You are on page 1of 56

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction
As a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award Diploma in Civil
Engineering, this student must at least take one session of Industry Training or
practical at an organization that have been by the Polytechnic for the student.
Industrial training will be progress for five month or twenty two week at the
organization where the student taking their practical. Starting from June 2001, all of
the polytechnic student at Malaysia Education Ministry have executed the system
which giving the entire Polytechnic student ten times credit who doing the Industry
Training. I have been accepted by a company name Yung Seng Construction which
the Head Quarters was located at the 7th mile, Kota Sentosa. The training session
has been progress for five month from the beginning of 01 December 2014 until 17
April 2015. The training session was started at a construction site which was located
at Jalan Serian nearest to the and the site project was next close to the UiTM
(University Technology Mara Malaysia).
1.2

Industrial Training Objective
Industrial training is the most important conditions that required for every

students of Polytechnic Kuching Sarawak before they are eligible to be considered
for the award of Diploma. Each student must pass through the training session

1

before being allowed to attend for the next semester. The student who failed shall
repeat the training session.
1.2.1

Objective of Industrial Training such as:

Allowed the students to expose to the real environment of

employment.
Fostering a sense of working in a team as the member of a company

and to enhance a closer relationship at workplace.
Enable the students to observe and compare the connection between

theoretical and practical learning session during the training.
To adopt attitudes to comply the company’s rule sand safety

procedures during the training.
Improving the trustworthy between the officer and responsibility
character of the students during the training.

1.3

The important of industrial training to student
The industrial training program is a part of the curriculum in
Polytechnic Kuching Sarawak which every student can gain the
experiences and knowledge during their training session. It also can help
to improve the knowledge and self-confidence level of students into the
future employment.
1.3.1 The important to student such as:
The student can discipline themselves in matters that relating
to

the

employment

for

example:-

attendance,

timeliness,

perseverance, interested for the work done, accepted and carried
out the instructions properly.
 Enable the students to have good communication skills to help
themselves to adapt to a given task and also can improving the
quality of work based on the work experiences.
 The students can gain more information from a company that they
signed up. Therefore, they are able to learn the different theory and
help them to practice the knowledge or works.
 Enable the students to improve the self-learning during the industrial
training.

2

 Students can learn and practice the new knowledge where they can
gained from the company based on learning acquired then they might
compared for their studies session at the class.

3

CHAPTER 2 : COMPANY BACKGROUND & ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
2.1
Yung Seng Organization Background
There are specialized in residential housing development. The management
foresees the potential market in Muara Tuang district, leading the company to
develop vigorously and enthusiastically in the Muara Tuang district over the year. In
later year, the development focuses and expand at the new Unimas are (UniGarden). There are also developments in Mukah Division. The various projects have
gain enormous success, although a lot challenges and difficulties were face
throughout.
The life-long Learning process is applied in our company where we always
work hard to gain success, to learn from the society, and keep up with advancement
of the technology. Throughout, the home design has been consistently upgraded to
meet the demand and desire for a better home in coincidence with the progress of
the development and improvisation.
We continue to implement “serving the best house” spirit and heading
towards the motive. Whereas, the management implements strategies that are best
to control and maintain the quality wise of our housings. By carefully selecting the
raw materials, paying attention to the details of the construction work, and with the
after-sale service, we believe that we are ever ready in serving our customer the
best house that they after.

4

FIGURE 1.1 : Map showing Yung Seng Construction Sdn. Bhd

2.2

FIGURE 1.2 : Map showing Taman Berlian.
Vision & Mission
The company’s mission is to deliver the highest customer satisfaction, quality

residential housing through continuous improvement and learning process and
hearing the customer feedback.
We try our best to provide house that fulfill the requirements of the general
public, ensure that they are within customer budget, affordable dream house at
5

registered in 23th July (594500-X) (840014-U) (718020M) (610273T) (718020M) 6 . established in 22nd January      2003) Yeshome Development SDN BHD Berlian Stabil SDN BHD APT Growth SDN BHD Bandar Riyal SDN BHD Evergreen Icon SDN BHD (554126-X.3 Company Structure  Sumbangan Aneka SDN BHD  2001) Yung Seng Construction SDN BHD (604388-H. 2.minimal cost with the best quality. ranging from single-storey terrace house type B to the high-end-semi-detached house.

1 : Organization Structure Map 7 .2.4 Organization Structure Map Account Department Sales Department OFFICE Purchasing Department DIRECTOR Quantity Surveyor Administration Enginner MANAGER Site Supervisor Maintaince SITE Mechanic Lorry Driver Other Excavator STORE CHART 2.

