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Computers and Structures 88 (2010) 347–356

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Computers and Structures
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc

Geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin-walled open-section composite beams
Thuc Phuong Vo, Jaehong Lee *
Department of Architectural Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Kunja Dong, Kwangjin Ku, Seoul 143-747, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 7 April 2009
Accepted 19 November 2009
Available online 6 January 2010
Keywords:
Thin-walled composite beams
Classical lamination theory
Flexural–torsional response
Nonlinear theory

a b s t r a c t
A geometrically nonlinear model for general thin-walled open-section composite beams with arbitrary
lay-ups under various types of loadings based on the classical lamination theory is presented. It accounts
for all structural coupling coming from the material anisotropy and geometric nonlinearity. Nonlinear
governing equations are derived and solved by means of an incremental Newton–Raphson method.
The finite element model that accounts for the geometric nonlinearity in the von Kármán sense is developed to solve the problem. Numerical results are obtained for thin-walled composite Z-beam and I-beam
to investigate effects of geometric nonlinearity, fiber orientation and warping restraint on the flexural–
torsional response.
Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Fiber-reinforced composite materials have been used over the
past few decades in a variety of structures. Composites have many
desirable characteristics, such as high ratio of stiffness and
strength to weight, corrosion resistance and magnetic transparency. Thin-walled composite structures are often very thin and
have complicated material anisotropy. A large number of practical
problems of thin-walled composite structures require a geometrically nonlinear formulation, such as the post-buckling behavior,
load carrying capacity of structures used in aeronautical, aerospace
as well as in mechanical and civil engineering. However, their
structural behavior is very complex due to coupling effects as well
as warping torsion and therefore, the accurate prediction of geometrically nonlinear response is one of the fundamental importance in the design of composite structures.
The theory of thin-walled open-section members made of isotropic materials was first developed by Vlasov [1] and Gjelsvik
[2]. In the development of a geometrically nonlinear beam element, basically an updated Lagrangian or a total Lagrangian formulation can be employed. These formulations must be implemented
using appropriate displacement interpolation functions. Bathe and
Bolourchi [3] presented two consistent large rotation nonlinear
three-dimensional beam formulations: an updated Lagrangian
and a total Lagrangian formulation for a 2-node Hermitian interpolation beam. Although a large number of studies have been
performed on the geometrically nonlinear analysis of isotropic
thin-walled structures, it should be noted that only a few deal with
nonlinear flexural–torsional behavior of thin-walled composite
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 2 3408 3287; fax: +82 2 3408 3331.
E-mail address: jhlee@sejong.ac.kr (J. Lee).
0045-7949/$ - see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2009.11.007

beams with arbitrary lay-ups. A literature survey on the subject
shows that there appears some works reported on geometrically
nonlinear theory for thin-walled composite beams. The studies of
this theory for these members carried out so far may broadly be divided into two groups. The first and most common approach is
based on an analytical technique, while the other approach requires a two-dimensional finite element analysis to obtain the
cross-section stiffness matrix. Atilgan and Hodges et al. [4–9] pioneered the second approach, which was referred to as the so-called
‘‘Variational Asymptotic Beam Section Analysis”. Hodges and coworkers (e.g., Cesnik and Hodges [5], Volovoi et al. [6] and Yu
et al. [7–9]) further applied the concept introduced by variational
asymptotic method to two-dimensional cross-sectional problem
and derived closed-form expressions for the cross-sectional stiffness coefficients of thin-walled beams. In the present investigation,
an analytical approach is adopted for the derivation of the crosssectional stiffness matrix considering different effects and their
coupling to yield a general formulation. Bauld and Tzeng [10] presented nonlinear model for thin-walled composite beams by
extending Gjelsvik’s formulation to the balanced symmetric laminated composite materials. However, the formulation was somewhat not consistent in the sense that it used coordinate mapping
when developing nonlinear stresses instead of variational formulation. Gupta and Rao [11,12] developed finite element analysis to
study instability of thin-walled open-section laminated composite
beams. The nonlinear expressions for the strains occurring in thinwalled open-section beams under axial, flexural and torsional
loads, were incorporated in a general instability analysis. Bhaskar
and Librescu [13,14] developed nonlinear theory of thin-walled
composite beams, which were employed in a broad field of engineering problems. In these models, the transverse shear deformation was taken into account but the warping torsion component

