ROBERT SiLBER and RALPH GELLAR
Worth Carolina State University, Raleigh, Worth Carolina
1. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY
A Fibonacci representation has been defined [ 1 , 2, 3, 5, 8] as a finite sequence of ones and zeroes (in effect)
read positionally from right to left, in which a one in position / signifies the presence of the Fibonacci number
fj, where we take fl = 1, f2 = I The integer thus represented is the sum of the Fibonacci numbers whose presence is indicated by the ones appearing in the representation.
Our purpose in this paper is to generalize the notion of Fibonacci representations in such a way as to provide
for a natural algebraic and geometric setting for their analysis. In this way many known results are unified and
simplified and new results are obtained. Some of the results extend to Fibonacci representations of higher order, but we do not present these because we have been unable to extend the theory as a whole and because of
the length of the paper.
The first step is to extend the Fibonacci numbers through all negative indices using the defining recursion
fn+2 = fn + fn+i, as n a s D e e n done by Klarner [14]. The second step is to introduce arbitrary integer coefficients. Thus an extended Fibonacci representation is a finite sequence of integers, together with a point which
sets off the position of f0. Positions are numbered as is customary for positional notation, and an integer k; in
position / signifies k,fj. The integer thereby represented is ^\kjfi,
the summation extending over those finitely many / for which k; ^ 0.
Let r denote the golden ratio taken greater than one. Then T2 = 1 + r and 1/r2 = 1  (1/r). The ring/ of quadratic integers in the quadratic extension field Qfr] of the rationals consists of those elements of the form m + nr
(or (m/r) + n) in which m and n are ordinary integers.
Each Fibonacci representation Y ^ k\ft determi nes another integer by taking its left shift; this gives y ^ £;;/;.
For each Fibonacci representation Y ^ k;f; we define a quadratic integer in / said to be determined by the representation y ^ k;fj] it is
2>'.^*
+
f
This quadratic integer is equal to the sum '^TkjT1, which is a pseudopolynomial in r. Because of this the usual
arithmetical algorithms for addition, subtraction and multiplication, when applied to the Fibonacci representations, yield results which interpret in terms of the ring structure i n / . For example, 12.1 represents 2 and 121.
represents 3 so that 12.1 determines the quadratic integer (21 T) + 3. Similarly, 1.1 determines (1/r) + 1. Since
(f + 1 ) ( H =F + 5'
we predict that the usual multiplication algorithm when applied to 12.1 and 1.1 will produce a representation
of 3 whose left shift represents 5, and indeed this is true of the result, which is 13.31.
A Fibonacci representation is canonical if either all of the nonzero k\ are +1 or else all of the nonzero k; are
 1 , and no two nonzero k; are consecutive. A basic theorem in this paper is that each quadratic integer in / is
determined by exactly one canonical representation. A resolution algorithm is introduced which is shown to reduce any Fibonacci representation to the unique canonical representation which determines the same quadratic
integer. As a result, the canonical Fibonacci representations in the usual arithmetical algorithms plus the resolution algorithm form a ring isomorphic to the ring / under the correspondence
289
290
THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS
or the same
S k'fi "" YlklT''
'
S k'f' ""
[NOV.
r— * ]C *//'/ •
Clearly the subring of representations of zero will be isomorphic to the integers under the left shift 2_\ k/f,; ~*
^jTkjifj,
since in the case of zero representations this amounts to J^k,f,^
V^kjT 1 . The reader is re
ferred to the text for sample calculations with the resolution algorithm.
One consequence of the foregoing remarks is that for every pair of integersm and/7 there is exactly one canonical Fibonacci representation of/77 whose left shift represents n (canonically). (This appears in [14] for natural m and n and in [13] for the general case.) This representation can be determined from the resulution algorithm by starting with/7./77 which represents^ + n. This of course provides an infinity of canonical representations for each integerm, one corresponding to each choice of n.
By identifying the quadratic integer  + n with the point (mfn) in the plane, which in the present context we
refer to as the Fibonacci plane, we are able to arrive at simple geometric characterizations of those choices of n
(for a given m) which will result in the standard Fibonacci representations in the literature, and some new ones
in addition. Formulas giving n as a function of m for these representations are an immediate consequence of the
geometry.
It is shown in Section 2 that the space of integer sequences ixn Y satisfyingxn+2 = xn +xn+i is naturally
isomorphic to the ring/. Consequently the results on canonical Fibonacci representations interpret for these
sequences, which we call Fibonacci sequences. Namely, given a Fibonacci sequence with zero f and first terms
XQ and xj,
respectively, let *jT]kjfj be the canonical Fibonacci representation which determines the quadratic
integer — +xx. Then the sequence ixn
shifts of the sequence ifnl
canonical representation
I
is uniquely expressible as a signed sum of distinct, nonconsecutive
of Fibonacci numbers, and the sum is exactly that which is determined by the
wherein position / is associated with the / f
^\kjfjf
the canonical representation
V
left shift of
ifn\
. Moreover,
k/f, represents the term XQ and its various left and right shifts represent the
corresponding terms of the sequence \xn\
. (Again see [14] for special cases and see [8, 13] for generaliza
tions.) That is, every Fibonacci sequence of integers appears canonically ''in Fibonacci" as a sequence of shifts
of a fixed, signed block of zeroes and ones.
Consider for example the Fibonacci sequence having;^ = 5, xj = 7. By the resolution algorithm 7.5 reduces
to 10100.1. This means that \xnX
is the sum of the fourth and second left shifts and the first right shift of
ifnl.
Moreover, the sequence  , 5, 7, 12,  appears "in Fibonacci" as ••, 10100.1, 101001., 1010010.,  .
Various other results appear in the paper, such as other canonical Fibonacci representations obtained by geometric means, hyperbolic flows and number theoretic properties of flow constants.
It is a pleasure to acknowledge the kind assistance of many of our colleagues and acquaintances, particularly
that of Professors J. Luh and L Carlitz.
2. THE RINGS X, F, M AND / AND THE FIBONACCI PLANE P
2.1 Introduction. The analysis of Fibonacci representations presented here rests on a natural ring s t r u c ture for the space of integer Fibonacci sequences. The purpose of Section 2 is to introduce the space of integer
Fibonacci sequences, to show how its natural ring structure arises, and to introduce other isomorphic rings of
interest in investigating and interpreting Fibonacci representations.
2.2. The Spaces X and X.
secondorder recursion
(2.1)
Let X denote the collection of integer sequences <xn IQ satisfying the linear,
xn+2
=
xn+xn+1.
These Fibonacci sequences form a module over the ringZ of integers under termwise operations.
1976]
THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS
291
l e t f =
{fn\o be the solution of Eq. (2.1) such that f0= Omd f1 = //the terms of fare customarily called
the Fibonacci numbers.
Let a ; X+X be the left shift on X, defined by
(22)
®({*n}o) = \xn+l\o •
ByEq. (2.1),
a 2  a  1 = 0,
(2.3)
where 1 and 0denote the identity and zero operators on X, respectively, o is an automorphism of the Zmodule
X, and its inverse o~1 is the right shift on A', with the understanding that the zerof/? term oi o~1(ixn Id) ' s t 0
b e x ;  XQ.
X is a twodimensional Zmodule; one basis for X is if, off) \, in which
(2.4)
x = fx1x0)f
+ x0off),
x&X.
Each sequence x = j xn \1Q in X can be extended by Eq. (2.1) in just one way to a doubleended sequence
x_= \xn J _ ~ ; the collection of doubleended solutions of Eq. (2.1) is also a Zmodule under termwise operations, and is isomorphic to X under the correspondence a(x)= x. Members of A'shall also be called Fibonacci
sequences, but referred to as extended when it is necessary to distinguish them from the sequences in X. In particular, the terms of f= a(f) are called extended Fibonacci numbers. For these numbers it is readily verified that
Ln = f1)n+1fn,
(2.5)
n^Z.
No confusion will arise from using o ; X > X to denote the left shift on X as well as the left shift on X, and
Eq. (2.3) is valid in either case. Since a is an isomorphism, j £ off) J is a basis f o r X in which
(2.6)
x e X.
x = fx1x0)f+x0offjt
The inverse of o on X, o~ , is the right shift on X.
2.3. Two Theorems. This section consists of the statement and proof of two theorems. The first of these
shows that a certain class of quotient rings can be characterized as a certain class of modules. Because X belongs
to the latter class (in this connection Eq. (2.4) is critical) the theorem provides a ring structure forX. The results apply equally to X.
The second theorem shows how the members of this class of quotient rings can be realized as matrix rings;
this results in a representation of X and X as a certain collection of 2 x 2 matrices in the usual operations. This
theorem appears in MacDuffee [15] for algebras.
Theorem
2.1. Let R be a commutative ring with unity 1 and \etp(X) be a monic polynomial in /?A/of
degree n. LetS be the quotient ring of polynomials modulo pfk) and define A ; S^S by
Af[qf\)])
=
l\q()J]
for each equivalence class fq(X)] in S. If S is considered to be an /?module in the operations
[q / 0 0 ] + [q2Ml
= Id 1M
+
Q2ML
r[qMl
= frqM]
,
then A e H o m ^ ^ S , / and S is /7dimensional over R with basis
{ lil, A([1]), .., An~ 1f[1l) } = { lil, M,  , [Xn~1] J..
Furthermore/?^ = 0 a n d / ? ^ is the polynomial in RfX] of least degree which is monic and which annihilates
A.
Conversely, let 5 be an /7dimensional /?module over a commutative ring R with unity 1flet A e Horn/? (S,S)
and suppose there exists s <E S such that is, A fs), ••, An'1(s)
I is a basis forS over R. Then there exists
pfk) in RM which is monic and of degree n, such thatp/A,/ = 0 and such that S is isomorphic to the quotient
ring R[\]/(p(\))
considered as an /?module. One isomorphism is the mapping 0 which sends
E n\' i=0 i=0 This isomorphism induces a multiplication on S by si* s2 = <t>~1(<t>(si)(l)(S2)). A (s). i=0 But then p(A)(A'(s)) = A'(p(A)(s)) = 0 for each natural number i.292 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS n1 £ n1 to r Ai(s) < [NOV. r1t — . A / . If q(X)^ RfXJ is monic and q(A) = Or then by Eq. and let A e Hom# (S. by Eq. Since An(s)^S. (2. and must indeed be an isomorphism because it sends the basis \s. Note that f o r # / / X / . [Xn~1]\. Now suppose S is an/7dimensionaI /?module over a commutative ring/? with unity 1.i\n~1 ... Define 0 as in the statement of the theorem. A r//7. l\n~1]\.  / / 7 .7) Now .rn. Let She the quotient ring R[\f/(p(X)l Then each congruence class in S contains exactly one polynomial (possibly zero) of degree less than n. e LetpM^X" Horn R(S. q2(A) and qi(A )([q2(K)] ) = [q / (\)q2 (X)] = q2 (A )([q / (X)J ) . and this induced multiplication makes S into a ring with unity s.» .2.7) pfAHW]) = [X'pfX)] = 10] so that pi A) vanishes on a basis and therefore is zero.7) q(A)([1]) = fq(X)J = [0] so that q(X) is a multiple oipfXl Since both q(X) andpfX) are monic. we haveqjfA). T h u s / ? ^ is the polynomial in RfXj of least degree which is monic and annihilates A . n f } is the same as i / / / .S) and s e 5 such that is. . and hence p(A) vanishes on a basis and is therefore zero. Given q(X) ^RfXj let . i=0 Define p(X)^R[X] by p(X) = Xnrn^Xn'1  •ro so that n1 n p(A)(s) = A (s)J2 nA'(s] = 0. A 7 7 " frj }• is a basis for 5 over /?. q(X) cannot have lesser degree thmp(X) has. (2. A / . . that is r n1 li=0 It is clear that 0 is a module homomorphism. Theorem 2.. ments ro. A(s). » . q2(k)^ R[X].. . Moreover. The rest of the theorem now follows readily from the manner in which the multiplication * is induced on S.S). —. rni there exist unique ele of R such that A7/ n A (s) = J2 nA'fs). An~1(s) } onto the basis  [1]. 0 is then a ring isomorphism under which the action of A in S corresponds to multiplication by the element A 7 in the quotient ring Rf\J/(p(K)l Proof. (2.. Let/? beacommutative ring with a unity and letp(X) (E R[X] be monic with degree/?.r0. A ~ ([1j) and the latter is a basis for 5 over R becausep is monic. .
1 to X. [k]. If q(X) is equivalent to m+nX modulo X XI then Xq(X) is equivalent to/7/f/?7 +n)X modulo X It follows from Theorem 2. so we define (p: X+ F by (p(x)=(x1x0) + XQX which can be written (j)(x) = x1 + xgX\f we introduce (for X) the abbreviation x_7 = x/xoFor y^X.Y* rrt 1=0 > modulo/7^ n1 X2q(X) = ^ AyV i=0 >"7>J Xn~1q(X) x'/ the righthand sides being uniquely determined by the choice of [q(\)]. This equation defines the multiplication in X which makes X into a ring with unity f. [Xn~1] I. so we let F denote the quotient ring Z[X]/(X2 . by Eq. multiplication by [q(X)J in S is a module endomorphism on S which is represented by the foregoing matrix.7. Proof. (2. We now apply Theorem 2.3) gives p(X) = X . The mapping which sends [q(X)J in S to the endomorphism induced by multiplication by [q(\)J is a ring isomorphism of S onto a subring of the endomorphism ring of S. thus (2. If x e X . Equation (2.4. the theorem follows. Application toX. Moreover. In this basis. congruence class fq(X)] in S to the n x n matrix n ro Define a mapping 7which sends the rn1 r O •n~1 r O 'n1 Jn1) r O r Jn1) 1 Jn1).f + x0o(f)) *o(f) = x0f+ (xi+x0Mft = xof + x^ff) = o (x). which means that the left shift on X can be realized by multiplication in X by off).X. 2.THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 1976] n1 293 \ HO n1 Xq(X) . Since representation of these endomorphisms by matrices in a given basis is also a ring isomorphism. (p(y) = yi+ yoX so x*y = (p~1([xi+x0X])([y„i +yokl) which works out to (2.2 that X is isomorphic to the ring M of 2 x 2 matrices of the form Xl . the left shift o in X corresponds under 0 to multiplication by [X] in F.8) ix*y = (xjyi + x0y0)t'+ (xjyQ + XOY'0 + x0y~i)o(f). r n1 Then 7 is a ring isomorphism from S onto asubring of the ring of n x n matrices over/? in the usual operations. We have seen in the previous theorem that S is an /?module with basis j [1].9) x *off) = (x.X.1). —. taking for A the left shift a and fors the sequence f of Fibonacci numbers.x0)f + x00(f).4)x = (x1 ..
and this mapping /3. each equivalence class in Q[X]/(X2 X.1 = X. (2.1.' [NOV. Conjugation and Flows.6.14) on(x *Y) = on(x) *y = x*onlyJ for all integers n. Eqs. It is clear that the remarks of this section apply as well VQX. we see that i n Z < X > (2. ' under the transformation \p : X> M defined by yjjfx) = tx> (2.1) in the standard way.13) a . It follows that the left and right shifts commute with the multiplication in X (and in X) in the sense that (2. in whichp(X) = X2 . F+F is an onto ring isomorphism. Let F denote the quotient ringZ<X>/(X2 X.1). n J.n ' EL Z.1 generates an ideal (X2 . Extension of F to F.1 . taken greater than 1.12) £M = lx_x +xQX]. Since X~l(X2 . and/7 = ±1 gives two analogues in A' of Eq.8).X . (2. the unity \w X.X . Taking / = / . The Ring / and the Fibonacci Plane P. sense that the following diagram commutes: (2. Define a mapping^ : X ^ F b y (2./ / \n£.1) corresponds to the number in Q[r] which is the common value assumed . By a pseudopolynomial over Z is meant a finite sum of the form E**' in which each / e Z and each k( e Z .9): (2. Let# denote the field of rational numbers.15) (2. 2. It now follows that any endomorphism of the Zmodule X which is a pseudopolynomial in the shift o can be achieved by multiplication in A'by that element of X which is the value of the corresponding pseudopolynomial in/. then r = 1/2<1 + yjb) which is the famous golden ratio.X. (2. ^ = /3o0o o r 1 . m.1) in Z<X>. Let r be the positive root of X2 .x f • F 0 X . oUx) = x *ol(f). <£is a ring isomorphism if the multiplication in X is defined by Eq. making the extension of F to F the exact counterpart of the extension of X to X in the. (2. The collection Z < X > of all pseudopolynomials overZ in the indeterminant X is a ring in the obvious way.5. : ^ ft *F Under the isomorphism ^ .8).1) = X.X . (2110) are valid with identical righthand sides when x and y are replaced by x andj/ on the lefthand sides.X .16) o(x) = x*o(f)./ in Z < X > if and only if they are equivalent modulo X2 . (2.10) M .X . In fact..X .6). the left shift in X corresponds to multiplication by [X] in F and the right shift in ^correspondsto multiplication by A " 1 / = A . It follows by taking powers on each side of this congruence that every pseudopolynomial is equivalent modulo X2 .X' 1 e (X2 .1 mod ft2X 1)./ i n Z A V . in view of Eq.11) X. 2./ i n Z < X > to a polynomial.X.1). it is possible to map each equivalence class in F unambiguously onto the equivalence class in F containing the same polynomials.9).X .294 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS m n m +. Since polynomials are equivalent modulo X2 . The quadratic extension field QfrJ is isomorphic to Q[X]/(X2 .
F+/. Even though the points of the rational plane suffice to represent Q[r]. 2. We note that under the identification f o 0 (resp. in which pfk) can be an arbitrary pseudopolynomial in Z<\> ism f . and for this and other purposes we introduce the Fibonacci Plane P.u) e P.r.18) X 4 >F^ X *F'\ serves to define an isomorph which still commutes. or. Denoting the conjugate of^ ^<77 by p + qrf p + qr = p +q . v.19) is then extended to the Fibonacci plane so as to send each point (u.The identification^ o 0 mapsx £ ^ t o x~x +x0r = (x0/r) + x1 e / . It is well known that the ring / of quadratic integers in Q[r] consists precisely of those members of the form m + nr.19) T v £ + 0qp  Conjugation is involutory and therefore has a fixed point space and an involuted space.#7.1 Coinjugation in P . we associate to each number (p/r) + q in Q[r] the point (p. This same formula. (2.q) in the Fibonacci plane. In analogy with complex numbers.v)^P to (u. This is best considered geometrically.17) WpftJ]) = p(r). and similarly for pseudopolynomials in a. m.1. we include all real number pairs into the Fibonacci plane.1176] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 295 by all members of the equivalence class under the evaluation X> r. alternatively. Fig. It consists of a nonorthogonal reflection of each point Pin the l/axis (u = 0) along the line K :v= Vsu. Diagram (2. This is illustrated in Figure 2.13) then becomes (2.n e Z Thus we define an isomorphism f : F > / by (2./ is —(1/r) = 1 . and the automorphism of Q[r] which fixes Q and sends r to —(1/r) is of course called conjugation. Equation (2.X . f o 0) each integral power of a on X (resp. The other root of X2 . A l corresponds to multiplication by that power of r in /. This is a linear transformation over the reals and is involutory.
lustrated in Fig.18). Given (p/r) + q e Q[r]. (2. LetxEiX.1 rn(~rrn s/5 We introduce two principal axes Li and L2 into the Fibonacci plane by L. /f\ V Fig.296 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV. we have rn [Xf (2. 2.24) n e Z 2T1 As a special case of Eq.22) enables one to solve for the general term of sequences in X in terms of terms number 0 and 1: (2.20) in conjunction with Eq. 2. (2. These two axes are perpendicular and divide the Fibonacci plane into four regions £/.20) ( * • (?«: 27. one readily verifies that • .7 and  (2.2 The Principal Axes with V and K as il . (2.25) " 27. in which for later reference also appear the l/axis and the line K.24) we obtain the classical Binet formula.21) (0 + gr)fa+ qr) 7 2r These formulas are analogous to those for the real and imaginary parts of a complex number.+ * n+1 fn1 + fnT. £/// and iiy. (2. In view of the remarks immediately following diagram (2. )  (2. n ^ Z. The use of Eq. taking* = / gives (2. £//.x : v = ru. L2 : v =  (1/T)U.2.23) +X1) = ^ +xnH we obtain the well known identity rn = !*.22) for every integer n. By takings = f^X.
.to the point (u. 2. is the vertical distance (that is. from which the following equations follow readily: (2. £//.3 The Distances^ and*/2 It is clear that each of the regions £.v) = ± + v.1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 297 To each point (u.3. This is illustrated in Fig. (2.27) d2(u. Each element (p/rj + q e Q[r] has a norm given by (2..v) = u. distance parallel to the l/axis) from the line L.+ v. Fig.v) in the Fibonacci plane we associate a pair of distances dl and d2 as follows: d.26) dx(u. £/// and L/v has a characteristic pair of signs for dl and d2. 2.v).28) v [P+ q) We see that this norm is a determinant = [P+q) ( f + q ) = q2 . measured positively upward.pq ~ P2 • . / = 1.2.
28) can be extended to the entire Fibonacci plane. For each nonzero real number vQ. and P0 is the flow constant.? * * » + ' • Taking norms on both sides gives (2. v(u. The sequencer is said to be of type I.v) = v0 is called a Fibonacci flow. Equation (2. Corresponding to each sequencex^X we define a sequence %(x) = i %n tToo \nP by (2. L e t x e X By Eq..x2n+l) = v(x0.32) v(xn. every point and its conjugate lie on the same branch of the flow.1 shows that the line K divides the plane into two halves.30) uvu2 at each point. It follows that on each such flow.35) %n = (x2n. £/// or £/i/.x0) = v(x0.2 that the two branches of these flows always lie on opposite sides of K. Similarly. = It follows that (2. it can be seen in Fig. According to Eqs.31) v(u. Since the two branches of any flow with negative constant always lie on opposite sides of the l/axis.X2n+lL n G Z.26) and (2. Equations (2.33) v(x2n. on each of these flows.10). (2. The flows are rectangular hyperbolas in the Fibonacci plane having Lt and L2 for asymptotes. It is readily verified that each point in the Fibonacci plane lies on the same flow as its conjugate.27).36) v(u. Then every point of the sequence £ (x) lies on the flow (2. the graph in the Fibonacci plane of the equation (2. (2.22) give . every point and its conjugate lie on opposite branches of the flow.27).ax is divides the Fibonacci plane into two halves such that every point of either half is sent to the other half by conjugation. giving a quantity v(u.x1). The flows with positive constants lie in the regions £/ and £/// and the flows with negative constants lie in the regions £// and l/\/. £ / / .v) is an indefinite quadratic form which vanishes precisely on Lx and/. each of which is setwise invariant under conjugation.v) = v(x0fx<i).£+*. (2. Since the flows with positive constants lie in regions £/ and £///. in conjunction with Eq.v) = v2 (2.298 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS (2.) . *1 x0 + xx *l\ which is the determinant of the matrix \p (x) given by Eq.22). this depends only on the signs oi(xo/r)+xi and XQ/T +XI . III or IV according as to whether the point £ o = (xQlxi) is in region £ / . II. Figure 2. 2 . r" (.36).34) v(x2n~vX2n) = v(xi.26) and (2.29) \ a »(f+<) [NOV.xn+1) (1)nv(x0.xi) and (2.xi) for all integersn. the V. (2. P\ q\ \P+Q In case ^+q = "(?**•) = K_o^(x)=^+X. 2. and the sequence £ (x) is called the embedding of x in the flow (2.
37) THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS d&n) = d1(x2n. Notice that the flows are so oriented that lim (v/u) = r along the positive sense on every flow. Figure 2.4. progressing always from one end of its branch to the other as n increases. for sequences in A' of a given type. For certain purposes the study of Fibonacci sequences of type I is sufficient. The strict monotonicity of the right sides of Eqs.37) and (2. and (238) d2l%n) = d2(x2n. It is also clear that %(x)dx\&%(x) = .A? shows that. because a sequence of any other type can be made type I by either negation. or both. 2. shifting. and thus on the same branch of a flow.x2n+1)= ± i^+xA 299 .x2n+1) = r2n [¥+xi) • From these equations it is obvious that all points %n of a given embedding lie in the same one of the four regions £/. (2.%(x) lie on opposite branches of the same flow. £//.38) as functions of . This naturally orients the flows to conform with the orientation of the embeddings.1976] (2.4 Orientation of the Fibonacci Flows . all embeddings possess an identical orientation. £/// and £//. as shown in Fig.
Thus the associated pair determined by this representation is (18. corresponding to the pseudopolynomial pfk). Sn Section 3 we introduce the general and the canonical Fibonacci representations. Suppose/?/%/eZ< A > re presents m.1 relates Fibonacci representations to pseudopolynomials in r.5 represents 2f2 + 11 fi + SLj = 18. and since Theorem 3. 2(11)0./// is a representation for/7. Positional Notation and Arithmetic Definition 3. 15).2. Introduction.1 1 (1). and the results are interpreted in the contexts of some of the rings discussed in Section 2. FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 3. together with a positional notational system for performing arithmetic with the representations. not the point) which represents2f3+ 11f2 + 5fg= 15. (1) 1 1 * l t is critical in the sequel to distinguish between that which is determined sented'by Ekjfj.1. Given m e Z. General Fibonacci Representations.1) that is called the left shift of the representation £w We introduce a positional notation for Fibonacci representations by listing the coefficients Ay in the conventional manner from left to right. The integer/7 is represented by XpfK). Theorem 3. for example. and consideration is given to the relationship of previous results on Fibonacci representations to those given here. the standard algorithms.1. we obtain 2 0 1. Since the usual algorithms for addition and multiplication follow from the interpretation of a positional representation as a pseudopolynomial in a base. with a point appearing between the positions corresponding to kQ and k. The pseudopolynomial pfk) represents m e Z if and only ifp(r) is of the form n^Z. 3.1) p(r) = YskiT' = ~~T" + ^ k h l f h This gives the following theorem. An algorithm is given for determining canonical representations. by ^kjfj and that which is repre . The left shift of this is 2(11)05. what will result from applying the standard multiplication algorithm to 201. (3. By Eq. all said to be determined by the representation \ * Ar. (where the coefficients are left shifted. The sum V ^ kjfj is called a Fibonacci representation of m. a point (m/n)^P ordered pair (m. The representation £^kjifj (m/rl+n. a pseudopolynomial p(X) = Y ^ /r/A' e Z < A > is said to represent m if / J kjfj = m. For example.* We note from Eq.300 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV. In this way we associate to each Fibonacci representation an element (m/r) + n e / . Basic existence and uniqueness theorems are presented. any coefficient consisting of more than a single digit must be enclosed in parentheses. and an T^/r//.23) we have (3.. A minus sign preceding the entire listing is understood to apply to every term in the listing. 3. Thus. (2.1. p Because the kj themselves can contain multiple digits and even minus signs. when applied to Fibonacci representations.01? Formally.n). 0 1 (2) 2 0 2 0 (1) 1 1 0 (1) 11 2 (2) 1 2 . interpret In terms of the operations on the associated quadratic integers in / determined by the given Fibonacci representations.1 and KD.
does not allow for a full understanding of the arithmetic of the representations.0 = 1000. Proof. the positions (indices) of the leftmost and rightmost ones appearing in the representation shall be called the upper degree and lower degree of the representation. but to the associated quadratic integers as well. the representation \ ^ Ayr"/ can sum to at most 1 j=r j odd .0 = 3./ / .f. and again interprets in terms of subtraction of the corresponding quadratic integers. Theorem 3.. From Eq.2. the collection Z of representations of zero forms a ring on which the left shift is a homomorphism onto the ring Z of integers. Consequently. The representation consisting of all zeroes can be written 0 or . no restrictions have been placed on the coefficients kj. A Fibonacci representation is negative canonical if its negative is positive canonical.3. and the equalities here apply not only to the represented integers.1 the quadratic integers determined by members of Z w i l l be of the form (m/r) + n with m = O.1. Of course.3 Canonical Fibonacci Representations Definition 3. We agree to write every negative canonical representation (other than all zeroes) with a prefixed minus sign. rather than ordinary integers in Z The usual attitude towards these representations.2 = . respectively. This is justified by the identities kfj = kfh1 and + kfj2 AT' = kr'~1 + AT'"2. Similarly. Let ^denote the collection of Fibonacci representations of zero. is a representation of 0 which determines the quadratic integer (0/r) .0 and is the only canonical representation which is both positive canonical and negative canonical. 0 1 determines the quadratic integer (0/r)+ 1 = 1. The product of these in /is (3/r) + 5. In the general class of representations under discussion.be a positive canonical Fibonacci representation with sum n. Thus if r is odd. Members of Zdetermine natural integers in /. in which case r is the unique negative index/such thatfy_ 7 <n < fj+j..0. in working with canonical representations the necessity does arise.D .0 = 110. for example. (2.01 is a representation of 0 which determines the quadratic integer (0/r) + 3. etc. respectively. Let ^ k. However. 100. going the other direction. \s positive canonical if (1) kj £ O => kj = 1 and (2) kjkj+i = O for all i. n is negative if and only if r is even. Then the sum n is positive if and only if r is odd. in which case r is the unique negative index/such t h a t .1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENT AXIOMS 301 On the other hand. subtraction of Fibonacci representations is also possible. no necessity for carrying and/or borrowing arises in performing the arithmetic. A Fibonacci representation is canonical if it is either positive canonical or negative canonical. and .5) we have that // > O if / is odd and f. Therefore./ is even and not zero.1 . for example. as reflected in Definition 3. Suppose the upper degree of the representation is negative and let r denote the lower degree.53. or. since / is a ring. Thus. and can be treated by the exchange of an integer k in any particular position for an integer k in each of the two positions immediately to its right./ / * / <n < . which is the same as the quadratic integer determined by the result of the foregoing calculation.1. respectively. under the usual arithmetical algorithms. the representation 201. so that every canonical Fibonacci representation consists of a possible minus sign followed by a finite sequence of ones and zeroes with a point (which may be omitted if it immediately follows the last significant digit) in which no two ones occur consecutively.2./ .< O if. It is therefore clear that for some purposes Fibonacci representations are best considered as representations of quadratic integers in /.. A Fibonacci representation J ^ / f . 21. 3.° ° and +<*>. The upper and lower degree of the representation 0 are defined to be . since by Theorem 3. In any canonical Fibonacci representation other than 0. 21. The sum and product of these representations will determine (0/r) + 2 and (0/r) .1 determines the quadratic integer (3/r) + 5 and the representation K . other than that they be integers. Thus.