2.5 Units House Built Each Year 500 450 400 350 300 Unit Of HOuse Buit 250 200 150 100 50 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Year CHART 2.6 Overview of Project PROJECT Yung Seng Garden (Kuching) Yeshome Garden Yung Seng Garden (Mukah) Merdang Garden APT Garden Uni Garden Merlin Garden Merbau Garden Merdang Baru Entingan Garden Merbau Baru Taman Bukit Berangan TOTAL UNIT OF HOUSI NG PHASE 1 2 3 4 123 52 71 67 67 222 39 45 41 97 161 115 1019 294 88 123 55 69 40 115 87 66 88 63 55 69 53 52 16 106 29 86 199 180 72 72 60 2408 8 5 6 306 254 .2 : Units of House Built Each Year 2.

a student must wrote down the information and data about the knowledge or work that have the student face.TABLE2. To make sure marking work or evaluation more easily. Date Activities 1 Dec – 5 Dec 2014 (1 week)        Reporting myself to the office Introduce our self to staff Acquaintanceship with leveling device Obtain peg Reading plan Leveling Transfer of TBM 8 Dec-13 Dec 2014 (2 week)     Leveling Transfer of TBM Looking peg for drain Leveling for deep of drain 15 Dec-20 Dec 2014 (3 week)      See the process of cement Estimating of perimeter area of house Marking for classify of house Measure the drain Estimating of length for drain in Phase 7C & 7B 21 Dec – 27 Dec 2014 (4 week)  Office was close (Celebrating Christmas) 9 . learnt and hear during the Industrial Training.1 : Overview of Projects CHAPTER 3 : WEEKLY SUMMERY As a student Polytechnic that under His Industrial Training as the requirement for award Diploma. the activity has been made weekly and in a table form.

 Keep in data into the computer 5 Jan – 10 Jan 2015 (6 week)  Checker (material : Rock) 12 Jan – 17 Jan 2015 (7 week)   Checker (material : Rock) Leveling for road Sub-Base 19 Jan – 24 Jan 2015 (8 week)  Construct Sub-Base 26 Jan – 31 Jan 2015 (9 week)   Checker ( material : Rock) Installation culvert 2 Feb -7 Feb 2015 (10 week)  Checker ( material : Rock) 9 Feb – 14 Feb 2015 (11 week)  Checker ( material : Rock) 16 Feb – 21 Feb 2015 (12 week)     Leveling for sub base of road Planting the lose peg Checker ( material : Rock) Practical use the excavator 23 Feb .28 Feb 2015 (13 week)    Burn the firewood Chinese New Year Checker (material : Rock) 2 Mac – 7 Mac 2015 (14 week)   Checker (material : Rock) Checker (material : Soil) 9 Mac – 14 Mac 2015 (15 week)    Checker ( material : Soil) Checker ( material : Rock) Piling work 16 Mac – 21 Mac 2015 (16 week)   Checker ( material : Rock) Piling work 23 Mac – 28 Mac 2015 (17 week)    Piling work Checker (material : Rock) Prepare Formwork [Ground Beam] 30 Mac – 4 April 2015 (18 week)    Prepare Formwork [Column] Prepare Formwork [Floor slab] Checker (material : rock) 29 Dec 2014 – 3 Jan 2015 (5 week) 10 .

1. Pile play an important role as the major component in the 11 . In Malay language.1 PILING WORK 4. pile was call as “cerucuk”.1 Definition The pile is derived from the word "Pil" meaning arrows or sharp pole of language "Anglo-Saxon" and there is also named as spikes.6 April – 11 April 2015 (19 week)    Formwork [Upper beam] Formwork [Upper Floor Slab] Checker (material : rock) 13 April – 17 April (20 week)  Checker (material : rock) CHAPTER 4 : TECHNICAL CONTENTS 4.

4. The existence of the bearing layer is not obtained.rocks that have high bearing capacity. The distribution of land under the land surface is not uniform. For the purpose of preventing the action of the thrust of the subsurface such as hydrostatic action. 2. 4. 3. Use the pile is caused by: 1.3 Selection and Design Criteria pile. In addition. In normal soil conditions. 2. 4. The amount of sediment deposition and the difference is not great so it should not affect the state of the service structure. The compressibility of the soil which causes sediment great when used shallow foundations. such as wind power and the power of the earthquake in bending. shapes.excavation. 5. sizes and materials used for pile foundation and the selection is dependent on the specific situation.basic load transfer through the soil strata that have low bearing capacity of the strata or rocks . Has the appropriate factor of safety against failure of the pile and soil structure that supports the pile system. The ground beneath the structure does not function properly or in other words not able to bear the burden caused by these structures when used shallow foundations. foundation below ground water level or basic transmission towers. pile foundation is used to hold the lift ride like structure lure shore rigs. 3. Selection and design of pile system must fulfill the following: 1.1. The resistance of pile and soil conditions for certain. The pile is used as a supporter and tools for transferring the load from the structure to the ground. The soil was easily to expands and contracts the soil sensitive to changes in soil moisture percentage also require pile foundation. To obtain a strong strata in the work . for the construction work on the sand as jetties and piers of the bridge also require pile foundation There are various types. 12 . Pile foundation is also used in soft soil to withstand horizontal loads.1.2 The Factor using Pilling Use the pile as one important element in the construction of a structure has been started in the history of civil engineering in the world.