the midsurface displacement com. As defined in Fig.348 T.  ðs. This nonlinear formulation was developed by using a nonlinear displacement field. zÞ  n @s  ðs. [21] developed a finite element model for structural analysis of composite laminated thin-walled beam structures. w with respect to the midsurface displacements u assumption 3:  ðs. zÞ. v . 1. Lee / Computers and Structures 88 (2010) 347–356 was neglected. (1) and considering the following After substituting for v geometric relations. is placed at an arbitrary point xp . The ðn. Definition of coordinates and generalized displacements in thin-walled open-sections. Fig. 1 a point P. A displacement-based one-dimensional finite element model that accounts for the geometric nonlinearity in the von Kármán sense is developed to solve the problem. s. The Kirchhoff–Love assumption in classical plate theory remains valid for laminated composite thin-walled beams. the following assumptions are made: 1. x and y are the coordinates of the contour in the ðx. and the rotation angle U about the pole axis. y. y directions. called the pole. The first coordinate system is the orthogonal Cartesian coordinate system ðx. It was used for analyzing the stability of thin-walled composite beam with general cross-section. dx ¼ ds cos h ð3aÞ dy ¼ ds sin h ð3bÞ Eq. zÞ coordinate system. zÞ ¼ UðzÞ cos hðsÞ þ VðzÞ sin hðsÞ þ UðzÞrðsÞ ð1aÞ ð1bÞ These equations apply to the whole contour. zÞ @u  zÞ  n wðs. zÞ as shown in Fig. y. z. including postcritical behavior and warping deformation. The nonlinear governing equations are derived and solved by means of an incremental Newton–Raphson method. 1. for which the x and y axes lie in the plane of the cross-section and the z axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the beam. Special attention deserved the works of Machado. zÞ uðs. zÞ coordinate systems are related through an angle of orientation h. whose rotations were based on the rule of semi-tangential transformation. bending. V of the pole P in the x. Numerical results are obtained for thin-walled composite Z-beam and I-beam under vertical load to investigate the effects of fiber orientation. sz of the middle surface is zero in 2. A line through P parallel to the z axis is called the pole axis. v . The contour of the thin wall does not deform in its own plane. torsion and warping deformations and allowed one to predict critical loads and initial post-buckling behavior. J. Cardoso et al. Kinematics The theoretical developments presented in this paper require two sets of coordinate systems which are mutually interrelated.  zÞ ¼ WðzÞ  U 0 ðzÞxðsÞ  V 0 ðzÞyðsÞ  U0 ðzÞxðsÞ wðs. The linear shear strain c each element. Rajasekaran and Nalinaa [17] presented a detailed treatment of the formulation of static. z. 3.P. yp . nÞ ¼ v ðs. w representing the deformation of any generic point on the profile section are given  by the . The out-of-plane shell  can now be found from the assumption 2. it was strictly valid for symmetric balanced laminates and especially orthotropic laminates. Fraternali and Feo [16] formulated a small strain and moderate rotation theory of laminated composite thin-walled beams by generalizing the classical Vlasov theory. warping restraint and load parameter on the nonlinear flexural–torsional response. with geometrically nonlinear behavior. Based on the variational formulation. @z ð6aÞ ð6bÞ ð6cÞ . Omidvar and Ghorbanpoor [15] derived a nonlinear finite element analysis for thin-walled open-section composite beams with symmetric stacking sequence based on the updated Lagrangian formulation. the analytical model developed by the authors [22] is extended to the geometric nonlinearity. a geometrically nonlinear model for general thinwalled open-section composite beams with arbitrary lay-ups under various types of loads is given. z. (2) can be integrated with respect to s from the origin to an arbitrary point on the contour. However. wherein the n axis is normal to the middle surface of a plate element. the shear strain become csz ¼  @ v @ w ¼0 þ @s @z ð2Þ  from Eq. respectively. The theory was limited to small strains. s. 2. and x is the so-called sectorial coordinate or warping function given by xðsÞ ¼ Z s rðsÞ ds ð5aÞ s The displacement components u. nÞ ¼ u  ðs. By extending model of Bauld and Tzeng [10]. To derive the analytical model for a thin-walled composite beam. This model is based on the classical lamination theory. y. and accounts for all the axial–flexural–torsional coupling coming from the material anisotropy and geometric nonlinearity. Cortinez and Piovan [18–20] who introduced a geometrically nonlinear theory for thin-walled composite beams for both open and closed cross-sections and taking into account shear flexibility (bending and warping shear). zÞ and ðx. v  at a point A in the contour coordinate system can ponents u be expressed in terms of a displacements U. Vo. This beam model accounted for axial. the s axis is tangent to the middle surface and is directed along the contour line of the cross-section. zÞ ¼ UðzÞ sin hðsÞ  VðzÞ cos hðsÞ  UðzÞqðsÞ u v ðs. W represents the average axial displacement of the beam in the z direction. zÞ @u v ðs. According to assumption 1. bucking and vibration analysis of non-prismatic thin-walled composite spatial members of generic section. ð4Þ where differentiation with respect to the axial coordinate z is denoted by primes (0 ). For each displacement w element of middle surface. The second coordinate system is the local plate coordinate ðn. moderate deflections and small rotations. In this paper. nÞ ¼ wðs.

