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Beethoven’s combination of seven instruments is somewhat unusual for chamber

music. The clarinet was a relatively new instrument at that time, and it equals
the violin in importance in this piece. The violin and clarinet generally carry the
main melodic interest. The bassoon and clarinet generally provide harmonic
accompaniment, although occasionally the bassoon plays solo with the clarinet,
such as in bars 69-73. The viola generally accompanies with arpeggio figures,
such as in bar 61. The cello and double bass provide strong harmonic foundation.
The horn has some very low notes, for example in bar 9 the pitch sounded is a
Bb a 9th below middle C. The violin and viola use multiple stopping to increase
textural density and for emphasis, for example in the first bar. In the penultimate
bar the violin quadruple stops and the viola triple stops. The tessitura of the
violin is generally not too high, except for during bars 217-218. It has wide leaps
in bars 216 and 218. The articulation is detailed for all instruments, and there is
frequent staccato to give lightness. The dynamics of the first two bars are very
contrasted, and in bar 12 there is a fortepiano, and in bar 18 there is a
Schumann uses the two hands of the piano to generate three textural layers in
Von Fremden Landern und Menschen, with the middle layer being divided
between the hands. “Pedal” is instructed at the beginning of all the pieces – bar
16 Hasche-mann is impossible without pedal, as four notes spanning nearly two
octaves have to be sounded in the left hand part. The accompaniment in the left
hand of this piece has large leaps between bass notes and chords, similar to the
stride bass of the jazz age. The left hand has the melody for some of Von
Fremden Landern und Menschen and Furchtenmachen, and the texture is wholly
treble at the beginning of the latter.
Debussy’s piece does not require pianistic virtuosity, rather it requires
expressiveness. The piano uses a wide range – it ranges from several very low
C#s to the E just over 5 octaves higher. There are no extremely high notes. Some
left-hand chords extend to well over an octave and have to be spread, such as in
bar 19.
Beethoven uses a wide variety of textures. The introduction begins with
alternating tutti homophobic chords in bar 1, and the monophony of the violin
solo in bar 2. Much of the piece uses melody dominated homophony, such as the
beginning of the exposition, where the string trio texture consists of broken chord
accompaniment in the viola and a strong harmonic foundation in the cello to
support the violin melody. At bar 28 this melody is repeated in full tutti format –
the melody is in the clarinet, the sustained harmony is in the bassoon and French
horn, and there is double stopped accompaniment in the upper strings and
arpeggio walking bass in the lower strings.

Wide variety of textures
Slow introduction begins with tutti homophonic chords, bar 1
Bar 2 monophony – violin solo
Much of the piece is melody dominated homophony e.g. beginning of
exposition, string trio texture is broken chord accompaniment in viola and
strong harmonic foundation in cello to support violin melody. Bar 28 this
melody is repeated in full tutti format – melody in clarinet, sustained
harmony in bassoon and French horn, double stopped syncopated

    accompaniment in the upper strings and arpeggio walking bass in lower strings Antiphonal exchanges – dialogue between clarinet/ bassoon and violin bars 47-50 Homophonic/ homorhythmic writing at bars 50-53 and 86-97 Octave writing between clarinet and bassoon (bar 128). Octave writing between five instruments at bar 113 Pedal notes bars 140-153 . or 6ths (bar 140).