You are on page 1of 10







Covasna 2015


.....................................Table of Contents  Argument.....10  Annexes………………………..........7  St.6  The moster of Lock Ness………......8  Arthur’s Seat……………………9  Bibliography……………………...3  Introduction..11 2 ........ Margaret’s Chapel………….. 4  The History of Scotland………4  Culture…………………………5  Historical Places in Scotland….7  Edinburgh Castle……………….......

while others have special historical importance. Several natural and man-made landmarks. Scotland has very many tourists and its culture makes you desire to know more and more about its life and traditions. The places and buildings keep us in close contact with the past. and help to develop an emotional attachment to our land.Argument There are too many worthy landmarks and places in Scotland to mention. We need to keep the buildings in a good shape that create an unusual identity and hold our individual and collective memories. sights stand out as being of outstanding natural brilliance. Introduction 3 . offer impeccable facilities and an irresistible ambiance.

the Bronze Age about 2000 BC. This has given Aberdeen the third-largest city in Scotland. was the hub of the Scottish of the 18th century.000 years ago. Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea. By inheritance in 1603. and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. The continued existence of legal. and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Glasgow. Prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic Era about 4000 BC. 4 . the country's capital and second-largest city. most spectacularly during the Great Conspiracy of the 360s. The History of Scotland The history of Scotland is known to have begun by the end of the last glacial period (in the Paleolithic). educational and religious institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union. Gaelic raiders called the Scoti began colonizing Western Scotland and Wales. which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain . Following a referendum in 1997. Constant risings forced Rome's legions back: Hadrian's Wall attempted to seal off the Roman south and the Antonine Wall attempted to move the Roman border north. The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. intellectual. the title of Europe's oil capital. The Treaty of Union was agreed in 1706 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union in 1707 passed by the Parliaments of both countries. Glasgow. King James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. despite some popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh. Scotland's recorded history began with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century. The latter was swiftly abandoned and the former overrun. which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England.Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. and the Iron Age around 700 BC. Edinburgh . and elsewhere. Scotland's largest city was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. In addition to the mainland. "the painted ones". when the province of Britannia reached as far north as the line between the firths of Clyde to the Forth. including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides. with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. and Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and private law. the country is made up of more than 790 islands. As Rome finally withdrew from Britain. this time as a devolved legislature with authority over many areas of home affairs. whose people were known in Latinas "Picti". The union also created a new parliament of Great Britain . North of this was Caledonia. Great Britain itself subsequently entered into a political union with Ireland on 1 January 1801 to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It shares a border with England to the south. roughly 10. Scotland's legal system has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland . a Scottish Parliament was re-established.

fought among each other during frequent disputed successions. who started a new line of kings known to modern historians as the House of Dunkeld or Canmore. died without issue in the early 11th century and the kingdom passed through his daughter's son. Other Scottish musicians include Shirley Manson. Maid of Norway herself died in a tragic shipwreck en route to Scotland. Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. Margaret. with both traditional and modern influences. Boards of Canada. Franz Ferdinand. the proceeds of North Sea oil and gas. Cocteau Twins. but in recent decades the country has enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance. Today. Amy Macdonald. known to modern historians as the House of Alpin. Runrig. Interest in Scots literature was revived in the 18th century by figures including James Macpherson. Susan Boyle. but the accession of James VI to the English throne removed a major centre of literary patronage and Scots was sidelined as a literary language. Emeli Sande. situated in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland Bagpipe. Malcolm II. Scotland became one of the commercial. first king of a united Scotland. which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. Paolo Nutini and Calvin Harris. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland was in Brythonic speech in the 6th century. featuring bagpipes and various types of drums. Old English and French.and was soon followed by a series of vernacular romances and prose works. there are many successful Scottish bands and individual artists in varying styles including Annie Lennox . Its industrial decline following the Second World War was particularly acute. fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments. Culture Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture. fuelled in part by a resurgent financial services sector. In the 16th century the crown's patronage helped the development of Scots drama and poetry. Alexander III. but is preserved as part of Welsh literature. intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. The first surviving major text in Early Scots is the 14th-century poet John Barbour's epic Brus. His descendants. During the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. Deacon Blue. have spread throughout the world. four years later.The Kingdom of Scotland was united under the descendants of Kenneth MacAlpin. a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter). Bagpipe bands. Historical Places in Scotland Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland. The last Dunkeld king. Duncan I. It is the second most populous city in Scotland and the seventh most 5 . focusing on the life of Robert I. The last Alpin king. died in 1286 leaving only a single infant granddaughter as heir. The clàrsach (harp). whose Ossian Cycle made him the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation and was a major influence on the European Enlightenment. Gaelic. Later medieval literature included works in Latin. the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance bands. and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones.

