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- Gateway
to England's
North Country

m.cotorfuImedI.pI

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• The Heartbeat
of Jamaica
• Hemingway's
Ways
• Life of Plastic

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This & That
r.M.TiRi1 r
I Narcolepsy
221 Scouting- "Service on the
Front Line of Compassion"
261 A man who's not Losing his
Grip - a Short Story of the
French Spiderman

iihuit
11 I The Heartbeat of Jamaica
321 Hemingway's Ways
ii
6J Life of Plastic

371 Manchester - Gateway to
England's North Country
lT'iuit
141 Life is a Roller Coaster
261 The Little Brick that Made
it Big
291 Artur Boruc - The Hero
of Glasgow

WHY ARE FLAMINGOS
PINK?
When flamingos betoft, they are grey. After some time their
feathers tarn pick (or red or crimson, depending on the
species) because of their diet that is rich in beta carotene.
Dethe flamingos are often grey or pale pick because the
amount of beta carotene they are provided in their food is
quite different to what their wild colleagues fte.vo..uc.
to hatch - wyklud siq
species - gatunek
captive - trzymanywniewuli
pale - blady
to devour - po±erad

BURY THEIR HEADS IN
THE SAND WHEN
FRIGHTENED?
Well.., ostriches DO NOT bury their heads in the sand. Nobody has ever seen them doing anything like that! This
i'nyth probably comes from Roman tftiufter, Pliny the Elder,
a react who was very inouieitive about the world around
him. He once wrote that when an ostrich sticks its head in
the sand, it feels safe thinking its whole body is concealed.
In fact, when frightened, ostriches run (very fast) or fight.
thinker - mydEciel
inquisitive - ciekawski
to stick -wntknqd
concealed - ukryty

.ujred by law to provide their pigs with toys.zawierad to thaw .nicefacts. it is legal to marry a dead person.com Did you know that.ukaradmandatem grocerystern .sklep spehpwczy (% (Okcydent) . people are legally allowed to marry a dog.e. Whet the Western world precisely embraces can change depending on the period in history. only IL out of every 200 people own a car. you can be fined for not using a shopping basket at agrocerystore.uncle r than people with other hair colors do.rozmraia6 to dump .q. typically at night. • In Holland. the amount of garbage that is dumped in the worlds oceans is three times the weight of fish that is caught from the oceans.skrzep www.the habit of grinding of the teeth accompanies by clenching of the jaw. usually while they are under great stress. vi Sheep can recognize other sheep from pictures. lvi McDonald's salads contain up to 60% more fat than their burgers.nicefacts..com enqliuh matters 122/2010 5 .a broad term referring to the Western world.wpmagad to provide . • The number of births that occur in India each year is higher than the entire population of Australia.wyrzuci6 blood clot . to require .news Every country has its customs. the place or the so cial situation. • In India. tIll People who ride on roller coasters have a higher chance of having a blood clot srthe bran to contain . • In Haiti. taoccur . Q Frozen lobsters can come back to life when thawed. • Farmers in England are r.dostarczyh tafne ... (fi Annually. • In France. fl Redheads require more anesthesia to'go. (Bruksizm) .miecrniejscewystqpid www. It occurs in most humans at a certain stage of their lives.

recycled. "in that they are extremely atuccjyt making it mach easier to ship beverages in plastics than glass. from a prison to the shelf at a high end organic shop.wisegeek. and they play an omnipresant role in many consumers' lives. or. and regions like the Middle East are famous for dreaclfuitv eulluflog fires on oh fields. in the eyes of manufacturers". plastic cups and plastic wrappers. obviously. a lot of people have become interested in its life cycle.cits have been drunk: itcan be reused.. lt is a fact that most plastic bottles are made from PET plastic and this plastic is biodegradable.Oil extraction taken piece all over the world and it has a number of environmental impacts. E. Most plastic bottles are made from polyethylene tereohthalate (PET) plastic and it is said that an estimated 30% of the world's PET goes into plastic bottles. for instance. packed into cases. as it cuts down on fuel costs. but will not be mentioned here). With the growing awareness of the environmental issues which concern plastics. and other containers. with the creation of the plastic that is used to make it.ss because being aware of the process behind the production of plastics may encourage consumers to rethink the way they use and dispose of them.At this stage in the life cycle of a plastic bottle. "One distinct advantage to plastic bottles. After production they are sterilized. in small amounts. Once oil has been p 6 english matters 22/2010 extracted. The life cycle of a plastic bottle starts.they do exist.t. it has three possible fates after its rante. but recycling rates for plastic bottles are actually very low. Any- . Plastic bottles are a very visible form of plastic use and thus they serve as a good example of how to change attitudes towards plastic in general. In areas. and prepared for further fan(ppkig.no.environment by Marta Buszkiew(cz lastic bottles are used to package a vast variety of things: from juice to soft drinks. oilspills are common. where oil is drilled from the seafloor.. oil must be extracted and then disfilluci. The majority of plastic bottles are manufactured from petroleum (soculled bioplastics are another story .com. along with other plastic products such as plastic bags.gne. with manufacturers constantly coming up with new ways to use less plastic in their containers to cut down on the cost of production and shipping. Smith in his blog entry on http:// www. Shipping materials in lightweight materials is also good for the environment. Plastic bottles are also extremely jjbfiwujgh. thrown away. globally. it could end up in any number of places." Once a PET plastic bottle ends up in the hands of end consumers. To produce petroleum. writes S. filled. it is usually moved into container tuckers for shipping to refinery facilities. cardboard. capped labeled. This is reel p. metal.