21] (21. Still assuming that/is odd. Therefore the sum n of T^Ar/^. The conjugate of *sPkiT'is 5 3 (1)'kjT~'.f < ] P kjf. 3.1. this being the sum of all the positive terms that could appear in the representation. But 2 £ fj = fr+2 j=r+3 j even and + I fr + (fr+2 + D = 1fr+1 > ~fr+1 and so ~fr+1 < J2k/f> (3. the smallest even index that can appear in 2 ^ k/f.2] (13. < fr+h In view of inequalities 3. // = (fj1.55] / 2 4 6 8 10 lj= I (fH.1 Some of the Intervals /y Determined by the Inequalities of Theorem 3.is r + 3.2 As is clear from Fig 3.3] (3.3.302 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV. fj+il for / even.11 (5.5) and standard identities for the Fibonacci numbers. Alternative we see that proof.2 and 3. we define.3) fr. (2. so that the representation must sum to at least fr+ E fij=r+3 j even since this sum includes all of the negative terms that might appear and excludes all of the positive terms that might not. for each negative integer/ an interval // by // = (fj+v fjiJ for / odd.1] (1.13] (89.8] (8. Some of these intervals are shown in Fig.fj+1] (2.51 (34. the intervals /y are pairwise disjoint and their union contains the set of all nonzero integers.34] I I \ Fig. Using the assumptions of the theorem. and none of the negative. 3. But 1 E f = i f'1 j=r j odd by Eq.falls in the interval /y if and only i f / = /*.1. and the theorem is proved. .. /odd / //= 1 3 5 7 9 j even H+hfji] (0.2) < ~frl' r odd ' r even • By entirely similar reasoning one shows that (3.
where kr= 1.fr(n)) > r(n) +2.0] u I u /y .£ ' / * < .0. define r(n) to be the unique negative index/such that/7 e /y.' . 3. Theorem 3.. 3. For r(n) odd..1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 303 •IVE*^ is of the form <k_2 ( .+kr(L(V'T'} . if k is an odd.23) and (2. positive. it follows from the definition of r(n) that ~fr(n)+1 < n < fr(n)1  Subtracting fr(n) throughout gives ~fr(n)+2 < n~ fr(n) < ~fr(n)+1 • As can be seen from Fig.^.^.. so that///?>/ < 2. necessarily r(nfr(n)) > r(n)+2. i1 r ii = (""E % p=1 ./. For n = 0 the representation is . negative index.i ^ i ^z+r+h Inequalities (3. If A? is a nonzero integer then either n = fr(n) or else r(n . Similar reasoning applies in case r(n) is even...4. Theorem Proof.20). negative or zero has a unique positive canonical Fibonacci representation with negative upper degree. this is at most and is at least (H*y^)*(^) j^.3. W=*+2 / * / odd ' From the definition of r. k1 (*T+T) 72yL3(JL+T3}+.. .W = (fk+2.^).yS).Zk>f> < T'r+1~^H' h °  and E*/*. we get __ +T+ ^h r dd E*/*. (2..) By performing the obvious summations and simplifications.W =\ u \j=k+3 \ jeven lj i / u (1. Every integer n.3) now follow from these by using Eqs. . For n ^ 0 the representation is fj + fj + .fj in which/7 = r(n). and by employing a similar argument when r is even.U u (~l 0] u (0. If r is odd..2) and (3. then ih+2. Suppose that/? ^ fr(n).. For each nonzero integers.1.
for 1 <i <s and s is the first positive integer such that s p=1 Proof.5.4) (m.. 3 f / / > / / _ / +2 for each /. = r(n) and i1 H = r n f \ ~Y. n =  where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function. Theorem 3. the sum fn + Ln is a positive canonical representation of 0 for every even integer n. Continued application of this argument proves the representations to be identical.2 states that they have equal lower degree. Jr p=1 whenever/ > 7 and P=i According to Theorem 3 .n) e S if and only if \\ ^ 1 . This establishes the existence of the representation. the positive canonical representation with negative upper degree is unique.304 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV.v) for which 0 <d2 < 1. Clearly 0 < Yl k''T' < T 1 ~ +T~3 +T 5 + ~ ~' = h so (m*n) e S. Theorem 3.e. and has negative upper degree —°°. still of negative upper degree and still equal. The only way for this to happen is for s "E %=° =i P for somes'. .2. the results are still positive canonical. !n this case. so Theorem 3. For example. If the // of least index is subtracted from both representations. Certainly . If Ylk'f> and Ylk''f> are two positive canonical representations for/7 both having negative upper degree. If n t Q. Then there exists a positive canonical Fibonacci representa^ of negative upper degree such that (m/r) + n = T ^ / V .0 represents the number zero canonically.n) <ES. 1). Based on simple geometry. the process must terminate after finitely many steps. i.[Q. Define a strip S in the Fibonacci plane to consist of all of those points (u. Proof. (3. as in the statement of the theorem. one readily concludes that for a quadratic integer (m/r) + n e /./. According to Theorem 3. We note that the assumption of negative upper degree is essential to Theorem 3. if and only if (m/r) + n <E. define. A quadratic integer (m/r) + n e / is determined by a positive canonical Fibonacci representation with negative upper degree if and only if (m.4. any other positive canonical Fibonacci representation with negative upper degree cannot represent zero. tion £\kjfj Suppose (m/r) + n is so determined.2 applies again. and since all// are negative.
l e t / . cannot determine 0 if the representation is positive canonical with negative upper degree. But with the proper choice of sign and exponent/?. Since the negative of any point (m. ^ E ^ ' . say s = SQ.with negative upper degree. Theorem 3.4. showing that the latter are necessarily positive canonical. \ jSo \ r J . then for some integer f0/ E ^ " . M The uniqueness follows from the uniqueness of the representation of m as asserted in Theorem 3. =s(u). it is sufficient to prove existence and uniqueness of canonical representations determined by 0 and by points in L/ and /.fj+ S o ._ 5c 1 1I rn +n) .n) > . n')^S.+n n \ r is determined by a positive canonical Fibonacci representation Y ^ k/f.n) in £/ or £// is in £/// or £ / ^ and vice versa.r'1) and in general . Then d2(m. Points in regions £/ and £// correspond to positive canonical representations and points in £/// and L/y correspond to negative canonical representations.inW. i'2 = s(u . For each quadratic integer (m/r) + n e / there is one and only one canonical Fibonacci representation V"* kjf.1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 305 Suppose (m.5 assures that \ * kjf. Let J^kjff be a canonical Fibonacci representation other than 0. Thus the only canonical Fibonacci representation determining zero is 0. n = n = so that *y\kjfj determines (m/r) + n.6. define s(u) to be the largest integer exponent /such that r1 < u. Proof. + n' is the quadratic integer determined by of. Given u> 0.f o and 22 k'jfjt both have negative upper degree and both determine / Ttn so by Theorem 3.4.. with negative upper degree.4 there exists form a positive canonical Fibonacci representation ^ kjf. By Theorem 3.5 are identical. if (m/r) (n this representation. Theorem 3.n) e S. Hence E ^ ' (m + n \r and E ^ ' are also identical.n) is in £/ or £//) other than zero. which determines (m/r) + n. no point in £/ or£// other than (0.//. In view of conditionI 3. so that y ^ / r / r V f l . Finally. Thus c T*0o v\ T ") = E ^ so that ¥+n = E k rl+S ' ° showing that (m/r) + n is determined by the positive canonical representation y^k. If E ^ and y^/r/f/are positive canonical representations determining (m/r) + n. 0so 0 —/ Ts0 / —m. since for such a representation d 2 = E kiji < ° For each positive real numbers.(i(H) "• Thus for some sufficiently large s. By the first half of this proof.P is positive canonical with negative upper degree and determines ± —E^ / T ' £ 0.0) can be determined by a negative canonical representation. then (m.and . Let (m/r) + n be a point in £/ or £/} (in the sense that (m. 6.
J . J . p=l The sequence//. preceded by a minus sign. If two integersip are consecutive. The rexpansion of zero is simply 0. l e t / / . and /'/ _ i > J + 2. ••• let/^ be the index such that // = J.2 for each/ If \ij\ of the form •••. Definition sum For a given positive real numbers. i. If j ij t is ultimately regular of the form —.6.V* so long as P=1 .4.2. J . then Po Po s ( u .. Theorem 3. J . is not ultimately regular J .2. let u be a real number such that y inwhich < ij > is a (decreasing) sequence in which ij+j < / y . rp [NOV. The 3. the rexpansion off/ is that of u. "terminates at any/such that "~E r ' p = ft' otherwise it continues indefinitely. . and the expansion Y ^ rp sums p to £/.J and j""' < ( / . +1 = J . J. etc.] £ P=1 . Conversely.2. ••• be the sequence determined above. £ 0. and the righthand side of this equation is the rexpansion of \u . If £/ is negative. P is called the rexpansion of u.6.1.2 for each p. 7.306 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS ij = s (u j1 5j .J ^ r i p ) = n . ••• then £''' / is the rexpansion of \u . Let*/ be a real number with rexpansion p Then \ip\ is a (decreasing) sequence in which ip+i <ip . Proof. say ip and iPo+j = n . Then 7o Jo ' ' Jo ' io1 . The sequence \ip\ is decreasing by construction. P=1 Adding rPo P=1 = rn to both sides gives Poi T"1 + T" < £ / . J. /2. TP ' • =n . J4. rp ) M u . /*2.£ > .3.
. // P=1 Either // u £ > p=1 for some/. = s Therefore. because r + r the sum . for each n. If is ultimately regular as stated in the theorem.2 for each/.2 for each/?. Therefore j>n £ . or else the sequence  / / i decreases t o . so that/p^/ <ip. no two ip can be consecutive. „ y ^ r1 J is equal to +r ^ J TJ + T + ••• is a geometric sum equal to r . rj < rin~1. p Now suppose that . Y. in2 in4 in6 />A7 and the latter is a geometric series with sum rn stated in the theorem. Then for each/7. Thus for each/].1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS Because rn 1 307 +rn = rn+ \ this gives . Po1 n+1 T T P <U~YS ' P=1 contradicting the definition of Po~1 ("E >) p=1 n = in.(/ = r'j YJ7'* J in which ij+j < / / . 1=1 and because // _/ > J + 2. by the part of the theorem already proved. Thus if the sequence  ijY is not ultimately regular as r'> < r'" + iin~1 = r''n+1 so ^ j>n r ^ )  /„. j>n It now follows by induction that J is the rexpansion of \u\. Z i. in either case Y"* rp = u.~ . this latter sum must be the rexpansion of \u\.
The lexicographic ordering on the canonical Fibonacci representations coincides with the usual real ordering on the quadratic integers they determine. .. The usual ordering on the real numbers is identical to the lexicographic ordering on their Corollary.Tr1' —~ ) I Tr+1 if r is odd. Theorem 3.2.10. Let r be the lower degree of V * kjfj. Canonical Fibonacci representations with negative upper degree are of interest because of their existence and uniqueness properties (Theorem 3. Eq. In this case the rexpansion of u is identical to the pseudopolynomial in r determined by the canonical Fibonacci representation of Theorem 3. On the other hand. n odd.6). = _ ± 7r+5 7r + _L_ = _ _JL Tr+2 ^+1 If r is even. the intervals Jr are pairwise disjoint and cover all real numbers except 0 and those of the form rn. Theorem 3. 7 Therefore. and relates to the Fibonacci representations in the literature. The rexpansion of a real numbers is finite if and only if u is a quadratic integer in /. (2. Proof. so that f+l If r is odd. Theorem Let ^^kjfj 3. be a positive canonical Fibonacci representation other than 0 with associ ated quadratic integer (m/r) + n. n even and rn.8." Jr. if r is even. As can be seen in Fig. where C lJL jr= r \ 7r~1 ' „r+1 Tr+4 . 3. We note that none of these numbers can be the conjugate of a positive canonical Fibonacci representation different from 0 since their conjugates are negative canonical.4) and because their consideration leads to a general existence and uniqueness theorem for canonical Fibonacci representations (Theorem 3. this expression is strictly greater than Tr 7r+2 ) . r and is strictly less than _± Tr +L + Tr+3 _1_ *.2. the pseudopolynomial in r determined by the Fibonacci representation of Theorem 3. the limits are similarly found to be —— and T —.9. t if r is an odd integer and if r is an even integer.308 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV.9 because the proof is straightforward and the theorem is of a standard type. \Tr+1 r 1 T ) .23) assures that any finite rexpansion sums to a quadratic integer in /. On the one hand..7 and must therefore be the rexpansion of u. 3. Further study of the significance of the upper and lower degrees of canonical Fibonacci representations leads to additional existence and uniqueness theorems. Then ^\kjfj has lower degree /if and only if (m/r) + n e J r . f——. for each integer r define Jr to be [ V — .) Proof. We omit the proof of Theorem 3.6 satisfies the conditions of Theorem 3. (A generalization of this result appears in [8]. rexpansions. I Some of these intervals are shown in Fig.6.
v) <E P: r < dj(u.2 Some of the I ntervalsJ r Determined by Theorem 3.n) with both m and n integers. where Kp = [rp. J'r = T ^r/odd. rp] for each integer/7. Theorem 3. we define subsets 7". Let Y ^ kjfj be a negative canonical Fibonacci representation other than 0 with associ ated quadratic integer (m/r) + n. 3./// u iiV).r+1 T Here are two more theorems whose straightforward proofs are omitted. . where 1 T>ir) r+. Then *ST kjfj has lower degree r if and only if (m/r) + n ^J'r.THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATION 1976] rodd reven r Jr = 7 r7^! \T~1'~~ (T\T«) Jr= r (r*. .11. on the other hand.13. In conTheorems 3.10 Thus we can see that if the lower degree of the representation is r then (m/r) + n e 7 r .12. one can conclude that for every integer m / 0 there exists a unique integer n such that (m.v) \(u. Then V ] kjfj has upper degree p if and only if (m/r) + n<^Kp.v) e P: .3. where K'p = (rp+ .10 and 3. Then Y ^ kjfj has upper degree p if and only if (m/r) + n e K'p. The previous theorem has a companion theorem whose proof is omitted for obvious reasons.n) sideration of the case r = 0 in follows: Tj and T2 = the canonical Fibonacci representation which determines (m/r) + n is positive e £ / u m and is negative canonical if and only if (mfn)^Lm u i/y.vf < r  n fc/u in). and T2 of the Fibonacci plane as = i(u.< dj(u.!4) 3 (T4. Tj and T2 are shown in Fig. If. 3. Theorem 3.T*) (T6. Theorem 3. Let V * kjfj be a positive canonical Fibonacci representation other than 0 with associ ated quadratic integer (m/r) + n.6.11. rp+ ) for each integer/?. Using this fact and the fact that neither the boundary of Tj nor that of T2 can contain a point (m.n)^ Tj u T2. and each is seen to be a halfstrip with vertical thickness one. the lower degree cannot be other than r because^ n Jr= <p for s fi r. r1) 4 (r\ r5) 2 (T. (m/r) + n ^Jr. < —~• } n &. canonical if and only if (m. J'r T _7_ T for reven. Let J^kjfj be a negative canonical Fibonacci representation other than 0 with associ ated quadratic integer (m/r) + n. 1 (~T\1) 0 ('£) 2 3 T2) \ ~ ~T*'~~ T* j (11) 5 \ T4' (H [?'?) 4 \ T s ' T3 j I I I 5) 6 T6 ) [^1'^TI 6 5 1 30i \ T7 ' r I Fig. According to Theorem 3.
WJTO .0 / 7 .310 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATION [NOV.3 The Regions T. We thus obtain the following theorem. (3. if (m/r) + n^l.n) e T/ if and only if m > 0 and n = [\(l + mh\]. 3.5) then (m. Fig.6) T2 and /? = . and T2 More precisely. The integer 0 has exactly two canonical Fibonacci representations with lower degree 0. Every nonzero integer w has a unique canonical Fibonacci representation with lower degree equal to 0.14. . they are ±fg. if m < 0 this representation is negative canonical. (m.n) e if and only if m < 0 and (3. If m > 0 this representation is positive canonical. Theorem 3.
14 or Theorem 3. Proof. anytime a set such as T7 u T2 can be found. and U2 is of similar structure. Moreover.15 has the following corollary.14 we note that if m = .v) < (1/r) but di(u.14 would fail for other choices of/: If r< 0 the intervals are too wide. (3. having the property that for each integer m there is exactly one integer n such that (m. This depended on the fact that the width of the interval 7o was one.4 results.v)^ (1/rk) for k odd positive. none of the missing halflines can contain (m.P: Theorem 3.v) in £ / u £// for which (1/r2) <di(u.11 is 100101.n) e U7 u U2 if and only if n = [\(1 . (2.14 by the removal of the 7*0 term in each of the canonical representations of lower degree zero.1 and for/77 < O. as can be seen from the following type of argument. We note that each of U1 and U2 is a strip on either side of L1 with a sequence of lines removed. Corollary. .1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 311 As an illustration of Theorem 3. =2 f = u fr.7) (m. We describe some of them by way of the following theorems whose proofs are omitted in the interest of brevity. The canonical Fibonacci representation which determines (~6/r) .6 gives n = .(fk/r) .6 condition 3. so that one could prove uniqueness but not existence.14 is the selection of the set T7 u T2 in such a way that for each m there is one and only one/7 for which (m. U1 = i (u. Of course these are the well known Zeckendorff representations which have been extensively treated in various contexts [ 1 . then for m > O (3.n)^ U.n) is in the set. shall be called the Urepresentation of m. (m.m)r\] + I .f^+i by Eq. 6. let J = u Jr.v) ^.n)^ T7 u T2 (which.v) £ ~(1/rk) for k even positive and dj(ufv) ? O. k odd and positive. (Section 3.n) = (1/rk). failed for m = 0). For 0. from the quadratic integer(6/r) .n) in Z * x Z.11.23).4 describes an algorithm by which one can determine the canonical representation 100101. a new theorem like Theorem 3. If m and n are integers and dj (m. For example. We shall dignify this observation by a definition after which we shall show how the usual Fibonacci representations in the literature result as special cases. fk+1) which is not in £/ u £//. since U7 consists of those points (u. It is therefore clear that U 7 is selective on the positive integers and U2 is selective on the negative integers.) The critical point in the proof of Theorem 3. so Theorem 3. Every nonzero integer has a unique canonical Fibonacci representation with lower degree greater than 1. dj (u. whereas if r > 0 the intervals are too narrow. 11]. 5. u . Other choices of selective sets produce other interesting classes of representations.+ v ^ f  n dm u tiV). Uj u U2 is selective on the setZ* of nonzero integers. u m). The vertical thickness of each of the strips U1 and U2 is 1. Thus (m. However.v) e P: ~ + v e J \ n (i. Let S be a nonempty subset of Z.n) = (f/<. so that one could prove existence but not uniqueness. r=2 and U2 = \ (u. Other cases follow similarly. We leave it to the reader to show that there is no possibility of the union Uf u ^/^ failing to be selective near the origin as a result of vertical overlap. Definition 3. For each m e S t h e canonical Fibonacci representation which determines (m/r) + n.4. 3.1 1 . incidentally. It is not difficult to show that if (m/r) + n^l.n) e= U7 u U2 if and only if n = [\(1 +m)r\] (m. Because their properties are well known we shall not discuss them further at this point We note in passing that this corollary follows immediately from Theorem 3.8) Theorem 3.15. 4.n)^ U. A subset U of the Fibonacci plane is said to hs selective on S if for each m e S there exists one and only one / ? e Z such that (m. 2. then (m/r) + n = (1/rk) so that (m/r) + n = rk » . no such representation exists.
form = O. Theorem 3. We conclude this section with an interesting decomposition theorem which is an immediate consequence of the foregoing results on canonical Fibonacci representations.n) < 1.h T (3.12) n = . let U2 denote the semistrip U2 =  (u. n = 2 and (0/T) + 2 is determined by 10.11) + 1. For each integer m the quadratic integer determined by this representation is (m/r)+n. we note that for /?? = 7.312 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV. Theorem 3.. It is clear that many other possibilities exist and that the general selective set does not necessarily relate to upper and lower representational degrees.01. The theorem is stated only for the halfplane £ / u £//.[l^f'jj • Once again the theorem has a counterpart in terms of negative canonical representations. (3.v) G £ / u £// :0 < d2(u.n) e £ / u £// . For each integer m the quadratic integer determined by this representation is (m/r) + n. where n. in positional notation this corresponds to the portion to the left of the point and the portion to the right of the point. The theorems we have listed here give the consequences of some of the most obvious choices of the selective sets. n = 6 and (7/r) + 6 is determined by 10. has nonnegative lower degree if and only if — 1 < di(m. let U1 denote the semistrip Ui =  (u.000001. Given any lattice point (m. has negative upper degree if and only if 0 < d2(m. As examples.9) n = [\mr\] \1 m > 0.v) < Tj .10) n = [\mr\] if m < 0.1 7.V) <E £/ U £ / / .16. odd lower degree.1 if and only if (1/r) < d2(m.n) < 1. Theorem 3. This representation naturally decomposes into the sum of terms with nonnegative indices and the sum of terms with negative indices. but has at least one obvious extension to the entire Fibonacci plane. the quadratic integer (m/r) + n is determined by precisely one positive canonical Fibonacci representation V** k/f.n) e £/ u £//. and has upper degree = .n) < r . Theorem 3.10 and 3. has lower degree zero if and only if (1/r) < di(m. If we consult Theorems 3.17 has an obvious counterpart in terms of negative canonical Fibonacci representations which we shall omit.v) < r Y let U'i denote the subsemistrip Ul =  (U. Every integer/w has a unique positive canonical Fibonacci representation with upper degree 1. Every integers? has a unique positive canonical Fibonacci representation with upper degree either 0 or —1. These are the socalled secondcanonical representations appearing in [5].18. Therefore.v) < / .n) < r. where (3. we find that the positive canonical Fibonacci representation which determines a lattice point (m. (1/r) < di(il. where (3. For each nonzero integer /T? the quadratic integer determined by this representation is (m/r) + n. any positive canonical Fibonacci representation with nonnegative lower degree can be added to any positive canonical Fibonacci representation with negative upper degree to yield a positive canonical Fibonacci representation.7 < di(u. Every nonzero integer has a unique canonical Fibonacci representation with positive.12. With only one restriction. the exception is of course the case of zero lower degree and . .1 upper degree.v) e i/ u J C / / / .