and explains sightings as including misidentifications of 6 . it forms one of the 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. It is similar to other supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere. the highest of any Scottish city.populous in the United Kingdom.390/km2). is the fourth-largest city in Scotland by population. From the 18th century the city also grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies. which officially opened in Edinburgh in 1999. Edinburgh lies at the heart of a larger urban zone with a population of 778.Much of the scientific community regards the Loch Ness Monster as a modern-day myth. Edinburgh has been recognized as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century but political power moved south to London after the Union of the Crowns in 1603 and the Union of Parliaments in 1707. with minimal and much-disputed photographic material and sonar readings. and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow in the 15th century. The town developed into a burgh in medieval times. with most describing it as large in size. At the 2011 census. The most common speculation among believers is that the creature represents a line of long-surviving plesiosaurs.790/sq mi (3. Edinburgh's relatively buoyant economy.298 people per square kilometre. traditionally centred on banking and insurance but now encompassing a wide range of businesses. and expanded rapidly in the 19th century largely due to the jute industry. Many Scottish companies have established their head offices in the city. it had a population density of 3. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh. Evidence of its existence is anecdotal. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become one of the largest seaports in Britain. Dundee officially the City of Dundee. and the third largest in the United Kingdom. which feeds into the North Sea. the second highest of any Scottish city. It lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay. At the 2011 census. Popular interest and belief in the animal's existence has varied since it was first brought to the world's attention in 1933. a measure of self-government returned in the shape of the devolved Scottish Parliament. Under the name of Dundee City. though its description varies from one account to the next. The monster of Loch Ness The Loch Ness Monster is a cryptid who reputedly inhabits Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands.000. it had a population density of 8. It is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the 18th century. makes it the biggest financial centre in the UK after London. After nearly three centuries of unitary government. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland.

Edinburgh Castle was involved in many historical conflicts from the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century to the Jacobite Rising of 1745. Scotland. St. but fell into disuse after the Reformation. acquaintances or stories they remembered being told. that a few weeks earlier while motoring around the Loch. Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh Castle is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh. outright hoaxes. Margaret’s Chapel St Margaret's Chapel.Other letters began appearing in the Courier. both successfully and unsuccessfully. he and his wife had seen "the nearest approach to a dragon or pre-historic animal that I have ever seen in my life".more mundane objects. more than 70% of leisure visitors to Edinburgh visited the castle. often anonymously. As the backdrop to the Edinburgh Military Tattoo during the annual Edinburgh International Festival the castle has become a recognisable symbol of Edinburgh and of Scotland and indeed. An example of Romanesque architecture. The term "monster" was reportedly applied for the first time to the creature on 2 May 1933 by Alex Campbell. Its importance as a part of Scotland's national heritage was recognised increasingly from the early 19th century onwards. From the 15th century the castle's residential role declined. which described a "monster fish". Archaeologists have established human occupation of the rock since at least the Iron Age (2nd century AD). or "dragon". on several occasions. The creature has been affectionately referred to by the nickname Nessie since the 1940s. with claims of land or water sightings. trundling across the road toward the Loch carrying "an animal" in its mouth. "sea serpent". eventually settling on "Loch Ness Monster". 7 .On 4 August 1933. with over 1. in Edinburgh Castle. and various restoration programmes have been carried out over the past century and a half. in a report in The Inverness Courier. It has been besieged.4 million visitors in 2013. As one of the most important strongholds in the Kingdom of Scotland. Scotland from its position on the Castle Rock. it is Edinburgh's most frequently visited visitor attraction according to the Edinburgh Visitor Survey. It was constructed in the 12th century. it is a category A listed building.The castle is in the care of Historic Scotland and is Scotland's most-visited paid tourist attraction. and wishful thinking. and by the 17th century it was principally used as military barracks with a large garrison. is the oldest surviving building in Edinburgh. These stories soon reached the national (and later the international) press. although the nature of the early settlement is unclear. the Courier published as a full news item the assertion of a London man. either on the writer's part or on the parts of family. George Spicer. and the site continued to be a royal residence until the Union of the Crowns in 1603. In the 19th century the chapel was restored and today is cared for by the St Margaret's Chapel Guild. the water bailiff for Loch Ness and a part-time journalist. There has been a royal castle on the rock since at least the reign of David I in the 12th century.

is relatively easy to climb. Margaret and her family fled to Scotland following the Norman conquest of England of 1066. the sister of Edgar Ætheling. described by Robert Louis Stevenson as "a hill for magnitude. According to the Life of Saint Margaret. Hutton’s Section 8 . She was a pious woman. which was eroded by a glacier moving from west to east during the Quatemary . just days after receiving the news of her husband's death in battle. Around 1070 Margaret married Malcolm III of Scotland. The hill itself rises above the city to a height of 250. In 1250 she was canonised by Pope Innocent IV. she died at Edinburgh Castle in 1093. it was formed by an extinct volcano system of Carboniferous age. the easiest and simplest ascent is from the east. Like the castle rock on which Edinburgh Castle is built. 1045 – 16 November 1093) was an English princess of the House of Wessex. Arthur’s Seat Arthur's Seat is the main peak of the group of hills in Scotland which form most of Holyrood Park. explosing rocky crags to the west and leaving a tail of material swept to the east. grassland habitats and uncommon plant and animal species. and is popular for hillwalking. a mountain in virtue of its bold design" .Saint Margaret of Scotland (c. Salisbury Crags has historically been a rock climbing venue with routes of various degrees of difficulty. Arthur's Seat is the largest of the three parts of the Arthur's Seat Volcano site of special scientific interest which is designated to protect its important geology (see below).6 km) to the east of Edinburgh Castle.5 m (822 ft). attributed to Turgot of Durham. where a grassy slope rises above Dunsapie Loch. however due to hazards rock climbing is now restricted to the South Quarry and a free permit is required. provides excellent panoramic views of the city.It is situated in the centre of the city of Edinburgh about 1 mile (1. At a spur of the hill. and among many charitable works she established a ferry across the Firth of Forth for pilgrims travelling to Dunfermline Abbey. Though it can be climbed from almost any direction.

Iain (1993).Bibliography Nicolae Plopeanu – Itinerar Britanic William Wallace – The Brave Heart of Scotland Wilson. Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time MacIvor. Daniel (1891). Edinburgh Castle 9 .

The Loch Ness lake 10 .