wymydlid square miles. to:skladswisko dreadfully . Moreover.wysylka to decay.eakorkowad to contain . buy a glass bottle instead.stanaoid zagrabenie seafloor . consuming lots of petrol and.zanieczydcid.wytwaread cardboard . That's the ideal situation.environment plastic in each square kilometer of where between 15-35% of plastic bottles make their way into recycling containers. it should be recycled. depending on the region.lekki garbage patch . neither are we.slxladawanieadpaddw. moreover.zawartodd to husk dean .dnstepny case .pusseechny landfill . which is of course deadly for them for they are not ecftuiopad ts_digsat it. with the rest ending up in iacy.t to many organisms living in them. that it may have travelled across great distances to reach the shelf. When the time comes to dispose of that bottle.000 pieces of the ocean. followed by recycling. sastsariety .wszecholtocny to cap . The most common place for them is called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. parts of fishing nets or from ropes . spilled shipping containers.pixie naftowe incentive .las to pose a throat .acl plastic bottles make their way straight into landfills.rnokladad sit oil spill . Once a plastic bottle enters a landfill. E.pozbyd sit ceegod beverage . you should think about the fact that it contains substances which are billions of years old (oil). but some people say it could be 1300.dmied equipped .kartonowy steadily . thereby potentially becoming a health her- ard for people who drink from them repeatedly. After a plastic bottle has been reused as many times as possible.macfly to dispose ofsth .tu:przygotnoaoy to pollute . skaxid to address .000 square miles across which is twice the size of France! There are 46.zuleta.mile kwadrotowe to extract . Worldwide there are Iota of marine animals that have already some plastic litter in their stomachs. and this can have a profound environmental impact. Or better. plastics actually break down into very small pieces which could potentially be consumed by microscopic organisms. although people should avoid using it g contain hot or corrosive fluids. The world ocean plays iicxt to a stuadil growing collection of plastics. rather than breaking down entirely.spakawoole accessible . Some scientists are concerned that. Come to that.szybki worosl.rachpcah sturdy . They come from rubbish.ograticzyd koset pro iife ratio n . the neat time you see a drink in a plastic bottle in a shop.±ywiciel to manufacture .pestpp advantage .zajydsip to digest -traoid oil field .sonar english matters 122/2010 7 .skrzynka repeatedly .tusestia. it takes hundreds of years todeca. Some Countries have attempted to address the low recycling rate with incentives. not all chJoeard. rather than the trash can. it will take hundreds of years to break down. Many ecologists believe that reusing.destylsoad to cut dawn no the cast . So.dmietnik rape .mnbstwo rudzajbw poiyethyletete rep hthalate -tereftalat pslietylenu omnipresent . of course. ruzprzestrzenianie sip to drill . poorly secured landfills. We don't actually know the size of the garbage patch. They vary from pieces of bottles or toys.raokladadsip progress .ropa naftxxwa lightweight . but because plastic bottles are cheap and easily accessible. It can be easily reused. przewaga profound . is the best and the most ceo-friendly use for a plastic bottle.zawierad to label . or at • least reuse the ones you buy.sred ryloacka common .prowadoid stlwierty fate .wydobywad to distil .lacha dmieci to come up with .wtso spusdb crapper .dus mona content . many of these programs have not worked'.metkowad thereby . Unfortunately.wyciekropy fishing net .pozbyd vip to encourage .ciqgle. writes S. The proliferation of plastics in the world's oceans poses serious tbras.wielokratnie issue .stale petroleum .13flljs or as UUtar.almost any sort of plastics.okropnie liner . they should remember to wash such bottles carefully before using for they might contain bacteria.napdj host . zagadnienie shipping . Smith. we hope that you will turn to the recycling bin.zachpta trash can .giphoki to discard . undo variety of other sources.

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However. by stressful life situations (like unemployment.bykcregod at the drop eta hat .leozniczy several.paojent hence . Moreover.sen ginboki (wolne rachy galek ocenych) REM (rapid -eye-movement) . Sleep As we all know. atak moreover .okolo adolescence . we enter the REM stage. the narcoleptic cannot control the place where he or she will have this fit of irresistible sleepiness.poproedrad On he deprived olsth .niendparty approximately .natychmiast peubowinnym drowsiness . if the brain's chemistry is çj[ turbed this brain function is broken. addiction or if it lasts longer than three weeks it can be dangerous and lead to suicidal thoughts.oc. Hence.odpoozywak irresistible . we can only dream during the REM phase.zaktdcid NREM (non-rapid-eye-msaennentl .padatny na sufferer . That is why many narcoleptics are unable to drive a car 1110 healing . Duringthis stage our body can rest properly and our mind can dealw)th all the stresses of the day. A narcoleptic person seems to fall asleep at the drop of xisat. pnzeohodztc 4'ANP'I .przojdcie to Consist of .kilka essential . We can say that we are narcoleptic when ourbrain does not control the transition between sleep! ng stages. Many people suffer from insomnia a lack of sleep caused.pec process of sleeping should include two basic stages.upakledzenie insomnia .utnieniad.trwad ocenych) suicidal . The sufferer switches from full consciousness to the REM phase immediately without any preparation phase.atrata przytomnedci susceptibly to . Sleeping Disorders The transition between all sleeping stages is controlled by our brain.ponadto to precede . it is not a normal sleeping process. it is highly possible that he or she will suffer from drowsiness.zabuezeeia son proper. Periods of insomnia can happen to everyone.odpawieclni transition .sennodd loss of consciousness . As research has shown. However. If a person is tie cixuecLof this stage and experiences only NREM. if insomnia is connected with depression.skla dad siz to disturb .napad. NFIEM appearsjustafter we fall asleep.stpd to switch . The first symptoms of this illness may appear as early as in adolescence. the REM stage is essential and may appear senecal times during the night. a divorce. This handicap may manifest itself in many different ways. stress or will even be more susceptible to illnesses. At the other end of the spectrum there is narcolepsy .e. after approximately 40-90 minutes. in majority of cases.niezbtdny sleeping disorders .lcg process that helps to regenerate our body as well as our mind.a chronic sleep disorder that manifests itself in irresistible sleepiness. A rico. exams) or extreme changes in our daily routines. It may look like a loss of consciousness but in reality it is a sudden transition into a deep sleep.samebdicey to rest .bezrebacie paradoksalny (szybkie rachy gate to last .bezsennodd unemployment . It prepares our body to cost by lowering our temperature and slowing down our heartbeat. The 21 is usually ocecodoti by some strong emotions like fear or excitement. sleeping is a ti.a. the process Consists of an NREM (non-rapid-eve-movement) phase and as REM (rapid-eye-movemerit) phase. After a long day at work or school it is essential to have at least eight hours' sleep. However. Then.radzid sob le ho . Without the NREM phase and the minutes before it.dojrzeeanie to deal with .sen handicap .