Find the canonical Fibonacci representation which determines the quadratic integer (3/T) + 2. a pair (kj.e.j.330./ .19.A. Theorem 3.v) < 1) . we form (6/r) +9 and obtain 9.i) are positive. Then we have the following theorem.A and replace A/_7 by A/_7 . = 11010. A/_7 and A/_2. an integer such that Nrr > £^ /r/r7. operations (i) and (ii) will not alter the quadratic integer determined by the representation. = 3000.then .n) e £/ u £// can be decomposed into the sum of an integer pair in U1 and an integer pair in U2. A.+ 7 + A. Consider a Fibonacci representation^ V * k/f. A.2 = 101. i. by A / . i./ .A and A/_2 +j as the final replacements for A//7..in W and let WQ be the subset of those representations in W which determine the same quadratic integer as does y ^ A / / / . respectively. A convenient choice for A in operation (i) is the largest. A/_7 and A. and then immediately apply (i) to the new first significant pair (kj . as required in (i). The reader will discover that these convenient choices are not necessarily the most efficient._2 to A.001. where. Determine the canonical representation of 6 given by Theorem 3. (ii) if one member of the pair is zero (it must be A/_7 since the pair is significant) replace A. = 100010.1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 313 and let U'2 denote the subsemistrip U'2 = \ (u. .A.4 The Resolution Algorithm We have seen that every Fibonacci representation determines a quadratic integer which in turn is determined by a unique canonical Fibonacci representation. A/. j) obtaining k. Order M/^ lexicographically on the positional notations of its members (with points aligned) and observe that the operator £2 sends any noncanonical member of WQ to another element of WQ which is strictly greater in the lexicographic ordering. As a pseudopolynomial in r this has positional notation 2. This decomposition continues to exist and becomes unique in the presence of the restriction that the summands not lie one in (J^md the other in U'2.. k^j) of consecutive coefficients shall be called a significant pair if it is not of the form (1. Every integer pair (m. A/. Given a Fibonacci representation /^jk/f/. Let W be the class of Fibonacci representations T ^ A / / / in which k.e. We establish the convergence of this algorithm after looking at two brief examples. We begin by defining the algorithm and proving its convergence on W. respectively.2f 0 and A/_7 + 1./?). where A is any integer satisfying 0 < A < min j A/.* 7 + 1.2. 3. In this section we present an algorithm for passing from any Fibonacci representation to the canonical representation determining the same quadratic integer.1 = 100. Since [6r] = 9. j \.6 = 63. we obtain 2. > 0 for all i. In any noncanonical representation the significant pair (kj. A is any integer satisfying 0 < A < min \ k. replace Ay by A / .y = /. On the class W the resolution algorithm consists of the repetition of the following operation 12 on the first significant pair: (i) if both members of the pair (kj. kj. A/_7> and a convenient choice for/ in operation (ii) is the smallest.. we call it the resolution algorithm. Now for any integer r the number of representations in WQ having lower degree greater than or equal to r is finite. A / . Example 1.3._71 . For if K is an integer such that r > Y ^ / " ? " ' and if N is.j. / . kj .16. which changes Ay*7.._7 by/and A/_2by kj2 + i where/ is any integer satisfying 0 < / < A.3 = 20. k. Applying operations (i) and (ii) as required and using the choices for/ and A suggested as convenient. 7 ) with largest index / is called the first significant pair.0) or (0.. It is clear that a Fibonacci representation in Wfails to be canonical if and only if it contains a significant pair. . but we shall not be concerned with that problem at this time. Example 2.v) e £ / u in: (1/T) < d2(u. A = min \k. replace kj+j by A/* 7 + k. As explained in Section 3.
j) = (n. after finitely many steps we must arrive a first time at a representation £_.kf*r''= Smce S^ / a n d S kf*ftare D O t n m ] T kf*ri + n**rr. If £jkffj Proof.21. Consider two 12cycles with first representation Y ^ Ar/f. since the application of (ii) to pairs positioned further to the left cannot alter kf f o r / < r . k*. Let "ST" kjfj and Y^Arf/y be the first and last representations of an 12cycle. Intuitively. is not canonical. and k. since otherwise (i) would apply instead of (ii). in WQ and apply the operation 12 repeatedly. and the lower degree of ^ an 12cycle. That is.fj and 22s kffj 12cycles beginning with Y"* kjfj terminate with J 7^kffj. it either has first significant pair (kf. all kffj and £mmlikf*fj.0) with n > 7. 0) wherein n* and n** are integers greater than 1. (e) precisely one of the two representations Y ^ kffj and Y ^ kf*fj resentations /] kffj and YjAr**/. In accordance with Theorem 3. Theorem / 3. (c) (kf. kfj) and (kf+1. / be the first and last representations of an 12cycle. A finite sequence of representations in ^ p r o d u c e d by starting with ^ J klfl and repeatedly applying 12 until arriving at such a representation / Theorem Jkffj shall be called an 12 cycle. kffj which is either canonical or else has the property that the application of 12 to ^ kffj necessarily produces a representation with lower degree less than that of y j kjfj. only (ii) can lessen the lower degree. by the definition of must be the first representation encountered for which the application of 12 produces lower degrees less than r. the sums ] T ] kfr1 and Y ^ k**r' are equal. Thus if we begin with a representation 2 J / 7 / .j) and (kf*. and let /* 3.314 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV. Now of operations (i) and (ii). i>r+2 ^ 0 .It follows that the first significant pair of £^kff/ must be of the form (n. kf) = (n.r). kf). Then if ^ j A r f / y i s not canonical. be the lower degree of Y^Ar///. and when (ii) is applied to a first significant pair (kle kjj) it alters only kj+j. kf*i) are both first significant pairs.20 says that the last representation in an 12cycle is canonical except possibly for having an integer greater than 1 in the rightmost nonzero position. ^kfr1 = ^ kfr1 + n*rr i>r+2 and similarly Y. kf*) are both first significant pairs. Let them have last representations Proof.0) with n > 1 or first significant pair (kf+ /. and that the position of this first significant pair must either be (k*. Let 2^k. In case (a) let (k*. k?*i) are both first significant pairs.2.kf) and (kf+j.. Theorem 3. We therefore have . and pairs further to the right cannot be significant. Wand (kf*. Then J kffj is independent of the various possible choices for k and/in alternatives (i) and (ii) for 12.j)= Then we write are is canonical and finally (f) both of the rep canonical. we distinguish six cases: (a) (kf. / Akffj kffj must still be greater than or equal to r since. (d) (kf+1f kf) and (kf*. kt.20. (n*. kf*) are both first significant pairs. k*.20. k.0) with n > 1. kfi) or (kf+i.i. then the application of 12 must necessarily lessen the lower degree to less than r. kf. kf*i) = (n**. (b) (kf+j.. every representation in WQ must have upper degree less than K and every coefficient less than N making the total number of possibilities less than or equal to N(K .
k**) = (n**._L \ Tr Tr i>r+2 I r~r < (1)r(n*n**)rr < r~r. This clearly givesn* = n**.E k*rl E i>r+2 E i>r+2 = n**Tr+1+n*Tr i>r+2 k **T' E kf7' i>r+2 = (1>r(n**Tr1 +n*T~r). 0) and (k?+i.1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATION 315 k ?*ri. . k*i) = (n*. Then by similar reasoning we get successively k **r''. Case (b) is clearly equivalent to case (a) by a shift In case (c) let (k*. k f E ti and />/^2 E ***>. k E **Ti E kfr'1 = (1)r(n*n**h'r i>r+2 i>r+2 Now and E ^ E k?*fi i>r+2 i>r+2 are positive canonical Fibonacci representations with lower degree >r+2. In either case. we deduce that and k f E ti E krfi i>r+2 i>r+2 must both lie in the interval 7 T 7 r+1 Tr+2 '' if r is odd and in the interval IJ\ JL) r+2' r+1 J if r is even. i>r+2 i>r+2 By the uniqueness of canonical representations.10.E **v.E W = (n*n**)rr. />/f2 must be identical and hence the theorem is proved for case (a). E i>r+2 i>r+2 and taking conjugates on both sides. making E k/r' . Referring to Theorem 3.E kiT' i>r+2 must lie in the interval f \ so that '. 0). E ** v '.
Apply 12 to Y * kffj to obtain a new representation of lesser lower degree. then it. + n* < I ' T Since n** and n* must both be greater than 1. If the position immediately to the left of these four contains a 1. moving to the left each time it pairs with another 1 immediately to its left. Of 1 no 1 appears immediately to the left of these four positions.. At this point the representation terminates with 0. Applying (ii) w i t h / = 1. Theorem Let j[\kffj 3.21 uses only the properties that the last representation of the 12cycle is in WQ and has the same lower degree as the first.2. if for the last four significant positions /. Any choice fork and/in (ii) will send Y * kffj to a representation of lower degree exactly two smaller than that of Y ^ / % . be the last representation of some 12cycle. n* 3. ^2^ffj. Apply 12 to Y * kffj to generate a new 12cycle with last representation Y ^ kf*fj Let (n**. Case (d) is clearly equivalent to case (c) by an interchange of symbols. n* 3. n* . n* . 1 with no significant pairs to the left of these four positions. 0. 0. This process continues until the new 1 stands alone. (In*2) becomes the first significant pairso the last four significant positions become. 7 with no significant pairs appearing to the left of these four positions. the actual values of the k. and so forth.2. this is impossible. in which case the resultant representation ends in 0. »21. I The new 1 which now appears immediately to the left of these four positions behaves as just described. By an exact repetition of the arguments just presented. ratic integer and which have the same lower degree. these two integers and the two following on the right become 7. The uniqueness k theorem for canonical representations then takes care of case (e) and case (f). Suppose Y * kffj is non canonical and let it have first significant pair (n*.316 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS _ JL < (_1}r n?5ZL±nl < JL [NOV. n* . 1. The proof of Theorem 3. we see that after finitely many applications of 12 we arrive at a representation of the form Q. At this point everything to the left of these four positions is canonical in the sense that it contains no significant pairs. Let ^ ^ / / / and Y ^ / / / be two Fibonacci representations which determine the same quad Corollary. for which we once again select/ and k= 1. since all such representations continue to represent the same quadratic integer. Proof. On the other hand. Then any 12cycle which begins with Y V / Z / t n u s t end with the same representation as does any 12cycle which begins with yY//.Moreover. the next application of 12 calls for operation (ii). this pair is now the first significant pair and is replaced by a new 1 in the first position to its left. the process terminating when the new 1 finally stands alone. k= 1. as well.2. upon the next application of 12 with k= 1. n*. so is the other. Then/?**< #/7* Proof Since / J kffj ends an 12cycle. 0. Let '^\kffj Corollary. 0) be the first significant pair in Y\kf*fj if the latter is noncanonical.22. n* . together with the 1 to its right form the new first significant pair and these two ones are replaced on the next step by a new 1 in the first position to the left of the pair. If this 1 is adjacent to another on its left.k2. and suppose that Y * kffj is not can onical. 2 with no significant pairs to the left of these four posi . 0. the preceding corollary assures that all consequenti2cycles must terminate in the same representation. the last nonzero pair of consecutive integers in the positional notation for y ^ kffj must be 0. be the last representation of some 12cycle. The calculations for cases (a) and (c) can be applied as well as when either n*= 1 or 0 or n** = 7 or 0 t o show Tr Tr that if one of the two representations V ^ kffj and \ \ Tr f %' ' s canonical. so that case (c) cannot occur. This new representation begins a new 12cycle whose last representation is independent of the choice of /r and/ in (ii) when reducingthe lower degree of Proof. 0). 0. 0. In either case. are immaterial.
m or 0. (5a + 3b. or if at any point prior to arriving at this pair all of the coefficients become nonnegative. and these will be adjacent. one should revert to the resolution algorithm as defined for representations in W. and the representation ends in either Q. Therefore we may assume that we have arrived at a Fibonacci representation containing exactly two nonzero coefficients which are adjacent and such that one is positive and the other is negative. One performs the standard algorithms and interprets them as in Section 3. At this point we may proceed as indicated previously.005 = .r> 2.00002 = 1. (a+b.^ Wthe resolution algorithm converges in finitely many steps to the canonical representation determining the same quadratic integer. (3a + 2b.0001001 .1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 317 with km > 2m and no significant pairs to the left of these four positions.10201 = .4. (2a + b. 20(7). 0.This does not alter r but reducesp by at least one and thus reduces/? r by at least one.2 and then resolves the results to make them once again canonical. This gives/77 < 1/2km with km = n* or km = n* . 3a + 2b). 1. 2.b). one should factor a minus sign to the front of the entire representation and then treat as in the case of W. Let this pair of coefficients be a. Continue reduction until like signs are obtained. In this way we obtain our final theorem in this section. Let \ * kjfj be a Fibonacci representation with upper degreep and lower degree r. Thus the entire resolution algorithm is seen to proceed in the following phases in the general case: Phase I: Phase II: Phase I I I : It is perhaps Reduce the representation to a pair. 2a + b). m. . 2a +b). Theorem 3.046 = (31./and the theorem is proved because the last representation of the 12cycle does not depend on our particular choices f o r / and k in the various applications of £2. (a + b. (3a +2b. repeatedly.23.5 . The pairs (a. Sf p . If these two numbers are both nonnegative.11002 = 1. This ring is isomorphic to the ring / of quadratic integers in Q[T] under the mapping which sends each canonical representation ^ kjfj to the quadratic integer which it determines.246 = . worthwhile to present one workedout example.35). Clearly by repeating this process finitely many times the Fibonacci representation can be reduced to one containing at most two nonzero coefficients.km = 0 or / the end of the $1 cycle has been reached. To extend the resolution algorithm to the general case. A l s o / 7 * km < 7 and km > 2m. Corollary. or if at any point prior to arriving at this pair all of the coefficients become nonpositive. 5a +3b) belong to the embedding %((b .046 = 2(5).a)J + ao(lj) defined by Eq. 0. (2. The canonical Fibonacci representations form a ring in the usual arithmetical algorithms. followed by resolution. namely . we show how every other case can be reduced to the case of representations in W.. If we continue the operation of eliminating the first member of the pair by adding it to each of the two positions immediately to its right we obtain successively the pairs (a.b). 0.01301 = . This algorithm now makes possible an arithmetic for the canonical Fibonacci representations.a + b).a). Factor our minus signs and apply U. The reader can verify that the first and last representations (and all those in between) determine the quadratic integer ( 1 0 / r ) . eliminate kp by adding it to each of kpf and kp2. For each Fibonacci representation Y ^ k/f. When finally n* . If these two numbers are both nonpositive. Because of the orientation of the flows as seen in Fig.(1)16 = . the minus remaining in place during the remaining operations. b. the ratio of the second to the first term in each pair must eventually become positive and remain so (approaching r) and therefore we must eventually arrive at a pair in which both members have the same sign.
Furthermore.9 and Theorem 3. This can be proved easily from Eq.n). when appropriately represented "in Fibonacci" consists of consecutive shifts of a basic block of ones and zeroes. Theorem 3. For every basic block can be so shifted as to have lower degree zero. Theorem 3.n) with n = [\(m + 1)r\). etc. As pointed out in the introduction. each sequence£.14. 3. 3. Since the left shifts of the canonical representations of . the canonical Fibonacci representation of lower degree zero which determines the pair (m. odd lower degree. and two sequences are made up of shifts of the same basic block if and only if each sequence is a shift of the other. in which case we say that the two sequences are equivalent. In positional notation (x0/r) + xx is denoted by A^ .a = k.24. Thus we see that successive terms in x are represented by successive shifts of each Fibonacci representation f o r x 0 which determines (X0/T) +xt.G/V goes over to the quadratic integer (xQ/r) +xx under the isomorphism $_o <£. let/? . The appropriate sum is precisely that indicated by the sign and shifts of 1. The canonical representations of zero form a subring which is isomorphic to the ringZ of ordinary integers under the left shift HkifiYjkiifi • This ring is actually a linear algebra over Z in the obvious way. Every Fibonacci sequence x_e X is uniquely expressible as a signed finite sum of nonconsecutive shifts of the sequence/of Fibonacci numbers.5).6.b) in this column.14 provides a readymade enumeration of these equivalence classes if we agree to distinguish between . Thus for each m = ±0.0 . (For the particular representation xx.0 and 0 for purposes of listing. hence the title of our paper.a) is determined by an odd shift of the canonical Fibonacci representation appearing in the same row as (a. however it is also an immediate consequence of the known properties of the Zeckendorff representations and their simple connection with the canonical representations with lower degree zero. (3.9) we have a= [\kr\]. so every Fibonacci sequence \nX_ is equivalent to exactly one which under f o 0 is determined by a canonical representation of lower degree zero.4 are the Wyth off pairs as defined in [17] and discussed in [5. the corollary to Theorem 3. which corresponds in X to a finite sum of nonconsecutive shifts of J. 18. Hence we obtain the following theorem. appearing in the canonical Fibonacci representation which determines the quadratic integer^ o 0 W = (x0/r) + xx. This representation signifies a finite sum of multiples of 1. As explained in Section 2. 1. For given any pair (a.4 we list for several values of m the pair (m. and multiplication by r p r o d u c e s * ^ . the canonical representation^ o(p(x] representsx0 and successive left or right shifts of this representation yield representations for the terms of * given by the corresponding shifts in X An example of this theorem appears in the principal introduction (Section 1). Flow constants are also given for later reference. 3.. By Eq.n) and some of subsequent terms of the embedding of the Fibonacci sequence in the flow passing through the point (m. so (k.) There is for the quadratic integer (xQ/r) +xx a unique canonical Fibonacci representation in the sense of Theorem 3. (3. 17. the second statement in this theorem appears in [14] for nonnegative Fibonacci sequences and in [8] and [13] for more general sequences. Then (k.318 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV. 2. 3.xQ this amounts to a restatement of Eq. and viceversa. ••• we can refer to the mf equivale nee class in X In Fig. The reader will perhaps notice that the canonical representations increase in strict lexicographic order in the sense that they increase with no omissions within the class of canonical representations of lower degree 0. . ±1.1 .b).±2. At this point we can see that the pairs appearing in the righthand column of Fib.5 Applications in^Y and F. Thus each Fibonacci sequence. so that/7 = a + k= [\kr + k\] = [\kr2\].0 by nonconsecutive powers of r. It is clear that this equivalence is a true equivalence relation in which each equivalence class determines a signed basic block of zeroes and ones.and moreover.14. ••• and the canonical representation of lower degree zero. (2. 0. 19].a) is determined by a canonical Fibonacci representation of positive. since f o ^> sends/to 1. there is an exact correspondence between the set — 2 .6. which represents x 1 .6). and by Theorem 3. . the left shift in ^corresponds to multiplication by r i n /.X0 which representsxQ.
15 and the fact that all possible basic blocks occur in the table.9) (6.16) (10.26).(207.1) (1.1 Introduction In this section we consider properties of the Fibonacci flows such as which integers are flow numbers.141).28). it is of sufficient interest to be stated formally.301) (30. we obtain the following generalization of the results in [17].6) (4. 10000001. how many nonequivalent sequences are embedded on a given flow and how the embeddings situate with respect to .335) (33.1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS i (m.4) (3. (84.445)  Fig.26.62). (167. (66. 1001001. For example. 101001. (262. 1 3 ) (4.5).18).25) 1 5 4 9 16 11 19 11 20 31 19 31 45 29 44 25 101.20). (71.T ~ 3 under j \ By the resolution algorithm (and a shortcut) 200.X" 3 7 = A 3 + 1 + X.191)(19. If we throw in the negatives of the primitive Wythoff pairs and the pair (0. (45. THE FIBONACCI FLOWS 4. (131. 10001001.(9.15). 246) (25.11) (7.17) (11.36). (24.68). (29. 10101. 1. (186. 100001. 100101. Every equivalence class in the quotient ring F contains a unique pseudopolynomial 5 3 Ar/X' for which either krf 0 implies k\ = 1 or else krfQ implies k. = 1 and for which kjki+1 = 0 for every i. (275.41). 10001. and for nonequivalent sequences these primitive Wythoff pairs are distinct.212) •• (22. 3. But by the corollary to Theorem 3.162). Every Fibonacci sequence in X is from some point forward identical to the sequence initiated by a primitive Wythoff pair.57). Our last theorem in this section is the only application of canonical representations to_f.10(1) = 200. 3.31). (16. [\kr2\]) is known to be the k Wythoff pair for each k.44).136) •(14. (3.24) (15.12) (8.1281.81). 0) and refer to this larger collection as the primitive Wythoff pairs.X~3/ i n / goes to 2r2 +r~l .390) (38.22) (14. (97. (11.2 7.94).25.115).149). (79.2).39).4 Some Data on the Equivalence Classes in X lower degree zero must represent positive integers.01 = 1001.3) (2. ( 8 .21) (13. (37.170).10). 10000101. 1010101. 1000101.14) (9.369) 319 I I (35.52). (42.54).49). the equivalence class [2\2 + X"1 .8) (5. (228.01 so that [2\2 + X. Subsequent Points of Embedding in Fibonacci Flow (1. It now follows from the discussion in [17] that the first pairs appearing in the right column are the primitive Wythoff pairs (defined in [17]).47).4. (87. every positive integer must occur somewhere in the right column and therefore all Wythoff pairs must be present.23). the right column contains only Wythoff pairs.102)(12. (58.101).424) (40. (50. (32.65).n) Flow Constant Canonical Representation (0. 1001. 4.7). Thus the primitive Wythoff pairs furnish a system of representatives for the equivalence classes in X just as do the pairs in the first column of Fig. 1000001. (118. and since ([\kr\]. 1010001. (92. (241. (6.157) (17. Theorem 3. (63. (152. (105. (100.1 . Foreach equivalence class this pseudopolynomial is precisely the one associated with the canonical Fibonacci representation which determines the image of the equivalence class under the isomorphism^.73).268) (27.60).19) (12. Theorem 3. While it is too obvious at this point to require proof.
Using quadratic reciprocity we obtain the following theorem. By reducing these two forms we determine the primitive representations (3.xxxQ . /?/. The reader is referred to Fig. This form has discriminant 5. (2.1) v0 = x\ xxxQ xl for the pair (x0.xQ)_l+x0oW. then the other representations of v generated from (x0. one another on a flow.4 generate only primitive representations from primitive representations. We deliberately allow the case k = 0 in Theorem 4. Those integers which are flow constants for sequences in X_MQ therefore all numbers of the form ±k2v.1. we obtain the nonprimitive representations (pu0. Much of this material comes out in a standard way from the analysis of representations by quadratic forms. xj by these automorphs are precisely the other points of the embedding of fxx .xxxQ .2 The Flow Constants Suppose v0 £ 0 is a flow constant for some* eX_so that by Eqs. puj and all the other representations determined from it by the automorphs 4. In this connection we point out that the automorphs of the form x\ . As an example consider the flow constant 121.. by the standard reduction of the problem of representation to that of equivalence we find that the integers v having primitive representations by the form x\ .28) and (2. (4.x2Q are the linear transformations given by matrices of the form f2n 1 t* »\ +1 (4 4) ~(f2n ' ~ f2n \ f2nJ±[f2n ^ I f2n 1 ~ ~f2n2 \ f2nl) in which n is an arbitrary integer. The positive integers having primitive representations by the indefinite form x\ x0x1 xl are those of the form (4. are distinct primes.3)  . In addition. say (uQ. nonprimitive representations will arise if the prime power factorization of \v\ contains exponents greater than or equal to 2. These determine the equivalent forms 12UJ + 73^'xo +11xJ and 1 2 k 2 + 169*^0 +59x 2 . and since all forms of discriminant 5 are equivalent under unimodular transformations. 3. and the negatives of their conjugates. Since the automorphs 4. puj for v.320 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [!\SOV. .36) (4. An extension of this argument shows that if the squares of two distinct primes occur as factors of \v\ then the corresponding nonprimitive representations are distinct. respectively.4 for some data on the flow constants. For each given flow constant all of the embeddsngs on that flow can be computed by the method of reduction of quadratic forms. 10) and (7.2) is solvable.xxx0 . the nonprimitive representation (puQ. such as can be found in [16]. each of which is congruent either to 1 or 9 modulo 10. the negative of its embedding and the conjugates of these. xj of integers. by reducing the corresponding equivalent form.xxx0 . For by factoring/?2 from vand determining primitive representations for v/p2.4 are necessarily distinct from all of the primitive representations. 4. 10). xj is a representation for some number v by the form x\ . uj. their conjugates.x20.x2Q are precisely those for which the quadratic congruence M 2 = 5 mod 4I^I (4. 4. their negatives. Theorem 4.169 mod 484.4 its embedding. wherein v is given by Eq. The reader will have little difficulty in showing that if (x 0. The solutions of JJ2 = 5 mod 484 with 0 < fi< 282 areju = 73. Thus in any given case one determines the solutions f o r / i o f the congruence 4. It follows that there is no upper limit to the number of nonequivalent embeddings that can lie on the same flow.3) and k is an arbitrary integer. In these cases we simply provide a statement of the results.x\.2 such that 0 < / i < 2\v\> ar d then determines for each solution. Thus the flow constants vfor sequences in X are precisely those integers which are represented by the indefinite quadratic form x\ .3 The Em bed dings Having established the form of the flow constants it is natural to inquire as to how many and which embeddings occur on a given flow.plk v = 5^ in which 0 = 0 or 1 and pu —.1 to account for the zero sequence in X. a primitive representation (xu x0) which then generates by 4.
and since uv is a unit in /. For if p = 5 we have 5 ( 2 r .1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS 321 The only square factor of 121 is 121 itself. without actually determining the embedded sequences.5) *. say n = 2k. The solutions of \x2 = 5 mod 4 with 0 <JJL< 2 areju = l o n l y .( 2 r .= 2r. On the other hand. Hence a and j3have prime norm and therefore are prime in /. Having dispensed with these technicalities we can now complete the proof. The next theorem shows that the number of nonequivalent sequences on a given flow can be simply computed from the ordinary prime factorization of the flow constant. Let v(x]= v(xQ... n = 0.a2 •'•Oo./. and qj. if ~a = ua where u is a unit in /. that each natural prime not 5 or congruent to 1 or 9 mod 10 is prime in /. 10} has for its next point (3. with a and a prime in /. If j3=£7athen we have/7 = a$ = uaa. Note that by Theorem 4.1112.1 precludes any other possibilities for the primes in /. Let v0 be a nonzero flow constant which factors as in 4. Since all members of / are real we have p = (rka)2 whence yjp e /. we are back to the previous case.{*. This gives u = ±r2k. q2. Then also/7 = a 7? so/72 =aaj3ft and thus aa= ±$$= ±p.. thence is an associate of a if and only if p = 5. The first step of the proof is to establish that the natural integers which are prime in / are precisely the natural primes which are not 5 and are not congruent to 1 or 9 mod 10. But/7 is prime. ±2. Pk are the prime factors of VQ which are congruent to 1 or 9 modulo 10.1 each of the exponents m 1. •". Clearly Theorem 4. 2.) (f77. necessarily u = ±1 giving the desired result: p = ±aa.\ts negative. up to equivalence (i. On the other hand. 13) which in turn has as its conjugate (3. we now show that if p is any natural prime which factors nontrivially in /. —. so the nonprimitive representations of 121 will be given by multiplying by 11 the primitive representations of 1. either 3 = ua where u is a unit in / or fi = uawhere u is a unit in /. qj are the other prime factors of VQ different from 5. From this it will follow. 11) of 121. the negative of its conjugate and similarly for 1 U However 11/is selfconjugate so the total number of nonequivalent sequences embedded on flow number 121 is 6.~. Then the number of nonequivalent Fibonacci sequences \nX embedded on the flow v(x)= vQ is equal to 2(1 + n1)(l + n2)(l+nk). p = ir2ka2 =Mrka)2.1.. rrij is even. •••. so p = 5. when neither a nor fi is a unit in/. —. Theorem 4.=±f%Vp?:&kl7'Z2 •••<!?'' in which p1f P2. its conjugate. Now a unit u is of the form ±rn. Proof. 10).1). so that «.).±1.1). which gives the nonprimitive representation (0. xx) = v0. whence uu= 1. (2) if n is a positive integer which is not a square then \fn^ Zfr] if and only if the squarefree part of n is 5 and (3) the units in / = Zfr] are exactly the elements ±rn. This givesp = uvaa.1)2 and 2r — 1 = . We shall use the following known facts from elementary number theory: (1) Zfr] is a unique factorization domain.2. i = 1. Let the prime factorization vUxQ/T) + xx in / be — +x. then the factorization of p is necessarily of the form p = ±aa. SO )( _ ? + xx = axa2 •••aSr .Since aa is an integer. = a.x20.5. Let PQ be an arbitrary nonzero flow constant and let the prime factorization of v0 have the form (4. The next step of the proof is to show that if a natural prime p is a nonprime in / with prime factorization p = faoiin/. Therefore uu~= (~1)n showing that/? is necessarily even. This form is already reduced and determines the primitive representation (0. shifts) those of the sequence 1Tf7o(f). again by Theorem 4. so u~\s±(1)nT~n. Suppose pte a natural pnme which factors in / as/7 = a3. If ]3= t/athen p = ua2 = Ua2 so that a= va for some unit v since / is a unique factorization domain. we can state that the only embeddings on flow 121 are. then/7 = iaa = ±ua2 = ±Tia2 and so/72 = uu(aa)2. giving the equivalent form x\ + xxx0 . Since/ is a unique factorization domain.e. say m. If we note that the embedding containing (7.
except order and units) and /7/ occurrences of either 77 or 77.322 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV. Thus we must double our previous count.. &s c a n only produce a multiplication on the resulting value of (XQ/T) + xx by a factor of the form ±Tn.13) v(t) = xxCr(t)+ %=! (2x0 x0)ST(t). Our next task is to establish a separation theorem for distinct embeddings in the same branch of a flow. each factor being prime in /.13) that For each real t the .9) STft) = ^~T~ t . ^occurrences of IT.1)2 occurrences of either 72 or 72.121 is 2(1 + 2) = 6.0./n i\2nn ni.( 2 r . is prime in / and each p. (4.5) Each q.6) and (4. On the other hand.(as&s) (4.) possible choices of the corresponding a.11) ST(t) = sinh (tznr). for example.7) . thereby obtaining the final result 2(1+ni)(1 + n2)(1+nk). and so on. up to/7^ occurrences of either% or 7>. To this end we define functions CT(t) and ST(t) for each real number f by (4. (tznr) for each real number t..8) CT(t) = TL^L! (4.there are (1 +/?/)(1 +/?£) — (1 +/?*.1 ) ( 2 r . by Eq. The introduction of units into the above assignments of a 1. r2 occurrences of qp. The resemblance to the hyperbolic sine and cosine is evident and in fact (4. We have seen that 5 factors a s .0*2.12) and (4. and distinct choices must yield distinct values for (X0/T) +xt since/ is a unique factorization domain and since no 7/ and 7/ can be associates.1 (we note that up to this point there is no choice in the assignment of the a. in agreement with our earlier calculations.1) U l l 1 l n k—nk 2ri no^2 l l 1 2 l2 ^k^k 2r2 2r. v(t)) can be thought of as representing T and one finds readily from Eqs. up to /y occurrences of <//. +xJST(t) are parametric equations for the branch of the flows passing through the point (x0. and VQ = (aicij)(d2&2) . we note that since 121 = 11 2 and 11 = 1 mod 10. By comparing Eqs.the occurrences of the 7.6) the latter necessarily being the prime factorization of v0 into natural primes. as must consist of the following: r/ occurrences of qj. xj.1 . Qr Q2 '"*J is the prime factorization of v0 in /.ni v0 = ±(2T. Thus //i . (4. (4. up to units a 7.10) CT(t) = cosh (4. the number of nonr equivalent embeddings on the flow v. As an illustration of this theorem. point (u(t).2.\ (4. the effect of the introduction of these units on the sequence in X which is embedded in the flow v ..7) we see that.1) 2 . —.12) u(t) = x0CT(t)+ 2 ^l a (2xx (4.7 is a unit with norm . 1 . and 7/ . In this last listing .v0 is to either produce an equivalent sequence or the negative of an equivalent sequence. These negatives always occur since.1 as/7/ = j/y. Since undergoj£the shifts in ^correspond to multiplication by powers of 7 in /.1 ) = (IT.—.factors by Theorem 4. Based on these relations one readily verifies that (4. and so on..