4 Type of pile. To cast pile there.1.3 Durability pile. This pile is composed of two types of piles cast in situ and precast concrete. As is known. Pile length can reach up to 20 m.3 Condition of underground. Location of construction Type of structure. Durability pile.1. Use a pile for underground conditions is divided into 4 sections: • • • • The land above ground strata. Land on the rock hard ground. brackish water or ground disturbance of chemical reactions. 13 . Security and stability as well as living structures near the service must be maintained. there are three major factors in the design and selection of the appropriate pile. However. especially above the ground water level. 4. Part steel pile should be protected from exposure to seawater. Land on the ground in hard clay or granular soil. Clay hard or clay compressibility. namely:     Underground conditions. These piles are commonly used in home construction because the house is a building does not have a high load. The pile is made of concrete with steel reinforcement pillars in it.4. Concrete piles are the most popular.1. 4. Thus. Wood pile is easy to rot. Steel piles have a long life expectancy resistance in most soil if the pile is located in undisturbed soil. this type of pile can be given by placing concrete in the 'permanent linings' gauge steel coated with plastic or lightweight. he could not resist something that is aggressive because of the difficulty to predict and detect congestion poured concrete it is quite compressed or not. 4. the selection of the type of pile foundation system depends to lewd underground conditions.

There are various types of piles used in construction. 14 .1 : Spun Pile  Sheet Pile. Among these are:  Spun Pile . Each pile must be used according to the specifications of a plan that has been prepared by the consultant engineer or Public Works Department [Jabatan Kerja Raya – JKR]. FIGURE 4.

3 : Reinforcement Concrete Pile 4.2 : Sheet Pile RC Pile.1. FIGURE 4.5 Preparation for fasten Piling 15 . FIGURE 4.

Diesel Hammer is not suitable for limestone by the difficulty of controlling the 'hammer drop' when needed. 16 . When either fasten pile of wood. Hammer pile (piling hammer) the most simple is the hammer falls (drop hammer). weight and distance of the fall of the knocker and other important information shall be drawn up.6 Equipment to fasten pile. complexity and soil conditions. Hammer weight is between 2-4 tons and high waterfalls will not exceed 5-6 feet. 4. arrangement 'number of blow' it is grown. heavy knocker should be commensurate with the weight of pile used. depending on usage. Among these are included the following: 1. For example. Identify the types of plants and other . Reference marks such as stone floors shall be outside the work area to avoid any interruption upon him. Whether past or diesel hammer knocker use is subject to the scope. 5. 4.together with a layer of wood cushion to withstand blows and pile cap above will receive hammer is lining (dolly) consisting of iron sheets and hardwood. early preparation to be done.Before work . 1. Provide data boring piling. 3. Provide equipment to control the 'alignment' and the slope of the pile that will be planted this is made up of 'plum bob' hung elbows and 'spirit level'. 3. Data . System for determining the position and the level of the pile as found in the working drawings. concrete or steel. Piling frame have various sizes. 2. Determine the value set for 10 pounder shot for controlling the depth of piling when it is grown based on it as described in the drawing or document job offers. 2.data relating to the position of the pile.other equipment used for piling next method and manner of use. Consists of piling frame (piling frame) and hammer (hammer). the head of the pile shall be sheathed with a pile cap (helmet) together .1.piling run.

The aim of 'set' is taken to determine the ability of the ultimate responsibility (ultimate bearing capacity) pile. 4.1. The size of the final set for each pile to be recorded either on transparency in the unit mm for every 10 piles needed to produce a 25mm transparency so far. supported by two killers. 4. 'Set' is taken to put on “pile” graph paper and pencil placed crosswise on a wooden straight and level. 1. Each blow on the pile pencils and rubbed switched from left to right to 10 shots.FIGURE 4.1.8 Procedure piling RC (Reinforcement Concrete) Pile Each piling. It should also be in accordance with the regular procedure and is set so that accidents do not happen and piling running smoothly.4 : The Equipment to fasten the pile.7 Procedure to Set 'Set' is the distance past the pile penetration into the soil for each shot. 3. Type the pile to be taken 'set' is a kind of pile tips entirely alone and do not need the kind of friction piles. it should be handled by people who are more experienced and knowledgeable enough to avoid mistakes during cultivation work carried out. Usually it taken 10 shots last armpits. 17 . 2.