pnciczas gdy homogenous -jednorodny influx . Of course not all symptoms have to occur at. Those phases normally appear at night when a healthy person enters the REM stage.niejedrorodny benign . • OM hddtçp: NARCB18fl www.bixtivo whereas . as a result.plJ device . The gene is called HLA/ DR2 and is responsible for creating a specific protein that is essential for proper brain functioning. If we look at these numbers from a genetic perspective. it is one in every 1. Apart from osessuso daytime sleepiness. the gene pool is highly heterogeneous. The most common is paralysis and the most dangerous is cataplesy. Causes and Treatment There is no one particular source of this illness.natychmiast fatal . The lowest number of narcoleptics in in Israel (1/500000). treatment is focused on controlled daytime naps that reduce unexpected fits. When narcolepsy is not connected with cataplevy and is benign.lagodry nap .200 citizens. While Israel is a very young country and its inhabitants come from allover the world and. During this time.naplyw heterogeneous . there is no medicine that can completely remove the symptoms). Wtts. In the 20th century. If narcolepsy is connected with catsplevy it is necessary to take drugs that are able to improve control over the fits however. The method of treatment is chosen individually for every narcoleptic. An interestingfact is that there are nations where the range of people suffering from narcolepsy in extremely high.drzenoka .imiertelny hazardous .cororfulmedia.katupleksja to occur .nadzdr recession . In Japan this is one in every 600 inhabitants.people & lifestyle or to use certain electrical devices without suoervimion.niebezpieozny protein .pojawidsi at once .as in the USA. scientists found a gene that seems to be responsible for a high susceptibility to narcolepsy.nadeierny cataplexy . it can cause numerous hazardous situations during which a narcoleptic person may be Injured or even killed. The fit may lust a few minutes or even several hours. it is impossible to wake the sick person up. it is no surprise as 10 englioh mcilleru 122/2010 Japan is a homogeneous country with a low influx of new genetic material. a narcoleptic additionally experiences stages of ct leruni sleep paralysis.ce. Although narcolepsy in not fatal. and hallucinations.urzdzenie supervision .once.

skojarzenie to smoke put pal ldtrawkç totwlst .pochoduenie jtribe .that their music . When you think Bob Marley.szerzydsiç take sth for granted .znieksztatcony to derive -v6wadzidsif toexpand .skrflcad eventually . verything started from mento music which was born in Jamaica in the 19th century. the word comes from the Ffegga tribe from Lake Tanganyika. culture. are about a lot much more than just smoking pot and twisl!ng hair into dreads. reggae was born. and Bob Marley himself.ugoda origin . you see dreadlocks and a gpjj. It was probably used for the first time in 1968 by Toots and the Maytalu in their hit Do the Reggay the spelling has slightly changed).will have this special spirit present in Jamaica. spliff . Jamaican musicians started to mix mento with American jazz and R&B. These days. though.pIemlc distorted . Bob MarIvy .culture I E Aid The Heartbeat of Ja ica by Marta LudwiczakOdziemska When you hear reggae.has never become as popular outside Jamaica. meaning 'the king's music'. Some other musicians claim that it is simply a description of the beat of this music. Although. do not take it for granted. There is no consent as to the origin of the word 'reggae.rozwiJadsiç. After some time. In the 1950s and 1960s.cI from Spanish.believed that the word d.sometimes called the grandfather of reggae . One way or another. reggae music. as a result of which ska music was created. the rocknteady style appeared as a resuit of slowing down the skn tempo and eventually.erjse. by 1988.ostatecznie consent . Mento . According to some. you think Bob Marley. the popularity and influence of reggae music noon eggnded beyond Jamaica to inspire musicians all over the world. Others claim that reggae is simply the dntclecf word streggae which in a Jamaican slang term for a prostitute.although genuine and sincutS .autentyczny sincere.brac cog za pewtlk genuine . Reggae can be everything .the icon of reggae .skryt association . religion.ff.music. life style and philosophy.szczery r AMA english matters 122/2010 11 . And while this association is absolutely true. we even have quite a few Polish reggae bands.

