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Chapter 1 – Why Study Intercultural Communication (IC)?

1. Define: ethnocentrism, identity management, multiphrenia, colonialism,
ethics, dialogical approach, self-reflexivity
Ethnocentrism—a tendency to think that our own culture is superior to other
cultures. This means that we assume, subconsciously, that the way we do
things is the only way.
Multiphrenia, a splitting of the individual into many different selves. We are
available for communication, via answering machine, fax, and e-mail, even when
we’re not physically present.
Colonialism (-1-The system by which groups with diverse languages,
cultures, religions, and identities were united to form one state, usually by a
European power; -2- the system by which a country maintains power over other
countries or groups of people to exploit them economically, politically, and
culturally) around the world, whereby European powers lumped diverse groups—
differing in language, culture religion, or identity—together as one state. For
example, the division of Pakistan and India was imposed by the British;
eventually, East Pakistan declared its independence to become Bangladesh.
Nevertheless, ethnic and religious differences in some areas of India and Pakistan
continue to cause unrest.
Ethics may be thought of as principles of conduct that help govern the
behavior of individuals and group
Dialogical approach (Evanoff, 2004). The dialogical approach
emphasizes the importance of relationships and dialogues between individuals
and communities in wrestling with ethical dilemmas. Communication scholars
Stanley Deetz, Deborah Cohen, and Paige P. Edley (1997) suggest that even in
international business contexts, a dialogical approach can work.
Self-reflexivity—A process of learning to understand oneself and one’s
position in society. In learning about other cultures and cultural practices, we
often learn much about ourselves. Immigrants often comment that they never
felt so much like someone of their own nationality until they left their homeland.
Identity management (Identity Management: The way individuals make
sense of their multiple images concerning the sense of self in different social
2. Explain briefly six reasons to study intercultural communication.
One of the most important reasons for studying intercultural
communication is the awareness it raises of our own cultural identity and
You have probably observed that your world is increasingly diverse. You
may have classes with students who differ from you in ethnicity, race, religion,

and/or nationality. College and university student bodies are becoming
increasingly diverse. Sports are a very visible part of this increasing diversity.
The recent trend toward globalization—the creation of a world market in
goods, services, labor, capital, and technology—is shown dramatically in the
account of a journalist who asks a Dell computer manager where his laptop is
made. The answer? It was code signed by engineers in Texas .and Taiwan; the
microprocessor was made in one of Intel’s factories in the Philippines, Costa Rica,
Malaysia, or China; the memory came from factories in Korea, Germany, Taiwan,
or Japan. Other components (keyboard, hard drive, batteries, etc.) were made by
Japanese, Taiwanese, Irish, Israeli, or British firms with factories mainly in Asia,
and finally, the laptop was assembled in Taiwan.
Cultural differences in business practices have implications not only when
people from different companies do business with each other but also
when people from different cultures work on the same team
The impact of technology on our everyday communication is staggering.
Think of how often you use technology to communicate in any given day:
You may text-message friends about evening plans, e-mail your family to
tell them the latest news, participate in a discussion board for one of your
courses, and check your cell phone Web site to see how many more
minutes you can use this month without getting charged. And you are not
Can individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, races, languages,
socioeconomic statuses, and cultural backgrounds coexist on this planet? Both
the history of humankind and recent world events lead us not to be very
optimistic on this point. Contact among different cultural groups—from the
earliest civilizations until today—often has led to disharmony. For example,
consider the ethnic/religious strife between Muslims and the Western world; the
ethnic struggles in Bosnia and the former Soviet Union; the war between Hutus
and Tutsis in Rwanda (Africa); the continued unrest in the Middle East; and the
racial and ethnic struggles and tensions in neighborhoods in Boston, Los Angeles,
and other U.S. cities.
Living in an intercultural world presents ethical challenges as well. Ethics
may be thought of as principles of conduct that help govern the behavior of
individuals and groups. These principles often arise from communities’ consensus
on what is good and bad behavior. Cultural values tell us what is “good” and what
“ought” to be good. Ethical judgments focus more on the degrees of rightness
and wrongness in human behavior than do cultural values.