then piling can be started by placing a 'piling machine' to be grown pile.5 : Blue Peg and Red Peg After marking to all locations already prepared.Determine the location of piling work will be undertaken by a land surveyor using a theodolite. FIGURE 4.6 : The machine fasten the piling 18 . The area to be implanted piles will be marked with a steel pin placed a red mark on it so clearly visible from afar. FIGURE 4. Blue Peg is for 20 meter pile and Red Peg for 10 meter pile.

piling started using the 'piling machine' that has a heavy load several tones (not sure how heavy the load). Piling need to make sure the pile upright 90 degrees FIGURE 4. pile then lifted slowly .7 : Show 20 meter pile Having examined the level of vertical pile.After 'piling machine' ready to do piling.slowly and then inserted into the hole 'piling machine'.7 : The machine piling stand the piling 19 . Under the pile surface must be accurate with the notation that has been done. then the work . FIGURE 4. Spirit level will be used to measure erectness pile planted.

FIGURE 4. FIGURE 4.After piling up and running.2 ELEMENT AND STUCTURE OF HOUSE BUILDING 20 .8 : The worker cutting the piling.9 : After piling work was finished for one sub lot 4. cutting the pile is done to facilitate future construction work.

itself either resting directly upon the ground or 21 . the beam is not only used in the field as the construction of. structure and element is composed of stone. Ground beam is a reinforcement beam for supporting walls. Structure is the framework for a building.a beam that fixed by projecting only at the • end of surface such as at the ledge. wood and clay. Cantilever beam .the extending beam are beyond its • support on one of the end.2. Beam is something common in engineering. cement. 4.extended beam that can be expending over • than two or more support. joists at or nearest to the ground level. In ancient times. Element and structure was important for building an extreme structure or simple structure. Usually. Fixed beam . There are several types of beams in the building: • Simply support beam . The type of wood used is “terberlian” wood. In ancient times.adding the cables or rods to form truss and become a beam to support the structure for example to support the roof trusses. but are used in the structure of vehicles and mechanical systems and has been analyzed as the same concept.1 Definition Element and structure is a foundation to build a building. Even were interesting structure element are not exposed.a beam can be supported which the end • are free to rotate and have no moment of resistance. Over hanging beam .2. vibration and motion. Structure and elements have long been used in the field of Civil Engineering. plywood. Bricks. they are nonetheless of significance and contribute to the character of the building. asbestos and reinforcement bar was call as Elements. the end of the beam was tied to a pole. Element is a complete building structure.4.2 Beam Beam is one of structural element that can support the weight of a building and can withstand the bending of the piles. Trussed beam . Continuous beam . a) Ground Beam The structure that shown above is known as ground beam. the beam made of wood.a supported beam that on both ends and • restrained from the rotation. This is because.

supported at both end by piers. sewers or other services in the ground. the erected formwork. This situation cause by the swampy areas. It also can be used in a situation where the foundation walls may not be achievable. The both end of the beam is tied up to the column and lying between the two columns.10 : Show about the ground beam • Procedure to construct the Ground Beam i. The ground beam is mostly used for building construction. horizontal ground beam on the ground. The construction of the ground beam was started with ii.g. Fixed the soffit of the formwork for the ground beam. loose soil. ground beam are selected to be construct to carry the boundary walls or sheds that built outside on the landscape soils. The erected beam are connect to the columns or piers that taken into the soil. 22 . iv. It can also be erected over the drains. In domestic construction (e. construct the formwork to the side of the ground beam soffit formwork and placed with the struts to hold the formwork. house construction). FIGURE 4. The formwork was placed horizontally to shape the iii. Then. or where the low condition of the soil bearing capacity.

Lastly. But before the concrete was poured. and also placed the formwork with the struts. FIGURE 4. A formwork was erected to the side of the formwork vii. The steel reinforcement then was placed on the soffit vi.11 : The worker prepare the Form Work 23 .v. the procedure was ended with concreting. The supervisor will check the formwork was straight and without any broken. the workers must make sure the formwork was clean and free from the rubbish. formwork.

It almost has the same function such as the ground beam and it was constructed before the walls.FIGURE 4. It also can be define as the upper level of foundation before forming the upper slabs (double story house). 24 .12 : The worker tight the reinforcement bar with wire b) Upper Beam The upper beam is the one of the structural elements for a building. Upper beam also functioning to support the upper level of the building until the construction of the roof trusses (single story house).