hanelel niewolnikarni primarily . The technique originated in the 1970s and was popularized by such artists as Lee Scratch' Perry. Peter Tosh and Horace Andy.wspominad forerunner . which makes it quite confusing and hard to understand for foreigners. Dub . Two-tone. The Mighty . rasta artists use Jamaican English (a dialect of English that involves both American English and British English dialects) or a dialect of English which was modified by Africans taken into captivity so that it .e slower version of Deejaying) .pejawid sq crooner .glbwnie captivity . One subgenre stems from another and all of them include certain elements that are repeatable as well asfeutures thatdistinguish them such an.gatunek soulful . Bob Andy or Phyllis Dillon (Queen of Rocksteadp'(. others .itzvk kreelski slave trade . dub music has developed into a more independent style often related to electronic music by artists such as Adrian Sherwood.a nbrçbie to mention .ecowijaesip variety . A creole is a language which develops on the basis of a colonists' language involving elements of native language(s).eiewnla Many artists (including those mentioned above( perform a few varieties of reggae music. be to distinguish .talking or chatting over ska which involves soulful artists such a riddim (rhythm(.Mighty Bosstones. King Tabby and Augustus Pablo. It was developed in the 1950s-1960s. Its representatives include Burning Spear.a type of music strongly connected to the Rastafari movement that carries along a religious message. While some songs are performed in Standard English.4 culture 71 Roots reggae .preeplatad sip In keep in mind .a type of music that is created by adding or removing voices. It consists in chatting or speaking in rhyme over stripped-down sounds. Modern dancehail DJ's include Sizzla. Currently. One important thing about reggae in that it has kept evolving in new directions and styles practically ever since it was born. Apart from Jamaican Patois. one word maybe written in severol diffe re nt ways. an EnglishAfrican creole language.subgenres) can be distinguished within reggae music: Ska . she was e kind of forerunner of reggae or. Rockers . Dancehall . which is quite natural as these styles often intertwine with one another and it is sometimes difficult even to draw a clear line between them.peekansor harbinger . zwiastun genre . Desmond Dekker. Jamaican Patois an a non-standard language (and one that exists primaril ass spoken language( has no standardized form of writing TItus. Among she performers there are: Toots and the Maytals. Yeliowmon or Super Cat. Elephant Man or Buju Banton.a more romantic style. attacbinerof this gc. as some petit. to evolve . The emergence of a creole was often connected with the slave trade.evolved in the 1980s. with artists such as Eek-A-Mouse. the language. The Skataliten.prosty to intertwine .pomiqtarf inextricably linked with . featuring primarily love songs and ballads. Zion Train. as Delroy Wilson.smutny. The music is dominated by drums and bass guitar.piesenkorz w stylu sweet 12 english matters 122/2010 to consist in . The following varieties (some call them styles. Rocksteady Toasting (it later developed into .nco. ssttay to emerge .polegad no stripped-dewy .wyrOfniad within . for instance.as has already been mentioned.rndrai. It emerged in the late 1970s and in performed by such crooners. African Heed Charge and Mad Professor.zepowieds. we must keep in 1ngi that reggae is inextricably linked with Jamaican Patois.originally called ragamuffin or ragga . as Gregory muses. instruments and sound effects on existing recordings.nierozerwelrie zwiqzary 0 creole . Dennis Brown and Freddie McGregor.

Many Rastafarians say that Rastafari is more a way of livingthan a religion.ibtittas will make it possible to understand what is gong on) as well as rasta culture.aJJJe on DVD. K dos I. This religious movement emerged in Jamaica in the 1930s.i. The Rastafari movement embraces. it isimpossible not to mention the Rastafari movement. If you want to experience voice real Patois in genuine contest. And they usually do not like it to be called 'Rautafaransm' as they think th 1 s name is offens ive. you will have an unclear impression of a certain familiarity of the words you hear.kt po tit AN f I . among many other things.potentbrew. v www. There are interpretations relating these colours to the flues of the flags of Jamaica or Ethiopia land they do appear on these flags). in fact. Among many symbols related to reggae and the Rastatari. They are richly symbolic. search ovine). But probably nothing will explain better its grandness than Bob Manley's words from one of his aintbainlo songs: 'One good thing about music. They see words ending with 'lam' atones that aim at dividing the children of Jab. its roots. The original colours of Rastafarians include red. referring to rasta history and religion. influences and implications. Gregory Isaacs. In extreme cases you will need an English translation in order to get the message.htm . They believe in the rule 'No ism. Regardless of which of these dialects is used. philosophy and music (the soundtrack i ncl udes Bu mi ng Spear. but. The name 'Rastafari' is taken from the title of Hale Selassie I ('Ray' Ethiopia n equivalent of Oi. development. Leroy Wallace and others).xke) and his given name (Tafuri). when it hits you feel no pain. you can watch 'Thy Rockers' movie (it is an. The movement rejects western society (and all the negative qualities connected with it in particular) which is called 'Babylon and pow warms Africa ('Zion') the birthplace of mankind to which men will eventually return.com/skaregdu. A very interesting cultural eeperience! When analyzing reggae music. but at the same time it may be hard to understand what is being said or sung. there are colours. gold and green. These issues are very often raisad in reggae songs. spiritual use of manivana which is to help meditation. Rastafarians worship Haile Selassie I who was the emperor of Ethiopia in the years 1930-1936 and 1941-1974 as they believe he was incarnation of the Christian God called Jah.itwiii give you asdiiripic of the language (English s. no schism'.culture did not that closely resemble the imposed colonial language. their symbolism is as follows: Much more could be written about reggae music.

entertain us. opouiopo. Thrills. want to sing. together with Kurt bsini from Nirvana.r . grand pa rents. they wart to spend some quality time with their families as well. Of course. Therefore it is rstarduble that many people all around the world (I bet you are also one of them!) are desperately looking for excitement and thrills. adrenaline boosts and opine-chilling adventures are desperately needed to stop the humdrum of the nine-to-five routine. Here we are now.1 11is 1W Ob N tile Is a Roller Coasfer YA by MsrtaBuszkiewicz \& T - ' \ I_I - -. Desgitia the . safe entertainment and as electrifying adventure everyone can share together with their children. the breakfast toast and morning coffee start to taste a bit fif and even the weekends do not let you take a good deep breather. - Europa PT: in German ' Europa Park is located in Rust.sheer excitement. At the same time.• - -- • he greyness and dullness of the everyday r might sometimes be overwhelming. friends and even. • south-west - •-•-•. the fun should be safe and convenient..• - • •s- • - :• • - - • • • • - • . • - . an they are very often neglected due to the daily grind. too.. Amusement and theme parks give their visitors exactly what they are looking for .