gender. Write five aspects of culture and technology Increase in Information: You may have found that the Internet provides access to information about other cultures and other peoples. and e-mail. The same is true for chat room participation. when you send an e-mail. This should give us a better understanding of our global neighbors and perhaps some motivation to coexist peacefully in our global village. In fact. if any. The recipients won’t know if you are male or female. For example. The Internet/e-mail allows us to have “pen pals” from different cultures and to carry on discussions with these people in virtual chat rooms and on discussion boards. Identity. and ethnicity—are filtered out on the Internet. a splitting of the individual into many different selves. you can choose whether to reveal certain aspects of your identity. young or old. keep up with what’s going on at home. international students can stay in touch with their local communities. Increased Contact with People Who Are Similar: Communication technology also allows us to have more contact with people who are very similar to ourselves. and Technology: Advances in communication technology lead us to think differently about ourselves and our identity management (Identity Management: The way individuals make sense of their multiple images concerning the sense of self in different social contexts).3. you can even give false information about your identity. Perhaps you turn to Internet groups for support and community. Increased Contact with People Who Differ: Communication technology brings us in contact with people we might never have the opportunity to know otherwise. psychologist Kenneth Gergen describes the changes that occur as technology alters our patterns of communication. Perhaps you participate in chat rooms or discussion boards with people who share your interests and opinions. Gergen suggests that with the removal of traditional barriers to forming relationships—time and space—these technological advancements lead to multiphrenia. via answering machine. even when we’re not physically present. We are available for communication. We can now instantaneously find out almost anything about any group in the world simply by searching the Internet. Identity on the Internet not only is potentially fragmented but also involves more choice and management issues than in face-to-face interaction. And many of these people are from different cultural backgrounds. and receive emotional support during difficult times of cultural adaptation . You can choose which aspects. For instance. As noted previously. Culture. and so on—unless you tell them. In The Saturated Self. fax. many of the identity cues individuals use to figure out how to communicate with others—such as age. of your identity you want to reveal.

. technology plays a huge role in our everyday lives and often has a lot to do with our success as students and professionals. Try not to observe people as if they are zoo animals. Rhetorical Approach. What would you do if you had no access to communication technology? If you were not able to text message your friends or could not use your cell phone? Could not e-mail your family? How might you feel in our technology-dominated world? The implications for intercultural communication are enormous. Chapter 2 – Approaches to Studying IC 5. How do people relate to each other when one is information technology rich and the other is not? When there is increasing use of English on the Internet. it is vital to develop self-reflexivity—A process of learning to understand oneself and one’s position in society. It is also important to reflect on your place in society. By recognizing the social categories to which you belong. Explain briefly three issues to address for being Ethical Students of Culture. Learning About Others: It is important to remember that the study of cultures is actually the study of other people. Macrocontexts. but these can be difficult to unravel and identify. and your conclusions about them may have very real consequences for them and for you. Developing a Sense of Social Justice: A final ethical issue involves the responsibility that comes with the acquisition of intercultural knowledge and insights . In learning about other cultures and cultural practices. Define: Ethnography. Remember that you are studying real people who have real lives. Developing Self-Reflexivity: In studying intercultural communication. rather. Immigrants often comment that they never felt so much like someone of their own nationality until they left their homeland. Think about it: Many cultural attitudes and ideas are instilled in you. Never lose sight of the humanity at the core of the topic. what happens to those who don’t speak English? Can this lead to resentment? Will the increase in communication technology lead to increasing gaps between haves and have-nots? To more misunderstandings? 4. it is an ongoing process that can never fully capture the ever-emerging person.Access to Communication Technology: As we’ve seen. you will be in a better position to understand how to communicate.that this educational experience is not just transformative for the individual but should also benefit the larger society and other cultural groups in the increasingly interdependent world. Knowing who you are is never simple. we often learn much about ourselves. and the implications of those categories. Not only will you grow older but your intercultural experiences will change who you are and who you think you are.