13 : Show about Upper Beam • Procedure to construct upper beam: The construction for the upper beam has the same method or procedure as the construction of the ground beam. Erected formwork was placed to the side and also VII. Erected the formwork to support the beam. formwork. Fixed the soffit that lying to the columns for the IV. 25 . same level with the ground beam. VI. Construct the formwork for the side of the beam and V.FIGURE 4. I. The differentiation for the beam which is the beam that constructed below the ground level and the beam that constructed upper level between the columns. The formwork should be placed horizontally as the III. placed with the struts for the supports. Placed the steel reinforcement into the soffit formwork. II. The process of concreting will take over after the work done of the formwork. placed the struts to hold the formwork.

15 : After Formwork was eliminate form Upper Beam 4.3 Floor Slab 26 .14 : Show about formwork or mould upper beam FIGURE 4.2.FIGURE 4.

Floor slab is one of the building structures.16 : The Floor Slab on Ground Level 27 . Floor slab can be constructed in accordance with its multi-storey building. the floor slab serves to cover the ground or slab for multistorey building. In building plays. It is because. In a multistory building. as it allows us to inhabit the building. Floor slab work load building. In addition. floor slab built through the support of the upper beam and column. wood and iron. Floor slab can be constructed of concrete. floor slab requires strong materials to accommodate the load. depending on the characteristics of building use. FIGURE 4. plywood boards.

Provide formwork to support the floor slab. Rating reinforcement steel into molds soffit. The ground beam are replaced the formwork The reinforcement was keep on that space IV. the formwork put it. The excavator excavates the space between the II. V. done that formwork.FIGURE 4. The process of concreting will take over after the work done of the formwork. Build formwork for the side beams and struts to hold IV. 28 .17 : Floor Slab on level 1 (Semi-D Double Storey House) • Step to construct the Upper Floor Slab • I. II. The process will take over after the concrete work VII. with struts to support. III. Pour the concrete into the formwork floor slab Step to construct the Ground Floor Slab I. Reference should be placed as the same level with the III. floor. ground beams with same deep with ground beam. Established mold is placed to the side and also placed VI.

Column is the pillar of the whole building. If the building has a column that is less strong. In addition. the building does not have a long shelf life and is easy to collapse.4 Column In the field of building structure. column structure is one of the important elements in the process of building construction. the column provides support to the upper beam.FIGURE 4.2. 29 . Column serves to accommodate the load of the upper beam. The column same function with the human spine to support the load.18 : The operator will keep away the soil form the space 4. upper floor slab and roof truss. upper floor slab and roof truss.

The reinforcement is tied together with separate smaller II. diameter transverse bars or known as ties/links. As the ‘Taman Berlian’ project. formed the shape of rectangular. reinforcement concrete columns are often to be used to erect the building structure according to drawing design.19 : Column a) Types of columns Columns are divided into three types as the way they are reinforced.FIGURE 4. 30 . • Produces to construct the Column I. Link is tied up with centre by centre with steel wire based on specified distance according to drawing design and III. Concreting can be done after the reinforcement bars was setting up.

FIGURE 4.20 : Prepare the form work FIGURE 4.21 : Setting Up the Reinforcement Bar for Column 31 .

but the time consuming the larger structures and plywood has facing the relatively short of lifespan.2. Formwork should be easily available and suitable to be reuse. The sheeting panels are placed vertically and screwed in the ground floor surface by steel bolts. Although the formwork are easy to produce. iii. Timber slab formwork  The traditional slab formwork built up by the plywood or timber board which supports out of lumber or young tree trunks. It is easy to produce and also the most flexible type of formwork. It consists of sheeting boards or prefabricated sheeting panels. 32 . The timber formwork are extensively used where the labour cost are lower than the cost for procuring the reusable formwork. Beam formwork  Beam formwork is the prefabricated formwork sheeting parts in which it is sheeting the bottom and side of sheeting panels. column formwork is constructed at the site as prefabricated sheeting. Good formwork should have the following requirements:    Formwork should be strong to withstand all types of load.4. Several types of formwork uses at the site:- i. iv. ii. It should have plane surface and should be set accurately to the desired line and level. Ceiling formwork  Ceiling formwork is the type of formwork mostly found in building construction. Traditional timber formwork  It usually built on the site by using the timber. The sheeting bottom and the side panels consist of sheeting boards and nailed together. It should be light in weight as possible.5 Formwork The formwork is a temporary or permanent mould which the concrete or the other similar materials are poured. Column formwork  Similar to the beam formwork. the formwork is used to support the shuttering moulds. v. plywood or moistureresistance particleboard. In term for the concrete construction.