przypiyw adreaaiiuy ride .esign ecie to mention . One of the wheels is to be found in the Prater in Vienna. the wild west. and has an overall height of 212.ilezynk spine -chill ng . spending leisure time in amusement parks is as popular as ever all over the world.ekresewy to take a goad deep breather zrob 16 subie to diff ere ntiate . Disney characters and many others.odroanic feast .pd mesmerized . baking and cooking competitions.mdly nifuki the latter . which were opened in London in the 18th and 19th centuries.wybnr to feature pnzedstuwiac annual . which were created for people's recreation. architecture. other World's Fairs took place. and of amusemeet parks around the world. which was found later in many other amusement areas. nczta devoted to poswicory cannon to hold organizowac przerwg thrill .krajnbraz adrenaline boost .rozwiiuc sit to capture .zabaw uf in turn zholei exhibit wyntuwa to bet .swi5ts.wzoiesc.finatrahnia)karuzela.agredeone miejuce to share . rides. among w 1 c one is especially Worth giefgtion jag.okredlenie livestock . park razrywiii zlokalizowaoy a olvolicach ytti i tramwajuwej english matters 122/2010 15 . targ.the exposition or World's Fairs. also contained large concert halls or besIde promenade concerts. Trolley 'arks and Coney island American trolley parks were something In between fairs and real amusement parks they were the tent step in vast area razlegly obszar to contain zawiarac. Its the World's Co I umbian Expos i tion (1893. engineering and education to entertain the crowds. Later on.choeakteiystyczny convenient blinks psisbary craving.estrada trolley park - leisure time . obelnnewaf eush . are said to be the parent to modern amusement parks.±ywy inwentarz entertain . such as the first Ferris wheel.grid.tee drug periodic . vast areas of new amusement parks are opened to the public and more and more people are mesmerized by the fantastic worlds of newly opened theme parks. landscaping.dresecayk. concert hello or bandstand .charakterystycony abiekt to neglect .pnoyttuozuivyry night . The original theme park. often bigger and faster than the old ores.park eatrakciaei to erect . England.ninenaceny promenade concert .duruczny humdrum menotonia designation . jj:s and pleasure gardens There is only a gijg)tt difference between the terms amusement park and theme park. i. Chicago).zoktoduc si border .mrozecy kres a zyiach array . kivnnssz to merge ycoyf spouse . ghost towns. zoos or menageries. To make sure that the fair was a financial success.niewyronry achievement .waiuty 1 u pad k bandstand .cndzienny mlyn distinctive . World's Fairs began in 1851 dullness .monotone Amusement or theme? with the construction of the landmark Crystal Palace in London. erected in 1897 to celebrate Emperor Franz Josef the First's GoIden Jubilee.concert promenadawy fiat . annual good harvest feasts and so on) were a natural environment for the development of amusement attractions. ko I eikagornka itp. Austria. The difference between the latter and other public gardens is in their additional entertainment to the greenery. in turn. Caciosido fairs.aspomniec the dully grind .cues woiny menagerie . In Europe amusement parks evctvucl from fairs and pleasure gardens. Rides from this fair esefiij:ed the imaginations of the vsitors.doelif fair wasole miastaczkv.e. and archetype of the designation. there was one more kind . the borders between its words or themes are rather blurred and not that distinctive. Each year new roller coast em. rides. Among periodic fairs. fairs did not have a fixed location as they took place seasonally. European countries (especially attractive in American parks). In typical amusement parks.bye guspudarzem overwhelming . prugnienie enclosed site .zdsbyd pleasure garden . This fair was an asuotoxed site that rnnngect entertain ment.zafuscyrowany to host . on the other hand. due to the celebrations and Esaute which were hefd during the year.mulronek/mafzsnka to evolve . the planners included a dedicated amusement concessions area called the Midway Plasance. Sesame Street.) good harvest feast . In this case its purpose was to celebrate the industrial achievement of the nations of the wo'ld (of which Britain jest happened to be the leader). All the elements of one land'. and even food are supposed to support one specific theme. Marry of the first public pleasure gardens. They were held to demonstrate the economic success and leadership of a particular country. stores.zuniedhywac blurred .leisure ups and downs throughout its history. Seasonal festivals (Oktoberfest in Germany.red esidQcia exft8Jts. emuclonu)pce przefycie landscaping . drag on lands. is Disneyland in California. There is a vast army of themes to be observed in theme parks. obadowac despite pomime IL concert hail salakorcertowa overall calknwity ups and downs . TheJutLerisa newer invention and is differentiated from an amusement park by its various "ends" (sections.menuzena in USA.paspiech.granica andmark . are built. Unlike parks. They all serve one purpose: to entertain and thrill the adrena lirne-cranrtg crowds.4 feet. parts) devoted to telling a particular story. These fairs toalii.