(14) Z dU ¼ ð7aÞ ð7bÞ   rz dz þ ðx þ n sin hÞdjy þ ðy  n cos hÞdjx v    þ x  nqÞdjx þ ð2rn þ n2 Þdvz þ rsz ndjsz dv Z l  ¼ Nz dz þ M y djy þ M x djx þ M x djx þ M t djsz þ Rz dvz dz 0 Eq. (7) can be rewritten as z ¼ z þ nj z þ n2 v z csz ¼ csz þ nj sz ð15Þ ð8aÞ ð8bÞ where z ¼  1 @w þ @z 2 "   2 #  2 @u @ v þ @z @z  @2u  @ v @2u j z ¼  2  @z @s@z @z  @2u j sz ¼ 2 @s@z !2 2  @ u v z ¼ @s@z ð9aÞ  z My ¼ Mx ¼ ð9dÞ ð10aÞ ð10cÞ where z . twisting and high order curvature in the beam. m  z. jx . (1) and (4) into Eq. in which only the products of u. warping moment (bimoment). (9). defined by integrating over the cross-sectional area A as Nz ¼  z are midsurface axial strain. p n are shell forces defined by where p Z z . My . p s . Mt . ps are forces acting in z. The above expression can be written with respect to the shell forces and displacements by using Eq. pn . n and s direction. defined as 0 jy ¼ U þ V U jx ¼ U00 jsz ¼ 2U0 vz 1 ¼ U02 2 rz ðx þ n sin hÞ ds dn ð16bÞ rz ðy  n cos hÞ ds dn ð16cÞ rz ðx  nqÞ ds dn ð16dÞ A Z Mx ¼ Mt ¼ Rz ¼ Z A rsz n ds dn ð16eÞ rz ð2rn þ n2 Þ ds dn ð16fÞ A Z A The variation of the strain energy can be obtained by substituting Eqs. Lee / Computers and Structures 88 (2010) 347–356 The von Kármán type strains. m  s. (1). torsional moment and high order stress resultant with respect to the centroid. (9) as  z 349 ð12aÞ ð12bÞ 3. (12) into Eq. the variation of the work done by the external forces can be written with respect to the bar forces dV ¼  ð14Þ Z l ½P z dW þ V x dU þ My dU 0 þ V y dV þ Mx dV 0 þ T dU 0 þ Mx dU0  dz ð21Þ . nÞ dn ð20aÞ ps ð1. Mx . z . Variational formulation  Z    @du @du  þp n dn þp s dv  m z s z dw m ds dz p @z @s s ð19Þ z . (6) ð11fÞ dV ¼  ð11dÞ Z l 0 The resulting strains can be obtained from Eqs. nÞ dn ð20bÞ pn dn ð20cÞ n Total potential energy of the system is calculated by sum of strain energy and work done by external forces P¼U þV ð13Þ where U is the strain energy Z 1 U¼ ðrz z þ rsz csz Þ dv 2 v After substituting Eqs. m  zÞ ¼ ðp s . respectively. (11) and (12) into Eq. warping curvature with respect to the shear center. Vo. bending moments in the x and y directions. Rz are axial force. are considered and given by z "   2 # 2 @w 1 @u @v ¼ þ þ @z 2 @z @z csz ¼ @ v @w þ @z @s The variation of strain energy is calculated by substituting Eq. jy . the variation of work done by external forces can be written as ð11bÞ dV ¼  ð11cÞ Z v ðpz dw þ pn du þ ps dv Þ dv ð18Þ ð11eÞ where pz . j  sz and v In Eq. respectively. jx . jsz and vz are axial strain. v and their derivatives are retained and all other nonlinear terms are neglected. (19). respectively. (15) dU ¼ Z l  Nz dW 0  My dU 00  Mx dV 00  M x dU00 þ 2M t dU0 0 þ Nz ðU 0 dU 0 þ V 0 dV 0 Þ þ ðM y  xp Nz ÞðV 0 dU0 þ U0 dV 0 Þ i  Mx  yp Nz ÞðU 0 dU0 þ U0 dU 0 Þ þ r 2p Nz þ Rz U0 dU0 dz ð17Þ ð11aÞ On the other hand. (4) and (6) into Eq. J. m  sÞ ¼ ðp n ¼ p Z n n Z pz ð1. biaxial curvatures in the x and y direction. The above shell strains can be converted to beam strain components by substituting Eqs. j vature and high order curvature of the shell. (8) and (10) as z ¼ z þ ðx þ n sin hÞjy þ ðy  n cos hÞjx þ ðx  nqÞjx þ ð2rn þ n2 Þvz csz ¼ njsz ð16aÞ A ð10dÞ 0 Z ð9cÞ j sz ¼ jsz v z ¼ vz 00 rz ds dn Z ð9bÞ ð10bÞ 1  ¼ W þ ½U 02 þ V 02 þ ðr2 þ q2 ÞU02   xp V 0 U0 þ yp U 0 U0 2 jx ¼ V 00  U 0 U0 Z A z ¼  þ xjy þ yjx þ xjx j z ¼ jy sin h  jx cos h  jx q þ vz r 0 where N z . M x . biaxial cur z.P.T.

350 T. n2 . defined by Z ð22dÞ s ð22eÞ ð22fÞ ð22gÞ s Using the principle that the variation of the total potential energy is zero. Hij Þ ¼ s cos h þ p n sin hÞ ds ðp ð22cÞ Other values of Eij can be found in Ref. n3 . n. Dij . respectively. Hij matrices are higher order stiffnesses.P. Lee / Computers and Structures 88 (2010) 347–356 where the bar forces are related to the shell forces as Pz ¼ Zs Vy ¼ ð22aÞ s sin h  p n cos hÞ ds ðp ð22bÞ ðAij . Governing equations The nonlinear equilibrium equations of the present study can be obtained by integrating the derivatives of the varied quantities by parts and collecting the coefficients of dW. Constitutive equations The constitutive equations of a kth orthotropic lamina in the laminate coordinate system are given by . bending stiffness and F ij . Bij . the weak form of the present theory for thin-walled composite beams are obtained 0¼ Z l  Nz dW 0  M y dU 00  M x dV 00  M x dU00 þ 2Mt dU0 þ Nz ðU 0 dU 0 5. F ij . The explicit forms of the laminate stiffnesses Eij for general I-section are given in the Appendix A. dU. [22]. Vo. Bij . J. coupling. dV and dU N0z þ P z ¼ 0 ð28aÞ M00y þ ½Nz ðU 0 þ yp U0 Þ0  ½M x U0 0 þ V x  M0y ¼ 0 ð28bÞ M00x þ ½Nz ðV 0  xp U0 Þ0 þ ½M y U0 0 þ V y  M0x ¼ 0 h i0 M00x þ 2M0t þ Nz r2p U0 þ yp U 0  xp V 0 ð28cÞ þ ½My V 0 0  ½M x U 0 0 þ ½Rz U0 0 þ T  M0x ¼ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 þ V dV Þ þ ðMy  xp Nz ÞðV dU þ U dV Þ  ðM x  yp N z ÞðU dU þ U0 dU 0 Þ þ r2p Nz þ Rz U0 dU0  P z dW  V x dU  My dU 0  ð23Þ  V y dV  Mx dV 0  T dU  Mx dU0 dz 4. n4 Þ dn ð27Þ s Z Vx ¼ z ds p where Aij . s Z s r  p n q þ m  s Þ ds ðp Z  z sin h  p z xÞ ds My ¼ ðm Zs  z cos h  p z yÞ ds Mx ¼ ðm Zs  zq  p z xÞ ds Mx ¼ ðm T ¼ Z Q ij ð1. Dij matrices are extensional.