12) and (4. v2) on the same branch of a type I or type II flow. (4.v \ v2n 2n+1 ~ \pf +*1 J T . and since the sequences are of type I or type II. and either all nonzero k.14) assures that the orientation of the flows induced by the parameterization in Eqs.14) 323 rf . (4. Suppose (mu nj and (m2.are zero. 4.12) and (4. are 1 or else all nonzero k.3.13). except that the representation (u/r) + v is not unique when u and v are irrational. 2n — _ 1*0 . Every pair of distinct embeddings on a single branch of a Fibonacci flow perfectly separate one another in the sense that between every pair of consecutive points of either embedding there occurs exactly one point of the other. are . 1 r +n2l =[\ ±+n. an obvious parallel argument applies in the other cases. T2k+2 and the theorem is proved. (4. embedding will all follow the relation .we want to determine all such canonical representations when they exist. Theorem 4. are not relatively prime is a simple extension of this case. In any case Eq.13) if and only \Uu2/r) + v2 is greater than (ux/r) + vl as a real number. (u2. We have earlier been concerned with the various ways in which the natural integers can be represented canonically by the sequence^. (The case in which xQ and x .. while the opposite holds for type III or type IV flows. we have T? + * .12) and (4. Assume the flow to be of type I or type II. Proof. and that given two points (uu vj and (u2. This observation provides a proof of our next theorem. n2) are consecutive points of one embedding so that \ m2 I m. 7 7 The points (x2n.1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS U (4.v + x for the appropriate values of x0 and xx. A Final Theorem Our last theorem does not concern embeddings but nevertheless fits in conveniently at this point of the paper.Xj the quadratic integer E*/~ /*/• From foregoing results we have . are nonzero. In view of the analysis in 3 it is natural to associate to each canonical representation^j_j k. > a If now2/r. \/2) follows (u u \/x)\x\ the orientation of Eqs.1 . (4.13) agrees with the orientation induced by the embeddings. X2n+?) ° f t n e otner x „ r2. We consider now the canonical representations by an arbitrary sequencer E / with initial terms xQ and xx which are relatively prime. M +v(t)= [*f +x) Of course this relation is not unanticipated and would serve well in the place of Eqs. is the smallest positive integer such that 2k it follows readily that (*++*l) m 1 rZk > y + n1 r2k2 <mi+nK ( ^ +X1) r2k <^+n2< ( ^ * .4.) We want to know which natural integers have canonical representations by x meaning sums of the form Y ^ k\x\ in which all but finitely many of the k. no two consecutive k.
Let/7? be an arbitrary natural integer. In this case. xx) and that xx and v(xQ. XX ). as follows. xj. we need only show that the condition nxQ = mxx mod (x\ xxxQ  x\) is necessary and sufficient for (m/r) + n to belong to the principal ideal in / generated by (xQ/r) + xx. The factor +L. Then the canonical representations of m by x_ have the same coefficient sets as the canonical representations of the quadratic integers (?*•)(?"•)"' by /where n is any natural integer such that nxQ z= mx x mod (x\ xxx0  x\). so from the first congruence we have .x\.4. and nxxmx0nx0 = 0 mod v(x0.xx) \ r + nx. Now given m and n. mxn Thus the necessary and sufficient conditions for (m/r) + n to be in the principal ideal generated by are that mxxnx0 = 0 mod v(x0. Since x0 andxx are relatively prime it follows simply thatx Q and v(xQ. L e t * .xx) are relatively prime. But so 7**0 " l*itf{T")/ I mx v(xQ. the resulting canonical representation of m by x has for its left shift a canonical representation for/? byx.324 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS [NOV.)(*H is in /. xx). Moreover the foregoing congruence is solvable for/7 because^0 is prime tox? . (X0/T)+X1 The second of these two congruences is a consequence of the first. 1 denote the inverse of xx mod P(X0. there exist a arid h in Z such that if and only if ?*»(7**. For each solution 11.x x x Q . Proof.kiifi —— we know from Section 3 can be equal to any quadratic integer in / so we see that a natural integer/7? has a canonical representation by x if and only if there exists a natural integer /7 such that/7??/7J + n belongs to the principal ideal in / generated by (xQ/r) + xx. In view of the remarks preceding the statement of the theorem. Theorem 4. the representation (m/r) + n byx agrees with that of by_£ Our last theorem shows that such n exist for each m and characterizes all such.
These representations will So general be infinite and divergent. In references [7. Eqs.3 have been stated with deliberate generality in anticipation of other applications.8 clearly suggests a Fibonacci representation for rational numbers. and moreover. (3. The theorems of Section 2. is the coefficient of . there is a possibility that other of the results in the foregoing references could be interpreted and possibly extended in the light of these investigations. (3. However. Additional indication for the indexing of the Fibonacci numbers by g instead of by /appears in [19].g. Pellian representations and so forth. Thus we have shown that the condition = mxx nxQ Omod v(x0. which includes a position for fot and that currently in use for Zeckendorff representations.x J. This in turn traces to Eq. 5.. the necessity of distinguishing between the integer "represented" by ^ teger "determined" by ^ kj' k/f.23 then states that the canonical representations which determine (or now we can say represent) natural integers from a ring isomorphic to the integers under the correspondence ^ k. We mention that the convergence proof of the resolution algorithm is really a second proof of the existence of canonical Fibonacci representations corresponding to the quadratic integers in /.xxx0 . We could have formulated and proved Theorem 3.4 warranted their inclusion.1) in which ^ kjf.AH of this is an argument in favor of defining the Fibonacci numbers by the sequence g instead of f.and the quadratic in is unsatisfactory. but possibly converge in some generalized sense to the rational numbers they represent. (3. A number of likely extensions and applications of the material in this paper suggest themselves. 10] one finds investigations of other types of representations: Lucas representations. For example we find that 0mapsx t o x 0 + XXT rather than (x0/r) + xx. which terminates with the fx term. . Theorem 3. In addition.. The necessity for this distinction exists because in the special case that J j ktr' is a natural integer it does not coincide with the natural integer ^ kjfj. » X * kir>.9) involve'the irrationality r. and it would be of interest to determine for what general class of representations the algebraic approach we have taken could succeed. It would be of interest to determine an algorithm for generating these representations which does not involve irrationalities and also does not involve tables of Fibonacci numbers (as do the extant algorithms).7) and (3. Theorem 3. Furthermore one may take s to be the sequence# in Section 2.2. The resolution algorithm in conjunction with Eqs.26 and then the earlier theorems could be derived therefrom.1976] THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS m = x~lnx0 mod 325 v(x0. All of this can be corrected by defining gn = fn„i Fibonacci representations to have the form ^k/g. ki?1 = YjkiQi+[ L k i9i+l\ for every n and then defining In this case Eq.xx) is necessary and sufficient for (mM + n to belong to the ideal generated by (x0/r)+xx.9) offers a method of computing first and second canonical representations of positive integers in the sense of [5]. (3.3 and 3. this would have the effect increasing the disparity between the positional notation we use. 9. Also. and the theorem follows.4 and many notational asymmetries are eliminated. CONCLUSION We conclude with a number of comments concerning the foregoing material and possible extensions thereof.rather than the r free part of the expression.nx0 = nx~l(x\ . but it was felt that the information contained in the statements and proofs of Theorems 3.7) or (3. instead of ^kjfj. 8. 3.1) becomes r .x\) = 0 mod v(xQ. First of all.xj whence nxx . We have not done this because we do not wish to conflict with the definitions already present in the literature. This has a certain appeal because it is more intrinsically algebraic. since in view of all that has been shown it is clearly more natural to "represent" the quadratic integer J j kj1 then the ordinary integer Z^k/f.mx0 nx0 = nxx x^nx* .
" The Fibonacci Quarterly. Vol. 18. 10. 4 (Dec. 9. 1964).." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Carlitz..4 and pointed out in [18]. "Fibonacci Representations I I . 5. pp. No. C. Chelsea Publishing Co. 4. 10. 1968).. Scoville and V. pp. Hoggatt." The Fibonacci Quarterly. R. L Carlitz. 7(1907). pp. No. 10. Scoville and V. L Brown.326 THE ALGEBRA OF FIBONACCI REPRESENTATIONS NOV. D. E." Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde. to appear. Journal. " A Fibonacci Property of Wythoff Pairs. 3." The Fibonacci Quarterly." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Carlitz and R. 449488. "Lucas Representations. 16. L. R. No." The Fibonacci Quarterly. 1972). Vol. 399419. pp. Hoggatt. and M. 1 (Feb. and R. 4 (Nov. Hoggatt. "Partitions of N into Distinct Fibonacci Numbers. Vol.. 4370. W. "Fibonacci Representations of Higher Order. . Jr. "Fibonacci Representations. pp. Scoville. J. 10. Jr. Vol. 8. C. Scoville. "Fibonacci Representations. R. E. 20. 337386. 6. 6. 1972). 40 (1973). A. Klarner. Jr. 113134. Scoville and V. pp. Feb. 1 (Feb. Vol." Duke Math. No. 2. 2 (Feb. together with the connection of Fibonacci representations with the ring / as explored in this paper suggests that their role in Wythoff's game might be derivable from formal algebraic arguments. No. E. 7. pp. No. 4 (Dec. R. 17. Wythoff. 13. Carlitz. Vol. E." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Silber. 380384. 128. 3. 235244. R. Jr. 1977. pp. No. R. No." The Fibonacci Quarterly. E. L. No. REFERENCES 1.A. 1973). L Carlitz. Hoggatt. 2 (April. Jr. No." The Fibonacci Quarterly. New York. 527530. 1940. 2 (April 1968). "Partially Ordered Sets Associated with Fibonacci Representations. pp. pp. Mathews. to appear." The Fibonacci Quarterly. L. Vol. R. L. L Carlitz. E. 199202. 1977. 15. pp. No. "On the N Canonical Fibonacci Representation of Order N. "Fibonacci Representations of Higher Order—11. " A Modification of the Game of Nim. 811524. Carlitz. "Wythoff's Nim and Fibonacci Representations. No. L Carlitz. 11. Hoggatt. 10. 11. No. Vol. MAA Film. Gleason. 1972). " The Fibonacci Quarterly. 1973). Bicknell. MacDuffee. R. 1972). "Zeckendorffs Theorem and Some Applications. Silber. An Introduction to Abstract Algebra. 14. 3 (Oct. New York. 11. 19.. Scoville and V." The Fibonacci Quarterly. E. Scoville and V. 193220. "Some Arithmetic Functions Related to Fibonacci Numbers. V. 7180. Hoggatt. 162168. Scoville and T. Nim and Other Oriented Graph Games. 1972). Vol. 12. L Carlitz. 1972). "Addendum to the Paper 'Fibonacci Representations'. Hoggatt." The Fibonacci Quarterly." The Fibonacci Quarterly... Vol. Vol. E. Jr. pp.. 10. 1 (Feb. "Pellian Representations. V. G. Silber. pp. Theory of Numbers. 2 (April 1970). February. the pleasant properties of the Wythoff pairs in terms of Fibonacci representations as evidenced by Fig. pp. 1 (Feb. in the spirit of what has been done by Gleason for the game of nim [12]. 2nd Series. L Carlitz." The Fibonacci Quarterly. 2. 6. R. 1976). Jr. 1976 Finally. Vol. pp. 5 (Dec. 10. "Generalized Fibonacci Polynomials and Zeckendorffs Theorem. Vol. 14. 8. Jr. John Wiley and Sons. 2942. Vaughn.
—. 327 V). Let Zn denote the set 1 1 . nj + n2 + ~' + rik = n.3) indicates that the partition is into k parts. Hence (1. For brevity (1.2) a number partition of the integer n. It is convenient to introduce a slightly different notation.k) = £ W)kl(2l)k2.6) S(n. LetS(n.—. 2.7) oo £ E n=0 k=0 S(n.+ knnf kj > 0 and (1.2) is often written in the form n = 1kl2k2nkn (1. kn satisfying (1. The B^ are called blocks of the partition..=0 kj (M\ \1! I kl JL (*ll\ kj \2! and we get the well known formula oo (1.2) we have (1 5) L.1) (I = 1.n) + kn = k. Bk. Corresponding to the partition (1. Durham. not necessarily distinct.2. k2..4) .2. Thus sSs*** n=0 x (*)'(«)'00 k=0 ' kl.=0 JL E kx. the condition (1. Put nj = \Bj\ so that (1. —.2) and (1.3) (j = 1.SET PARTITIONS LCARL1TZ* Duke University.k2./7 J.13). k1+k2+ ~.(n!)k" k k '' 2'~knl ' where the summation is over all nonnegative k?. North Carolina 27706 1. P± (Wkl(2!)k2(n!)k" *f'*2/~V set partitions.k2<2.k).2) where n = kvl + k22 + . Put (1.~=0 k2. We call (1.k) x4 zk = exp(Z(ex  ^Supported in part by NSF grant GP17031. k% } .k) denote the number of partitions of Zn into k nonempty subsets Bj.
[nr)Anr=i: r=0 r=0 (". Consider a partition of Zn+i into k blocks^/.7) that (1.13) we get n (1.n S(n.8) E Sln.16) An+1 =E M Ar (A0= 1). r=0 Hence (1.. .An(1) = £ Sfo. SET PARTITIONS 328 It is clear from (1. 82. From (1. r > 0. Since the r elements in Bk can be chosen in l n ) ways we get An+1i.10) we have (1.W The polynomial / l ^ / z j is called a singlevariable Bell polynomial. By (1.12) £ exp(z(exD).) Ar.11) / ! „ . •••. Bfr. —. The number An is evidently the total number of set partitions of Zn .10).15) An+1(z) = zAn(z) + zAn(z). Next put n (1.1 blocks. Bki furnishes a partition of Zn.k)zk and in particular n (1. An(z)£= Differentiation with respect t o x gives (1. If we takez = 7 in (1. k1) + kS(n.k)£ n! n=0 (exl)k. k).15) is equivalent to the familiar recurrence S(n + 1.10) An(z) = £ S(n.14) A'n(z)= £ (r) ^rW. = lj k! which implies k (19) kj I H k\ .r into k .k)=lj E (V [) j=0 the familiar formula for a Stirling number of the second kind.k) = S(n. Keeping these r elements fixed it is clear that #7.[NOV. Assume that the element n + 1 is in Bk and let Bk contain r additional elements. (1.13) = z E An+1(z) (") Ariz) r=0 while differentiation with respect toz gives n1 (1.7) and (1. r=0 This recurrence can be proved directly in the following way.
17) in the following way.17) that i i s *"*'£>(?) "6 (?) n=0 k=0 kl. This definition should be compared with (1.4) nj > n2 > ••• > nk. 4 ] ) d. kn satisfying (1..3).17 > Sifak) n! E = 1 1kl2k2. This discussion suggests the following two problems for set partitions. Ch.5) q(n) = r(n).k) is a Stirling number of the first kind.k) = (n7 1)!(n2 1)!(nk1)!. Then (1. it is well known that [3. 2.2) and (1. in which case we speak of partitions into unequal parts.=0 exp (xz + ^ ("T?. The polynomial An(z) is discussed in [ 1 ] . If there are no other conditions the partition is said to be unrestricted.2) the parts nj are odd. and therefore Si(n. j S1(n/k)x—zk = (1xFz n=0 k=0 It follows that (1.6).1) n = kv1 +k2*2+ + knn (k7 + .2) where (2. on the other hand. We may restate (1.20) such that nj + n2 + ~' + rik = n.) exp so that (1. We again consider the number partition (2.18) E Z + X^ + .19) X ) $l(n.~. 19] (2. This may be replaced by (2. Ch. where the summation is over all partitions (1.nkn k !k 1 2!~'kn! where again the summation is over all nonnegative k1t k2. Let (1. We may.3) n = n1+n2 + . Alternatively we may assume that in (2. assume that (2. It follows from (1.> nk. n 1 > n 2> .20) BhB2.k)zk k=0 = z(z+1)(z+n 1).+ kn = k).21) Sj(n. . If q(n) denotes the number of partitions into distinct parts and r(n) the number of partitions into odd parts..1976] SET PARTITIONS 329 For a detailed discussion of the numbers An see [ 5 ] .Bk denote a typical partition of Zn into k blocks with nj= \B\j. We now define (compare [4.+ nk.k2.
330
SET PARTITIONS
[\OV.
1. Determine the number of set partitions into k blocks of unequal length.
2. Determine the number of set partitions into k blocks, the number of elements in each block being odd.
We shall first discuss Problem 2. The results are similar to those of § 1 above. Let U(n,k) denote the number
of set partitions of Zn into k blocks
(2.6)
BU B2.  , Bk
with
(2.7)
nj = \Bj\ = 1 (mod 2)
(j = 1,2, •», k).
In addition we define V(n,k) as the number of set partitions of Zn into k blocks (2.6) with
(2.8)
= \Bj\ = 0 (mod 2)
rij
(j = 1,2,  , k).
(In the case of number partitions, the number of partitions
n = n/ + n2 + ~ + nk<
where
ni > n2 > — > nk,
rij = 0 (mod 2),
is of course equal to the number of unrestricted partitions of n/2.)
Exactly as in (1.6) we have
(2.9)
^
U(n,k) = T
7TT1—
where the summation is over ail nonnegative ki, k2, "such that
 n = kv1 + k2'3 + k35+
(2 10
 >
Similarly we have
>

\kk,+k2+k3+...
(2.11)
n/
V(n,k) = £
"
'
(2!)kl(4!)k2kl!k2h''
where now the summation is over all nonnegative kj, k2t such that
j n = kv2
(2.12)
+ k24 + k3°6 + ~>
\ k = k1 + k2 + k3 + .
It follows from (2.9) and (2.10) that
n
n=0
°°
.
. k*
.
o .
k2
kx,k%,=0
k=0
,3
„5
so that
(2.13)
J]
y;
n=0
k=0
U(n,k) ~zk
n!
= exp (z sinh
x).
The corresponding generating function for V(n,k) is
oo
n
(2.14)
£
Z
Vh'U
n=0 k^O
It is evident from the definitions that
Ufn,k) = 0
(n = k+1
X
—,zk=
(mod 2)),
exp (zfcoshx
V(n,k) = 0
V).
(n = 1 (mod 2)1
1876]
SET PARTITIONS
331
Corresponding to the polynomial An(z) and the number An we define
n
U
nM = E U(ntk)zk
k=0
(2.15)
E
Un = Un{1)=
U{n,k)
k=0
and
V
V(n,k)zk
E
n<z)=
k=0
(2.16)
Vn = Vn(1) = E
V(n,k).
k=0
Clearly Un is the total number of set partitions satisfying (2.6) and (2.7), while Vn is the total number of set
partitions satisfying (2.6) and (2.8).
By (2.13) and (2.15) we have
(2.17)
E
Un(z)^
=
exp(zsmhx)
n=0
and by (2.14) and (2.15)
(2.18)
E
Vn(z)*r
n!
n=0
= exp(z(co$hx
D).
Differentiating (2.17) with respect to x we get
E
xn
— = z coshxex/?
n!
Un+i(z)
n=0
(zs\n\\x).
This implies
(2.19)
Un+1(z)
= z
(2nr)
E
Un„2r(z).
Differentiation of (2.17) with respect to z gives
Z
n=0
xn
U'Jz)
— = smhxexp
77
n!
(zslnhx)
so that
(2.20)
U'n(z)=
E
[
2
r1l)
U
n2r1<z).
2r<n
Put F(x,z) = exp (z sinh x). Since
?\2
Z~Y F(x,z)
=
si n h 2 x F(x,z),
oz
—~F(x,z)
dx z
= —fz coshx)F(xfz) = (z2 cosh2 x +z sinhx)F(x,z),
oX
332
SET PARTITIONS
it follows that
22 F(xfz) = z\F(x,z) + z ±F(x,z) + z2 ^
dx2
This implies
(2.21)
and therefore
(2.22)
[NOV.
F(xfz).
dz2
dz
Un+2(z) = z2Un(z)+zU'n(z) +z2U'n(z) = z2Un(z) + (zDz)2Un(z)
Ufa + 2,k) = U(n, k2) + k2U(n,k).
This splits into the following pair of recurrences
i
U(2n + 2f 2k) = U(2n, 2k2) + 4k2U(2n, 2k)
<
0
\ U(2n+1,2k+1) = U(2n I 2k  1) +(2k+1)2U(2n  1,2k+ 1).
To get explicit formulas for Ufn,k) we return to (2.13). We have
,
t
(2.23)
exp(zs\„hx) = £
tiff* (e*ex)k = £
k=0
n=0
^
k=0
k=0
(1)k (*) a*"*1*
^
j=0
j=0
which yields
k
(2.24)
U(n,k) = ±2Kkf
Similarly, since cosh x  1 = 2 sinh2 Vax,
(~1)k I
V
k
)(k2j)n.
j=0
exp (z fcoshx  1)) = exp (2 sinh2 %x) = £
(
^j
(ey'x 
K/
k=0
k
k=0
'
j=0
.
n=0
2k<n
2k
j=0
we get
2k
l/f/7,iU  —1 £
2kk! j=0
(2.25)
r/;y' M M
\JI
ft//7
.
Comparing (2.25) with (2.24), we get
(2.26)
V(2n, k) = — ^ Z . U(2n, 2k).
22nkk,
Thus the first of (2.23) gives
(2.27)
V(2n +2fk) = (2k  1)V(2n, k1) + k2V(2n, k).
If we put
(2.28)
(2.27) becomes
V(2n,k) = 4 ™ V'(n,k),
2kk!
y x 2k
e * )
= 5. V2n follow. = 379.15) and (2. 1) are computed by means of (2.33) by n (234) (22nrtl)V2n~2r.1) n! n=0 which implies (2. —. V2n+2 = £ r=0 It is easy to prove (2.30) and (2. U0 = Ux = U2 = 1. K = V2 = I U. The following values of U(2n.1) exp (z cosh x . 2k).29).1) + k2V'(n.1)1 n! Vn+i(z) n=0 This implies (2.29) Returning to (2. exactly like the combinatorial proof of (1.32) and (2.= z sinhx exp (z (zoshx .k).18) with respect to z gives E x11 V'n (z) — = fcosh x . V.16). we may replace (2. The first few values of Un. 1 U6 = 36.16) we have (233) (2rn+1) Vn+1 = E Vn2ru 2r<n Since Vn = 0 unlessn is even.30) l2rn+1) E V*HM=* V 2r<n Vn~2rl(z). 2k) 1 j .23) and (2.2k+ [\ k U5 = 12. ' Differentiation of (2. k . Ud = 2. V(2n +1. k).19) that (232) E Un+1 = (2r) Un2r 2r<n Similarly from (2.31) V »2r(z) S (sr) 0<r<2n V'nM* It is evident from (2. 3 2 1 1 2 4 1 3 16 20 1 4 64 336 56 4 U(2n. V'(n. V4 = 4.34) directly by a combinatorial argument. V6 = 31.18) we have 333 V'(n + I k) = V'(n.1876] SET PARTITIONS (2.
n=0 so that z2Pn(z) = Pn+1(z).(2k . 3.32) ••• (z2 .2k+ 1)z(z2 .12)(z2 32) (z2 .12)(z2 .I2)(z2 .(2k .SET PARTITIONS 334 W\ [HOV8 3 4 2 1 0 0 U(2n + h 2k + 1)  1 1 L 23 — I4 l\k n 1 91 35 1 820 966 j 84 1  0 1 3 4 2 ^^ 0 1 V'(n.(2k + I)2] 1)]z(z2 .23). . k) L 10 2 3 4 1 5 1 21 14 85 1 147 30 1 For additional properties of U(n.1) U(2n1.2k+ k=0 £ U(2n +1. k=0 u(2n > 2k)z(z2 ~ 22><z2 ~ *2)'"(z2 ~ (2k ~ 2)2) 1)2).(2k k=o Similarly it follows from the first of (2.2k+ 1)z(z2 .1) becomes A77 (3.3) z2"1 = Y.Vk ~ D2)[z2 n ] T [U(2n .(2k + 1)2 .1)2).(z2 . Pn(z) = J2 k=0 Then. it follows t h a t P ^ f z ^ z n"~' and (3.k) see [ 2 ] .32) .l2Hz2 ~ 32) .1) + (2k + 1)2U(2n 1.1)2) .2n1 .I 2k. Put A?7 (3.23) that /?7 (3.2k+1)z(z212)(z232)(z2(2k1)2).(z2 . by the second of*(2. n1 z2Pn M = Z k=0 = = U(2n ~l 2 k + Vrt2 . . S\ncePi(z) = z.2) z2n'1 = £ U(2n 1.
1.k) is the number of permutations of Zn with k cycles each of odd length while V'i(n.7) we get . (3. by (3.8) £ n=0 V1<„. We observe that Ui(n.k)zk k it follows from (3.7) that (3.5) that (3. k = kj + k2 + k3 +  JL. 2kn! This is also clear if we compare (3. It is easily verified that 1 Az f 1 M „ \ ''«*'£(&) " . It follows from (3. k=0 Formula (1.6). Wotice that this recurrence is somewhat different in form from the familiar recurrence for Si(n.17) forSi(n.k)z(z2 = X i2)(z232)(z2 (2k.k).nh) = E Ui<n.10) This is equivalent to (3. •••.6) with (1.k 1)U1rni(z) = ziJtn(z) 1) + n(n.11) Uhn+1(z)n(nUrfn + lk) = U7(n.17).' ( & ) 1 /*z If we put Ul. 2kl4k26k3 kf!k2Ik3f where the summation is over all nonnegative kj.1)2). k2f k3.1976] SET PARTITIONS 335 By (2.7)Ujfn . By expanding the right member of (3.k).k) is the number of permutations of Zn with k cycles each of even length.M/j£V(£jP n=0 k=0 Similarly.9) ( I//MJ = ^$i(n. (2. k2f k3/ ••• such that I n = kr2 + k2>4 + \ k3>6+ k = ki + k2 + k3 +  . ^ ^1/2^3 k1!k2!k3! where the summation is over all nonnegative k].7) £ Z £/.k)*lzk n! 2k<n £ (1x2f*Z = so that (3.28) and (3. such that i n = kr1 + k2°3 + \ k35+.k).2) we have also n1 3 4 <> 2 z "' 1 V'n(n.k) suggests the following definitions.26).
(z} = (n+1)! £ (^.14) Utn = Uhn(1) = £ U7(nfk) k evidently denotes the total number of permutations of Zn into cycles of odd length.( y ^ ) * . U1A(z) = 8z2 + z4.336 SET PARTITIONS (3. (?) . By means of (3. Uh2(z) Uh3(z) 2z+z3.) (?) (n1)n! ^ r= 1 2r fcz?) r=1 «•' £ *. (. r=1 On the other hand n+1 n1 2r UKn+1U)n(n1)Uhn.16) (317) » xi.)[• It is evident from (3. £ n=0 which yields (3. = = 24z + 20z3 + z5. ( * .«+*> £ (2n) (I) 2 " u n=0 U1r2n = (2n)l P " ) 2~2n = (1. by (3.11). (K.7) and (3.12) implies (3.12) 2r Uhn(zj = n<j: [NOV. ) ft:}) +2r ( * ) \ r=1 . This is also clear from either (3. By (3.10) or (3.r/)(^i)}. r=1 Alternatively./)^ (..17).15) 2r ( ^ / J ( f ) Uhn=nl£ (n > 1).r/) r=1 To verify directly that (3.3.( ? ) { * (. = (2n + 1)! (2» ) 2~2n = (2n + 1)U1f2n .13) *//f/7.5 ~(2n Uh2n+1 I))2.<'+*>«*2r* .10) we get Uu1(z) = z. U1/5(z) The number (3.12) we have (3.'E^(?)i^(. = z2 .5) that (3.10) we take *U»M = nl £ r  2<r+ 1.W = 0 (n ^ k+1 fmod 2 ^ . .