.wydajnotd simultaneously .kurort futility . the amusement business settled down for good in the United Staten and began to tiouc. boat rides.desegregacfa conglomerate .sprzyjac drop . roller coasters. The American Gilded Age was.tramwaj to consist of skiadac sip picnic grove miejsce p knikooe pavilion . Trolley pals were created by the streetcar companies to gi so people a reason to use their services on weekends.Wick poelacany wealthy . Dreamland and Steeplechase Park.wzmoceid 16 english matters 22/2010 Many of these parks were bait in resort locations.p policy was that visitors paid-as-they-went. as well as many independent amusements. These parks originally consisted of picnic groves and povOons. Usually the adminsrçi.S. Some ethers followed within the next few yearn until better fire security methods were introduced and steel attractions were built. and often held events such as dances. The entrance fee was 25 cents for entrance to the park and visitors could enjoy all of the attractions an much an they wanted.mwno egly Gilded Age .obeurnost affluent . in the U.degrudacia miast desegregation . To cot a long story short.usodowicsiç to flourish . A perfect example of that were the many amusement parks developed on Corey Island in NYC. sports fields. The amusement parks could very well reect the mechanizaton and efficien- cy of industrialization while s rnultane ously nerving as a source of fantasy and escape from real life. Many later on added features such as swimming pools.kwitneit omnipresent wsaechobecny parallel .u/u. a need met mainly by the roller counters. that the payment system was charged for the first time.ostatecanie admission ostpp fee . when electric trolley lines were developed in most of the larger American cities. restaurants and other resort fsnciifies to become real amuse ment parks eventual y. Between 1880 and World War 11 it was the largest amusement area in the United States. The treed started in the 19th century. Moreover.oowu orlkrytp efficiency .pawilon resort .S.rownocresnie toe nco u rage .uplata to cut a longstoryshort. in fact. However.obiekt eventually .spadek to provide sb with sth . the amusement parks golden age.korglomerat(koncem) to allow for uwzgldniab to make up . where people could go bath ing. for instance atthe seaside.I leisure the entertainment industry.twonzyii violence . Although the development of the automobile provided people ivitbi more options for satisfying . In 1911 Dreamland was the fist Casey Island amusement park to completely burn down.zopewnic cot to decline . streetcar . The only threat to them was posed by fl-u. At its height Coney Island already contained three competing amusement parks Luna Park.lnmtluomowuvlc to settle down . affront ngseveral m I lion visitors per year.preedmietcia factor ceynnili crime rate oskadnikprcestepczotci urban decay . Americans became wealthier and more cogoc to spend their newtoured wealth on leisure activities and entertainment.przemoc to obscure odgrsddc. another admission policy called the 'pay-one-price" ticket was first used by George Tlyou at Steeplechase Park on Coney Island in 1897. this did not stop people stepping into the so-celled golden age for amusement parks.zamauny suburbs . Nevertheless. It was also there. so each time they wanted to take a ride or use another attraction in the park they had to pay.ogroazenie to reinforce .zanno±ry eager chgtoy newfound . they started working fewer hours and finally had time to go to the places that showed the changes taking place around them. carousels.spadac. peopleseemedtowanteven more exciting entertainment. running juacalle with the Gilded Age in the U. zaslonit fence . lasting until the late 1920s. chick was odrutplsa: net in the era when all the rides were built of wood. By the end of the First World War. Gilded thrills before depression Among with industrial and population expanson. zmniejszac attendance . This era saw the development of the new innovations in toiler coasters that encouraged extreme drops and speeds to thrill bored riders. concerts and fireworks.

which is a verities! transparent slide.a - fie Siam Park on Tenerife..och la pad No need to introduce Legoland . Pirate Waterfalls Playground will gee your children and you if you wish the op porturitytobecomeapiratearacaptam. Werewolf is a wooden roller coaster that is sure to take your breath away.the Lego paradise in Denmark which is known to every kid. Coccinelle. There are many roller coasters whose names make you shiver with fear: Turbine. with 280 steps leading to the top (but visitors climb only 169 of them). 0. it might be really helpful! Legoland in Denmark ex " Sm". where some artificial three meter high waves will splash you all over! So. The roller coaster ride will raise their hair in a few seconds. The Wave Palace is a pool with white sand beach. . Cobra. if you and your family like water vndenjoywatergames. Spain Siam Park is a water park on Tenerife in Spain and the theme of this park is Thailand. Calans itt Mine. Looking for adventure? What are you waitingfor? Walibi Park is the number one choice! to operate dzialart ::t1 vertical si u:di U102ORY to splash . and pirate battles. it you have not Planned your holiday vet. Walibi Park is said to be not for people who love their tislydo neatly set. '' . The theme is ased on historical events so you can see Pirate Lagoon with foam and waterfalls. Vampire or Werewolf. Something for people with imagi nation or childhood nostalgia.. Walihi in Belgium Walibi theme park is located in Wavre.. It has been operating there since 2008 and offers its visitors namerova water attractions such as the Tower of Power.leisure Lets now take a closer look at some European parks. but you shouldn't avoid them.v [sit SiumParkon Ten erife.

000-brick scale model of St. an Edinburgh-based LEGO fanatic who recently spent 18 months designing an 11. as IT consultant and company head Warren Elsmore does.. Exactly 62 bricks for every person alive. LEGO clubs like the 'Bricknh Association in the UK are ypjpg iilguju worldwide. But LEGO isn't all about fun. It was the inspiration behind the creation of the Falkirk Wheel. on the face of it. Europe is not yet tfo of the Great Depression.I leisure THE LITTLE BRICK THAT MADE I BK by Anna Richards A look into LEGO ets start with a simple fact: LEGO is everywhere..also in Scotland. It can be used for serious technical design too. jobs are scarce and reserves of cash are . adults have their own bright ideas of what to do with the stuff. the world's only oGL ing boat lift . Pancras Station in his living room.it's Denmark in the 1930s. There are actually more multicoloured LEGO bricks on this lump of rock we call the Earth than there are humans inhabiting its domain. And to think it all started with an idea. You may never know if your nest door L 18 english matters 2212010 neighbour doesn't happen to have a 60. Now doesn't that make you think? And it is not only kids that enjoy the pastirne which building with LEGO offers. All around the globe. newJy a child's favourite toy.000-brick representation of Scotland's Forth Railway Bridge. Just imagine . All in the name of building the most weird and wonderful things out of what in.

