health. and I do not pretend to speak for them. Ed. Relacion de los Obispados de Tlaxcala. 20. Spores. 1952). De la Pefia. a joint commission of the U. Flanncry. For example. beginning in the fifth month of pregnancy. in Ancient Oaxaca. R. from postmortem findings. Williams. 569 . 3 (1957). J. VVheeler. vol. Mexico City. Herold. higher. When such women registered for this supplement in Hiroshima or Nagasaki. including 18 U. -of l()(. Scholes have contributed direct advice and assistance. Mexico. Charlton. 23. I. Epistolario de Nueva Espaiia (Porrua Robredo.S. W. In this article I seek to put into perspective the major findings of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC). Borah. Cook. Palerm and E. Kubler. The studies conducted at the ABCC. the joint commission recommended that the 25. Derivation of reliable demographic information for Colonial and modem Mexico is a highly complex procedure. La Cerctmica de Choliula (Editorial Guarania. concerned six indicators of genetic damage in the F1 generation. E. students at Vanderbilt University. and in various locations in the United States. T. and from the recent demographic studies of M. C. in ibid. J. in The Prehistori' of the Tehuiacan Valley. D. J. Its large-scale study. Brief comment on the economic importance of the Nochixtlan terrace system is provided by M. 24. OuLr own census of an average-sized (1041) towni (Yucuita) in 1968 revealed that 284 (27 percent) townsfolk still maintaining social ties with the community and considered "family" by town residents actually lived oitside the physical community. MacNeish and R. 15 (1964). but that. Tillo. Anthropology 20. C. Upon completion of its work.s de la Nuteva Espafia (Archivo General de la Naci6n. whose study of the situation in Japan led to a Presidential directive authorizing the National Research Council (NRC) to establish an organization to evaluate the delayed effects of exposure to the bombs. T. There are also strong parallels with the Coyotlatelco tradition of the Valley of Mexico that requiire further investigation. S. they were entered in the ABCC The author is chief of the Epidemiology Branch at the National Cancer Institute. I. Pregnancies were ingeniously ascertained (1). L. and territorial expansion in the Mixteca Alta in Postclassic and early Colonial times. S. tribute. the Ford Foundation. W. Inquiries and observations made in Yanhuitlan. Byers. 1952). Teotihitacan to Tierra Caliente (mimeographed paper. 1966). Mexico City. Tasacione. Theatro Americano (Editora Nacional. and NochixtIan would suggest that the Yucuita figures are roughly typical for both large and small towns in the Valley. 190506). and the Vanderbilt University Research Council. Calif. held in March 1969 to dedicate new biomedical laboratories at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratories. the difficulties of which cannot be discussed in the present article. Kirkby of Bristol University. Bernal. This research supported by Vanderbilt University Center for Latin American Studies. The Council convened an advisory group. Fletcher. the United States. California. and G. "Ecological potential and cultural development in Mesoamerica. 21. Press. This article is based on a presentation made at a sympositLm on the biological implications of the nuclear age. C. 1939-42).] See R. Strikingly similar terrace structures of ancient date are reported for the Chihuahua-Sonora area of northern Mexico. Relaci6n de C(holila (1580)] also suggests strong ties between the ruling families of the Mixtec commtunities and the city of Cholula. Norman. S. E. Present findings strongly support Cook's view that mtuch of the erosion of the Valley was an accomplished fact before the Spanish conquest. Bernal. Cook. representing 28. is collecting and analyzing data from periodic comprehensive medical examinations. (Stanford Univ. 15 (1949)]. professionals. R. in such places as Oaxaca City. Wolf. Paddock. Ibero-Amiericana 34. Borah. Robert W. Tipogrhtico "Sticesores de Rivadeneyra. (published by the author. Based on figures derived from the Mexican National Census of 1960 with an increment of 1f) percent for growth between 1960 and 1969. 1968). Michoacdn. Ed. 159 (1960). Our estimates are based on consultation of numerous primary sources from the Archivo General de la Naci6n (Mexico City). S. 1967)] on trade. A. Southws'estern J. Genetic Effects It is commonly thought that congenital anomalies are the only measure of genetic effects among children conceived after one or both of the parents have been exposed to ionizing radiation. Metnorias del Instituto Nacional Indigenista. Moser. Moore. Chadwick. have participated as members of the project field staff. 1. and from a review of vital certifi- cattes as they are generated. F. 2 (No. E. 19. Simpson. graduate student at the University of Arizona. Mexico City. Noguera. Univ. Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antropologicos 16. T. LaFevor. K. Gamio substantiallv aided research through their offices with the Instittito Nacional de Antropologia e I istoria. the Papeles de Nueva Espajia (Est. J." Madrid." Pan American Union Soc. (Univ. 27. Mcintire. Ibero-Americana 34. Smith. and F. R. Miller 31 OCTOBER 1969 26. V. L. Stanford. There is considerable documentary and archeological evidence to suggest a Mixtec expansion into the Valley of Oaxaca in Postclassic times [J. Livermore. Sci. 1904). E. Oaxaca v otros lIugares en el siglo XVI. is a cooperative venture between the NRC.