2. (Predicting behavior is not a goal. Learn table Discipline on which approach is founded Research Goal Assumptions human behavior Method of study of Relationship of culture and communication Social Science (or Functionalist) Psychology Describe and predict behavior Predictable Survey. field study Culture created and maintained through communication Critical Various Change behavior Changeable Textual analysis of media Culture a site of power struggles . THE INTERPRETIVE APPROACH The goal of interpretive research is to understand and describe human behavior. is to predict specifically how culture influences communication. social. 7. and environments that influence communication.Ethnography: A discipline that examines the patterned interactions and significant symbols of specific cultural groups to identify the cultural norms that guide their behaviors. THE SOCIAL SCIENCE APPROACH The goal of this research. backgrounds. THE CRITICAL APPROACH The goal of critical researchers is not only to understand human behavior but also to change the lives of everyday communicators. usually based on field studies. sociolinguistics Describe behavior Creative and voluntary Participant observation. Macrocontexts: The political. and historical situations. Rethorical approach is not only to understand human behavior but also to change the lives of everyday communicators. observation Communication influenced by culture Interpretive Anthropology. Write the goals of three approaches.) 3. then. 1. 6.

dialectic Dialectic: 1. interpretive. which encompasses many different kinds of intercultural knowledge.” “high and low. The fact that dichotomies such as “far and near. Explain Dialectical approach briefly. Certainly. The dialectical approach emphasizes the processual.Chapter 3 . as if the two parts belong together. • Combining these approaches provides us with extensive insight into the problems and challenges of intercultural ventures.” “arteries and veins. we may fail to see the complexities of contemporary intercultural interaction in contexts. we can learn something from each of the three traditional approaches. and contradictory nature of intercultural communication.A Dialectical Approach to Understanding Culture and Communication 8. It recognizes and accepts that three approaches are interconnected and sometimes contradictory . relational. The complex and paradoxical relationship between two opposite qualities or entities. 2.” and “air and water” form the core of our philosophical and scientific beliefs.” and “long and short” sound complete. if we limit ourselves to a specific research orientation. (processual refers to how interaction happens rather than to the outcome Dialectical Approach: An approach to intercultural communication that integrates three approaches – functionalist (or social science). reveals our tendency to form dichotomies. Clearly. A method of logic based on the principle that an idea generates its opposite. and critical – in understanding culture and communication. • Dichotomies such as “good and evil. each of which may also be referred as a dialectic. and our understanding of intercultural communication has been enriched by all three. 9. (a method of examining and discussing opposing ideas in order to find the truth This notion may be difficult to comprehend because it emphasizes dichotomous thinking. Define: Dichotomies. leading to a reconciliation of the opposites.

1. or idiosyncratic –that is. you may have some behaviors not shared by anyone else. .Personal – Contextual Dialectic: • This dialectic involves the role of context in intercultural relationships and focuses simultaneously on the person and the context.Dialectic: 1. we communicate in particular ways in classroom contexts.Dynamic Dialectic: • This dialectic suggests that intercultural communication tends to be at once static and dynamic. 4.10. • In understanding intercultural communication. • It is important to remember that communication for all of us is both cultural and individual.yet we also always communicate from our personal identities. The complex and paradoxical relationship between two opposite qualities or entities. 2. • As students and professors. and our messages are interpreted in particular ways. leading to a reconciliation of the opposites. each of which may also be referred as a dialectic. • The static – dynamic dialectic highlights the ever-changing nature of culture and cultural practices but also underscores the tendency to think about these things as constant. whereas other aspects of cultures (or personal traits of individuals) shift over time—that is. • Some cultural and communication patterns remain relatively constant.Explain briefly six dialectics of IC. In some contexts. 3. • Although we communicate as individuals on a personal level.Static . We need to keep this dialectic in mind as we try to understand and develop relationships across cultural differences. we have to understand that we sometimes communicate as members of social groups . the context of this communication is important as well. they are dynamic.Cultural – Individual Dialectic: • Intercultural communication is both cultural and individual. A method of logic based on the principle that an idea generates its opposite. perhaps a unique way of wrinkling your nose or unique way of using language.History/Past – Present/Future Dialectic: • Another dialectic emphasizes the need to focus simultaneously on the past and the present in understanding intercultural communication. 5. we enact specific social roles that give meaning to our messages. (a method of examining and discussing opposing ideas in order to find the truth) 2.

