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16-Way Clap-Operated Switch

Control your home appliances without getting out of your bed. You just have to
clap in the vicinity of the microphone used in this circuit, which you can keep by
the bedside. You can switch on/off up to four different electrical equipment (TV,
fan, light, etc) in 16 different ways.

Components required :

IC 555 (IC1)
CMOS IC 74LS93 (IC2)
five BC547 npn transistors (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5).

Transistor T1 is used as the preamplifier and the rest are used for driving the

Circuit diagram :

Working :
A small condenser microphone is connected at the base of transistor T1, which is
biased from resistor R1 (10 kilo-ohms). The clapping sound is converted into
electrical energy by the microphone and amplified by transistor T1. The
transistor output is fed to the monostable circuit wired around IC 555. Output
pin 3 of the timer is connected to the clock input of divide-by-16 IC 74LS93.
The outputs of IC2 are fed to npn transistors T2, T3, T4 and T5 via 100ohm
resistors to drive relays RL1, RL2, RL3 and RL4 connected to appliances 1
though 4, respectively. Freewheeling diodes D1 through D4 connected across the

m.) produced by the relays. A reset push switch is provided to switch off all the ‘on’ devices. Now you can connect the desired appliances to the relays and control them with your claps. For testing the circuit. The circuit is powered from regulated 5V DC.relays protect the transistors from the back electromagnetic field (e. disconnect the resistors from the outputs of IC2 and connect four LEDs in series with 220ohm resistors between the outputs and ground. You can see the four LEDs glowing in the manner shown in the table. Output : . Now switch on the power supply and clap near the microphone.f.

3 Vrms (4. 5 Vrms (7.on/off switch . LED lamps require rectifier when connected to the AC mains power supply. can be limited with resistors without producing a lot of heat.5 Vrms (6. 150mA secondary .3Vrms transformers mentioned above .5 Vpeak). There is a wide range of low-power mains transformers available with one or more secondary voltages like 2.7 V depending on the technology and the colour. 2W  R3 . The working current for these LEDs is usually 20 mA to 100 mA and sometimes higher. On the other hand.2 Vpeak). 4.AC-Powered Led Lamps Without rectifiers Usually. 2W  R6-R8 . 1W  R4 . The parameters of the LEDs match very well with the parameters of small 2. Presented here is a simple circuit for LED lamps that doesn’t require the use of rectifiers.100nF.150mA fuse .3.5Vrms-6.5V.5 Vpeak). 630V polyester .230V AC primary to 4.1KΩ.6 V to 3.7 Vpeak). 6 Vrms (8. 1W  R5 . But rectifiers create a switching noise and also add to their cost.2kΩ.10Ω CAPACITORS  C1  C2 MISCELLANEOUS  S1  S2  CON1  F1  X1 transformer .9kΩ. LED lamps with power rating of 1 W to 10 W are good enough to produce light for your workstation and for a small room.100Ω. ±5% carbon)  R1 . The primary current of these transformers is relatively low—around 15 to 80 mA—and.5 Vrms (3.100Ω.4 way rotary switch .3 VA up to 12 VA. Components required RESISTORS (all 1/4watt. 3 Vrms (4. 3.3 Vrms (8.9 Vpeak) and with power rating from 1.5W  R2 . Electrical isolation of the LED lamps from the mains is also required in most cases.1 Vpeak).2 pin connector . Most LEDs today have forward drop voltage of 1.4 Vpeak).100nF ceramic disk . when needed. 0. 6. Most of these transformers are PCB-mounted and easy to use.

The number of the branches of the LEDs depends on the type of the LEDs and transformer X1. Fig. which is potentially lethal! So take all necessary precautions while assembling the circuit! Micro Inverter . Warning. 2 and 1) the power and the light will be lower. The input section of this circuit is directly connected to 230V AC mains.Circuit and working This LED lamp with transformer does not need rectifiers. After the selection of LEDs and transformer X1. The LEDS are connected in a series and in couples in order to take the full power supply from the transformer as the forward voltage drop of LEDs is around half the secondary output voltage of the transformer. he circuit uses the internal resistance of the transformer and low-cost protecting resistors to limit the current through the LEDs. R2 and C1 are not strictly necessary for the lamp. 1 shows the circuit of an LED lamp using transformer X1 with secondary voltage of 4. 1: Circuit of an LED lamp Fig. they should not be removed. simple calculations are needed to determine the values of current-limiting resistors and their power dissipations. The values of resistors R6 through R8 is selected based on the forward current rating of the LEDs. In one branch. Resistor R1 limits the voltage and current peaks over transformer X1. the LEDs should be of the same type in order to have consistent forward voltage drop. Resistor R2 and capacitor C1 protect the transformer from the noise from the mains. The circuit does not require any adjustment and will start working immediately when switch S1 is switched on. whereas in other positions (3. Although R1. The power for the LEDs is controlled with switch S2. especially in noisy urban or industrial environment. The LED lamp with four levels of power is described here. In position 4 full power supply is applied.5 V.