Drainage system must be regularly maintained to avoid floods on construction sites. Parts of formwork Vertical sides of beams. 2.3 DRAINAGE Drainage system has existed centuries ago. In addition. columns and walls Ground beams and slabs (left under) Formwork soffits Time period 1 – 2 days 2 – 6 days 7 – 14 days 28 days Table 4. columns and walls Edge sides of beams. 3. Good drainage system to avoid flooding and water flows more smoothly into the sea or estuary. Time period for removing formwork according to its particular parts are as follows:- No.1 : Show the period to remove the formwork 4. 1. drainage system is very useful as to avoid too wet road surfaces cause tires to fail to get friction. In Civil Engineering. In addition. Drainage system is very important in the construction sector. Formwork should be removed part by part to sustain its workability and strength depending on concrete hardening period. Removal period of formwork Concrete must be fully hardened to bear its load before formwork is able to be removed. construction site drainage system will be made first. 4. In Taman Berlian. the water reservoir will disturb the soil as soil excavation work will be muddy. drainage is important to them. Before the construction of buildings or sites the 33 . Inlet and Drain.3.1 Drain Drain very important in building construction sector. Water reservoir can soften the soil conditions. 4. Drainage system occurs in two forms. In Highway Engineering. Usually after site clearing. trenches used to prevent water reservoir after the rain. This is because the drainage system used to remove water from a surface. namely Culvert. This is because the trench was built to prevent water retention in the soil surface. drainage system is useful to prevent the occurrence of the phenomenon of flooding.

way. culverts and Inlet. IV.2 Culvert In the world of civil engineering. Culvert otherwise known as "pembentong" in the term Bahasa Malaysia. Operators will begin excavating the ground by plan provided II. Box Culvert 3.  Type Of Culvert 1.22 : Show the excavator excavated the drain 4.3. The culverts one branch in the drainage system. they will make the drainage work first. This is because to avoid drainage system in the area of planning is not disrupted.  Procedure construct Drain I. Such as large culvert pipe to remove water. this culvert planted in the ground and not opens like a moat. Culvert was same function with drain. VI. culverts are closely related to Highway Engineering. wide Dug Drain must be connected to the main drain After dredging was completed. Usual culverts installed to connect the drain crossing the road or under the buildings or across the river. Drain will be excavated to a depth of 1 meter and 1 meter III. workers will plant peg along V. the trench Supervisor will make leveling work to ensure trenches 1 meter Supervisor will benchmark level on the peg FIGURE 4. However. Pipe Culvert 2. In the drainage system. Arch Culvert 34 . there are several types of items used to throw water drains.

The hole will excavate until both of drain was connected The supervisor will measure the hole to know how much culvert IV. Box culvert usually mounted on the main road junction near the ditch there because larger and rectangular. V. VIII. In addition. excavator. VII. the culverts plug the drain to connect the main drain with across the roundabout. Slab Culvert During my training in industry. Procedure to Install the Culvert The operator will excavate the hole like the drain by use the II. VI. In this company. The culvert was plant across the road. III. culverts were installed to connect the trenches at a crossroads.23 : The excavator keep back the soil into the hole 35 .  I. they usually use a culvert diameter Ø = 1 meter or 0.4. 1 meter diameter culvert usually mounted on a road that crossed the big drain.5 meters long and all culverts are the same which 1 meter. need to install The worker will brought culvert from the store The operator keep up the culvert and then put it on the hall All the culvert need to connect with each other to prevent leaks All the culvert will cover by convers The soil will keep on the hole to cover the culvert FIGURE 4. Besides that. I only see and Box Culvert and Pipe culvert.

36 .24 : Final step of installation culvert 4.1 Definition Leveling work is very important in building construction work. Leveling method has been used for centuries in Civil Engineering through the use of EDM. leveling method is used to distinguish ground level. the method of leveling work to give us that the earth is not flat even surface using visible even to the naked eye. In addition.4 LEVELING 4. Leveling work is used in the process of cut and fill. floor drains and differentiate with road site. The aim is to distinguish leveling a ground level.4. In the process of construction of the building. Theodolite auto level or water level. distinguishing level house base with roads base and drains. The majority of its construction companies use geometry in the construction process.FIGURE 4. as measured by the Surveyor. adjust the level ground with TBM.