• On the other hand. it can equip that individual with a little more patience. of something “not being right” will happen if the wait is long enough. age. after being in the country for a number of years. socioeconomic status. • We can also be simultaneously privileged and disadvantaged because of gender. • For example. According to them. however.Privilege – Disadvantage Dialectic: • A dialectical perspective recognizes that people may be simultaneously privileged and disadvantaged. It is what we call the embodied ethnocentrism. Sociologists disagree. or privileged in some contexts and disadvantaged in others. but in their travels. race. how the abilities acquired through cross-cultural experiences can help individuals cope better with societal issues that affect them. we need to be aware of contemporary forces and realities that shape interactions of people from different cultural groups. we need to realize that history has a significant impact on contemporary events. Now imagine that the same person.• On the one hand. finally develops a real understanding of the situation. 6. Culture: Learned patterns of behavior and attitudes shared by a group of people. fair. But eventually. Culture is more than merely one aspect of the practice of intercultural communication Embodied Ethnocentrism Milton Benett and Ida Castiglioni speak of a concept called embodied ethnocentrism. and other identities. making it more general. and. but he will also feel it is alright – an intuitive. it is not enough to intellectualize a foreign concept like the polychronic notion of time. many tourists are in the position of economic privilege because they can afford to travel. That is because our intuition is grounded in our home culture. Define: culture. they also may be disadvantaged if they do not speak the local language. and just. cultural values. right. on how to conceptualize values. Cultural Values A culture's values are its ideas about what is good. visceral feeling. Chapter 4 – Culture. a feeling of discomfort. My idea here is to explain how developing heightened inter-cultural abilities can lead individuals in a monochronic-time culture to avoid burnouts. If one knows rationally that a culture has little or no respect for schedules and punctuality. Context and Power 1. Communication. Conflict theory focuses on how . when confronted to a longer wait. Then he will not only think it is alright if such a situation happens. embodied ethnocentrism.

but that everyone does not have an equal opportunity to attain these values. though. while functionalism focuses on the shared values within a culture. power. Such contradictions may exist due to an inconsistency between people's actions and their professed values. For instance. the value of material success may conflict with the value of charity. Define briefly meaning of culture according to three approaches. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE & COMMUNICATION The relationship between culture and communication is complex. .Real culture refers to the values and norms that a society actually follows. Communication may be understood as a “symbolic process whereby reality is produced. Explain communication briefly according to three approaches. Other sociologists have proposed a common core of American values. while ideal culture refers to the values and norms that a society professes to believe. democracy. equality and justice. repaired and transformed”. For example. individualism. charity.values differ between groups within a culture. maintained. 3. Functional sociologist Talcott Parsons noted that Americans share the common value of the “American work ethic. problem‐solving. A culture. American sociologistRobert K. Merton suggested that the most important values in American society are wealth. 2. which explains why sociologists must carefully distinguish between what people do and what they say. success. Or the value of equality may conflict with the value of individualism. patriotism. responsibility. including accomplishment. material success.” which encourages hard work. freedom. reliance on science and technology. and prestige. may harbor conflicting values. and accountability.

Explain two levels of group-related power in the relationship between communication and power. How Culture Influences Communication Intercultural communication scholars use broad frameworks from anthropology and psychology to identify and study cultural differences in communication. Chapters 5 & 6 – Identity and IC . physical abilities.Power distance 2. Two of the most relevant were developed by anthropologists Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) and by social psychologist Hofstede (1984). geographic location. ethnicity. and socioeconomic status—which are more changeable. Uncertainty avoidance 5. and (2) the secondary dimensions — educational background. and vice versa.Individualism versus collectivism 3Feminity versus masculinity 4Long-term versus short-term orientation to life 5. (1) the primary dimensions—age. That is.A dialectical perspective assumes that culture and communication are interrelated and reciprocal. and sexual orientation—which are more permanent in nature. culture influences communication. Identify five areas of common problems in the relationship between culture and communication (According to the Hofstede Value Orientation) Hofstede identified five areas of common problems. race. gender. marital status. 4. 1.