5) z2(z2~22)(z2(2n2)2) v2n U1 +x2 ..i n=0 (vn 13(2n ^fffr^ *2n+1 • + 1)1 Thus (4.F2 F.1) by F. SET PARTITIONS To obtain an array orthogonal to U(n.2) we get C„+2(z) +n(n.1) in (4.3) Cn+2(z) (z2n2)Cn(zJ.1)Cn (z) + nCn (z) = z2Cn (z). = Since £ f l W = 7. we get \*(J77?X) . a ' 9x" Z2_ _ / = V XZ I 7+** (1+x*)3*l which gives . n=0 + V L.2) ax2 a* Substituting from (4.xFz = £ — ^ ^ . n=o V z2(z222)(z2(2n2)2) la (2n). Therefore (4. we have ¥ = . (4.1976] 4.5) becomes (4.5) with respect to z and then putz = 0. z &2 ~ 12)~(z2 n=0 Now replace* by ix andz by iz and we get (2n 2n y x ~(2n.6) e*PL i \ ^JL^M^^A . it follows that ( C2n(z) = z2(z222)(z242) (4 4)  t •• (z2.12)(z232)(z2(2n 1)2).V2) x2n+1 + J)/ .1) becomes (4.k) we consider the expansion (4 1) (4^r^xrz = £ CnMjfj  n=0 If we denote the left member of (4. f7+x a J ^  * x  ^ = z 2 f .^ x (2n)f n=0 + V z(z2.12)(z2(2n La 1)2) 2n+1 (2n+V! n=0 If we differentiate both sides of (4.? dx m—2 sJT+X .(2n . so that (4.T f T T ^ . C1(z) = z.2)2) C2„+i(z) = z(z2.
11). 1232~(2nV2£~}= ^ n=0 1 z(z2+ + V L.7) and (4.13): to each partition we assign the weight q]_ (Wkl(3!)k2(5/)k3 A different interpretation is suggested by (4.(z2 + (2n . in view of the definition of U(n. 2j + 1)W(2j + I 2khi) = 5„.10) + 7.13) n = kv1 + k23 + k35+.» (z2 + (2n . 2k) . ••• such that (4.^ j=k f .k) .12) W<n. 2k) = « „ . 2j)U(2j.k) is the number of weighted number partitions (4.9) and (2. (3.8) that <49> E f~ Dn~'W(2n. k = k7 + k2 + k3 + .k)% W(n.330 SET PARTUSOWS (4. It follows from (4.7) eXPh '' £ [NOV.2k+ 1) j=k n = E (~ 1>hkU(2n + 1.k) by means of z2(z2 + 22)(z2 n + 42).*. Indeed it is evident from (4.J\ ^ mllffffLEmJ^ (1!)kl(3!)k2(5!)k3 k !k l 2'«3! where the summation is over all nonnegative kj.I)2) (2n + 1)! v2n+1 X n=0 We now define W(n.2)2) = £ W(2n.k) in a form similar to (2. " where for brevity we put ffn) = 123252 (2n 1)2. 2j + 1)U(2j +1. 2j)W(2j.7) we can exhibit W(n.3) and (4.k).2k+ 1)z k=0 It follows at once from (3.J}2) = £ W(2n + 1. k3. (f(D)kl(f(2))k2(f(3))k3~ k k l! 2lk3! . j=k By means of (4. Moreover. * .8) that (41D E E W(n.8). k2.11) that (4.2). j=k n Y* (~ Dn"iW(2n (4.k)x~zk k=n n=0 n=n k=0 £ = exp\z x f(n) j =o nn=0 ^ 1 .1)hkU(2n.8) z(z2 + 12)(z2 + 32) . we have the following combinatorial interpretation tfW(n.. ^ g / r f ^ n=0 12)(z2 + 32)(z2 + (2n. 2k)z2k k=0 (4.
We now return to Problem 1 as stated In the beginning of §2.k)z k (57) k and (5.jnu)£= n=0 Put n (/'A . It is convenient to define We shall now obtain some more explicit results for the enumerant Tn(z) = E T(n. Then it is evident that we have the generating function (5D E T{n..5).k). Then.k) = Z —rr—r "  nj!n2!—n^! where the summation is over all n 7.r3f>") be a sequence in which rj is either a nonnegative integer or infinity.k).0. % such that (5. n2f —.B2.6) reduces to a known result in each of the cases (5.k\r) denote the number of set partitions of Zn into k blocks Bj.4) we have the generating function n=0 J k ' x k=0 '' ' I Clearly (5..1976] SET PARTITIONS 33i 5.4) £ = (r1. T(n. by (5. •) V(n.1).3) n = ni + ri2+ ••• + ni<.~) T(n. B^ with the requirement that.Bk of unequal length.k) denote the number of set partitions of Zn into k blocks B1.3) we assign the weight n! nff n2!' — n^f this weight is of course the number of admissible set partitions corresponding to the given number partition.) U(n.Q. —. 1.9) E.8) Tn = Tn(1) = E k T(n. B2.k) ~r= (1. ) For an arbitrary sequence (5. In other words. Let (5. We can define a function that includes T(n.k) r = K o o .00.k) as special cases.r2. an J T(n. for each/. we have I S(n.. 1. (5.k)4 zk = 5 (l+*^) E " n=0 " n n=1 n 7 k \ n I This is equivalent to (5. nj > n2 > — > % > 0. V(n. . there are at most ry blocks of length/ Thus.. ».k) can be thought of as a weighted number partition: to each partition (5.k).2) m.k). for example. U(n.k) r = (~ 0. Let T(n.k) ~r= (0. oo. Let S(n.
18) Gk(x) = £ n r ^ W ^ 7 and (5._* r=1 (" I "r )I T(nr.KJZ' = £ 2^ . \ . <t!)S It is obvious that (5.W = V *^! . Using (5.% fn/2 If we put (5.15) kT(n.2) .16) T(n.14) we get (5.14) £ i^ kT(n.j) nnr.r(z).17) T(n.z) F(x.ks).13) £ (n\ r=1 ^ r„(z)= F'n(z)Tn._.z) _ F(x.340 SET PARTITIONS F = F(x.10) log F(x.13) becomes (5. . (i+xOf) m \ n! I Then it is easily verified that (5.j) £ 2^ <ir iV 1 \ .z) r n+1K %T n=0 This implies the recurrence (5.12) Fr+l(z)Tn.z) = 5 n=1 [NOV.k) = (IIs'7 E (nt) { (KsKn S<t ^ ' T(nst.1) = 1 (n > 1). we get ~ Fx(x.11) (Vs1 Fn(z) = E .10) with respect t o * .Sln.2) = y2(2n2)V2 ( £ ) .z) F'nlz) n=1 Xn n! and therefore n (5. st=r ' ' J±—z's ftl)sS (tn This gives (5. we get Fz(x. Written at length.k)zk KIW. ^zs s(r!) rs=n s Differentiating (5.z) = £ Fn(z)^ n! n=1 where (5.rk) (") r=0 Differentiating (5.10) with respect to z.19) //. (5.
= E s=1 Thus for example Gj(x) = H7(x) = ex.r. H i As above we define Ti.21) Tn+1 3!G3(x) = H^fx) 3H.k) and Tn.23) we obtain the generating function (5. n2. Ttn = Thn(1) = E k Tj(ntk).27) T1nx= ' r = n f  n n=1 [1 + *\ (rhr2.24) .14) (520) kGk(x) (Ds1Hs(x)Gks(x).I 2!G2(x) = H*(x)H2(x).) n .£. Note that (5. nk such that /7.25) Ttn +1 = E F (?) 1.—n n=0 ki. > n2 > — > nk > 0.nr. In particular we have n (5. k We can obtain recurrences for Tj(nfk) and Tin similar to those for T(n.k)zk. If we takez= / in (5. r=0 where = E (Vs"1 ^. Then Tj(nfk) denotes the number of permutations of Zn with k cycles of unequal length. Zr n1n2nk where again the summation is over all n /. f/^ We remark that 7"7//7 is the total number of permutations of Zn with cycles of unequal length.r3.SET PARTITIONS 1976] 341 then by (5.E ~^ HsMn=1 " s=1 Analogous to (5.+ nk.23) 7.M. let (5. From (5.4). —. We note that <522> E F"f1.n(z> = E Ti(n.26) E n=1 Finally. = y — — — . as in (5. and so on.r+l(DTl.12) we get the recurrence (5.(x)H2(x) + 2H3(x) ([nr\FrH(VTn.2) we may define (5. = E r=0 Unfortunately the numbers ^ • ^ ^ ' ^ rs=n are not simple. n = ni +n2 + .
" Collectanea Mathematics. 1.k) r = U1(n.) Trfn.k\r) denote the number of permutations 7r in Zn with the requirement that. G. . 5.30) £ (VnJS7(nJ\L)S(/. GianCarlo Rota. For what sequences (5. pp. pp.. "The Number of Partitions of a Set.. Clarendon Press.k) r = (1. 94100. H. 4. 15 (1963). "The Divided Central Differences of Zero.29) £ i=k (V^JSi(n." Canadian Journal of Mathematics.k) V1(n. Then S7(n. 4 9 8 504." American Math.27) will the orthogonality relations n (5.. 1938. 14 (1962).). For an arbitrary sequence (5. 71 (1964).k) r= (~. the number of cycles of length / in n is at most/*/. An Introduction to Combinatorial Analysis.k\s) = £ (1)hkS(n. M.28) £ £ w i ^ .~. John Riordan.342 SET PARTITIONS NOV. New York.. Monthly. 2. An introduction to the Theory of Numbers. for each i. L Carlitz.. Vol. 0.k\L) n = E (1)hkS(n. 00./k}S(/. S7(n. Wright.. oof . Wiley.Q.00. Vol. Oxford. Carlitz and John Riordan.k\r) = (00/00.j\£)Si(j.k j=k be satisfied? Alternatively we may ask for what pairs of sequences/^ will the orthogonality relations n n (5. 1976 be a sequence in which each /y is either a nonnegative integer or infinity. ' J The following question is of some interest.27) we have the generating function (. L.. Hardy and E.k\rJ = bPfk j=k j=k be satisfied? REFERENCES 1. pp. "Single Variable Bell Polynomials. Vol. LetS/ (n..0.j\sJS1(i. 1. 1958. 1325.k\LJ = Sn.~) r= (0. n { Ejf n=0 k J ' 7X k=Q (f)k\. 3..
n =0 (mod 3 ) From Part A.3k~i. and the generalized Fibonacci se quence lHn \%=o has any two relatively prime starting values with the rule. The Lucas sequence  Ln\ ^=Q is defined with LQ = 2. Then we will observe that the primitive are the same.2.3ni) (2) (F23. It follows t h a t 3 k \ F 2 3 . 343 . IWTRODUCTIOW In this paper we are concerned with the primitive periodicity of Fibonaccitype sequences. The proof is direct. it follows that (mod S'7) from the identity ^ ^ / ^ . = (F22. then = 0 (mod 3*).E £*j 1=0 {"\< \j V K mn z / z k2>'(F mnKk2 1 Jn~'Fj J ' F mnk1 = 0 + nFmnk„2(Fmn^2_7)n~1Fl+ ("2 ) (Fmr?k2>2'^k2. = Fm+fFn+i + (F22. We use the fact that (3m = Fm$ + Fm^ = Fma+Fm„1 k 2 amn  = ap k_ 2 mnK +F Z k„2 1 Z_7 mnK (a™™)" P™"k~2 = BF K r = k1 a™ k2+F mnK Z ' k„ 2 mnK Z_j By definition. We will prove that: (A) F23.PRIMITIVE PERIODS OF GENERALIZED FIBONACCI SEQUENCES CLAUDIA SMITH and VERWER E. San Jose. 3 k _ 1 f thus F23o3k_f Hence Part A is proved. 2. and Fn+2= Fn+<j + Fn. nk 1\F k./? £5. = F0 (mod 3n) and (B) F23t3n. We will see that in one case. Lj = 1.3nl)2™1 mk\Fnrr)ki. THE FIBONACCI CASE MOD 3 " Theorem The period (not necessarily primitive) of the Fibonacci sequence modulo 3n is 2 3 n ~ . that of modulo 3n. B. Fj = 1. 3\F 2> thu$3k\F22. periods of j F n \ and <Lnl Prior to examination of the Fibonacci case mod 3n we will prove the following theorem: Theorem. Hn+2 = Hn+f +'Hn. and Ln+2 = Ln+j + Ln. \in\Fm.Clearly. where/? is a prime. San Jose State University.f ^ r .\\\ m a en n \Fmnk — 1.z r .^2 By induction. and the generalized Lucas sequence \Gn l^=o is defined recursively by Gn = Hn+j + Hnj. modulusp m .3n1> + FmFn .1+1 using the theorem. Our proof is complete. nk 1 also divides all successive terms as/is increasing.3n1 A. all generalized Fibonacci sequences have the same primitive periodicity. where the Fibonacci sequence  Fnl^=o is defined with FQ = 0. JR. n F FmnK k1! . (1) First. 1. \im\Fn. since (F22. HOGGATT. California 95192 1.3n1+1>2 Fm+n+1 2 = F1 (mods' 7 ). / . using the identity F23t3n_J+1 Now.
then we would need F 22. A. Now.1 ( m o d 3k) and that 22>3k+1 = (F22'3k1+1)(F233kni> using the identity Fm+n+1 = Fm+1Fn+1 + FmFn . that is.344 PRIMITIVE PERIODS OF GENERALIZED FIBONACCI SEQUENCES [NOV. We conclude that p = 3. but that F 22. p $ 1.3n_1+1 = H. the notation is 3 \Fn.3k1+1 F = 1 23 3 = 1 <mod 3 ) . CASE 3.3kl+i F F + F 22. = 1 (mod 3 2 ) .3k+i = (~Fi) (mod 3***) and our proof is complete. F F 22. for 3k+1J[F23u3k^f./r>2 Assume that (9) (10) = 22.3n1+i Theorem 2. The proof is by induction. Hence Part B is proved. F 23. 9\\F12 = 144 Assume 3k I I F 2 2 .3k F + 22. F22. We will have to consider three cases. . 223n'1 is the entry point of S77.3n~1.3k1 = F0 and = F1 (mod 3 * ) .3kl(5(F22. )(F23m3k_1. k= 1. (6) Now that we have found the first Fm divisible by J . that Observe that 22.3k1 £ F7 (mod 3*). Ln) is 1 or 2. F22. Secondly. thuss = 2 provides the primitive period and Theorem 2 is proved. given that 3 ^F22 _1 and since (Fn.3ni.1 > ' t h e n 31+1XF23.3n1> n using the identity F2n = FnLn. hence the first Fm divisible by 3k+1 Furthermore. Case 2. The period (not necessarily primitive) of any generalized Fibonacci sequence modulo 3 " is 23. We will prove that: (A) H23. k = 2. (8) Case 1. (11) 2 5 = = F13 = F 22. we can write the primitive period modulo 3 as a multiple of that subscript. (mod 3") and (B) H23. 3\\F4 = 3 2 CASE 2.3n1 we claim = 3 1_1 2+1 j[F'23.32I. our proof is complete by + implies 3 \\F22m3k induction. n >2. (7) We assert that F22.^ + ^ ' m ° d 3"). We will have to consider three cases. If the primitive period were to be 1(22'3k~1). Clearly. p(2 3 ~1).32i 3k+1 91F8 = 21. n = 2 3 \\F22.3k1+1 =(~F1) (mod 3k). .3n+l+2 = # 2 (mods' 7 ). 22. n = 7. (4) We now prove that 3n lF22. (3) Now. (mod 3^).321+1 Case3. s = 1. Our claim in (4) is true. This follows by induction.3 and. Let 3 be the highest power of 3 dividing Fn . (F22. substituting into (1) we have F23. We have shown that when s = 2 we have a period. The primitive period is of the form s(223 ). then 3 XF23. (5) If 3k+1tF22t3k and.3k1+1 We claim that the latter is false. for that contradicts our assumption that 3k^F22.3nl)(L22. . THE GENERAL FIBONACCI CASE MOD 3n Theorem 3A. 3. not necessarily primitive. (F 223l<1>(F233l<'i>' Now substituting (9) into (10) and using our inductive assumption in (8) we have F 22. (12) We conclude thats < 2.3kl) 3) k+2 as it clearly shows 3 KF22t3k. 77 .3k = F22. 31 \F22.3k+1 s (D(1) + (0)(0) (mo63k+1). 271F24 = 46368.3k1 = 0 (mod 3k). It must be of the form.311+1 Recall from Theorem 1.3kv [%F And/7 £2. 3 k . We must examine s < 2. The primitive period of the Fibonacci sequence modulo 3 " is 22Zn~1. That is.3n~1' divides a smaller Fm whose subscript is a multiple of the first Fm that is then 3k+1 divisible by 3k.3 CASE 1.
(!3) H First. 2 = H7 (mod 3 2 ) . We observe: H2 + HQ= kD/ where k is an integer. We conclude that modulo 5" is the only prime modulus in which the primitive period of a generalized Fibonacci sequence will be smaller than in the Fibonacci case. H3 + Hj = kQ2. Recall that the greatest common divisor of (Fn. our proof of Theorem 3B is complete. We need to examine the possible values for k.3n1+1 from the identity (14) But since F23. Hence.3n1+1 H1(1) + H2(9) (mod 2n) and Part A is proved. Example. It remains to show that the primitive period is no smaller.32l+1 345 = 25 = 46368H2 +28657H1 Case 3. (19) Assume/? { Ln\ (20) .  F 23. Theorem 3B. n= I Case 2.3n1 H'lFn + + tj H2Fn+p = 0 (mod 3") from 1A.3n1 H F 1 233n1l Hn+1 = 0 (mods' 7 ). .This contradicts that/7/ j Ln\ .3n1 Hn+2 = + H F 2 23. is a generalized Lucas sequence. and F 23. The period modulo 5^ of the Fibonacci sequence is 45 /? while the period mod 5" of the Lucas sequence is 4 . H H23. is odd.3n1+1 ~ F 23. (18) Hence our assumption in (16) is not true. H2)= 1.. Case 1: Given pi yn\ if and only if the entry point of p in \Fn\.Fm . Case 2: Given FPp is odd. so FPp is odd. Part B follows immediately. The primitive period of any generalized Fibonacci sequence modulo 3n is 2 •3 . Therefore. Hence p/F^ .pMk. we write p \\F2k • (17) p\\F2i< implies pKFk. We conclude that/7/j Lnl implies EPp\$ odd. • (16) Assume FPp is even. does not divide \Ln\ We will examine two cases in the proof. Recall the identity F2i< = F^L^. that is. = 23. THE FIBONACCI AND LUCAS CASES IV!OD/?m Lemma 1. Consider the generalized Fibonacci sequence \Hn\f(H1fH2)= I Adding alternate terms we derive another generalized sequence  Dn\.3n1 + H2Fn • f^. we substitute (14) into (13) to obtain that H (15) s 23. then k = 1 because (Hj. n 1 In Theorem 3A we proved that the period is at most? • 3 ~ . and 5 must di vide (D3 + D j) and (D2 + DQ). then  Hn\ + D2) = ^(D3 + Dj) H1 = k(2D2DT) = \(Q2 + D0). We solve f o r / / / and H2 : H2 = k(2D1 If k = 5.1976] PRIMITIVE PERIODS OF GENERALIZED FIBONACCI SEQUENCES H 23^11+1 Case 1. n = 2. 4.3n1+2 = from the identity Since F'3 3n_j H F 1 23.3n1 =10=1 from the recursion rule that f m _ y = Fm+1 . Ln)\$1 or 2. and = H jFnj + H 2F23. n > 2. We rewrite the equations above: 2H2H1 = kD1 H2 + 2H1 = kD2 . Then there exists k such thatp IIL k . Thus k = 1 implies that j Dn \ is a generalized Lucas sequence. A prime p. FPp = F2k. B  First H ' 23. (FPp). We note that it will be smaller by a factor of five. If 5//r.5 " " . = H = 21H + 9 13H7 = H1 (mod 3 " ) .^/.3n1+1  1 (mod 3") from 1B. and so on.
m > 2. Thus k denotes half the period of \ Fn\. and k = Vil (odd) so k is odd. Case 1. (22) Therefore pK j L n \ . (23) since Ln LppF. Then the period for <Lnl (26) EPp is odd. 2k. the primitive period for is half the period of \Fn>. for/7 a prime. But pj(\ Ln > thus ptipPp so Eq. Lc = 0 implies that F2C = 0 mod/7 which contradicts that EPp ofp is F2d(29) Our assumption in (28) is false. However. We conclude that EPf is odd implies that pH Ln I and our proof iof Lemma 1 is complete. Therefore Ln+k . We use Eq. (25) Assume the primitive period for I Ln^ isshorterthan for iFn >.k = LnLk. (26) is not con (27) gruent to zero. mod p. Heneeyc?l£j<.Lnk Ln+k . above that either k = 2EPp or k = EPp. When EPp of/? is odd then the period. We have Ln+ppF . Therefore. Assuming the primitive period for \Ln  is smaller. let 2k denote the length of the period of \ Fn J. Now we consider the special case when EPp is of the form 2 (odd). It follows i that the period of j Ln  is 2k. Hence.Ln~k = 0. that is. It follows that the period of < Ln \ is 2k which is the period of  Fn I. Then the period. Then the (30) period for Fn. Now we consider the situation in which EPp Is of the form 2d. We will use Eq. x P 15. h2(EPF).Ln.from the identity F2k = FkLk. This contradicts that EPf is odd. Then the period \s4(EPp) and k = 2(EPp). Note. so when EPp is of the form 2d where d is odd.346 PRIMITIVE PERIODS OF GENERALIZED FIBONACCI SEQUENCES (21) p\\Lk implies/7IIF2A. Lastly. Now. Case 2. Likewise. 2k. There exists b where b < EPp such that Ln+b ~ Lnb = 5FnFij. Then the period for {F„\\*EPF. This would meet the requirement since the period 2c < 2d. = F2n1k • L2n_f. (23). B. We note that L^ = 0 since EPp is F2d Ed^d. 2k. k odd. is EPp. where d is odd and m > 2. The primitive period for  Ln \ is no longer than for < Fn\. The primitive periods of \Fn\ and \Ln\ are of the same length. thus Fk = 0.Now. Ourassumption in (25) is false. A prime p divides  LrX if and only if EPp is either of the form 2 (odd) or 2m (odd). mod p.LnEPp = \Ln\ \$2(EPp). Thus k = 2(EPp) so k is even.Lnk = 0. mod p. This follows immediately from Lemma 1 and the identity E2n. when EPp of # is of the form 2m (odd) f o r m > 2. assuming the primitive period for  Ln> is smaller means that there exists c where c < d such that Ln+C LnC = LnLc. Thus k = EPF = 2m (odd) so Ais even. where d is odd. First we will consider the situation in which EPp is odd.p/\Ln^. the period cannot be2(EPp). . Lemma By ]. mod p. (28) Assume the primitive period for  LA and the fact that F2d = isshorterthan for J F ^ ^ . is 2EPp. = 5FnFkf k even. so when EPp is odd the period of < Ln \ is no shorter than for \Fn\. Ln+k . C. means tk =• 0. . The primitive period for \Ln\ A. then the period for  Ln \ is no shorter than for \Fn\ . \s4(EPp). is no shorter than for \Fn\. (23) We have Ln+k (24) . [NOV. modulus p. again the same as the period of < Fn \. then it too must be even since the period for \Fn\ is even. we consider the situation in which EPp is of the form 2md. Lemma 2. Theorem 4. We recall that F2kFkLk impliesp\L k since EPp ofp is F2k impliesplF k . then the period.
0. 1. 143." He ran a test on a digital computer that verified the hypothesis was true for all /? less than 10. 18. 11.0.} mod 29 = 1. 0 . 12.3.29. 3 .36.Our (31) assumption in (30) must be false. 1.3. m > 2.34. 5 . 12.0.5. 13. 8.5. In this study we came across an unanswered problem that was discovered by D. 141.11. Example 3. 1.45. 13. 89. Monthly. 1. No.29.5. Examples of Theorem 4 Example 1. 5. 67.2.2. The length of the primitive period of ifn^ Period of \Fn\ Period of \Ln\ is 32.3. 11. 1.26. 2 .3. Our conclusions in (27).5. mod47 = 1. 8 .2.5.8. We conclude that if EPp is of the form 2md. Take/? = 47. Period of ]Ln\ mod 29 = 1. 5 . 18. 11.43. 1.46. 13. 11. 2.3.3.8. 1 0 .5. 8 .46. 13. 39. 5. 2 . where d is odd. then the primitive period for \ i n \ is no shorter than for I Fn \.8. EPp of /? is of the form 2m (odd). 5.39.1976] PRIMITIVE PERIODS OF GENERALIZED FIBONACCI SEQUENCES But \\2b is to be the period for \ln J then 5FnFb = 0 mod/?. 1.4.7. 5 . 7 .21. Period of {/>. Comment. 6 (JuneJuly 1960). 1.34.2. 12.3. We see that the primitive period of \Fn\ is exactly the same length as the primitive period of j Ln \ .0.4. 18.0.000. 12. The EPp = 16 = 2 4 (1). 1 0 . Wall in 1960. pp.1.4. Period mod 122 = Period mod 12=24.0.7. Take/?=2& JheEPF = 14 = 2(7). 18.0. . 8 . 1 0 . Vol. 3 . 18. 136. 1. Period of j Ln  mod 13= 1. 1. Wall. Again we see that the primitive period of j Fn  is exactly the same as for  Ln \ . 0 . 11. and (31) prove that Case 2 is true. Period of  Fn } mod 13= 1.2.46.28. D.2. 5 . 1. We also observe that Lemma 1 is demonstrated as/?/1 Ln \ . EPp of/? is of the form 2 (odd). 10.5. 9 . m > 2. 1 .5. 3. We see Lemma 2 demonstrated.40. 8 .25. 1. Example 2.21. 11.29. But Fb^ 347 0 mod/? since/? <EPF. 21. mod 47= 1. 89.4. 8 . Thus our proof of Theorem 4 is complete.4. 89. We see that the primitive period of \Fnl is exactly the same length as of H/7( Also note that the EPp = 2EP[_. Period mod 122 of { Fn \ = 1.8.3. 2. 55.0. 1. (29). 11. We note that EPF of 12 = EPF of 1 2 \ REFERENCE D. The EP F= 7. 10.7. 0.29. 18.8. and we see Lemma 2 demonstrated.7. We give an example to show that the above hypothesis does not hold for composite numbers.3. Until this day no one as yet has proven that the Period mod p2 = Period mod/? is impossible.45.44.3. Period mod 12 of \Fn\ = 1. 0. 9 .44. 2 .3.2. The length of the primitive period of \Fn] is 14.9. We notice that the EPp = 2EP[_.5. 3 . 11. 10.42. 6 . 12. It concerns the hypothesis that "Period mod/?2 ^ Period mod/?.7. "Fibonacci Series Modulo m" The Amer.6. 10.0.42. 12.46. D. EPp of p is odd. We see the length of the primitive period of \Fn\ is 28.2.36. Take/7 = 13.0. 525 532. 123.7. 13.2.46.9.26.2. Math. 34. 5 . 18.28.