after 7. Set up the Tripod ii.4.5 . we need to take a 37 reading of 6. Adjust the auto-level to get into an air bubble into the III. 7. Setting Up the Auto-Level i.7.5) Example of Calculation • Floor Plan . The aim is to adjust the leveling of land with TBM level or according to the size of the plan. In addition.0. I have been teaching by using the leveling tool water level. The leveling methods are used to measure the different in height (ΔH) between the two point A and B. drain and road bases. Make sure head Tripod are flat iii. .2 Concept of Leveling The general terms applied to any of various processes by which elevations of the points of difference in elevation are determined.(8. Floor drains must be deeper than tread the streets and houses. The concept is.0 This means. circle v. 9. vertical rods are set up at each of these two point and a level somewhere between them. once the elevations of a point is determined that point can be used for determining the elevations of other point.50.3 Leveling Work When I undergo industrial training. IV.0.(10.5.4.5.2.Level in Plan 9. The auto level ready to use The worker will put the staff near the peg The auto-level shoot into staff to get the reading • TBM . 6. The height difference between A and B is difference between the rod (staff) readings.0.reading: 7.get 7. 6. Leveling Work is usually done after the site clearing.5 + 2. Put auto level on a tripod iv. drain the site cannot be the same level.5 = 6.2. the leveling is used to distinguish the level of building bases. This is because the level of the home.0) TBM + Reading Taken .4. 10. 6. 4. This is because to avoid flash floods. Planting the temporary on every point that you'd got readings II.  Procedure of Levelling Works I.4.00.

24 : Supervisor taken reading by Auto – Level 38 .CALCULATION 4.1 : Calculation for leveling for FIGURE 4.

26 : Marking the Level of Plan 39 .FIGURE 4.25 : Justine planting the point FIGURE 4.

5.1 Rock This stone is used to make the site the way.27 : Transfer TBM to the site 4. This stone was bought from Sub-Contractor. The materials are sent a responsibility to checker. Any deficiency will be borne by the checker. 4. 40 . This job to ensure that the goods until sufficient quantities. The rock type is SYNITE. Sub-Con sends the stone to the construction site by lorry itself.FIGURE 4.5 CHECKER Checker is a work receiving the goods delivered to the construction site. There are two items that are sent and received by reviewers.

29 : The Receipt 4.28 : SYNITE  Procedure I. Lorry send the rock to the site II. Checker will cop a signature on receipt FIGURE 4.5.2 Soil 41 .FIGURE 4. Rock will be keep to the stock pile III.

The soil sent to INTAN. The soil will be keep to open space VI. Lorry send the soil to the site V.30 : INTAN’s Site 42 . Checker will cop a signature on receipt FIGURE 4. The soil to create the open space in front of shop in INTAN  Procedure IV.

FIGURE 4.31 : The Operator embankment the soil to the open space FIGURE 4.32 : Receipt for The Soil 43 .

34 : The lorry inject the soil behind the open space 44 .FIGURE 4.33 : Permission Letter from Land Surveyor FIGURE 4.

This facilitates the transfer of goods. Without sub base.4.  Procedure Sub Base construction I.5 or 0. use as sub base The stone will be flattened using excavators steps will be repeated until all the way ready to reclaimed 45 . sub base is very important in structuring the road. Road construction has been done with a variety of current technology it.6. Sub base is the main assistant to support load on the road. road construction work is part of Highway Engineering. from the bottom of the sub-grade. V.4 meters using II.4 meters) The stone stored on the stock pile will be sent to reclaimed for IV. The important highway for connecting other areas with other areas. Workers will get a reading on staff using auto level iii. Operator will excavate to a depth of 0. the highway will be easily damaged and roads will not flat.6 SUB-BASE OF ROAD 4. excavator Leveling work carried out to ensure compliance with the street-level on the plan i. In the process of construction of roads. 0.1 Introduction In civil engineering. Road construction has been done from time immemorial. How roads are built with layers. road base and pavement. Peg planted along the roads that have been dug ii. sub-base. Peg will be marked in accordance with sub-base III. thickness required (usually.

36 : The worker stand the staff on the peg to get a reading 46 .35 : Leveling work FIGURE 4.FIGURE 4.

7.FIGURE 4.1 Definition of Estimating 47 .37 : Operator using the excavator to flatten the surface of the Sub-Base FIGURE 4.38 : During proses construct of Sub Base 4.7 ESTIMATING & PROGRESSION 4.

Estimating can be considered as a financial planning in doing construction work.) Total Table 4. estimating work done before.1 : Show of estimating work 48 95%(TT) 95% of (price) X (Total) Perimeter of Sub-Lot Rear The price are provided Name of Sub-Lot Rear Number of rear house Surround Length of rear house Sub-Lot . it can make it easier for customers to know how much it costs necessary to carry out construction work. Normally estimating work done by Quantity Surveyors. Besides that. it facilitates the work of architects to design a building with the goods needed in construction work someday. Moreover. it can avoid over spending money in attempting to work. Usually. It's how to estimate the costs necessary to make a big project. For the example : (M) (Num. In addition. Estimating is very important in modern construction work.