age identity. (attempting to influence the perceptions of other people about a person. sexual identity. In general. visitors may ask if the baby is a boy or a girl. object or event) Some scholars suggest that individuals are constantly performing “spin control” campaigns to highlight their strengths and virtues while also attempting “damage control” by minimizing deficiencies. minority identities tend to develop earlier than majority identities. Minority Identity: A sense of belonging to a non-dominant group. In general. like minority identity. Majority identity. . while whites may develop a strong ethnic identity. they often do not think about their racial identity. Similarly. Define: Impression Management theory. prejudice Impression Management Theory: The effort to control or influence the perceptions of other people. This distinction is important in understanding how our views on biological sex influence gender identities. Majority Identity Development Majority Identity: A sense of belonging to a dominant group. For example. We often begin life with gender identities. whereas gay people are often acutely aware of their sexual orientation identity being different from the majority and develop a sense of sexual orientation identity earlier than people who are straight. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL IDENTITIES Gender Identity Gender Identity: The identification with the cultural notions of masculinity and femininity and what it means to be a man and woman. What it means to be a man or a woman in the society is heavily influenced by cultural notions. Majority identity. But gender is not the same as biological sex or sexual identity. some activities are considered more masculine or more feminine. straight people tend to not think about their sexual orientation identity often.1. develops through a complex process. gender identity. stereotype. Minor identity. For example. whereas members of racial minority groups are aware of their racial identities at an early age. To establish a gender identity for the newborn. minority identities tend to develop earlier than majority identities.

that is. and behave according to our age. we develop an age identity. however. 3. look. 4. STEREOTYPES. . and negative experiences. Our expression of gender not only communicates who we think we are but also constructs a sense of who we want to be. People tend to remember information supporting a stereotype better than contradicting information. 5. we do not all seek to look and act according to a single ideal. IDENTITY. and perhaps bisexual categories. prejudice. Gender identity is also demonstrated by communication style. They are positive or negative and help us know what to expect from people. As we age. 1. AND PREJUDICE The identity characteristics described previously sometimes form the basis for stereotypes. Age Identity Age Identity: The identification with the cultural conventions of how we should act. The dynamic character of gender reflects its close connection to culture. so does the notion of what we idealize as masculine or feminine. You are probably most familiar with heterosexual. Stereotypes come from many sources including the media. Initially. Because stereotypes operate at an unconscious level and are persistent. gay or lesbian. we learn what masculinity and femininity mean in our culture. They are detrimental when they are negative and when they are held rigidly. and behave. 2.As culture changes. Society has many images of masculinity and femininity. look. family and peers. Stereotypes are widely held beliefs about a specific group of people. Sexual Identity Sexual identity refers to one’s identification with various categories of sexuality. At the same time. we also play into cultural notions of how individuals our age should act. and racism. people have to work consciously to reject them. sexual identity categories vary from culture to culture and have been variously viewed throughout history. we do seek to communicate our gendered identities as part of who we are. .

we necessarily categorize and generalize. They may be positive or negative. 2. Prejudice is a basically negative attitude toward a cultural group based on little or no experience. b. To make sense out of the overwhelming amount of information we receive. Stereotypes become particularly detrimental when they are negative and are held rigidly.a. The origins of these have both individual and contextual elements. prejudice tells us how we are likely to feel about that group. Interpretive Identity formed through communication with others Emphasizes avowal and Critical Identity shaped through social. Scholars disagree somewhat on the origins of prejudice and its relationship to stereotyping. Prejudice may arise from personal needs to feel positive about our own groups and negative about others. or it may arise from perceived or real threats. Even positive stereotypes can be damaging in that they create unrealistic expectations for individuals. In fact. It is a prejudgment of sorts. Social Science Identity created by self (by relating to groups) Emphasizes individualized. Prejudice is a negative attitude toward a cultural group. historical forces Emphasizes contexts an . Explain briefly three contemporary communication perspectives on identity. Whereas stereotypes tell us what a group is like. sometimes relying on stereotypes —widely held beliefs about some group. The second step is finding information to counteract it. people tend to remember information that supports a stereotype but may not retain information that contradicts it. based on little or no experience. Recognition of the stereotype is the first step.