It is interesting to note that since t1 t L*t r r=1 348 2 . n = vn(k) =11 a a P ll (l) P " p<k p ln " p^k In [4] it is proved that vn(k) >un(k) for all but a finite number of cases (which are tabulated there). ERDOS Hungarian Academy of Sciences. For k < en the result is immediate since in this case ( n. In this note. letting —. we may assume en < k <n/2. We first consider vn(k). Thus. l\lew Jersey A well known theorem of Sylvester and Schur (see [5]) states that for/7 > 2k. n max vn(k) = e 1<k<n Proof. Murray Hill. Now. Hence. if k1 > n then p2)(vn(k) so that in this case the contribution to p . This can be considered as a generalization of the theorem of Chebysnev: There is always a prime between m and 2m. we have p\vn(k). the product of the large prime divisors of [n. Hungary and F L L GRAHAM Bell Laboratories. we continue the investigation of un(k) and vn(k). vn(k) of the primes Also. < k < ij. Set (nk) ' = un(k)vn(k) x with un(k) pa. Budapest. Also.) always has a prime factor exceeding k.ON THE PRIME FACTORS OF () P.\ . Theorem.! n ~r k rn' ' kk \ :(1+o(U) is (by the Prime Number Theorem (PNT))]u$\e r . ) itself is less than en . it is clear that the maximum of vn(k) is not achieved for k > n/2. we obtain vn(k) = exp [ ( £ <e !jr+ [nTk)^(1 + o(D) r=l j(1+o(W = exp [ ( £ £ I ) (l + od))] r=1 and the theorem is proved. for any prime with p > k and r > 1. the binomial coefficient ln.
this behavior is no longer possible for/7 > 7. p2\k! Thus. Next.m. p2\n(n V(n k+ 1). we tabulate the least value k*(n) of k for which vn(k) achieves its maximum value for selected values of n < 200. we mention several results concerning un(k).. By the PNT. 2. Such a prime clearly exists for (forlarge largen)n)by bythe thePNT.W0V. In the other direction we have the following result. Proof. 1 1 . It is easy to see that for/7 > 7. note that while u1(k)= 1 for 0 < k <^Lz 7 . t \]2. It seems likely that infinitely often k*(n) = % but we are at present far from being able to prove this. Choose n+1 = /fi. There exist infinitely many n so that for all k < (1/2 + o(D) log nf un(k) = 1. if m < t then m l ( 1 .p\n + 1 then for some k with/? < k <2p. PNT.. log/7. Suppose un(k)= 1 for all all kk << (2 (2 ++e) e) log/7. the theorem is proved.Since Sincep. Choose Choose aa pprimep < (1 + e) log A7 which does not divide n+ 1. For some k < (2 + o(D) log/7. Thus. In fact. To begin with. Proof. we have the following more precise statement Theorem. we \\dN*un(k) > 1.c. the vfl(k) cannot increase monotonically for 0 < k < ~. Fact. n=e{2+o{1)hf / \ /r < (t+od) J log/? ( / n W = 1 for as claimed. Table 1 n k*(n) 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 n_ k*(n) 2 18 3 19 6 20 4 50 4 100 5 200 6 7 8 9 10 22 42 100 k*(n) n 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Note that vn(0) < vn(1) < vn(2) < vn(3).p\u n (k) and since k < 2p < (2 + 2e)\o$n. In Table 2 we list the least value n*(k) of A? such that un(i)= Table 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 7 23 71 1 for / </' <k Clearly.1976 ON THE PRIME FACTORS OF ("A 349 for both t = 2md f ^ J then Wmvn(k)1/n \ for any/re f ^  ) = e1/2 n  In Table 1. .
Theorem. E . Specifically. n)\N\th r < t then/7 > k and/7 ((/^^/r^ so that again by the PNT p == e J1+o(l))n/rt n x Thus n vn(k> > n p = exP f r/ + 0w.„» \o<zt+nr+o T f £) /Vn(k) <e Untk) = <'+o<1))(1y)nT = e ~ which is just (*). have the following result. In contrast to the situation \wvn(k). < where n(k) denotes the number of primes not exceeding k.350 ON THE PRIME FACTORS OF ( * ) Of course.H = exp((1 + o(1))(\0Qt + y)) n f . But by Stirling's formula we have TllUS ' n . un(k) n"(k).)nr 7 n. It is well known that if pa\ I n. k = n/t for a large fixed t Of course. it follows that un(k) < n1+e for k> 3 and large n. For c<7/2. n Vnfk) = p = e( 1+o(1 })cn nk<p<n Since / . Let k= (1 . for /r <<? un(k)= WOV. n f Vl ( 1 + 0 ( m M k ) the maximum value of un(k) clearly occurs for k > j . For example. Consequently. It seems likely that the following stronger estimate holds: C) u„(k) < „"+»(W(liMk)r k > 5i where 7 denotes Euler's constant.2689 • . 1 is automatic. say. By a theorem of Mahler [11].c)n. suppose k is relatively large compared to n. n) divides vn(k) and by the PNT + n p = e(l o(D)n/t n(11/t)<p<n More generally. if rpefn n/t.n/t. v n\ = v n\ = e(c \ogc+(1c)\og (1c))(1+o(1 })n then Un(k) = ( l ) /Vn(k) = e<1+o<1)H<*\o9ce(1c)1c)n ^ A simple calculation shows that the exponent is maximized by taking c =— = 0. any prime/? e (n . we The value k(n) of k for which un(k) assumes its maximum value satisfies ) k(n) = (1 + o(1» M Proof. lnt)(l+o(7))(\ogt+. J then pa < n. It is easy to prove (*) for certain ranges of k.
Press (1971). [ 3 ] . "On Prime Divisors of the Binomial Coefficients. Eggleton. Jr. We can prove that f(n) + °° as n ~* «> (this is not hard) and very likely f(n) > c log /7 but we are very far from being able to prove this. and the desired result follows. Similarly. We mention here several related problems which were not able to settle or did not have time to investigate. Erdds. 28 (1974). 79 (1972) pp. Monthly. Soc. withthe =5. [7] or [10]. Also. ^ ' 4. Math. Probably p(f"k)\ > max(nk. more generally. P. E.k). and R... n for which all pa\ (nkJ I ^) We can show the much weaker result that n = 23 is the largest value of are squarefree for 0 < k < n. respectively. that dn > en for a suitable constants For problems and results of a similar nature the reader may consult [ 2 ] . Jr. L Selfridge and P. L Selfridge.. P. . 22\ [^) where 3y > r^~^ for any k implies 2% > p"1 + 1 where 2$ > ' n . London Math. Together these imply that d = 2l331\n + 1 where d > (n + 1)2/24. [ 6 ] . 267— 270." Computers in Number Theory. Perhaps it is true however. 3. J. Ecklund. 405414.ON THE PRIME FACTORS OF (nA 1976] 351 Concluding remarks. 9 (1934). Jr. Ecklund. AtlasSymp. [12]). "Prime Factors of Cpnsecutive Integers.k1+e) but this seems very deep (for related results see the papers of Ramachandra and others [11].f Oxford. 282288. Erdds originally conjectured that . Since d cannot exceed o n + 7 then n+ 1 < 24 is forced. " A New Function Associated with the Prime Factors of r M . 29 (1969). "Some Problems in Number Theory. E. "On a Theorem of Sylvester and Schur/V. Acad. Proc. Math. J. pp. Selfridge and Erdds [9] proved that '(C)) < ci and they conjecture '((£)) < F Finally. P. P. Eggleton. Erdds." to appear. Erdds and J.. 1<k<n. Erdds and J.k but this was disproved by Schinzel and Erdds [13]. ( " ) is always divisible by an a t h power of a prime > k if n >n0(a. One of the authors [8] previously conjectured that I ) isnever squarefreefor/7 >4 (at 12n\ present this is still open).. Ls\P(x) andp(x) denote the greatest and least prime factors of x. ("\ is divisible by the F(n)th power of some prime. Ecklund. E. ( "\ is divisible by the f(n) power of a prime. 1969. then it is quite likely that lim F(n) = °°. Jr. Of course. but we have not proved this. R. 647649. 32)f (nk) for any ^implies JTv? + 1 .. pp. we expect that for all a. For given n let f(n) denote the largest integer such that iorsome k." Amer. L Selfridge.^ . Comp. Erdds conjectured and Ecklund [1] proved that unique exception of P((o)) p [(nk)\ <rk f or k > /. This follows from the observation that if p is prime and for any k then p(3\n+ /. 2. 5. where P Thus." Pac. Ecklund. let n M \\ > n d \\nk\\ for denote the greatest divisor of ( " ] ">k>not exceeding n. E. "On the Prime Factorization of Binomial Coefficients. if F(n) denotes the largest integer so that for all k. 6. of Math. 10821089. REFERENCES 1. pp. pp.
pp. L Selfridge. 3948. P. 198204. " A Note on Numbers with a Large Prime Factor I I . 10. K. Erdds and J. 24 (1973).352 ON THE PRIME FACTORS OF [ " ] 7. pp. . 2544. Math. 8392. on Number Theory. " J. Erdds. "Sur un Probleme de P. 29 V (1975).. 8. pp. Ramachandra. 34 (1970). A. "Uber die Anzahl der Primzahlenvon ("A NOV. 4 9 62. K. Erdds. I. G. Indian Math. Ruzsa and E. Straus. Erdds. Graham. . P. 12. Ramachandra. Z. 11. P. (1971).. ''Problems and Results on Number Theoretic Properties of Consecutive Integers and Related Questions. pp.. 9." Coll."Acta Arith. Soc.. "On the Prime Factors of (2"j /'Math Comp. L. 1976 . " A Note on Numbers with a Large Prime Factor III." Archiv der Math."/V0C." Puliman Conf. R. P. Erdds. Fifth Manitoba Conf. "Some Problems on the Prime Factors of Consecutive Integers. 5 (1952). 19 (1971). on Numerical Mathematics (1975). 13. Schinzel. pp.
Milwaukee. 1).) If the occupied end compartment is on the lefthand side we construct "units" consisting of a particle or of a contiguous group of permutable "units. CALCULATION To determine A(n01.1 2 4 permutable "units" ) • = 4 permutable vacancies (marked with *'s). These can be arranged in L _ — .1 objects which can be permuted._ . These "units" can be permuted to form other independent arrangements having the same /701.q . Ising [2] has developed relationships which describe approximately the degeneracy associated with mixed nearest neighbor pairs." particles and the adjacent vacancy just to the right then we observe that there are We initially regard these "units" as identical regardless of the number of particles [> 1) of which they are composed (see crosshatched "units" in Fig.MC OUISTAW University of WisconsinMilwaukee. A7n occupied nearest neighbor pairs 2. one and only one end compartment must be occupied.q  f —~— 1 permutable vacancies and a total of N . q. there are ~— + 1 vacancies which form mixed nearest neighbor pairs. Thus there are a total of eight objects to be permuted while still keeping the lefthand compartment occupied. the number of independent arrangements arising when q particles are placed on a onedimensional lattice space of N equivalent compartments in such a way as to create nol mixed nearest neighfor pairs.q vacancies but not all of these vacancies can be permuted to form independent arrangements.MIXED NEAREST NEIGHBOR DEGENERACY FOR PARTICLES ON A ONEDIMENSIONAL LATTICE SPACE R. There are N . N). n0l odd When n0l is odd. the number of mixed (one compartment empty. There are (crosshatched) and N . one occupied) nearest neighbor pairs._^J I^^—^J l s i __i Figure 1. 2. 353 . Thus there are N .B. 1.1 /7 n i . /700 vacant nearest neighbor pairs.q . Wisconsin 53211 1. in such a way as to create 1. The present paper is concerned with the degeneracy associated with n0l. Shown is an arrangement of q = 10 particles on a linear array of N = 19 equivalent compartments which creates n01 = 9 mixed nearest neighbor pairs. (See Fig. we must consider the situations when n0l is odd and when it is even. 1. INTRODUCTION In a recent article [1] expressions were presented which describe exactly the number of independent ways of arranging q indistinguishable particles on a onedimensional lattice space of N equivalent compartments. The purpose of the present paper is to develop an expression which describes exactly the degeneracy of arrangements containing a prescribed number of mixed nearest neighbor pairs.
Thus. There are N .^ — J "units" we consider # .\ \ N . To determine the number of ways the q particles can be arranged to form the ( . nox even When n0l is even two situations can arise: (a) the compartments on each end of the array are empty (see Fig.1 ooooojooooo Figure 2. the particles may be arranged to form "units" consisting of various numbers of particles subject to the constraint that n0l mixed nearest neighbor pairs must be present.1 q1 \ U01 .q  1 [NOV. \ ways. 2.q .r — ) are one kind and the remainder another kind can be arranged in \n0l .1 = 9separations between 10 particles.~ — ] = 4 are separations which constitute two mixed nearest neighbor pairs (two short horizontal lines) and q .e.2 1 r — ) of these lines symbolize the separation of the particles by two mixed nearest neighbor pairs and q . (See Fig.354 MIXED NEAREST NEIGHBOR DEGENERACY FOR / N .. As before we initially regard these "units" as identin cal regardless of their composition. ^— of . Of course the end compartment on the right could have been occupied (and the end compartment on the left empty) so that if nol is odd we obtain fNqy\l (D A(n0l. These q . of course. 1.~ r — ) lines symbolize the adjacency of two particles. 2. The "units" are.^ .q vacancies but not all of them are permutable." i. For arrangements consistent with situation (a) there are always ( ~ \ "units.1 lines.1  ( 1—— J = 5 represent separa tions between occupied nearest neighbor pairs.1  ( . of which ( . 4). to create a mixed nearest neighbor pair. if we require that the compartment on the left end of the array is occupied (and the end compartment on the right is empty) then there are independent arrangement possible." each of which consists of a particle or a contiguous group of particles together with a facancy (if one is needed) to separate a "unit" from other "units.1 lines which symbolize the separation of the q particles.1 \ ways. 3) (b) both end compartments are occupied (see Fig. Of these separations ( . Figure 2 considers the particular arrangement shown in Fig.) f . The q separations may be arranged in f r J = 126 independent ways. not identical.q./V) = 2\ n01 . There are q .
one at each end. In this figure N = 19. two vacancies. independent ways. In addition.1  ) fy 1 J = 4 permutable vacancies (marked withx's) or a total of 8 objects which can be permited in ( J ) ways to form independent arrangements.j ways of arranging the q particles in the ( nj) "units.1' ! (marked withx's) or a total of 8 objects which can be permited in [\\ j = 5 permutable vacancies ) ways.q . Of these lines represent separations of the particles by two mixed nearest neighbor pairs and •'(V lines symbolize the separation of adjacent particles.19. In this figure N .1  n0l .1 lines can thus be arranged in f n„.^ f 3 permutable "units" (crosshatched) and N .2 \ . There are q ." This can be shown by the following reasoning. are not permutable.# = 10. g = 10. There are f . SKS» to Figure 4. . These can be arranged in Nq 1 T) . These q . Thus there are 1 Nq 1 Nq "oi permutable vacancies and a total of Nq\"f + nf = Nq\ permutable objects. The "units" are not identical as we have assumed. There are ("f "units" (crosshatched) and N ."''"f. „ 0 I = 8 and both end compartments are empty.1976] PARTICLES ON A OiEDlIVIEWSIOWAL LATTICE SPACE 355 §g§Mxi§»§a Figure 3. There are (f'.1 lines that symbolize the separation of the q particles (see Fig./?ol = 8 and both end compartments are occupied. 5). these vacancies are required to form mixed nearest neighbor pairs because one of the "units" (either the one to the extreme right or to the extreme left of the array) does not need a vacancy to isolate it.q .
4. 6). There are q .q .1 which separate adjacent particles.^ = 4 "units"in 21 ways so that there is at least one particle per unit. There are q . Within the \7r\ 2 I "units" the particles can be arranged in (V) ways.1 objects which can be permuted. ofoofoofooo{oo Figure 6.1 = 3 form two mixed neighbor pairs (short double horizontal lines) and 9 . This figure considers the particular arrangement shown in Fig. The 9 separations may be arranged in f g ) independent ways. of these lines y constitute separations of the "units" by two mixed nearest neighbor pairs and # .( — ^ J permutable vacancies or a total of N . Of these separations ( ~ ) = 4 represent separations by two mixed nearest neighbor pairs and 9 .1 = 9 separations between ^ = 1 0 particles.4 = 5 represent separations of occupied nearest neighbor pairs. 4.1 ) =6 are occupied nearest neighbor pairs. n Thus the particles may be arranged within the . For situation (b) there are ( ^——— 1 permutable "units" composed of a particle or group of contiguous particles and a vacancy to separate the "unit" for other "units. This arises because there are q — 1 lines symbolizing the separation of the q particles (see Fig.) There are/1/ . This figure considers the particular arrangement shown in Fig. These objects can be arranged in //Vql\ nni2 \ ways." (See Fig.1 = 9 separations between the q = 10 particles.1  ( "f .1 lines can thus be arranged j are lines . This fs^the number of ways the q particles can be arranged to form ( ~) ments on both ends are vacant. Of these separations  ^ J . Thus when both end compartments are empty there are (Nq\\ I q\ "units" when the compart \ ways of arranging the q particles to yield exactly n01 nearest neighbor pairs. These q . These 9 separations may be arranged in ( ^ ) ways.q .1 .356 MIXED NEAREST NEIGHBOR DEGENERACY FOR [NOV. 3. ways. oooofooc4o{oo Figure 5.
Phys. N) can be shown to be (3) ^A(n„. lsing.\ \ ( q\\ ways.31. 13. Thus the total number of arrangements possible when nol is even is (2) AK„*. N) is given alternately by Eq. 1 and 2 and where the sum is over all possible values of n REFERENCES 1. E.q. when both end compartments are occupied the q particles may be arranged in f N . R.l \ nf j \ n f _ ^ + { n f _ .\ \ l N . 2. Consequently.q .Z/ 7 /7]/^. j [^ J Normalization for A(n0im q. . Math.my //I/71 \ ( q .. 1317 (1972).7o(/r.1976] PARTICLES ON A ONEDIMENSIONAL LATTICE SPACE r~in1 \ 2 ways.q . McQuistan. B.N)= (Jf) where /l/}? 01/ q.\ \ l q .253(1925).
*.  (0. Firstthe initial values of Fj. This was a result of pure mathematical curiosity and speculative creativity. Hoggatt. The Fibonacci Quarterly. bj from C. Fn+2 = Fn + Fn+1. In principle. Chicago. » i=0 e Z. viz. one is immediately exposed to the danger of losing the royal property of the original Fibonacci numbers.3) Fj = 1. for the calculation of Fn+V from (0.J has seen a new and rapid development in the last two decades. The author applied. it is possible to drive this inconsiderateness still further and choose aj.1) could be arbitrarily chosen. the study of the Fibonacci sequence (0. O.A FORMULA FOR FIBONACCI NUMBERS FROM A NEW APPROACH TO GENERALIZED FIBONACCI NUMBERS LEOPJ BERNSTEIN Illinois Institute of Technology. . this is possible also for Fn+V from (0.3).a].2. which led him to suggest that the sequence of the original Fibonacci numbers should actually be defined by (0. »• A While trying to generalize the original Fibonacci number to higher dimensions. VAUGHN. Fm\Fmj<. would be the following: let Fj = aj n1 £ Fn+V = / Fn+V = E (02) ajf bj bF i v+i. Together with the study of the original Fibonacci sequence (0. 1.. In a previous paper the author [1.c]. . ni i=0 The author succeeded to calculate Fn+V in a comparatively simple explicit formula. F0 = O. viz. This damage has not yet been repaired for Fibonacci numbers of dimension n > 2. ] Fj = O (i = 2. (n = 1.. most general generalization. and in a joint paper Hasse and the author [1. This generalization could lead into various directions.2. and the author conjectures that this will remain a Utopia " 358 . and this gave birth to the Lucas numbers. the Fibonacci master. by means of Euler's generating functions.4) F. California.1) Fj = F2= 1. bj fixed. (j = 1. Jr. Of course. The most reckless. But the author thinks that the time is ripe for some kind of a Dicksonsurvey of all the splendid results in the Fibonacci Wonderland which has fascinated mathematicians for the last 775 years.n) (v = 1. The impressive list of brilliant mathematicians who have contributed is too long to be mentioned here. taking us to dimensions beyond the imagination or needs of Leonardo da Pisa. the JacobiPerron algorithm [1. under the devoted guidance of its founder. [3] of San Jose State University. without any application to the freightening population explosion of rabbits. F2 in (0.1) went the generalization of these sequences. in addition to many other stepchildren. n). since the son of Bonacci wrote his Liber abaci in 1202. JR. But one should make a halt somewhere. Illinois 60616 DEDICATED TO JAMES M. Fn+2 = Fn + Fn+1 (n = 1.2).) aj. INTRODUCTION Ever since the establishment of the Fibonacci Association and its main publication..b] have investigated the most simple case of the general generalization of the Fibonacci numbers. Verner E.j = 1.
one would suggest that the natural generalization of the generating polynomial would be (0.5). there are many elaborate methods to find the basis (the maximal set of fundamental units) of the multiplicative group of units in a numeric. one should look into another direction than (0. So the generalization (0. an abstract [1.1) are any free parameters.. 1. kj fixed (i = 1. THE NEW APPROACH In two previous papers [1. will soon appear in a paper. (1. ki. '». (0.7) does not supply the natural generalization for the original Fibonacci numbers.5) for the original Fibonacci numbers.+ kniw + kn = O. one obtains generalized Fibonacci numbers (of dimension two) Fan of the form ( Fa. then w is always a unit.8) \ Fgfn+2 = Fa>r) + aFa. kn) as a functional algebraic number field. and new horizons must be searched. by easy calculations. alas. —. Now.c] were the first pioneers to state explicitly units in functional algebraic number fields of any degree n > 2. The basic ideas of this new technique. But. and its . if kn = ± 1 in (1.s fcfE(".6) a / „= P i=0 V ' t. We do dare to think that the author. if the kj. Since the new technique is based on the knowledge of one or more independent units in an algebraic number field of any degree n > 2. 1976 359 In this context the question arises: what is the natural generalization of the Fibonacci numbers.5). the generating polynomial for the original Fibonacci numbers is ( P(x) = x2 .A FORMULA FOR FIBONACCI NUMBERS FROM A MEW . we had hoped to arrive at a new formuiafor Fn.x . By a technique which will be developed in the next chapter. a e N.') • (0. In this case it seems almost impossible to state one or more independent units in Q(w.f)] of this paper has been published. ••'fn).n + 1 • For 5= /. if any? For this purpose.2..1). and in a few joint papers the author and Hasse [1.:. Generalizing (0.(°)Ml As is seen from (0. will come up with a treasure of new and interesting combinatorial identities which could probably not be proved with elementary means. These identities are of a quite complicated nature. and only a combinatorial master like Leonard Carlitz [2] could have succeeded to prove them by elementary tools. these units must. e)] the author has established a few new combinatorial identities by means of a new technique.n  Z in1i\n12if (n __ l 2 ^ } i==0 (0.2). APPROACH TO GENERALIZED FIBONACCI NUMBERS NOV. —„ kn) explicitly (they must not be fundamental). given algebraic number field Q(w). and demanding that the two roots of the new polynomial be units. /f. be explicitly stated.d). P(a) = P(fi) = 0 from which. A word about its contents.1. a and 0 are units in Q(yf5).1) I \ wn +k11wtl~1 + . kn from (1. As is known.7) P(x) = x2 ax7.  kj G Z. once they have become familiar with this technique. the two well known formulas are derived: . In this case we speak about Q(w) = Q(w. together with a few illustrations. This led to the original generating polynomial (0. The situation is entirely different. Of course. —.8) become the original Fibonacci numbers. as should be. The author doubts not that mathematicians. of course.
m = +1. and the author is sure that. n.. one calculates first the positive powers of e. Thus.d)] the author obtained the combinatorial identity l m .D. has been investigated by the author [ 1.m 9i. students are already working on this subject. By means of Euler's generating functions. explicitly..m+92.. and by the author ahd Hasse [1.mW = Q. n) where e is explicitly stated.360 A F O R M U L A FOR FIBONACCI NUMBERS FROM A NEW [NOV.identities can be obtained.1x (1.g)] for the purpose of constructing periodic JacobiPerron algorithm.h)l for the purpose of obtaining n . . by means of his new technique.5)  + hl.. as we have seen led to essentially nothing new.1). obtained by adjunction of w to Q..mWi = Q. proceed as follows: let P(x) = xn + k1xn~1 + . has the form .J bLm G e~m = C1fm+C2. by comparison of coefficients of powers of w. am (1.2) PM + knf kj^Z = 0.8) and a polynomial in 1 Ml±^Ja2 +4).1).~) one obtains.1) Pn(x) = (xD1)(xD2l(xDn)d. which usually involve /7's order determinant with combinatorial coefficients (or their linear combinations) as entries. ••. m 4. n1 1. THE G E N E R A T I N G P O L Y N O M I A L A polynomial o v e r Z o f the form (2. 7 . (i = 1. Let Q(w) be the algebraic number field over CL. .+ kn.mW+ cim e Q. in order to obtain the natural generalization of twodimensional Fibonacci numbers and a new formula for the original ones. For generalized Fibonacci numbers of dimension n > 3. The generating polynomial for the natural generalization of the original Fibonacci numbers to the dimension two.mW+ (1.n. The case n = 3 has been investigated by my Ph. but an identity of the numbers Fan from (0. as exposed in the a/m abstract. We are now taking the liberty of marking the following Statement.mW" (i = I .D. i t will be definitely worthwhile investigating the case \kn\ = 1 in (1.4  2i i=0 i=0 2s = n . 2. + . •). n > 2.m+b2.  + n 1 bn.2m. (i = 1. . viz. m = 0. This technique. 7. n. student Seeder [ 5 ] . f o r the purpose of obtaining combinatorial identities. we shall investigate the case/7 = 2 of (2. e = a1 + a2w+ I a.1 \2k1 +2s E k=0 i=0 (1.7) n .» 2. and his Ph.k . Let further j + anwn~~1.4) (1. many new combinatorial. generalization (0. 5. Then from 9l.n) R. e Q.6) (i = l.n1 Cn.m + 9n. the necessary identities.7).~. which.1 independent units in afunctional algebraic number field of degree n.n iw ~ . in [1. In this paper.
D2)2 = t2d2.D2) = d .1976] APPROACH TO GENERALIZED FIBONACCI NUMBERS FJx) = i (22) (xDjfxDJd. and can.tf}.Dx)(wD2) d f 1. If we now drop restriction (2. Dx . 381 d e N.2) must remain valid.2) are chosen for convenience sake.d. (2. Dx . The greater of the two roots of FJx) will be denoted by .2).[•/>.D2 = 0 (mod of). 2 xx . Proof.4).7). x2 ' =DiD2+L. The lemma holds. we immediately derive Theorem 1. We have (2. „.D2I that d is odd.5) (2. d e N. as the reader will see later.D2)2 +4d is not a perfect square. 1 = (\t\d + 1)2. G Z. 2 For  f  = /._. we have (Dx . generally. (2. Dx . (Dx . w2 e R. The restriction d t m2 is convenient in another context. (Dx .Dx)(x D2)d.7) Then. Since Fjx)=x2 . since f/Z7t .D2 = 0 (mod of) is irreducible over Q (over Z ) . d t m2. wD2 (wDx)(wD2) wD2 d ^w_D2 _ = D i 2 l We have thus obtained: (2. From Lemma 1.5) Dx+D2+J(D~^~D2T~4d' w = wx = — For later purposes we shall need the expansion of w as a simple continued periodic fraction. be dropped for the definition of FJx).D2) +4d = d2 + 4df For If > 1. The other restrictions of (2. (2. wx > w2 . both are not necessary conditions. FwmDx . i xj 1 _ d 2 wDx x _ / wDx d(wD2) (wDx)(wD2) (w.4) Dx.3) +4d '" Dx +D2 J(DX ~D2)2 + 4d 2 = ™2 wx . Dx > D2 . as the reader can easily verify. we obtain °±Z°l D 2 + w DxD2 d _ D i = D i l wDx d _ D 2 + 2 _DXD2 d ± x3 / . The polynomial FJx) = (x. We now prove Lemma 1. m e Z The last two restrictions on f 3 M from (2.D2 = 1(2) would follow. The roots of F2 (x) are real quadratic irrationals. Dx . d t m2. even without the restrictions/?! . 2 2 t e Z . as we shall see.D2 = 1(2).D2 = 1(2).D2) +4d < This proves the Lemma 1 completely. we have ^ j .6) and make the restriction (2. We have from (2. Notation 1.D2 = td.D7 e Z.8) = d. t2d2 < t2d2 +4d < t2d2 +2\t\d+ (\t\d) 2 and (d+1)2 < d2 +4d < (d + 2)2. 2 (\t\d+1)2.(Dx + D2)x + DXD2 . DUD2 Dx > D2. < (Dx . the two roots of F2 Ware Dx +D2 + J(DX DJ2 2 (2..
we obtain (2.: are there indeed infinitely many real quadratic fields of the form Q(sJ(Dx .D2 = 0(d). e QM. let us presume .10). and shall operate with integers of the form (2. in the sequel. only with the unit (wD2)2 d regardless of whether e is fundamental or not. d = 1. though this question could be easily answered. Since e is in the ring R[w]. As is known. We further have N(e) = (N(wD%))2 d2 = ((wx D2)(w2 . as was mentioned. A FORMULA FOR FIBONACCI NUMBERS FROM A NEW (2. w~D2 We shall. We return to the original case. but shall return to it later.11) = e = (—°^ erl is a unit in Q(w). eliminate the case tf = /.wD2 (2. we have e = = (2 12) u Ui ' w2 2D2W Dl = (Dx +DJw DlD2 +d2D2w d \ ] + e > 1 + D22 d _D2(DlD2) + (DlD2)w +d thus e is an integer. from (2. That (wD2)2 ——. viz. we also do not need to construct a basis for Q(w). for the time being.9) is valid also for the conditions of (2.6) (wDJ2(wD2)2 h d2 we obtain (2. Formula (2. Dx = I D2 = 0. = 0. so that tfd=l. A last question remains to be resolved.362 [NOV.y e Z .11a) is a unit in Q(w).10) x2x1 } w2w1 = 0.D2)2 +4d)l To prove this.10) leads. to the original Fibonacci numbers. d is a unit in Q(w) can also be proved directly. Thus formula (2. d = J.13) j3 = x + yw. since Dx .f l J ^ V ^ i D2)2 a \ = d~2 d2 * I +4d 2 <DX D2)y/(pi • DJ* 2 +4d \ 2 J We shall operate.D2))2 2 d H 2 / (°i . x. a unit in Q(w) = Q(y/(Dl D2)2 +4d is given by 6l = Xl 2 = * J^~D~J2 and since. d = 1.9) If we set w = [DUDX DJ .