rz rsz " k ¼ Q 11 Q 16 Q 16 Q 66 #k .

The transformed reduced stiffnesses can be calculated from the transformed stiffnesses based on the plane stress ðrs ¼ 0Þ and plane strain ðs ¼ 0Þ assumption. the explicit form of the governing equations can be expressed with respect to the laminate stiffnesses Eij . Finite element formulation W¼ 2 X wj Wj ð30aÞ j¼1 ½2B11 ry þ D11 ðy  2r cos hÞ  F 11 cos h ds ð26cÞ ½2B11 r x þ D11 ðx  2rqÞ  F 11 q ds U¼ ð26dÞ V¼ ð2D16 r  F 16 Þ ds ð26eÞ ð4D11 r 2 þ 4rF 11 þ H11 Þ ds ð26fÞ 4 X uj wj ð30bÞ v j wj ð30cÞ /j wj ð30dÞ j¼1 4 X j¼1 s Z 0 ð26bÞ s Z ð29aÞ M 0y ½2B11 rx þ D11 ðx þ 2r sin hÞ þ F 11 sin h ds s Z Nz ð26aÞ s Z dW : ð2B11 r þ D11 Þ ds s Z The natural boundary conditions are of the form The present theory for thin-walled composite beams described in the previous section was implemented via a displacement-based finite element method. (16) and (24) 9 2 8 E11 E12 Nz > > > > > > > > 6 > > M E22 y > > > 6 > > = 6 <M > 6 x ¼6 6 > > M x > > 6 > > > > 6 > > > 4 > Mt > > > > . (28). 6. : vz E66 ð25Þ Z E26 ¼ E36 ¼ E46 ¼ E56 ¼ dU : dU 0 : My dV : M 0x 0 E66 ¼ s 0 0 0 0 0 þ Nz ðU þ yp U Þ  Mx U ð29bÞ ð29cÞ þ Nz ðV  xp U Þ þ M y U ð29dÞ Mx dV : 0 dU : M x þ 2M t þ dU0 : Mx ð29eÞ Nz ðr 2p 0 0 0 0 0 U þ yp U  xp V Þ þ My V  Mx U þ Rz U0 ð29fÞ ð29gÞ Eq. Eq. : Rz sym: E13 E14 E15 E23 E24 E25 E33 E34 E35 E44 E45 9 38 E16 > z > > > > > > jy > > E26 7 > > 7> > > > 7> = < 7 j E36 x 7 7 > jx > E46 7> > > > > 7> > > jsz > E56 5> > > > > . The generalized displacements are expressed over each element as a combination of the one-dimensional linear Lagrange interpolation function Wj and Hermite-cubic interpolation function wj associated with node j and the nodal values E55 where Eij are laminate stiffnesses of thin-walled composite beams. (28) is most general form for axial–flexural–torsional behavior of thin-walled composite beams. (12). (29g) denotes the warping restraint boundary condition. and can be defined by E16 ¼ ð28dÞ 0 U¼ 4 X j¼1 . (11) and (25) into Eq. and the dependent variables W. U0 ¼ 0 and when the warping is not restrained (free warping). z ð24Þ csz where Q ij are transformed reduced stiffnesses. [23]. The constitutive equations for bar forces and bar strains are obtained by using Eqs. When the warping of the cross-section is restrained. More detailed explanation can be found in Ref. U. V and U are fully coupled. By substituting Eqs. Mx ¼ 0.