5. conscious or unconscious. Stage -1: Unexamined Identity: This first stage is the same as for minority identities. gender. Stage 1 .Conformity: This stage is characterized by the internalization of the values and norms of the dominant group and a strong desire to assimilate into the dominant culture. sexual orientation. Stage -3: Resistance: The next stage represents a major paradigm shift. Stage -4: Redefinition: In the fourth stage. and spiritual self (cross-cultural perspective) ascribed dimensions resisting ascribed ident 3. majority group individuals now are able to internalize their increased consciousness and integrate their majority identities into all other facets of their identity. This may involve passive or active acceptance. individuals may be aware of some physical and cultural differences. ethnicity. people begin to refocus or redirect their energy toward redefining their identity in a way that recognizes their privilege and works to eliminate oppression and inequities. ethnic. Explain briefly stages of Minority identity development. historical forces Emphasizes individualized. Emphasizes avowal and Emphasizes contexts an familial. and so on) and an appreciation of other cultural groups. or whatever.Resistance and Separatism: The person may reject the values and norms associated with the dominant group. Stage -5: Integration: As in the final stage of minority identity development. and spiritual self ascribed dimensions resisting ascribed ident (cross-cultural perspective) 4.Integration: An achieved identity.Explain briefly stages of Majority identity development. Individuals who have reached this stage have a strong sense of their own group identity (based on gender. The key point is that individuals are not aware that they have been programmed to accept this worldview. . Stage 3 . Stage -2 : Acceptance: The second stage represents the internalization. In this case.familial. of a racist (or otherwise biased) ideology. It involves a move from blaming minority members for their condition to naming and blaming their own dominant group as a source of problems. be it racial. Stage 2 . Learn table: Three Perspectives on Identity and Communication Social Science Interpretive Critical Identity created by self (by Identity formed through Identity shaped through relating to groups) communication with others social.Unexamined Identity: This stage is characterized by the lack of exploration of identity. Stage 4 . sexual orientation. but they do not fear the other or think much about their own identity. race.

people who speak more than two languages are considered multilingual. Chapter 7 – Language and IC 1. The original language text of a translation is called the source text.They not only recognize their identity as white but also appreciate other groups. I ngua franca /ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/[1] (plural lingue franche or lingua francas). is a language systematically (as opposed to occasionally. Interpretation refers to the process of verbally expressing what is said or written in another language. also called a bridge language. in particular when it is a third language. interpretation. or even accents. or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language. Code Switching Code switching is a technical term in communication that refers to the phenomenon of changing languages. Knowledge about the ethnic culture Feelings about belonging to a particular ethnic group. distinct from both native languages. Interlanguage refers to a kind of communication that emerges when speakers of one language are speaking in another language. the text into which it is translated is the target text. or vehicular language. multilingual. Define: Bilingual. Having an ethnic identity means experiencing a sense of belonging to a particular group and knowing something about the shared experience of group members. trade language. code switching. Lingua Franca People who speak two languages are often called bilingual. What are dimensions of Ethnic identity? It includes several dimensions: Self-identification. Translation generally refers to the process of producing a written text that refers to something said or written in another language. 6. dialects. interlanguage. [2] . translation.

The reverse may be true. or (3) to express another aspect of their cultural identity. Define: Relational messages. value. Vocalization. and so on 4. for some topics. What are the reasons of Code switching? People code switch for several reasons: (1) to accommodate the other speakers. Translation studies traditionally have tended to emphasize issues of equivalency and accuracy. Voice quality. Equivalency: An issue in translation.” that they simply render into the target language whatever they hear or read. in exactly the same way. others have a limited range of words. with the interpreter speaking at the same time as the original speaker. Explain the role of translator or interpreter. proxemics. 3. the focus. Paralinguistics The study of vocal behaviors include voice qualities and vocalization . Relational messages — information on how the talker wants to be understood and viewed by the listener. the condition of being equal meaning. it also involves negotiating cultures. has been on comparing the translated meaning with the original meaning. Some languages have tremendous flexibility in expression. however. Chapter 8 – Nonverbal Code & Cultural Space 1. This slippage between languages is both aggravating and thrilling for translators and interpreters. Explain Equivalency and Accuracy in translation and interpretation. often regulate how they render the original. It is not always appropriate to translate everything that one speaker is saying to another. That is. The Role of the Translator or Interpreter We often assume that translators and interpreters are “invisible. because the potential for misunderstanding due to cultural differences might be too great. The roles that they play as intermediaries. with the interpreter speaking only during the breaks provided by the original speaker. however. quantity.2. Translation is more than merely switching languages. paralinguistics. largely from linguistics. Proxemics The study of the effects of the physical distance between people in different cultures and societies. 5. (2) to avoid accommodating others. or consecutive. What are types of interpretation? Interpretation can either be simultaneous.