With (3.4) n = 0. w2 = (D\ (3.6). From (3. 3.1). t.D2dt3 + dt2)yn + (D2t + dt2 + Dyn+1 Substituting here the value of txn from the second formula of (3. THE POWERSOFT In this chapter we shall give formulas for the explicit calculation of en and e"n.1). (3. (tn = 1(2). +D2)w 1 + tw.D2dt3 + dt2)yn + (D2t + dt2 + Dyn+1.6) we obtain Vn+2 and substituting here the value of xn+i Yn+2 = (D2t+1)txn = txn+1 + (D2t + dt2+ Dyn+1. +2t) + dt2 + 1.1).e = (xn+ynw)[(D2t+ e"+i An easy calculation. + (D%t . .1) e = D2t+ 2 From w =(D. We have from (2. we further obtain = e". d ? m\ D2 = td.D2dt2 + dt)yn + (2D2t + dt2)yn + l(D2t+1)yn + txn] w. taking into account (3. 'we obtain (3. (3. with Dx = D2 + td. y0 =0. Now.12) = D*(°i 6 D2> + d + (Dx D2)w d " and with Dx . 1. (3. 363 f G Z. x2 = D2(dt3  xx = D2t+ 1. n. we obtain Vn+2 = (D2t+1)[yn+1(D2t + dt2+ 1)yn] + (D^t2 . m e Z) has no square factor. yx = t. yields en+1 = xn+1+yn+1w = (D2t+1)xn 1) + tw] . from (3.2) e2 = .D2)2 +4d = t2d2 +4d. that for infinitely many n. This is the central result of this paper from which the new formula for the original Fibonacci numbers will be derived..2) +D2dt) + d + (2D2 + dt)w. ••). t2n2 + 4n. Then (Dx .3) we have \ (3 5)  x0 = 1. Erdos [4] has proved. hence xn+1 (3 6)  \ + (D2tD2dt2 = (D2t+1)xn yn+l 2 + dt)yn. y2 = dt3 +2t.2). + (DJt2 . One calculates easily from (3. (3. we obtain. n ? m2. = 1(d).6). .4). (n = 0. = txn + (D2t + dt +1)yn . taking into account (3. This proves that there are infinitely many real quadratic fields of the form Q(sJ(Dx DJ2 +4d).D2 = td. DXD2 +d. From the second formula of (3. t fixed.3) We now denote en = xn + ynw.D2 t(dt2 +2) + dt2 + 1 + (dt3 + 2t)w.1976] APPROACH TO GENERALIZED FIBONACCI NUMBERS DxD2 (Z14) j Dx~ m e Z. 1.
1au+u* n=0 From (3.10) E = tuu2 E n=0 + (dt2 + 2)u tu Ynun E n=0 a = dtz + 2.10) we obtain. from (3. for u sufficiently small E n=0 (3.5) OO OO E Ynun = YQ + Y1U+ E n=0 n=2 tuu2 CO Ynun + (dt2 + 2)u E n=0 = tuu2 t""2 CO YnUn = tu + E n=0 yn+2un+2 [(dt2 + 2)yn+1 = tu + E n=0 yn+7u n+1 E n=0 E n=0 ynun + (dt2 + 2)u\\ E \\n=0 E ynun + (dt2 + 2)u £ n=0 Ynun \Y0uL j ynU". ynun E n=0 (3.7) (dt2 + 2) yn+2= yn+1yn.7).364 A FORMULA IFOR FIBONACCI NUMBERS FROM A NEW [NOV. xn+i = j xn+1 = D2yn+1 (D2t + dt2 + [(D2t+ 1)yn+il i)yn+iyn] f1(yn+iYnl + Xn = D2yn + t~~ (ynYnl)en = [D2Yn + t~1(YnYnl)] +YnW.(D2t + dt2 + 1)yn] .7).11) E n=0 y„un Yn"n = tu Y* (auu2) k=0 Ynun = t E k=0 ukH(au)k. This is done by means of the recurrency formula (3. taking into account the values of y0 andy% from (3.6) we obtain Xn = f lVn+1 . n=0 We have obtained. raising the index by one. and. From (3. We obtain. and. to complete the calculation of e we have to calculate/„. or. + dt2+ Xn+1 = j lyn+2(02t and substituting here the value ofyn+2 = j Hdt2 + 2>Yn+l ~yn *n+i (3.8) Thus (3.  yn]un+2 .9) 1)yn+i]. after simple calculations (3.
. THE "NEW" FORMULA We return to the generating polynomial of the original Fibonacci numbers. We shall now proceed to calculate the negative powers of e and use a Kunstgriff for this purpose. viz.4. y w n fE. wf +w2 = Di + D2.12) we now also obtain the value of xn . .: j ^ ./ .. z w2 =  ^ . n = 3. w is a (fundamental) unit.12). .14) e' = D^n = (xn+ynw^Hxn+ynw2). w2 w 1 = O. (4. v0= 0. wx = . fn+1 = f n+9n = fn + (gn + fn>w = fn + fn1 = 9n+i + fn+iw . V1 = t.2) both sides of w. by comparison of coefficients. n = 2. we obtain. xn = D2yn n (3. taking k = n .8) and (3. •••/ / „ from (3. wn = gn + fnw.1) P(wJ = P(w2) = 0. 91 = 0.3.11) powers of un. n = 2.14a) + (D1D2d)y2 = I 4.8).M/( )an~12'\ ~!~'' i=0 and finally <312> Vn = t £ r . so that e~n = xn + ynw2 e~~ But from (3. w = wx In Q(w). we shall calculate its nonnegative integral powers.13) < i=o xo = 1. ~~ VnW The reader will easily verify that the norm equation of en yields x2 + (D1 + D2)xnVn (3. We remember that w = wi./ / ( i=0 y "?'" j(dt2 + 2)n'12i. n n = xn+yn(D1 so 1 + + D2w) D2)ynw. w2 = w+ 1.1. the whole trick consists of n n butN(e ) = (N(e)) N(en) = N(xn+ynw) = 1 = 1. f0 = 0. *n = D2t E M / ( " .^ x1 = D2t+ x2 = D2(dt3 1. that finally + t~ (ynVnil + t'UynYnl) = xn+yn(D1 Vo = 0.1976] APPROACH TO GENERALIZED FIBONACCI NUMBERS 365 Collecting on the right side of (3. we obtain wn+1 = gnw+fnw2 = gnw+fn(w+ f 9n+1 = n.3. We further have n = T xn+ynw2 = xn+ynw (xn+ynwi)(xn+yn\N2) Now..2) g0 = 1.x . y1 = t. P(x) = x2 . + 2t) + dt2 + 1. We have (4. wn+1 1).' ' )(dt2 + 2)n'1'2i i=0 (3. f1 = I Multiplying in (4. From (3.1.
9 . (4. with N(e) = 1> v » z  ? . (4.2) is obtained from (3. we have.4). The analogue for the generalized generating polynomial F2(x) from (2.7) F2n + 1 =( E (I? ( V ) I"'* j " ( Z (W ["'J"' ) I"'= 11.. beautiful formula for F2n. identical with the original one) * Fi = F2=1. .5) and (3.6) is the new. D1f D2 e Z.4) and f2 = 7 yield.1 = 0. F2n = j:(1)i[n1j'i)3n1'2i. so that N(wn) = (_Vn = M(Fn__1 + FnW) 2 + FnWl)(Fn.m have f2 = 1. w e n a y e From (4. d = 1. by the new approach to Fibonacci numbers.366 A FORMULA FOR FIBONACCI NUMBERS FROM A NEW [NOV.5) If we set in (2. and surprising. x* + (Dr + D2)xnyn which solves the Diophantine equation x2+(D1 Oj > D2. (3.7). from (2. = I = 1. + (D1D2 d)y* + D2)xy + (D1D2d)y2 D2 = 0(d). n = 1.£ \i=0 j (n1i\3n12it i=0 ^ so that. of course.Fn .3) (44) fn+2 = fn + fn+1 Since w2 = g2 + f2w = 1 + w. (4.1 + fnw (4. d > 1. a well known formula. with (4.2. since w . 2 Now.12) en = w2n = xn + ynw = g2n+hnw. we obtain. we obtain the sequence (which is. wn = fn.2.3). (4. "' W I In (4.6) F2n = yn> 3 I ° "~ 1 •2i since dt2 + 2 = 3.2. for/7 = 7 in F2n+1. d. wn = Fn1 + Fnw.2) fn = Fn.2). . = f1)n Fn .1 2 = F _1 + (w1 + w2)Fn. so that (4. t = 1./" ( [ n~1i~ii) i=0 (4.2). n = 1. F2n = £ M' . which shows that the fn are the.3. •.11). we have N(w) = 1. (4.j = Fn_7 + Fni(Fn+1 = {fn_1 2 Fn + F w1w2 FniJ + = F _f + Fnw2) FnfFnF2 Fn = FniFn+T . f n+2 = fn + fn+1r fj = f2 = V. Dx = 1. i=0 (4.original Fibonacci numbers.4). Dj .5) t0 define ( °0 ) = 1 . D2 = 0. n = 2.w . F2n+1 «s t n e n obtained from the relation F2n+1 = F 2 n + 2 F 2 n (1)>3"2i( =[i "71 (V1 ) ) .FniFn+j .
2. pp." Pacific Journal of Math. is actually an old formula which could be achieved by elementary means.F2n.. "New Infinite Classes of Periodic JacobiPerron Algorithms. Jr.7 (5.. "Explicit Determination of the Matrices in Periodic Algorithms of the JacobiPerron Type. pp. i=0 6. 293365. L. 1(f). pp. 2. after all. and. 2 (1969). "The Linear Diophantine Equation in n Variables and its Application. pp. 152. of which the original ones would be a special case. L.. as used in this paper. 4. = 3F2n . Special Issue (June 1968). Here is the way it can be obtained from the original Fibonacci numbers: F 2n+2 = F2n+1 + F2n = F2n + F2n1 + F2n = 2F2n + F2n. pp." The Fibonacci Quarterly. this may be considered Altneuland—is the combinatorial identity (5. etc. 1 (c). "Zeros of Combinatorial Functions and Combinatorial Identities. 16 (1965). 264270.. 4 (August 1974). L." Notices of the AM. Bernstein. as the author has called it with unforgivable selfstyled praise.. Eq." Pacific Journal of Math.2) the new formula for F2n+2 is easily obtained by the use of Euler's generating functions. These new results will appear in a book by the author which is now in preparation. V. Hough tonMifflin Co.1) F2n+2 = 2F2n + F2n  F2n2. No. SpringerVerlag (1871). L. "Units in Algebraic Number Fields and Combinatorial Identities. Hasse. . L. Bernstein. Bernstein. the author has found a new.I V . L. ALTNEULAND*AN EPILOGUE The new Formula for the original Fibonacci numbers.3) £ ( 2n 7 '') . pp.2 . E. L. Kg). *Title of the famous novel by the Austrian writer. and from (5. Bernstein and H. 7. Jr. Special Issue (Nov. as he believes. since. Hoggatt. as was pointed out in the introduction.£ (. July issue. (5. secondto demonstrate the powerful use of units to finding combinatorial identities. Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers. 1 (h). No. 131.iy ( " . Vol. 1(d). powerful different technique by using units in algebraic functional fields of any degree for finding new combinatorial identities of higher dimension which surely cannot be proved by elementary combinatorial means. 207. (1969).1976] APPROACH TO GENERALIZED FIBONACCI NUMBERS 367 5. 1 (1976).S. Bernstein.. No." Houston Journal of Math. what we have foundand again. of San Jose State University. REFERENCES 1(a). its Theory and Application. 3. Bernstein and H. . "Some Combinatorial Identities of Bernstein.' ' ) 3n." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Vol. 293365.1) leads to the generating polynomial x23x+1 (5. Bernstein. But finding a new formula for F2n+2 was not the idea of this paper. 1 (b). as was kindly remarked to the author in a private correspondence by Professor Verner E. L Carlitz. 916.12i . "The JacobiPerron Algorithm." in print. Theodor Herzl. 1969). Bernstein. Hoggatt. 1160. 1976. Vol.2) = 0." Lecture Notes in Mathematics/' No. No. L. "Zeroes of the Function F(n)= 5 3 (1)' f n 7 2' J /'Journal of Number Theory. 30. pp. pp. Vol. 191. l . 1(e). "An Explicit Formula for the Units of an Algebraic Number Field of Degree n > 2. The aim was twofoldfirst finding the most natural generalization for Fibonacci numbers. Hasse. i=0 i=0 Besides the technique used in this paper.
I asked my class to write a poem about Fibonacci. "And with Joseph attending. Erdds. They'd certainly be there to make thirtyfour. 1976 4. One very talented student submitted the following: FIBONACCI'S PARTY by Cynthia Ellis The great mathematician Fibonacci Went out to the market and bought a Hibachi. Richard Blecksmith. Thesis. Fib went to the gameroom and sat on the floor And figured the total as onefortyfour. S. "My wife (one) and I (one) make two" figured he. Carefully writing down every amount. P." But then the telephone rang in the hall: His parents would be there. 416425. Illinois Institute of Technology (1976) unpublished. Pennsylvania 16802. oh. Pennsylvania State University. So he crawled to the bar and swalled a dose And started to wonder how three grew to gross. Mathematics Department.368 A FORMULA FOR FIBONACCI NUMBERS FROM A NEW APPROACH TO GENERALIZED FIBONACCI NUMBERS NOV. And discovered the sequence that now bears his name. Thanks to the party where everyone came. With her and her family the total's thirteen. the total is three. 5. London Math.D. ******* LETTER TO THE EDITOR Dear Editor: I am teaching a survey course at the Pennsylvania State University. the whole bloomin' lot. And 'round from the alley there came at a trot His boss and coworkers. And his wife told him also her parents were coming. Just then he remembered the neighbors next door. But. I hope you like the poem and decide to publish it. University Park. And Loretta brings friends to wherever there's fun. And then his club's football teams pulled in the drive. With sister Loretta—now eight was his summing. Seeder. "Arithmetical Properties of Polynomials/' J. "Units and Their Application to Diophantine Equations and Combinatorial Identities. Soc. So he called his friend Joe and he asked him to come With a small jug of wine or a bottle of rum. and a good friend or two. pp. making five guests in all. he'd forgotten Joe's girlfriend Eileen. 28 (1953). He decided to give a small BarBQue For himself." Ph. So he pulled out his list and he started to count. . So he counted it up and he got twentyone. And he tore at his hair as he thought "Fiftyfive!" While out in the street he saw line after line Of neighborhood moochers to make eightynine. his wife. After two days of studying the elementary properties of the Fibonacci sequence.
(x2 y2)(xy) = f2 e3 = fx3 .y) is irreducible over the rational number field. f1 = 1.("7_~') ] 'lf«~* where w ___2 . if p is a prime. Letx. In their recent paper [ 3 ] . then up(x. we consider divisibility properties of certain polynomials which include the generalized Fibonacci polynomials and a modification of the generalized Lucas polynomials as special cases. Similar results for Lucas polynomials and generalized Lucas polynomials are proved by Bergum and Hoggatt [ 2 ] . r (4) n(x.2(x.y). Indiana 47702 1. and the generalized Fibonacci polynomials.y)]/(x y) = f3 + 3zfx e4 = [x4 .i(x. = (x y)/(xy) = fx c2 .y) = 0. In this present paper. INTRODUCTION The Fibonacci numbers. Evansvilte. all have the following divisibility property: (1) If m\n.y) + yun. 369 = \ %: 2)/2 for even n 1)/2 for odd n .y) = /. y.y3 + 3z(x . Define c0 = 0.DIVISIBILITY PROPERTIES OF RECURRENT SEQUENCES CLARK KIMBERLII\IG* University of EvansvilSe.z) £ + / [ ( " / " ' ) . ui(x. and an(x.y) = (xnyn)/(xy) for n > I it is easy to write out the first few sin(x.z) (fynl(f)+zzn2(f) = zn(f) =  Hn_l{f)+zin_2{f) for even n + 2zlnnn f Q r o d d n> where f' is replaced by f. fi6 = f6+6zf4+9z2f2 c7 = fn +7zf5 + 14z2f3 +7z3fx 28 = f8+8zf6+20z2f4 + 16z3f2 c9 = f9 +9zfn +27z2fs +30z3f3 + 9z4f.v. the Fibonacci polynomials. a result originating with Webb and Parberry [ 5 ] .y) = f4 +4zf7 c5 = fs +5zf3 + 5z2f. In general. zjf) = f = fx.y. I ____ ^Supported by University of Evansville Faculty Research Grant A6D0240. fo= 0. ____ .y2)]/(x . Hoggatt and Long prove (1) and more: (2) If/77 > / a n d / ? > /. u0(x. z be indeterminants and let (3) fn = (x + ylfn^xyfn2.un) = u(m/fl) r Further. these latter defined by Unfcy) = xun.y. then (um.z) as follows: £0 = 0 = f0 z.y4 + 4z(x2 . for/ > 0 after the multiplications involving fare carried out Since fn{x. then um\un .
5 2 1 . Let x(t) = 1xtzt2 = (1txt)(lt2t) 1+zt2 (1 xtzt2)(l and ytzt2) y(t) = 1.z) are as follows: Fibonacci numbers Fibonacci polynomials generalized Fibonacci polynomials modified Lucas numbers modified Lucas polynomials generalized modified Lucas polynomials a +Q = 7.y.z) .z) =^ ^ . AB = y zn(a. and Lucas numbers Ln(1. 5 2 1 .7. v. LQ(X.0). m section of the series in (7) is sm (x)tm1 + s2m(x)t2m1 + [sm(y)tm1 +s2m(y)t2m1 which we write as fr y)(*mtm1 + *2mt2m1 Again as in [ 1 ] . the sequencesn(x) .0.„(1. 1.121.Z) = 2. 11.47.z).5.n(A.y.z). the proof is finished.n(1. Z.z)\sin(x.Ln(y. for/7 .z).y. It is easy to check that and it is well known [1] that x'(t)/x(t) (7) generates a sequence of sums of powers of roots ofx(t).29. A MULTISECTION THEOREM Lemma L The sequence &n(x. where snfx) = t" + t% is the /7f/7 (unmodified) generalized Lucas polynomial Ln(x. 18.29.ytzt2 = (1 . Thus. Explicitly.z) for odd n xzn(x.y . 1.4. 1 9 9 .y. 3 2 0 .45. .4. sin(a.z) = \ Ln(x. for/7 = 0..t4t).y. we know that sm (x) + $2m Mt + ••• = X'(t)/X(t). (xy)G(x. 123.y.t?t) = 1 sm (x)t + (~z)mt2. 9.t)= Proof.b.t3t)(J .7. 3 2 2 .z) = x. X(t) = (1 .y. In Section 3 we prove that consecutive terms of the sequence sin(x. —. . then sim(x.[s Jy) + sjyh + . •••. \im\n.0). .. where m > 7 and /7 > 1.7 a + b = x.yfz) are relatively prime. 2.y.1) zn(x.Ofz) For comparison with (unmodified) sequences of generalized Lucas polynomials Ln(x.z)2zn/2 for even n.^ ^ > x . In Section 5 we prove that (2) holds for the sequence SLn(x. (The multisection procedure used here is explained in Chapter 4 of Riordan [4].76.370 DIVISIBILITY PROPERTIES OF RECURRENT SEQUENCES [NOV. 1. Theorem 1. Ln(x. In Section 2 we prove that the divisibilities in (1) hold for the polynomials sin(x.z)+zLn2(x. 2. where m is fixed. we have.zft) = { s Jx) + s2(x)t + .z). Li(x. +"').B. .z) = xLn„](x.z).sn(y) generated in (7) is Ln(x. Several special cases of the polynomials SLn(x. a/3 = . 16.0. ab = 1 A+B = x.)The m .1): 2. .tftHl and similarly.1) %n(x.] \ . <5) (6) *n(x.y. c„ (1. In Section 4 we prove the same for sequences of the form zmn/Q.z.z). In Section 6 we consider the irreducibillity of some of the sin(x.0). Lucas polynomials Ln(x.7. i Ln{x.1).0.1.$.3.z).1): 0. 11.z).zl Proof. where . is generated by the function G(x.0.m. + •••].76. 1 9 9 . By (6).y.l).
Then for any odd n. Lemma Let zn = Qn (x. xzn~2 xz"~ 1 (xinl+4z{n~2)/2Kl = xSLn„2*n + ( = xzzn2un + (xzn1 + 4z "~ ( 1)/2 hn 1 .z) for n > 0.x V 1 (x*n + ^n.t) = LX + L2t + L3t2 + — readily provides a well known (e.Q.1. Reading* for f i n (4). Then for/? > 1.(n2)m+2z  ' even n '' for even m.+ m I x9. zn+1>= 1 for n > l Proof.0. Then for any xz"'2 1 xz"' = (xin2 + 4z {n'2)/2hn + 2z in'2)/2hn. we see that* divides zn (x. .x(zn1 1 n/2 (xzzn„2+4z hnx(zsin_1+2zn2hn_1 = (xznx\1+4zn/2)znxzn1(zzn1+2zn/2) = n/2 = (xsin + 4z )Qn . Substituting for the L's according to (5). I zm(xz(nl)m Vnm = zm^(n2)m forodd/7? and odd/? f° r °dd +Z %(n2)m m/2 m anc m (n 1}m/2 h(n„1}mz 9.z. 2.y +4z("1)/2)zzn1 +x\9. Suppose its validity for arbitrary odd/7.zifor n > 0. Let 2. n_1 2z(n~1}/2})zn i x(zn+ xz Proof.YW 371 YU). we readily obtain the following lemma for modified generalized Lucas polynomials.z) for/7 > 0. Then for n > 2. Then *m +*2mt +   ~^r + H1t + H2t2 = zm[l(z) t ](H0 ..mSl(n_1)m *nm = (xlm+2z Theorem + +4z(n'1)/2fcn+i + (xzni forodd/? n 2  (xzn+4z ~ hnxzni%n+i for even/7. CONSECUTIVE RELATIVELY PRIME POLYNOMIALS The m . 9. where Y(t) = (1 t%t)(1 t%t) = 1sm(y)t (z)mt2.n+i are of the isxmx'zJ where 0 < / < 1 and 0 < / < / 7 .0. 3. 2.z) only when n is even. + (xzn1+4z("1)/2)zn+1 1 x2wni + 4xzi"1)/2hn 1+xsin) .m Lete^ = SLn(x. 2z(n~]f)m/2).1. Corollary 2. The proposition is obviously valid for/? = /. [4]) recurrence relation Lnm = LmLfnDm(z)mL(n2)m for subsequences of (unmodified) generalized Lucas polynomials.1 + = (xin+4zn/2hnxzn1zn+1 2zn/2) ..X'Y)(H0 m 2 + ) + .n„1 = x{iin + 2z("( 1)/2 = x(zn+2z " 1)/2 hn hn + (xsin_ 1 + 4z ("~ 1}/2)(zsin.0. Sincex'z divides consecutive e's.g.>).2z "~ 1)/2 )z^ / + frs„1 + 4z ("~ 1)/2)zzn„ = x(z„ xzn.7 =Qn(x. even n. we have / = 0. . + Thus. if n = km.1976] DIVISIBILITY PROPERTIES OF RECURRENT SEQUENCES sm (y>+ S2m (yh +  . Then (zn.(z)m Therefore. m section of xG(x. Theorem 2 shows that the only possible divisors of both zn and 9. Equation (4) shows that/= 0. = x(zn 2z("1)/2hn + (xin1+4z("1)/2)zzn1 + = x(*n +2z("1)/2hn + fre„.Q. Now suppose the proposition valid for arbitrary even n. then sin = sim [H^i + H1t + H2t2 IXY' . Hk3]. + H1t + H2t2 Write 1/XY KH0 + .
z).y.y. By Lemma 3.z) for/7 > A Then for/7 > 7. Therefore ATA. Then by Theorem 1. .y.z) = 7 + ze(x.0) and $. Proof.y. we have zn(x. J xzm C 2/TI = { for odd/7? M m/2 2 2m for even m. By Lemma 2. Proof In Lemma 2.z).y.m/2 ./ +z.0).z).n(x.y. Suppose d(x.y. x 7r/i/. Then d(x.0) = fn for/? > 0.z) = q(x..372 [NOV.n2.Z(n1)m ^(n1)m ^ \ = *2*n1 • Q For even m.l.n(x.^ m / 2 A „ .y.y. and let X ^ „ =Qnm/%m for/7 > 0. Then (zn. unless e(x.y.y) divides xyfn2. divide both sides of the three recurrence relations by Qm. x 9.7 .z). = = 3. X„ = a 2 . 4.z) is the zero polynomial./^ = /. Do the Xsequences also inherit from the e sequence the property that consecutive terms are relatively prime? Lemma 4a. Then for odd/?7 and/? > 7.z) for/7 > 0. d(x. \ x£m +4z Thus.Thus d(x. and replace Aem by \ 2 . Clearly (fiJ2> fofe) ^ Suppose for arbitrary n > 2 that (fn_2.z) has no such term.z} divides sin(xfytz).z)iorn Lemma > 0. fni) = 7.tfd(x.y.y) divides both fnj and fn then by (3). Therefore e(x.y. is 1. Since each term is divisible by the first term./ M Proof = j X2X/77 I a 2 . and for even /77.Ofz) for/7 > 0. Theorem 4a.z) is the zero polynomial. . DIVISIBILITY PROPERTIES OFRECURRENTSEQUENCES 3.0. let us divide all terms by the first.y. n. sin+1)= Lemma 7 for/7 > 7.7?XA7_2 + 2z (n~1)m/2 X^ = < 1X2X^7 +zm\n2 for odd n foreven/7.0) divides both Q.y.y.y. with X# = 0and X7 = 7. recalling that \/< = Qkm/^m for/r = /7. LetX„ = \m/n(x.m/2n 4h.y. \m.z).y. Since 1 +ze(x.z) for some q(x.n(x.y.z) divides both zn(x.y.z)q(xfy. . Now replace x e ^ _ i ) m by \2^n1 for odd /77. Proof.m _ i^2^n^2z(n1)m/2)\n + nm/2 1 (X2^n 4z + (\2\n1+4z<n1}m/2)\n+1 )\nX2Xn'An+i for odd/7 for even/7. Letc^ = zn(x. But Q.y. Consequently.z m A n .fn2) = ?• But the only divisor of both fn^2 and ^ .y. *cfa.n(x.z) and zn+i(x. some nonzero multiple of zx occurs in the polynomial ze(x. I X 2 X „ .2m = J. Letc^ = o.y. LetX„ = \mn(x. ^2m^ Q3m^ '" > where m > 1.y. for/7? > 7and/r> 7.n(x. Let X„ = \m. In this section we consider subsequences of the form zm. Then fe^.y.z) occurs in q(x.0. SUBSEQUENCES OFe.n+l(x.n(x.n whenever kI/7.z).y) divides fn2.z)= 1. sincez does not divide s. d(xfy.z) for some e(x. Therefore the term X in 9.2 * 2z(n'1. zn+i)= Theorem 7 for/7 > 7.z)q(x. since (xy.z). Then for odd/77 and/7 >2.4zm/ for even m.4zm/2)\n 7 for odd/7? for even //?.z)+ze(x. so that d(x. Nowz does not divide q(x.k\^m. for odd/77.
yml the proof of Lemma 3. 1 for/7 > 1.m. z (Kn2z )\n+Kn. X„ = (zmXn2 + 2z(n1)m/2) modX 2 for odd n. Lemma 5.m _ _ f V ^ « . as in theproof of Lemma 1.1976] DIVISIBILITY PROPERTIES OF RECURRENT SEQUENCES 373 Referring to the proof of Theorem 1.2z(n1)m/2+zm(zmXn4 km + z Xn2k for k= + 2z(n3jm/2) n it2.Ofzm)+si2(X2. for/7 > 0.i\n+7 . Theorem 4a shows that the only possible divisors of both Xn and Xn+i are of the form X'2zJ\ where 0 < / < / and 0 < / < (n .[\n . Then (Xn. Proof. so that (4) gives (for odd m only).Dm. Thus Theorem 2 applies with x and z replaced by \ stated above. Here the exponent of x to be considered is rather than n~1.Thus/ = 0.t] . by (4). + \v\\n = \mn(x.4   . Now for any m. \l+\ 2 t + . = Xmfn (xfy.z) 0for all odd m.« r j V ) + V A . The proposition is clearly valid for n = 1. zm).Q.0) = ff<(X2. Proof. LetX„ = Xm n(x. z(n2. Then z(n1)m m/2 j\n] + (X2_2z _f_Xn+i = X„_. we have/ = 0. Then (Xn.f\2 2zm/2)\n1 . + . we have \ n = fnm/fm = fn(xm. Then for n > 1. which isX2. mod Repeated application of this congruence gives X„ . and fpx.0. Eqs.0) = X2~1 for k > I Thus X 2 divides \ n only when n is even. just as in Let X. Proof For odd m. \n+i)= Proof. By Lemma 4b. For arbitrary n > 1. we know that for odd m.0) for/? > 0. As in the proof of Theorem 4a.= G(\2. The result is exactly as for n > 0.. §\nwsm(y) = Ln(y. Then (Xn.Therefore.Dm.0.z)iorn > 0. Theorem 4b. . \n = 9.z). m<n ~ Theorem 6.2m/y..y.2z(n1)m/2+zm\n2 (n 1)m/2 ^2kz  . jl m = 4z(n~1)m/2 + z2mXn. respectively. Further. Xn=nz(n~1)m/2 X2.zmH by Lemma 1.zmft) = i1(X2. m 2 and z . Xn+?) = 7 for all positive integers m and n. Xn+1) = 1 for n > 1. Since z = 0.0. 1+zmt2 so that \ 1 +\ 2 t + . Theorem 5.sm(y). Let/77 and/7 be odd. Lz\Xn = Xmfn(x. Now (3) is used to complete the proof.= G[sm(x). (5) and (6) show \\\%\sm(y)= sm(x) = x9.1Xn+1 . Proof The method of proof is exactly as for Theorem 3. 0. Then for even m and n > 7.2z(n1)m/2l \n by Lemma 4b = ~(Xn2z(n'1)m/2)Xn Corollary 4. Let Xn = \mrn(xfQ.z) for n > 0. Sfzy divides X^ then z y divides e ^ = ^m^n. which by Lemma 4a equals Q. Theorem 4b and the argument just given show that the only possible divisors of both \ n and Xn+1 are of the form z y with 0<j <(n .zm. Since X2 divides consecutive X's.n (\2. w X n ~ IJ i=0 [[ J J ~ [ i2 ) \ z f n2i' wnere w ~ \(n 7j/?forodd/7.m..z) Xn. suppose that Proof.