1312 0.0260 4.0308 0.6380 7.0351 6.3720 7.3720 7.1442 8.320 8.1305 0.0348 0. (23). fDg is the unknown nodal displacements Substituting these expressions into the weak statement in Eq.0000 0.351 T.6626 1.8039 1. the finite element model of a typical element can be expressed as ½KðfDgÞfDg ¼ ff g ð31Þ The nonlinear algebraic equations of present theory can be linearized using Newton–Raphson iterative method. (31).0922 3.0000 0.0129 2.3540 6.600 56.6380 7.400 54.440 5.850 5.7162 7.0000 2.3860 2.9795 0.833 Table 2 The tip rotations and deflections of a cantilever [0°/45°/0°] Z-beam under an eccentric transverse load P = 445 N.0602 0.5100 2.5173 10.0005 0. Rotations/deflections Restrained warping Free warping Present W (mm) U (mm) U0 (103 rad) V (mm) V0 (103 rad) U (rad) Ref.0152 2. (31) by the Newton–Raphson iteration method results in the following linearized equations for the incremental solution at the rth iteration [24] f Dg ¼ f W U V U gT ð36Þ 7.0069 3.0309 0.9508 0.350 4.7883 2.0000 0. A cantilever composite Z-beam under an eccentric transverse load and three stacking sequences. Lee / Computers and Structures 88 (2010) 347–356 ½TðfDgr1 ÞfdDg ¼ fRðfDgr1 Þg ð32Þ where the tangent stiffness matrix is calculated using the definition ½TðfDgr1 Þ   @fRg @fDg r1 ð33Þ The residual vector after the (r  1)th iteration is given by fRðfDgr1 Þg ¼ ½KðfDgr1 ÞfDgr1  ff g ð34Þ The solution at the rth iteration is then given by Fig.0156 0.800 58.5580 10.0216 0.0000 2.400 58.7590 5.0631 0.0312 0.0303 0.1940 0. [26] Present Linear Nonlinear Linear–Nonlinear Linear Nonlinear Ref.120 6.0530 2.0230 0.0002 0.0154 4.5100 2.0235 0.45 N.5580 10.0247 0.0030 0.7910 1.6945 0.540 4.790 59.0352 0.0215 0. J.7910 1.0127 3.0236 0.0178 3.0001 0.6606 1.7377 5.0161 0.7378 5. Vo.200 60. 2.3467 9.0580 0.0230 0. [12] Ref.700 57.0000 2.0164 0. [12] Ref.750 4.653 [45°/45°] Ref. The initial solution vector is chosen to Table 1 The tip rotations and deflections of a cantilever Z-beam under an eccentric transverse load P = 4.0598 0.6690 7.0239 0.0000 0.3860 2.P.3166 Table 3 The tip rotations and deflections of a cantilever [45°/45°] Z-beam under an eccentric transverse load P=445N.0078 3.4183 0.5173 10. [26] Linear Nonlinear Linear–Nonlinear Linear Nonlinear Linear Nonlinear 0.4861 .800 57.0004 0. [25] Present 0.5950 7.0341 0.0000 2.2718 6.0000 3.0177 0.0144 0.9508 0.0000 0. a tolerance of  ¼ 103 and maximum allowable iterations of 20 (per load step) are used to check for convergence of nodal displacements in the Newton– Raphson iteration scheme.3392 6. [25] Present 0. [26] Present Ref.0214 0.9969 2.0174 0. [17] Ref.136 58.190 6.166 [0°/45°/0°] Ref.7590 5.8550 0.4078 0. Lay-ups Formulation W (mm) U (mm) V (mm) V0 (105 rad) U (105 rad) [0°] Ref.3720 7.8654 5. Rotations/deflections Restrained warping Present W (mm) U (mm) U0 (103 rad) V (mm) V0 (103 rad) U (rad) Free warping Ref.1940 0.5580 10. [17] Ref.0349 0.0133 3.0227 0.900 56. Solution of Eq.0147 0.0002 0.8403 1.1940 0.0209 0.260 4.0030 0. [26] Linear Nonlinear 0.6380 7.7590 5.950 56. fDgr ¼ fDgr1 þ fdDg ð35Þ In Eq. [25] Present 0.5100 2.2796 0. Numerical examples Throughout numerical examples.8141 5.0324 0.5952 7. [12] Ref.7910 1. [17] Ref.547 56.0030 0.3540 6.0003 0.0004 0.