1949 marks the date when LEGO produced its first plastic bricks.rnintr that only 18 bricks in every million tjj to come up to the corneany(. a strangesounding word which is a tacJuljjjg of the Danish words leg' and 'godt'. and christened it LEGO. treating lii. This was the OSh can. when be turned to the fashionable new material plastic.) moment in LEGO history. By 1934 he had established his own company.to earn daily bread na native to christen . At this time Christiansen was still producing wooden toys. together meaning. and each second seven whole LEGO sets are sold to lucky people all over the world? Not to mention the 5 BIL- LION hours a year that children flowsdays spend playing with LEGO? The first thing to consider has to be the quality of the little things. all the rage in the 1940n. Gotfred or Kjeld at the helm. Ole kirk Christiansen earns his daily bread making wooden toys for children in his native town of Billund.000 of them are produced in Oillend. with all the exciting new opportunities it offered.. from a singularly unimpressive seven employees in 1939.s exacting standards. Over the years the number of LEGO employees has increased 1000-fold. the ' -_ -. Whether its Ole.Kompleksowa nauka i powto"Aa jqzyka dia kadego! slowly running dry.000 working in connection with the company today. literally 'play well" (a great coincidence being that the word also means "I put together" in Latin). to the modern army of 7. 1141V a -iu krzykiem singularly un impressive wyjiltkowo nieimponujqcy to E _9 - .ochrzci6 pokIczenle to be all mody • - -11 11. . the epicentre of all things LEGO. The question which immediately comes to mind at this point is: how on earth did these little bricks become so incredibly popular that every minute 313. This changed in 1947. Another fact worth mentioning is the family aspect ofa firm which has been naeainoreci through the Christiansen line over three generations.

scot. which boasts rides and serious other attractions for children. But even this great total cannot match Britain's very own 55 million-brick LEGOLAND Windsor (a store's throw (ronnu Windsor Castle). LEGO Bob the Builder and finally LEGO Hurry Potter. It comprises an astounding 50 million LEGO bricks. always watching closely what is fashionable and popular with the young generation. glasses and all. with ML Rushmore: the Space Shuttle on the Iaunchnod at Cape Kennedy: Hamlet's Elsinore Castle: the Windmills .cdn bet your bottom dollar that LEGO has something to tickle your toy-starved tastebuds. whether it be pirates. and not succumbed too much to the pressure of oroosoing a cheap workforce abroad. The veryfirstoftheparks known as LEGO LAN Ds was of course at Billund. no matter what your field of interest. Over the years it has also been importart that LEGO has kept producing its wares in Billund.eisure l aftwoomm- dow company continues to thrive and grow. it is like a world tour. complete with wand.. Finally. Thsnkstotheneand many otherfocters. 20 english matters 122/2010 Whereas LEGO is mostly restricted to the ainpines of toy shops. but first and foremost a whogpin 40 million of those bricks all stacked atop one another to form a perfect little LEGO world called "Mi niland". planes or princesses. which are divided between 7 specially-themed areas. Thus. LEGO Indiana Jones. LEGO has recently been deemed 'the Toy of the Century' by the British Association of Toy Retailers. and has attained the status of 'Producer of the Century'. yoti. accordingto Fortune magazine. LEGO has never failed to keep up with the times. Jienos LEGO Star Wars.. there are places is the world where architects have allowed their imaginations to roam free and created magical ministure towns. There. built entirely from the small isterconnecting bricks that we are all familiar with.

and th then passes on to of riosities of the UK. spot-Avon (the birthi Will Shakespeare). London is sented. The possibilities are endless. it is possible to build anything that tomes to mind.all within walking another.leisure of Holland.000. and a LOT of LEGO.000 bricks away (exactly the number you would need to build a tower reeds trig the Moon) . a worki car in the LEGO vera Alps.000.aniiag skyscrapers "Gherkin" et al. with a little imagination. with a LEGO Queen contemplatin of the LEGO Guard ii model of Backinghar which a Royal Gard€ swing with guests oh shade of a refreshmr boats host along a ti rig a majestic lowe so.is no longer an acceptable limitl english matters 22/2010 21 . nor was ttuflbocf "Wil lar new attraction" its opening in 1991 second LEGO Park ir So LEGOLANID Parks illustrate how. Bells minster Abbey corn experience. and the Parb . and the sky . or Stonehengi QwLciLto all these many more besides.being a mere 40. C Wales.

All this is achieved through "learning by doing". and learn to think for themselves. 22 english matters 122/2010 . This in turn is conducive to building a more responsible and conscientious youth within a society. take risks within acceptable limits. as well as the intellectual and spiritual aecsLs of youngsters. with the express purpose of catering for the physical and social. shoulder responsibility for their actions.L'fl! I ' Aft r iPiLt r-ifl Sco14ti1ç -"Service Oft f4e Fromi 18"he of C " by Maria Dasiewicz For over a century. which means that young people aged 6-25 work together in groups or teams. Scouting has fostered the personal development of young people.