Xn+j) = 1 for each positive integern satisfying n^ Omoti zm.5nt1A1)/l5(lO. Let Xn = Xmrfl (1. Corollary 6a. Thus if X2 = zm >s a prime. we have X2 = 4. then (Xn.0. 6h. &2m = Qm.If c m is a prime. so that X2 = %m. Therefore both Xn and Xn + i are divisible by X2. Then A2 = C A??. Now for n either odd or even. then Xn = 0 m o d Qm. {1lXni+Xn2 We write out the first 12 X's and factor them X0 = 0 = 0 Xt = 1 = 1 X3 = 11 = / / X3 . If n is odd.+4) X9 = 230701876 = X3 (X2 X6 +3) X10 = 2558523011 = X2X25 X n = 28374454999 = X219933139161. In agreement with Corollary 6a.I f " «s odd and n = 0mod Xm.Therefore X2 = (Xn. Theorem 4a still shows that the only divisors of both Xn and X^zare divisors of X2. we have (Xn.1) forn > 0. Then (Xn. then (Xn.. Example. Xn+i) = zm.374 DIVISIBILITY PROPERTIES OF RECURRENT SEQUENCES In particular. 1) for/7 > 0. Thus (Xn. Xn+f) = 1 Proof. but (XJQ.Xn>iXn+i for even n.m/2 z{n1)m/2\1. ^—. Let Xn = Xm/n(1. Let m be an even positive integer. Since n + 1 is even. . let/77 = 5.By Theorem 4a. by Theorem 1. and if n = 0 mod Qm. we have for n > 2: ( 1lXnj ^A7 = 9. then the conditions Xn =n mod zm and n4 0 mod sim show t h a t e ^ does not divide Xn. To illustrate Corollary 6a.l) = for/7 > 0 and Lemma 4b. so that after dividing by 4 in Theorem 4a. + as desired. For m = 1 and/77 = 3. Xn+1) = I Form = 1. Proof. p u t * = z = / i n Theorem 2. Xn+j) = 1 for 1 <n < 9. for k = r [NOV. This is an immediate consequence of Theorem 4b. we find 1 = Corollary for/7 > 1. l(Xn+2)Xn + (Xn<i+ 1)Xn+1 for odd/7 \ ( (Xn + VXn . DV Theorem 6. Xn+i).0. the only divisors of both Xn and Xn+j are divisors of X2. For/77 = J. By Lemma 4a.n(lO. Thus \ n =n mod Qm. (^n>^n+i) = 1 for n > 1. Recalling the abbreviation ^ 5 . \n^(n1)z<n1. Xn) = 11.^/. X^ divides X.124 = 2231 > 4 = 1375 = XJXl+4) X5 = 15251 = 101151 X6 = 169136 = X2Xl X7 = 1875749 = 2971911 X8 = 20802375 = X4(X2X. Let/7? be an odd positive integer.1) +Xn2 + 2 for odd/7 { foreven/7. then Xn =n mod X2.^5.
z) 375 = Z(m.and d\Xt/< by Theorem 1.k) = 1. Theorem 6.y.0.y. X/<)= 1. If k is a positive integer satisfying (j.y. The remainder of the proof is identical to that of Theorem 3.y. Theorem 8. Once again. Theorem 7. S.z): Lemmas 4a and 4b.y. Lemma 8. The polynomial zn(x. Now e m = Xye^ and e„ = *Xk%d.y.z)+2zn/2 = q(x. Xt/<). Vol.0) must be the constant 1 polynomial.0.zn) = Z(mfn). except that here we have yxn~ stead of zxn~1. Let / = m/d and k = k/d.0. Supposing this one to be d(x. we obtain d\(Xtk.z). Lettf= (Xj. which is to say dKX^.z)torrn>O.0) and q(x.y. and Lemma 7.z).1) if m is even or equal to 1 or 3. Then one of the polynomials d(x.z) for some e(x. Xn) = X(jtk) as in Theorem 7 and Corollary 7 hold if c and X are applied to (x. By Theorem 5.B. pp.n(x.0. Then one of the polynomials d(x. where n is even.0).z).z)for odd n is irreducible if and only if n is a prime.z) must be the constant 1 polynomial. 2. The following items hold true when restated in terms of (x.z) + 2zn = d(x. 119122.y. Then (Xj.0.(mnj and (Xj.y. The polynomial Qn(x. is irreducible over the Proof Suppose sin(x. Theorems 4a and 4b.tk (orsk.0.n) for m > 1 and / > 0.z) = 1 + ye(x.Of 1) and (1. Xt/<+i) as in the proof of Lemma 7 and haved = 1 by Corollaries 6a and 6b. 6. 9.y. 9. Write 1 = sj . by Lemma 7. Lemma 10.z) and q(x.y.z) = 1 +ze(x.y.y.z) + 2zn/2. The polynomial SLn(x.z) + 2zn/ rational number field. The present lemma is an immediate consequence.tj) wheres and fare nonnegative.0) is irreducible over the rational number field if and only if n is a Proof. X^+j).0).z).z) is irreducible over the rational number field if and only if n is a Proof. is irreducible over the rational number field if and only if n = 2k for some k > I Further. Supposing this one to be d(x. The equations (SLm. we have Theorem 1.m(x. For the second statement. If n is not a prime.y. It is known [3] that the generalized Fibonacci polynomial zn(A.z)q(x.0. we have d(x. the polynomial zn(x.y. we have d(x.0. Suppose n is a prime and that zn(x. If n = 2k for some k > 1.y.y." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Letzm = Q.z) for some e(x. zn) = fi<y.y. where A + B =x and AB = y. the remainder of the proof is identical to that of Theorem 3. No.z) and (x. Proof The resulting restatements are special cases.y.1).zj.n). " A Note on Waring's Formula for Sums of Like Powers of Roots.y. . Proof These two results are proved in [ 2 ] . then the polynomial 9. Proof. is irreducible if and only \\ n is a prime. to which the proofs already given apply. zn) = 9. Theorem prime.Therefore (9. SLn(x. REFERENCES in 1.z) = d(x. X/<h Then d\XSJ. IRREDUCIBILITY OF 2 POLYNOMIALS Lemma prime.y. 2 (April 1964).1976] DIVISIBILITY PROPERTIES OF RECURREPJT SEQUENCES 5. Consequently.m. Lemma Let Xj = \rlj(x. Thus d\(\SJ. we have^= 7.z).y.y. THE EQUATION (ZmAn) 7.z)q(x.Xk)=l Proof.0. by Lemma 10. then (Xj.1).(zm.z)q(x. Proof The first statement follows from Lemma 8 exactly as Theorem 7 and Corollary 7 follow from Lemma 7. Let d = (m.y. instead of (x.Thenform>1andn>1. Then the methods of proof of Theorem 7 and Corollary 7 apply.0. L Basin. They also hold for (1. by Lemma 9. Theorem 10.z) + ye(x.
376
DIVISIBILITY PROPERTIES OF RECURRENT SEQUENCES
NOV. 1976
2. G. E. Bergum and V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., "Irreducibility of Lucas and Generalized Lucas Polynomials," The
Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Feb. 1974), pp. 95100.
3. V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., and C. T. Long, "Divisibility Properties of Generalized Fibonacci Polynomials," The
Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 2 (April 1974), pp. 113120.
4. J. Riordan, Combinatorial Identities, Wiley & Sons, New York, 1968.
5. W. A. Webb and E. A. Parberry, "Divisibility Properties of Fibonacci Polynomials," The Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 5 (Dec. 1969), pp. 457463.
*******
THE FIBONACCI SEQUENCE ENCOUNTERED
IN NERVE PHYSIOLOGY
KURT FISCHER
University of Regensburg, Regerssburg, West Germany
The pulses travelling along the nerve fibres originate in local currents of Sodium and Potassiumions, across
the membranes which surround the fibres. The Sodiumcurrent is switched on and off by small amounts of
Calciumions. In order to model the operation of Ca , assume that the Na current flows through identical
transmembrane pores, each made up of a string of /? Na "^binding sites. Also, Qa2+ can enter the pores, occupying two sites per ion, or, one site when entering the pore (cf. Fig. 2). Thus, a pore may momentarily look like
Fig. 1.
0
Fig. 1 A pore in one of its possible states (0: empty site; 1 : Na ; 2 : Ca
)
i l i l i  •'* \\\ * J Q I 5 I O
111 i I i HoTTTTl Qo
lonijj * htnnrm
n
X l o l 2 I 1 l i l o l t I 11 lol I I I
I i \i lol O f IM Ithldl i l
D 3 Inn a 0
rrrrmrTT
Ib~TT rEHmro]
flbTT
or
m rm
£U Ho] DH M L
€EZ n 1 L H 1mflj
S I I n Hm ma
TTo n
LXH
xn n
nm
fTTfo
n
am DS
CO
am
OUT
1—ii ion h n l—1111 ioii 111—i 1M11 IOII
mu
n
1111 i 11 io I
rrnTT n
Fig. 2 Graph for 5site poreprocess; only states with at most one vacant site.
377
Fj
g 2
378
THE FIBONACCI SEQUENCE ENCOUNTERED IN NERVE PHYSIOLOGY
[NOV.
Assume, further, that the particles can jump, in a stochastic manner, into a neighbouring empty site, without
being able to overtake each other. During this process, Sodium may enter and leave the pores on either side,
whereas Calcium may enter and leave at the lefthand side only. Thus, Calcium ions within a pore block the
Sodiumcurrent through this pore.
This model reproduces the relevant outcome of experiments (publication in preparation).
Where and how do the Fibonacci numbers come in?
Let the stochastic process described above be Markoffean. Then, the process is conveniently pictured by a
graph, with its points representing the finite number of possible states of a pore, given by its occupation by
0, 1, 2 (cf. Fig. 1), and its edges representing the allowed transitions between states. Alongside one has a set
of homogeneous linear differential equations of the first order, describing the time development of the states'
probabilities. These are, in essence, the forwardaquations of the Mark offprocess.
For the timestationary case, these equations are conveniently solved by graphtheoretical methods (T. L.
Hill, 7. Theor. Biol. (1966), 10, 442459). Therefore, the graph needs careful investigation.
First, consider only pores with at most one site vacant. Under feasible physical conditions, these states can be
shown to be the only relevant ones: only their probabilities differ appreciably from zero. Then, the graph boils
down to a single cycle (along which Na is transported), and a large tree growing out of the cycle (cf. Fig. 2).
Note that the tree is made up of two types of subgraphs: each type ends in full pores, between which a vacancy travels from right to left (or vice versa). One specimen for each case is indicated by heavy edges, in Fig. 2.
It can be shown, that, in order to calculate the probabilities of the fullporestates of the tree, one can throw
out the onevacancypores, too, ending up, in the case of Fig. 2, with the tree of Fig. 3.
u i t
3 111 ? I 2 m i l a
111111 2
I 2 l 1 Ifl 2 HI 2 Ml 11 m i l l
2 I 2 11 I i l h i 2 Tl M
2 11Ml 11
or
% 1111111 n
Fig 3 Tree of full pores, corresponding to the tree in Fig. 2
From the general structure of the graph of Fig. 2, one infers that the tree of fullporestates within the tree of:
the graph corresponding to /7sitepores (n = 2, 3, 4, —), has the form of Fig. 4.
Counting the number of points, N(n), at level n, one finds
N(n) = Fn
(n =
2,3,4,),
the Fibonacci sequence with Fx = F2 = 1. The tree of Fig. 4 is, indeed, the graph of Fibonacci's original rabbit
family. This fact is based on the Ca2+ entering the pore, from the left, in two steps (cf. Fig. 2), as the ion has
two legs, i.e., elementary charges.
Lanthanum5"'" is known, in its effect on the Na+current in nerve, as a super Calcium. If an analogous model
3+
2+
+
3+
is made, so that La , instead of Ca , switches the Na current; and if La enters the pores in three steps,
then the graph corresponding to Fig. 4 is seen to have the structure of Fig. 5. Now the number N (n) of points
on level n (n = 2, 3, 4, •••) is given by
7 6 5 k 3 2 n Fig.1976] THE FIBONACCI SEQUENCE ENCOUNTERED IN NERVE PHYSIOLOGY etc. For the membrane model maker. 4 Structure of fullporetree for nsitespores etc. with La N3+(n) = N3+(n l) + 2+ instead of Ca N3+(n3). these findings have already been useful. 8 7 6 5 A 3 2 1 3+ Fig. This can obviously be generalized. 5 Tree analogous to Fig. ^kk^kkkk 379 . 4.
However. it is a ready consequence of them. Each positive integer occurs exactly once as a member of some Wyth off pair. (al3. a context unrelated to the game of nim. a2. bl3) = (21. bn)f an+i is defined as the smallest positive integer not among ai. a being the golden ratio (1 + V5)/2. bi) = (1. 2). an. 6. The latter have carefully established the basic properties of the an and bn. bn and then bn+i is defined asan/n + (n + 1). bn) for Wythoffs Nim [1. we refer to the pairs (an. bj). This connection of the Wythoff pairs with the golden ratio suggests to any "Fibonaccist" that the Fibonacci numbers are not very far out of the picture.2). having defined (aj. which states that (1) an +bn = abn 380 .13). The work of Carlitz et.b2) = (3.5) of [ 4 ] . an almost immediate proof can be had. Table 1 The First Forty Wythoff Pairs  n 3/7 bn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 3 4 6 8 9 11 12 14 16 2 5 7 10 13 15 18 20 23 26 n _ _ 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 3n 17 19 21 22 24 25 27 29 30 32 n bn 28 31 34 36 39 41 44 47 49 52 an ~W I F 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 35 37 38 40 42 43 45 46 48 bn 54 57 60 62 65 68 70 73 75 78 n 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 3n 50 51 53 55 56 58 59 61 63 64 ~~bn~\ 81 83 86 89 91 94 96 99 102 104 In examining Table 1. based on Eq. —. bj. 3 ] . Scoville and Hoggatt in their researches on Fibonacci representations [4. Raleigh. bdA) = (55. (3. We recall that the pairs are defined inductively as follows: (aj. These pairs have been extensively analyzed by Carlitz. —. (a2.5). that we have mentioned shows that the an and bn play a fundamental part in the analysis of the Fibonacci number system.bj = (1. (a5. it is interesting to observe that the first few Fibonacci numbers occur paired with other Fibonacci numbers: (al. using the fact that lim (bn/an) = a and also lim (Fn+j/Fn) = a. b2.34). It occurs in relation to the socalled safe pairs (an. and. so that even though that which we are about to report is not described in their investigations. (an. We now look at another connection with Fibonacci numbers. bs) = (8. _ t Wythoff [1] showed that an = fnaj and bn = fna2J.A FIBONACCI PROPERTY OF WYTHOFF PAIRS ROBERT SILBER North Carolina State University. and the sequences lan) and {bn} are (strictly) increasing. bn) as Wyth off pairs. (a34. 89). It is not difficult to establish that this pattern continues throughout the sequence of Wythoff pairs. (a2. The first forty Wythoff pairs are listed in Table 1 for reference.'al. 2. 5. For convenience and for reasons of precedence. a more elegant proof of this appears in [ 3 ] . North Carolina 27607 In this paper we point out another of those fascinating "coincidences" which are so characteristically associated with the Fibonacci numbers. 7]. b2).
2) are eliminated (up to some specified point in the table). ' It is (perhaps) a bit startling to observe that (a3. It is clear that if (am. Then every pairft?1# G2). 62 = 7. b4)= (6. which we recognize at once to be the sequence ax. But (G5. The process is repeated. We define a Wythoff pair to be primitive if no other Wythoff pair generates it. Theorem.7) can be used to generate a Fibonacci sequence in the same way X\\dX(au bj = (1. Clearly there are many Wythoff pairs whose members are not Fibonacci numbers. (alB. b j = (16. b j = (42. For this reason. so that the four terms under consideration are in fact an. Equation (2) with k = bn gives abn + b„ = bbp . so that an+2bn = abn + bn . b3) = (4.7. 10) similarly generates a Fibonacci sequence 6.29. By construction. abn. 16. Thus we see that each Wythoff pair generates a sequence of Wythoff pairs. GJ..an+bn. 12. The first few primitive pairs so determined are pair numbers 1.2) can be considered to determine the usual Fibonacci numbers. 10.NOV. .b3) = (4. it being our intention to state and prove a generalization of the foregoing. 68). We defer the proof momentarily.47. (G3. (a10. 14. The pair (4.bJ = (29. The first few terms of the resulting Fibonacci sequence are 4.3.6. All those generated by (1. (1) an+bn = atn. 26). the theorem follows by induction. Gn+2= Gn+f + Gn. and all pairs generated by that primitive are eliminated. bm) generates (an. GJ. In this way. a2. The first pair remaining must again be primitive. 10). GA). bn). analogous to Eratosthenes' sieve. we take Gj = 4. 1 6 .an+2bn. (a26.47). According to Eq. G6) can be considered as consisting of the third and fourth terms of the Fibonacci sequence generated by (G3. . . The pair (a4.4. bn.68.9. •••.bn. This occasions our next theorem. 1976 A FIBONACCI PROPERTY OF WYTHOFF PAIRS 381 for each positive integer n. and the latter is already known to be a Wythoff pair. the pairs following the first pair of the sequence will be said to be generated by the first pair. bn).7).2) is clearly primitive. £ 4 ) is a Wythoff pair when (Gu G2) is. and sure enough (a4/ bj = (6.i s again a Wythoff pair. a3. (G5. 42. the first such is (a3. 11.8. then m <n.18. It is time for our first theorem. Proof. 26. one can determine the first few primitive pairs by the following algorithm. G3. Consider the first four terms of the generated Fibonacci sequence: an.be the Fibonacci sequence generated by a Wythoff pair (an. 18). Let Gu G2.7). The first pair (1. every Wythoff pair satisfies (2) ak + k = bk . Thus we have proven that in general (G3. (an.11.bn) = (11. bbn .
2 2 1 2 and so on. 10000). If we adda^ and/?. hn) is primitive if and only if n = a^ for some positive integer k. This theorem shows that the number of primitive pairs is infinite. We have seen that the terms of the Fibonacci sequence generated by any Wythoff pair (an. which follows readily from Eq. b^). the Wy'thoff pairs (an. In the simplest case. 100000. Corollary. On the other hand. each 1 in the representation of bn will combine with its shift in the representation of an to yield a 1 in the position immediately to the left of the added pair. 100. (1000. 1000. bn) which are primitive. the pair (1. (In base 2 this would be analogous to saying that bn = 2an and that the largest power of 2 which divides * „ is odd). the Fibonacci sequence generated by any Wythoff pair. (bn + an) + bn has a representation which is exactly the left shift of bn + an. and has the following corollary. which in the Fibonacci number system would be expressed 10. and second.bn) shows clearly that each pair (abk.~. There exists a sequence of Fibonacci sequences which simply covers the set of positive integers. (3. consists of consecutive left shifts of the first term of the sequence.bbn. bbn. This suggests that the value of the determinant applied to the k primitive is k .1.bbbn. bn) with n = a^ a primitive pair. 100). 1 9 15 1 12 20 = 3. No two 1's appear in succession in the representations of an and/?^. By the foregoing theorem. Hence. Proof. since Fn + Fn„i = Fn+i. We conclude by interpreting our results in terms of the findings in [4] and [ 6 ] .1. bn) are those pairs of positive integers with the following two properties: first. the canonical Fibonacci representation of bn is exactly the left shift of the canonical Fibonacci representation of an. abp. A FIBONACCI PROPERTY OF WYTHOFF PAIRS [NOV..*bn. By exactly the same reasoning.382 Theorem. 10000. ba. A Wythoff pair (an. An interesting property of the primitive pairs turns up when we calculate successively the determinants I 3/7 31 bn b1 J ' restricting our attention to those (an. According to the latter.  generated by (an. when expressed canonically in the Fibonacci number system..2) generates the usual Fibonacci sequence. and so forth. so the suggested identity becomes 2 3akbak = k. the sequence an.. bn) must have/7 = a^. This means that bn +an has a representation which is exactly the left shift of bn.abbn.).2) of [4]. bbf<) is generated by (a^. bn. and the generated pairs would be (10. ••• .bn. bn) must have n = bk for some positive integer k. We find that 4 7 1 2 6 10 = 1. bn)are of the form *n. the rightmost 1 appearing in the representation of an occurs in an even numbered position. thus every primitive pair (an. which makes every pair (an. we know that the kth primitive is in fact (aa. From this it is obvious that any nonprimitive pair (an.
Doing so provides in addition a simple interpretation of the primitive pairs in terms of Fibonacci representations. AFOOTWOTE Because of the connection of the Wythoff pairs with Wythoff's Mim. is the second canonical representation of the number k of the primitive Wythoff pair which generates the Fibonacci sequence containing n.20. 7). we obtain the second canonical representation of 4 as 1000 + 1 = 1001 and generate n an 10001:10010 bn 100100 an+bn = abn.1976] A FIBONACCI PROPERTY OF WYTHOFF PAIRS 383 which have the requisite properties that each bn is the left shift of an and that each an has its rightmost 1 in an evennumbered position. In Fibonacci. There is a prescription in [6] for generating a Wythoff pair (an. we provide this analysis in a companion paper [ 9 ] . so the second canonical representation of 8 is 10101). It is interesting to note that the role of the Fibonacci number system in nim games was already anticipated by Whinihan [10] in 1963. in the example of (4. 101000. First determine the canonical Fibonacci representation of n. 1010000. bB). 1001000 We have seen that the primitive pairs correspond to the case n = a^. This enables one to determine for any positive integer/? exactly which primitive Wythoff pair generates the Fibonacci sequence in which that n appears. This gives the Fibonacci number system a role in this game quite analogous to the role of the binary number system in Bouton's Nim [8]. This procedure can be traced back an additional step to the index n of the pair (an. 6. . etc. b/< as the second. 18... Thus. The analysis of Wythoff's Nim using Fibonacci representations can be made selfcontained and elementary. this appears as 1010. For the benefit of those interested in mathematical recreations. the preceding prescription for generating. . 10100. For present purposes it suffices to remark that the second canonical representation of any n can be obtained by adding 1 to the usual canonical representation of n . let n = 52. It follows that the primitive pairs (an. 52 must be the fourth term of the Fibonacci sequence generated by the primitive pair (a8. (For example. 11. For example. the location of any number in the sequence being exactly dependent on the number of terminal zeroes in its canonical representation. 52 is represented 101010000.84. One left shift produces a^. The portion of the representation between the first and last 1's.52. bn) are precisely those for which. and so forth. second. the ith term will equal n. It is readily established on the basis of the results in [4] that the numbers a^ are precisely those numbers whose second canonical Fibonacci representations contain a 1 in the first position (as follows: first. 4.1.32.7). As confirmation we note that this particular sequence is 12. but it necessitates the socalled second canonical Fibonacci representation. Since 10101 represents 8 and the representation terminates in four zeroes. Wythoff pairs is clearly also a prescription for playing Wythoff's Nim using the Fibonacci number system. where / is the number of zeroes prior to the first 1 in the Fibonacci representation of A7. the second canonical representation of n having a 1 in the first position. The next case corresponds to the sequence generated by (4. bn) from its index n. as well as the location of n in that sequence.. Counting a^ as the first term. the canonical representation of an ends in 10 and that of hn ends in 1QO. 5. 7 ] . certainly not requiring the level of mathematical sophistication required to follow the investigations in [4. a number is a b/< if and only if its canonical representation contains its rightmost 1 in an odd positionwhich is never the firstand. a second canonical representation fails to be canonical if and only if it contains a 1 in the first position). In Fibonacci.the canonical representation of 7 is 10100. 7. The numbers an and bn are then obtained from successive left shifts of the second canonical representation of n. bn). another produces b^. inclusive. Other terms of the generated Fibonacci sequence have additional zeroes.
pp. "Nim. The Fibonacci Quarterly. et." NieuwArchiefvoorWiskunde. 2. W. 199202. Coxeter. Domoryad. Scoville and T. H. R. "Wythoff's Nim and Fibonacci Representations. pp. Vol. pp." The Fibonacci Quarterly. 1. Jr. J. Hoggatt. C. 10. S. '"A Modification of the Game of Nim. Scoville and V." Annals of Mathematics. 6265. 1963. pp.. P. Whinihan. 1972. Vol."Scripta Mathematica. 10. L Carlitz. 3. Vaughan. pp. 10. "Some Arithmetic Functions Related to Fibonacci Numbers. L Carlitz. 2942. Vol. 1953. 11. R. 8. 19011902. N. Phyllotaxis. M. 135143." to appear. Vol." The Fibonacci Quarterly. Vol. 7." The Fibonacci Quarterly. 3539." The Fibonacci Quarterly. pp. Macmillan Co. 1964. 4.. 10. 2nd Series. L Carlitz. 9. "Lucas Representations. A. 128. 1976 REFERENCES 1. 527530. Vol. "Fibonacci Nim. 337386. M. 6. 1907. al. 7. No. 1973. A. and Wythoff's Game. A Game with a Complete Mathematical Theory. Vol.. et. Silber. 4.. "The Golden Section. pp. L Carlitz. Bouton. E. Y. 5. "Addendum to the Paper 'Fibonacci Representations'. 19.384 A FIBONACCI PROPERTY OF WYTHOFF PAIRS NOV. al. pp. R.L. "Fibonacci Representations. ******* . 1972. Wythoff. 913.." The Fibonacci Quarterly. pp. Mathematical Games and Pastimes. 1972.