[29] ABAQUS Theory 837.40 318. for linear analysis.30 768. except for the axial and torsional displacements in Ref. [26].15 101. m12 ¼ 0:25.00 576. the axial and vertical displacements at the free end by this study and the results by 600 nine-noded ABAQUS’s shell elements (S9R5) [27] are presented.75 .00 568. whereas they increase for anti-symmetric one.00 288. Tables 2 and 3 show a good agreement between the results of the approach proposed herein and previous results.0678 ½90=904s ABAQUS Present 5. E2 ¼ 17:93 GPa.80 293.00 146.00 73. the study is made with the symmetric [0°/45°/0°] and anti-symmetric [45°/45°] lay-ups.65 318.50 196.3404 23.5798 ½75=754s ABAQUS Present 5.7453 ½0=904s ABAQUS Present 1.85 72.6002 ½30=304s ABAQUS Present 1. Lay-ups and material properties are the same with previous Table 5 Critical bucking loads (N) of a simply supported and cantilever composite mono-symmetric I-beam with symmetric angle-ply laminates ½h4s in the flanges and web.2037 42.80 402. Harursampath [26] further analyzed this example by considering an eccentric transverse load of P = 454 N. The results of the present analysis are given for both the linear and nonlinear case.50 144.3443 42.25 146. All computations are carried out with the following material properties: E1 ¼ 206:8 GPa. 2). The tip rotations and deflections of present model are given in Table 1.6124 0.6075 15. It should be noted that there is no difference results between free and restrained warping models.00 292. so that the first iteration solution corresponds to the linear solution.03 577. As expected. it seems that the nonlinear results in Ref. G12 ¼ 8:96 GPa. In order to investigate the influence of warping restraint effect on the nonlinear response.99 216.28 768.30 577.25 80.31 80.80 577.00 216. G12 ¼ 51:7 GPa. be the zero vector. generality and robustness of this study further. it becomes significant and depends on types of lay-ups for nonlinear analysis. the buckling behavior of simply supported and cantilever composite mono-symmetric I-beam with length l ¼ 4:0 m under axial force at the centroid is performed. However. For restrained warping model.7463 33.3416 1.90 Present Lee and Kim [28] Present 841.76 196. By using two different boundary conditions at free end: restrained warping and free warping. Vo. The proposed model agrees well with previously available results and can capture exactly all the geometrical nonlinear response of composite beam. In order to demonstrate the accuracy. all the nonlinear displacements decrease for the symmetric lay-up.50 318. the warping restraint has a stiffening effect. Lee / Computers and Structures 88 (2010) 347–356 Table 4 The tip axial and vertical displacements of a cantilever composite I-beam with symmetric angle-ply laminates ½h4s in the flanges and web under a vertical load P = 250 N at free end.6434 17. Lay-ups Formulation W (cm) V (cm) ½016 ABAQUS Present 0.10 571.3488 1.3164 4.7501 2.80 293. Whereas. a cantilever symmetrically laminated symmetric I-beam with length l ¼ 2:5 m under a tip vertical load 250 N at the free end is investigated. For verification purpose.10 571.00 101.2755 46. When comparing with free warping model.352 T.9294 ½60=604s ABAQUS Present 4.2341 46. All computations are carried out for the glass–epoxy materials with the following material properties: E1 ¼ 53:78 GPa. Load versus the lateral displacement at mid-span of a simply supported composite mono-symmetric I-beam under different values of initial loading imperfections with the fiber angle 30° and 60° in the flanges and web.15 568. along with the analytical results of Gupta and Rao [12] and Rajasekaran and Nalinaa [17] and FEAST-C [25]. The accuracy of the predictions from present model with the ABAQUS’s solutions can be seen in Table 4 for all lamination schemes considered. E2 ¼ 103:4 GPa. Plane stress assumption ðrs ¼ 0Þ is used in the numerical computation.54 N at free end is performed (Fig.0838 45. That is.11 401. For comparison.6077 46.10 842.95 Cantilever beam Kim et al.00 767. Lay-ups Simply supported beam Lee and Kim [28] ½016 ½15=154s ½30=304s ½45=454s ½60=604s ½75=754s ½90=904s ½0=904s 842. J.18 73. The flanges and web are made of 16 layers with each layer 0. with two lay-ups considered.1983 5.P.13 mm in thickness.77 288.72 144. for free warping model. this beam is probably supposed free warping at both free ends.3569 23.6133 23. Next.7830 Fig. Following dimensions for I-beam are used: both of flanges width and web height are 50 mm. the influence of the warping restraint becomes immaterial for all displacements. m12 ¼ 0:30.08 292.0482 5.40 766. except for the angle of twist.75 72.00 318.6384 ½45=454s ABAQUS Present 2.7600 33. 3.7432 17.9113 ½15=154s ABAQUS Present 0.7474 0. a cantilever thin-walled composite Z-beam with geometry and three lay-ups under an eccentric transverse load of P = 4.6829 23. [26] were calculated by assuming that the beam is restrained both warping and axially at the free end.30 402.9760 15.00 401.

It should be noted that for h ¼ 90 . Load versus the vertical displacement and load versus the angle of twist at two fiber angles are shown in Figs. It implies that the structure under an eccentric transverse load not only causes the transverse displacement and . This is due to the fact that the geometrical nonlinear effect causes flexural–torsional coupling which results in a decrease in the flexural and torsional stiffness of the beam. which is characteristic of an incipient limit-point response of the beam. respectively. It is from Fig. E16 and E35 do not vanish due to unsymmetric stacking sequence of the flanges. Vo. Load versus the lateral displacement of fiber angle h ¼ 30 and 60° in the flanges and web with different values of initial loading imperfections in x-direction (V x ¼ 0:01. Lee / Computers and Structures 88 (2010) 347–356 Fig. the nonlinear vertical and torsional displacements are about twice of those of linear analysis. The load with increment of  ¼ 0:05 is increased until the first critical point is reached. 3 and 4. ¼ u v ¼ ¼ q Fig. This response is never seen in linear analysis because lateral displacement is decoupled with vertical and torsional load. G12 =E2 ¼ 0:6. 5. [29].10 N) are plotted in Figs. The results by nonlinear analysis are always larger than those of linear analysis. that is. the following nondimensional values of the lateral. As the first example. The results of the different methods are found again to be in a good agreement in Table 5. 90 is considered to study the effects of load parameter on the displacements in the high nonlinear region. respectively. 8 that highlights the influence of geometrical nonlinear effect on the lateral displacement of beam. Fig. At this load of h ¼ 90 . 5. and the following engineering constants are used E1 =E2 ¼ 25. 0:05 and 0. It is evident that the linear theory is adequate in a relatively large region  ¼ 0:5 up to the point where the applied load reaches value of q and 1 for fiber angle h ¼ 90 and 30°.P. the stacking sequence at two specific fiber angle h ¼ 30 . The effect of the geometric nonlinearity is apparent with increasing load intensity. 6. The critical buckling loads obtained from present model are compared with those of Lee and Kim [28] and Kim et al. and load parameter are used 353 u b3 ð38aÞ v ð38bÞ b3 qL4 3 E2 b3 t 1 ð38cÞ Stacking sequence of this beam consists of four layers with equal thickness as follows: ½h=  h2 at the bottom flange and unidirectional at the web and top flange. Load versus the lateral displacement at free end of a cantilever composite mono-symmetric I-beam under different values of initial loading imperfections with the fiber angle 30° and 60° in the flanges and web. this beam sustains two kinds of couplings from material anisotropy and geometric nonlinearity simultaneously. For this layup. The Dq solutions of the linear analysis are also presented to highlight the difference between linear and nonlinear responses with increasing load. respectively. example except the geometry of I-section. A pinned-hinged composite I-beam under an eccentric uniform load. all the coupling stiffness vanish. The top and bottom flange widths are 30 and 50 mm. This response is also justified by the fact that the value of the limit-point load decreases with increasing imperfection amplitude.T. J. A pinned-hinged composite I-beam of length L ¼ 8 m under an eccentric uniform load q acting at the left of the top flange is considered in order to investigate the effects of the load parameter and fiber orientation on the nonlinear flexural–torsional behavior. the coupling stiffnesses E15 . m12 ¼ 0:25 ð37Þ For convenience. Load versus the vertical displacement at mid-span of a pinned-hinged composite I-beam under an eccentric uniform load with the fiber angle 30° and 90° in the bottom flange. which are based on the linear bifurcation buckling theory and ABAQUS solution. and web height are 50 mm. The geometry and stacking sequence of composite I-beam is shown in Fig. The load versus lateral displacement curve monotonically increases and approaches a linear bifurcation buckling load value. 6 and 7. The highest load of fiber angle h ¼ 90 is smaller than that of h ¼ 30 . vertical displacement. only geometrical nonlinear effect exists. Accordingly. 4.