Voice quality: The “music” of the human voice. 3. 2. that communicates meanings about respect and status and often regulates turn-taking during interactions. For example. and articulation. Noncontact Cultures: Cultural groups in which people tend to maintain more space and touch less often than people do in contact cultures. pitch. vocal range. Great Britain and Japan tend to have noncontact cultures. eye gaze. Explain Eye Contact. . Contact Cultures: Cultural groups in which people tend to stand close together and touch frequently when they interact. Explain Contact and Noncontact Cultures. the Middle East and southern Europe. Vocalization: The sounds we utter that do not have the structure of the language. For instance. rhythm. including speed. Eye Contact A nonverbal code. cultural groups in South America.

DEFINING CULTURAL SPACE A cultural space is not simply a particular location that has culturally constructed meanings.” that give added meaning to our communication. 4. Postmodern Cultural Spaces Space has become increasingly important in the negotiation of cultural and social identities. avoiding eye contact communicates respect and deference. Explain Postmodern Cultural Spaces. Polychronic: An orientation to time that sees it as circular and more holistic. Thus. monochronic cultures value being punctual. time is more holistic. colleagues. . It can also be a metaphorical place from which we communicate. Patterns of eye contact vary from culture to culture. Explain Cultural Space. We can speak from a number of social locations. In general. whereas less eye contact increases the distance. 6.” All of these are cultural spaces. siblings. Romanians. 5. completing tasks. In many societies. and so to culture more generally. Monochronic: An orientation to time that assumes it is linear and is a commodity that can be lost or gained. In contrast.Eye contact often is included in proxemics because it regulates interpersonal distance. Direct eye contact shortens the distance between two people. and keeping to schedules. we may speak as parents. children. Eye contact communicates meanings about respect and status and often regulates turn-taking. marked on the “map of society. and a myriad of other “places. Explain Chronemics and types of it Chronemics Chronemics: The concept of time and the rules that govern its use. customers. and perhaps more circular: Several events can happen at once. although this may vary from context to context. in a polychronic orientation.

segregation. Assimilation. sojourners. identities enacted. Migrant: An individual who leaves the primary cultural context in which he or she raised and moves to a new cultural context for an extended time. Marginalization: A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual expresses little interest in maintaining cultural ties with either the dominant culture or the migrant culture. Imigrant residence. Segregation: The policy or practice of compelling groups to live apart from each other. a person who migrates to another country. and blogs are examples internet spaces. immigrant. message boards. usually for permanent Assimilation A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual gives up his/her own cultural heritage and adopts the mainstream cultural identity. Chapter 9 – Understanding Intercultural Transitions 1. This situation of being out of touch with both cultures may be the result of actions by the dominant society. A cultural space is both a physical location and a cultural phenomenon. instant messengers. . Chat rooms. social network sites. bulletin boards.Postmodern Cultural Spaces: Places that are defined by cultural practices – languages spoken. Separation A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual retains his or her original culture while interacting minimally with other groups. rituals performed – and that often change as new people move in and out of these spaces. Another set of postmodern spaces that are quite familiar are those of the internet. intergration. separation. Sojourners are those travelers who move into new cultural contexts for a limited time and a specific purpose. marginalization. Define: Migrant.