40 : Marking to classify the house 49 .FIGURE 4.39 : Estimating Work FIGURE 4.

41 : Marking the sub-lot FIGURE 4.42 : Marking the boundary of sub-lot 50 .FIGURE 4.

the progression is to find a problem that occurs in the construction work. excavators Machinery. building drainage system and soil excavation work. The engineers will go to construction sites. 4. The progression work usually done during construction works. Backhoe Loader.1 Step to use the excavator 51 .9.7. 4. The data obtained through vision or measure of a building structure.FIGURE 4. In addition.2 Definition of Progressions Progression to assess the extent of the construction works are progressing well. Vibratory Roller. and so on. get data on how much progress has occurred in the construction work. Excavators used for site clearing. the excavator is useful because this machine is used in a variety of jobs.8 Excavator In construction work.43 : Estimating work are always referred to the plan 4. During the construction process. Work is always ongoing progression depends on how often companies want to know the project. there is a variety of machinery used as Bulldozer.

Lengthening and shortening the arm II.1. Right button I. Turning the excavators are 360° 52 . Lifting and lowering the arm II. left button I. Two pedal for forward and rear excavator 2. Opening and closing Baked 3.

CHAPTER 5 : FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATION 5. It. During the middle of the semester. This will give effect to the lecturers to evaluate the final report Industry Training students. Student is able to try their hands on based on the theory being taught in the campus. provides a sense of panic to students who have started to write the report in the Malay language. Malay grammars with English grammar are quite different. This will give you a sense of bored students who undergo industrial training. therefore. Problems that occur in the Industry. it has exposed the real working environment compared to the theoretical that we learned in Polytechnic.1 FINDINGS Throughout the 20th weeks of attachment in the industry for Industry Training. The majority of its students have to write a reflection journal Malay language they use. 5.2 RECOMMENDATION 53 . students undergoing Industry Training was shocked by the news of the "Report and Presentation must use English". This will cause the students lack the knowledge to be expressed in the final report. This will cause fewer students get objective of the training industry. It will burden them convert their sentences into English. For example. Students will have less exposure in industrial training. during the 20th week. the students just do the same task. the industry gave assignments are fixed.

` Some terms used by employees while teaching the students may not be the same in terms of the theory. how far students understand what he experienced in the training industry. This will provide many benefits to students who undergo industrial training. It will give a lot of exposure to the students during their industrial training. It also helps students to appoint of understanding him in the work he is going in the training industry. Polytechnics need to give space to students that not good in English in using the English language to present experiences during training industry. Students who undergo industrial training is not the same capabilities with the ability of ordinary workers. This simplifies the lecturer know. 54 . It will reduce student experiencing the same things as long as 20 weeks. During that time. students must write a final report in English. UPLI should provide recommendations to the firm or company that provides industrial training to students planning activities necessary to prepare to launch student activities during the training industry. The preparation is not only on the equipment or stationary but mentally and physically is also very important so that student is ready to enter the working zone. polytechnics should facilitate students to present their experiences in the presentation. Students who undergo industrial training. the changing of the environment around them. A good preparation must be made by the student their self who will undergo industrial training before they step out from campus. they want to experience what about his career or work they will do in the courses they take in polytechnics. This is a must for student so that this situation will not affect student mentally making them easily to give up and moan during the training. Perhaps.

this exercise can increase the value of collaboration within an individual. www. In addition. Industrial training can provide students more willing to suffer through the work environment. Through the Industrial Training. Training can reveal more new things for students although the matter is not taught in the classroom.google/image. I conclude that the training industry is very important to students and give a good impression in the preparation of semi-professional workforce for the future. students will increase the quality of interactions with the public. Through industrial training. 55 . exercise can help train more mature polytechnic students to solve problems. This is because. industrial training can improve the quality of a student after a roll of certificate and diploma awarded. ` REFERENCE 1.CHAPTER 6 : CONCLUSION Industrial Training is a program to give time for Polytechnic student’s experience real working conditions and a new experience for students to prepare themselves for their future careers. In addition. Through training.com. both mentally and physically students in the future. the students will be more disciplined when doing assignments given and the student will be responsible for performing a task.

Laporan Akhir Latihan Industri Rizal Shah (Diploma Teknologi Pembuatan) http://www.net/rizalshah94/contoh-laporan-latakhir 3.slideshare.2. Highway Engineering Note CC304 4. Nota Estimating . Universiti Teknologi Mara Malaysia (UiTM) 56 . 171) 5.s 131. The History of Engineering Survey (written by: Edward Kumar) (1982) Hall “m.