geometrical nonlinear effect is prominent. that is. 8. For fiber angles less than h ¼ 30 . Especially. the discrepancy between the linear and nonlinear analysis becomes significant. 9 and 10. Vo. and thus. The difference between these displacements of two analyses is minimum at h ¼ 0 and reaches maximum value at h ¼ 90 . Variation of the angle of twist at mid-span of a pinned-hinged composite Ibeam under an eccentric uniform load with respect to fiber angle change in the bottom flange. because the torsional rigidity E55 becomes maximum value at this range. as the fiber orientation is rotated off-axis. but also causes an additional response due solely to geometric nonlinearity which does not occur in linear case. flexural and torsional rigidities decrease significantly with increasing fiber angle. A pinned-hinged composite I-beam under a constant applied load is analyzed while the fiber angle is rotated in the bottom flange. vertical and torsional displacements with respect to fiber angle change are illustrated in Figs. Load versus the lateral displacement at mid-span of a pinned-hinged composite I-beam under an eccentric uniform load with the fiber angle 30° and 90° in the bottom flange. J. . This phenomenon can be explained that the axial. the same configuration with the previous example except the load and laminate stacking sequence is considered. 10. the angle of twist of two analyzes shows the same tendency and reaches minimum value between fiber angle h 2 ½10—20 . However. Fig. Load versus the angle of twist at mid-span of a pinned-hinged composite Ibeam under an eccentric uniform load with the fiber angle 30° and 90° in the bottom flange. Fig. the vertical displacement Fig. Based on previous  ¼ 1:25 is chosen to show numerical example. Variation of the vertical and lateral displacements at mid-span of a pinnedhinged composite I-beam under an eccentric uniform load with respect to fiber angle change in the bottom flange. Lee / Computers and Structures 88 (2010) 347–356 Fig. the relative geometrical nonlinear effect becomes larger for higher fiber angles. no linear lateral displacement u gles. 9.354 T. The nonlinear vertical displacement is not as sensitive as the nonlinear lateral and torsional displacements when fiber angle changes. angle of twist as would be observed in linear case. of linear and nonlinear analysis coincide. an applied load q effect of fiber orientation on the flexural–torsional response. Variation of the lateral.P. As  is seen for all fiber anexpected. in Fig. To investigate the geometrical nonlinear effect further. 10. 7. that is.