Rwanda. by insisting on speaking their own language in their home. and South America to the richer ones in the postwar period. They leave their countries for many reasons. millions of global nomads are roaming around the world as transnational corporate or government employees. What are four types of Migrant groups? Explain each of them. 1. The first wave was motivated by a search for resources and military conquest and lasted into the 16th century. and America. there have been three great waves of global migration. Experts estimate that 25 people cross national borders every second. Yugoslavia.Voluntary Migrants There are two groups of voluntary travelers: sojourners and immigrants. Afghanistan. Africa. What are three great waves of global migration? According to experts. Asia. 2. guest workers. Integration differs from assimilation in that it involves a greater interest in maintaining one’s own cultural identity. Immigrants can resist assimilation in many ways— for example. Sudan). And there are internal migrations—where people move from one place to another within national boundaries—often for the same reasons: for better economic opportunities or because of war or famine. or study-abroad students. The third and most recent wave is reversing the European colonization from the poorer countries of Asia.Integration Integration: A type of cultural adaptation in which individuals maintain both their original culture and their daily interactions with other groups. it lasted until the middle of the 20th century. tourists. including national revolutions and civil wars (Syria. refugees. 3. Sojourners are those travelers who move into new cultural contexts for a limited time and a specific purpose. In addition. one billion journeys per year. The second was dominated by the European migration into poorer “empty territories” of the new world and led to the colonization of Africa. . This wave more complex and multidimensional.

4. and they vary in the degree to which they emphasize individual or contextual/environmental influences in the adaptation process. This includes international students who go abroad to study and technical assistance workers. Explain four types of Relationship between Migrant and Host? 5. Most refugees. There are three communication approaches to studying cultural adaptation. .They are often people who have freedom and the means to travel. How one adapts depends to some extent on the host environment—whether it is welcoming or hostile. want to return home as soon as possible. and missionaries who go abroad to work for a specific period. CULTURAL ADAPTATION Cultural Adaptation: A process by which individuals learn the rules and customs of new cultural contexts. whether they have migrated domestically or internationally. corporate personnel. 2. Explain cultural adaptation. Families who voluntarily leave one country to settle in another exemplify this type of migrant. Involuntary Migrants Two types of migrants move involuntarily: long-term refugees and shortterm refugees. Another type of voluntary traveler is the immigrant. Cultural adaptation is the long-term process of adjusting to and finally feeling comfortable in a new environment.

music. game shows. Media Imperialism. the interpretive focuses on the experience of the migrant in the adaptation context. Cultural Imperialism: Dominating through the spread of cultural products 2. which refers to the activities of the nonelite: music videos. Define: High culture. low culture. opera. folk culture. Electronic Colonialism. Chapter 10 – Popular Culture and Intercultural Communication 1. graffiti art. politics. Cultural Texts: Popular culture messages whether television shows. Folk culture: Traditional and nonmainstream cultural activities that are not financially driven. great literature. and popular magazines. referring to those cultural products that most people share and know about. stock car racing. professional wrestling. High culture refers to those cultural activities that are often the domain of the elite or the well-to-do: ballet. Culture industries: Industries that produce and sell popular culture as commodities. Explain Popular culture and give examples Popular Culture: A new name for low culture. Cultural Imperialism. and fine art. and economic structures. and so on. . advertisements. culture industries. Reader Profile. TV talk shows. The social science approach emphasizes the role of personal characteristics of the migrant. cultural texts.A dialectical perspective incorporates both the individual and the contextual. the critical explores the role of larger contexts that influence cultural adaptation: social institutions and history. Reader Profile: Portrayals of readership demographics prepared by magazines. videos. Media Imperialism: Dominating or control through media Electronic Colonialism: Dominating or exploitation utilizing technological forms. symphony. movies. including television. or other widely disseminated messages. In opposition to high culture is low culture.

What are four significant characteristics of popular culture? There are four significant characteristics of popular culture: (1) It is produced by culture industries. music videos. soap operas. YouTube. symphony performances Folk music Mainstream music. (3) it is everywhere. advertising. Disney. television. and (4) it fills a social function. 4. television. . classic sculpture. but especially middleclass groups Popular culture Almost everyone in a social group What does it look like? Opera. movies. Intercultural contact and intercultural communication play a central role in the creation and maintenance of popular culture. romance novels . In contrast. 3. the symphony and the ballet do not qualify as popular culture because most people cannot identify much about them unless they have studied them.Learn table Type Definition Who knows it? High Culture Elite aristocratic expressions of culture Folk Culture Traditional and nonmainstream cultural activities that are not financially driven Ever-present cultural products designed for profitable consumption Rich members of the political establishment Most cultural groups. (2) it differs from folk culture. and popular magazines are systems of popular culture.According to this definition.