The Q and Q outputs of IC2 directly drive power MOSFETs (T3 and T4). The battery level checking system is built around transistors T1 and T2 (both BC547) along with some discrete components. .A simple low-power inverter circuit is described here. indicating that the battery has been discharged and needs recharging for further use. When mains 230V AC is available. This circuit has two stages-battery charger with cut-off. IC1 provides gate voltage to SCR1 (TYN616) through diode D3 (1N4007).50V). 1: Battery charger with cut-off circuit The battery level indicator and inverter circuit is shown in Fig. 2. which is wired as an astable multivibrator operating at a frequency of around 50 Hz. When the battery is charged (say.50V). Fig. below 10. On the other hand. which converts 12V DC into 230V AC. The two MOSFETs (IRFZ44) are used in push-pull configuration. LED1 glows and piezo-buzzer PZ1 does not sound. The inverter output is filtered by capacitor C1. and battery level indicator and inverter circuit. It can be used to power very light loads like night lamps and cordless telephones.Charging circuit is built around IC1 (LM317) as shown in Fig. For output voltage setting preset VR1 may be used. when battery voltage goes down (sayk.LED1 stops glowing and piezo-buzzer sounds. to more than 10. SCR1 starts charging the battery. 1.The inverter is built around IC2 (CD4047).but can be modified into a powerful inverter by adding more MOSFETs.

IRFZ44 and LM317 Power-Saving Relay Driver . Fig. 3: Pin configurations of TYN616. Refer Fig.Fig. Mount the transformer on the chassis and the battery in the box using supporting clamps. Use suitable heat-sinks for MOSFETs. The circuit can be used for other applications as well by delivering higher power with the help of a higher current rating transformer and additional MOSFETs. 3 for pin configurations before mounting the components on the PCB. 2: Battery level indicator and inverter circuit Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose it in a suitable metal box.

The constant current mechanism formed by transistor T2 and resistors R2 and R3 effectively drives the relay at very less power. where R is resistance of the relay coil and V is the voltage. Once the relay is energised. 400-ohm sugar-cube type.In many circuits. You can calculate the power saved as shown below: Nominal current required for the relay (I)= 12V/400 ohm = 30mA Power consumed by the relay=I2R=0. Fig. when power is applied. and then slowly the current through the capacitor drops. Power consumed by a relay coil during this holding time equals V²/R. ensuring it is just sufficient to hold the relay. we conclude that considerable power can be saved using the additional circuitry. Relay used here is a 12V. and it holds in that position with typically 75 per cent of its nominal-rated voltage. The power consumed by the relay may be unsuitable for battery-powered applications. Here is a simple solution using some inexpensive components to considerably save power. This makes it fairly simple for anyone to re-design a relay driver to reduce its power consumption without the use of any expensive . its pole is pulled in to make contact with the N/O side. 1 shows circuit diagram of the power-saving relay driver where resistor R1 and transistor T1 form a standard relay driver circuit.03A×400 ohm =360mW After introduction of the circuit: The current through the coil (I) =VBE/R2=0. which in turn activates an external load.012=144mW Power saved=360mW-144mW=216mW So. Circuit and working Fig.03A×0. Initially. resistor R2 takes care of the current.6V/47 ohm=12mA Power consumed by the overall circuit = V×I = 12×0. Following calculations will help us understand how additional circuitry around relay driver transistor T1 saves power. capacitor C1 momentarily shorts resistor R2 and allows full voltage across the relay to pull the pole contact. 1: Circuit diagram of the power-saving relay driver In the meantime. Here resistors R2 and R3. the switching action is performed by a relay. transistor T2 and capacitor C1 lower the power consumption after actuation by applying less than the normal operating power.

such as a microcontroller.components. You can connect the load between N/O and pole contacts or N/C and pole contacts. CON3 helps in connecting to the electrical load. . to CON2 for controlling the relay circuit. Switch S1 is used to test the relay driver circuit. You can connect the output of a control circuit.

It uses no transformer and is easy to construct with few components. which generates the required frequency of around 2 to 10 kHz to drive power transistor BD139 (T2). . Use a large capacitor (C5) and inductor for higher voltages and higher currents. Different output voltages can be obtained by using zener diodes of other ratings. the higher the current delivering capability of the circuit to the load at the output. The 12V zener diode regulates the voltage across the output of the circuit. respectively. Inductor L1 and capacitor C5 (2200µF. The circuit is built around IC 555. toroidal ferrite core. The more the turns on the core. The inductor comprises 100 turns of 24SWG enamelled copper wire wound on a 40mm dia. At higher loads (below 100 ohms). The output current is controlled by transistor BC549 (T1) with the help of resistors R4 and R5. the circuit might not perform well and deliver as much current. You can obtain regulated 12V DC. Transistor T2 is mounted on an aluminium heat-sink.DC-TO-DC Converter Here’s a low-cost circuit to convert 6V DC into 12V DC. The output frequency of the IC can be adjusted by a 47k potmeter (VR1) and given to the base of transistor T2 via resistor R3. 35V) are energy storage components. The output voltage is controlled by the zener diode and smoothed by capacitor C5. 120 mA across the output of this circuit.