J. The present model is found to be appropriate and efficient in analyzing nonlinear flexural–torsional behavior of thin-walled composite beams. 11. Vo. Appendix A þ ðy2 þ yp Þb1  CÞb5  F 511 ðx3 þ xp Þb5 E56 ¼ D116 ð2y2 þ 2yp Þb1 þ F 116 b1 þ D216 ð2y2 þ 2yp Þb2 þ F 216 b2 þ D316 ð2x3  2xp Þb3 þ F 316 b3 þ D416 ð2y1  2yp Þb4 þ F 416 b4 þ D516 ð2y1  2yp Þb5 þ F 516 b5 þ ð4y2 þ 4yp Þðy2 þ yp ÞD211 b2 þ ð4y2 þ 4yp ÞF 211 b2 þ H211 b2 þ ð4x3  4xp Þðx3  xp ÞD311 b3 þ ð4x3  4xp ÞF 311 b3 þ H311 b3 þ ð4y1  4yp Þðy1  yp ÞD411 b4 þ ð4y1  4yp ÞF 411 b4 þ H411 b4 E16 ¼ ð2y2 þ 2yp ÞB111 b1 þ D111 b1 þ ð2y2 þ 2yp ÞB211 b2 þ D211 b2 þ ð4y1  4yp Þðy1  yp ÞD511 b5 þ ð4y1  4yp ÞF 511 b5 þ H511 b5 þ ð2x3  2xp ÞB311 b3 þ D311 b3 þ ð2y1  2yp ÞB411 b4 þ D411 b4 E26 ð39eÞ E66 ¼ ð4y2 þ 4yp Þðy2 þ yp ÞD111 b1 þ ð4y2 þ 4yp ÞF 111 b1 þ H111 b1 The explicit forms of the laminate stiffnesses Eij for composite Isection in Fig. A displacement-based one-dimensional finite element model that accounts for the geometric nonlinearity in the von Kármán sense is developed to solve the problem. Concluding remarks A geometrically nonlinear model is developed to study the flexural–torsional behavior of general thin-walled open-section composite beams with arbitrary lay-ups under various types of loadings.P. Science and Technology (2009-0087819) is gratefully acknowledged. ð39gÞ . Lee / Computers and Structures 88 (2010) 347–356 E36 ¼ ð2y2 þ 2yp Þy2 B111 b1 þ D111 ð3y2  2yp Þb1  F 111 b1 þ ð2y2 þ 2yp Þy2 B211 b2 þ D211 ð3y2  2yp Þb2  F 211 b2 1 2 þ ð2x3  2xp ÞB311 þ D311 b3 þ ð2x3  2xp Þy2 B311 b3 2 þ D311 y2 b3 þ ð2y1  2yp Þy1 B411 b4 þ D411 ð3y1  2yp Þb4 þ F 411 b4 þ ð2y1  2yp Þy1 B511 b5 þ D511 ð3y1  2yp Þb5 þ F 511 b5 ð39cÞ E46 ¼ 1 2 ð2y2 þ 2yp Þðy2 þ yp ÞB111 þ D111 ðy2  yp Þ  F 111 b1 2  ð2y2 þ 2yp ÞCB111 b1 þ D111 ðC  ð2y2 þ 2yp Þ  ðb1 þ x3  xp ÞÞb1  F 111 ðb1 þ x3  xp Þb1 1 2 þ ðð2y2 þ 2yp Þðy2 þ yp ÞB211 þ D211 ðy2  yp Þ  F 211 Þb2 2 þ ð2y2 þ 2yp Þððy2 þ yp Þb1  CÞB211 b2 þ D211 ððy2 þ yp Þb1 Fig. The nonlinear governing equations are derived from the principle of the stationary value of total potential energy and solved by means of an incremental Newton–Raphson method. The authors also would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their suggestions in improving the standard of the manuscript.  C  ð2y2 þ 2yp Þðx3  xp ÞÞb2  F 211 ðx3  xp Þb2 1 2 ð2x3  2xp Þðx3  xp ÞB311 þ D311 ðx3 þ xp Þ  F 311 b3 þ 2 þ ð2x3  2xp Þððy2 þ yp Þb1  CÞB311 b3 þ D311 ððy2 þ yp Þb1 8. Geometry of thin-walled composite I-beam.  C  ð2x3  2xp Þðy2  yp ÞÞb3  F 311 ðy2  yp Þb3 1 2 þ ðð2y1  2yp Þðy1  yp ÞB411 þ D411 ðy1 þ yp Þ  F 411 Þb4 2 þ ð2y1  2yp Þððy1  yp Þb4 þ ðx3  xp Þb3 þ ðy2 þ yp Þb1  CÞB411 b4 þ D411 ððy1  yp Þb4  ð2y1  2yp Þðb4  x3 þ xp Þ þ ðx3  xp Þb3 þ ðy2 þ yp Þb1  CÞb4  F 411 ðb4  x3 þ xp Þb4 1 2 þ ð2y1  2yp Þðy1  yp ÞB511 þ D511 ðy1 þ yp Þ  F 511 b5 2 þ ð2y1  2yp Þððx3  xp Þb3 þ ðy2 þ yp Þb1  CÞB511 b5 þ D511 ðð2y1  2yp Þðx3 þ xp Þ þ ðx3  xp Þb3 Acknowledgments The support of the research reported here by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education. 11 can be defined by þ ð2y1  2yp ÞB511 b5 þ D511 b5 ð39aÞ 1 2 ¼ ð2y2 þ 2yp ÞB111 þ D111 b1 þ ð2y2 þ 2yp Þðb1 þ x3 ÞB111 b1 2 1 2 þ D111 ðb1 þ x3 Þb1 þ ð2y2 þ 2yp ÞB211 þ D211 b2 2 þ ð2y2 þ 2yp Þx3 B211 b2 þ D211 x3 b2 þ ð2x3  2xp Þx3 B311 b3 1 2 þ D311 ð3x3  2xp Þb3 þ F 311 b3 þ ð2y1 þ 2yp ÞB411  D411 b4 2 þ ð2y1  2yp Þðb4 þ x3 ÞB411 b4 þ D411 ðb4 þ x3 Þb4 1 2 ð2y1 þ 2yp ÞB511  D511 b5 þ 2 þ ð2y1  2yp Þx3 B511 b5 þ D511 x3 b5 ð39bÞ ð39dÞ ð39fÞ C¼  1 1 2 2 ðy2 þ yp Þt1 b1 þ ðy2 þ yp Þt 1 b2 þ ðy2 þ yp Þb1 t1 b2 2 2 1 1 2 2 þ ðx3  xp Þt3 b3 þ ðy2 þ yp Þb1 t 3 b3 þ ðy1  yp Þt 2 b4 2 2 þ ððy1  yp Þb4 þ ðx3  xp Þb3 þ ðy2 þ yp Þb1 Þt 2 b4  1 2 ðt1 b1 þ ðy1  yp Þt2 b5 þ ððx3  xp Þb3 þ ðy2 þ yp Þb1 Þt 2 b5 2 þ t 1 b2 þ t 3 b3 þ t 2 b4 þ t 2 b5 Þ Other values of Eij can be found in Ref. [22]. This model is capable of predicting accurately nonlinear flexural–torsional response for various configuration including boundary conditions and laminate orientation of thin-walled composite beams.355 T.

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