stawiat pond kimd przeszkody surmountable . Also. endurance and devotion to duty under conditions of pressure and suffering.aytnzymalodb devotion . There are Cub Scouts (boys aged 7-11).przesrkoda challenge . and many others. such as Awards for CeJJantrs for Meritorious B to obey proestnuegad merntaltyawuke .watecznsdd. The most often earned merit badges are First Aid.people & lifestyle oy Scouts daily strive to act according to the ideals stated in the Scout Oath and the Scout Low. Swimming or Cycling.popierad express purpose . Boy Scouts (11 through 17 years old).sprawnoici hiding . Each Scout decides on what badges he wants to achieve to develop his talents.ne wqdrdwki canoeist .moil iwydo pokonania obstacle . Scout membership is determined by one's age.przytxmny compassion .nuch boy scout .wyzwarrie accordingly . mottos.uznanie uciciu. Family Life. Cover. community or religious organization.kajakara preparedness . Environmental Science.odenaka to compliment . Scouts receive Activity Badges such as Artist.zacEoaarnie zaslugojqce na wyrObsienie to display .wspdluzucie to foster. Nation and World. slogans.spnayjajqcy conscientious .wianu w sinbie to face oh with obstacles . Venturing (aged 16.grotolaz to come up with sth . and Emergency Prepared rscaa of Lifesaving. To receive a badge. There are 70 badges that may be Mined by a Scout in the UK.oyradny eel to cater forth o needs . Each type of Scouting has different Activity Badges.oaspokajad potreeby to achieve .podwiqoenie merit .oddzial advancement . so-called patrols.samodzietnndri self-confidence .osiygnqc to shoulder .oziyd na swoje baeki con cluciveto . Lifesaver.harcerz eagle scout . odpowiednio recognition . Clinton. he has to be a leader of a troop for xis months.zastqp outdoor tasks .20) and Eagle Scouts. Personal Fitness. a Scoot has to maul certain requirements which are basically designed to test his skills and knowledge. or for Good Service.ct. Camping. the highest advancement rank in Boy Scooting. In recognition of the newly acquired shills or participation in a given activity. Apart from Activity Badges which prove one's skills.chwalib to meet requirements .poastanie english matters 122/2010 23 . Scouting is all about advancement. Varsity Scouting (14 through 17 years old). Hill Walker. Scouts meet in small groups. Camping.sumienny to strive to do sth . young people are faced with a number of surmountable obstacles and challenges.zadania no dwrebym powietreu troop .zyskad gallantry . and has to come up with u plan of development or act as a leader for a service project for a given school. At tr= meetings they practice skills and activities which are later tested in real life situations during Outdoor Programs. Meteorologist.okazad endurance . The idea is to develop selfcontrol and determination in young people.rnrzwbi self-reliance . mqnbso meritorious conduct . William J.ont. The constructive role of Scouting has been complimented since its incupr ti. and awards.uzyskad rank . Sash. Navigator. Each achievement is rewarded accordingly.uxilowac cod zrobid patrol .pins.skaut-zdobywca 21 oprawnaici to acquire . where they learn bow to co-operate and there responsibilities while doing various outctooc tusks. Astronomer. a Scout may receive a special typo of award.stosownie. Former presidents of America George W. In order to do this.zusluga cub scout . The most prominent group is the Eagle Scouts (17-25). Swimming. Canoeist.stopieii shills .pezygatowanie caxen .synydlid badge . 00to gain .spelniad wymagania inception . Cooking. movement and growing in bSifrreli same and self-confidence. and Citizenship in the Community. These are given to those who gilugilayegi exceptional courage. Hikjo . To earn the rank a Boy Scout has to progress through specially designed ranks and earn 21 merit badges which include Citizenship in the Community.

who. especially - .) . Currently. For almost a century. spreading to other European countries and taking root in the U.Ii -. it becomes an Organisation. and for their giving more than 1. as long as they stuck inthe "ideals of Scouting". However. and Mao-Tse-Tung's Little Red Book.kisid takes fourth piece in the all time best sellers list. a Lieutenant General in the British Army. found that his book Aids to Scouting had quite a number of readers. There are thousands of different Scouting organizations. the movement was rather disorganized. such as The Scout Association in the United Kingdom. Soon people recognised the necessity of starting an organisation that would support the "first Scouts". Bush praised Scouts for showing that "the greatest strength of America lies in the hearts and 24 english mattes 1 2212010 souls of citizens".titucLe and gra. and is no longer Scouting.. Bush and many of their predecessors expressed gW. Atthe 2005 National Scout Jamboree. you've strengthened our nation's commitment to community and promoted a sense of civic responsibility" (Clinton 1993-2001). or de }ifjfui J I J G1tt1L)IJ5 . George W. W. He even went camping on Brownsea Island in Dorset in order to try out his ideas on four larger groups posfusfe wessly thrifty . Baden-Powell was persuaded by various youth movement officials to write such a book for young boys.iIbo1i J observation. tI. initiative. which in truth was militarytrainingmanual vised for soldiers and presented techniques like tracking.iso. They became deeply engrossed in his book. trustworthy - god ny za ufa n ia courteous .S. Order of World Scouts. The book came out in 1908 and sold like hot cakes. From that time Scouting has become an ex tremely popular form of youth movement. the Koran. with Scout Lead- J1. Scouting is active in 218 countries and boasts over 28 million members all over the world. Confkdération Européenne de Scoutisme. [tin alleged that Bodes-Powell's Scouting for Boys J1." In the beginning. or World Association of Girl Guides and Girl - George H. it fill E~f iilfl -) J Jin!J/Ei transpired that boys outside youth movements bought the book and set about making their own Patrols of Scouts. "As soon as it stops moving. after his return from the Bonn Wan to England.people & lifestyle boys and young men. rather than organisation.ci Scouting in their speeches.4 million hours of volunteer service (year 2005 alone( and thanked for their "service on the front line of America's armies of compassion" Now did it add start? It all began with a man called Robert Baden-Powell.S. Soon. the Boy Scouts of America have helped to make volunteer service an American ideal.upf'zejmy obedient cheerful - of boys from London and Bournemouth. Baden-Powell himself stcuaasrl the nature of Scouting as a movement. 119101. Originally. Consequently.yobo±ny 174 ers having a free hand. already existing groups of boys were to adapt their rules according to Scouting for Boys. the Scout Association was set no and in 1910 Baden Powell retired from the Army and devoted his entire time and resources to Scouting. With every act of kindness. Boy Scouts of America in the U. behind the Bible.oszczdny referent .

groups of Scouts come from various countries to attend such world events as The World Scout Moot and The World Scout Jamboree. Thus. After that.przeksnaf to beast sth . rozkwitad official . They also learn how to prepare food from what they gather in the woods. Intake place . Scouting remains one of the most thriving youth movements in the world. such as woods.unoednik advocate .pedkresiad to retire . whereas Philmont Scout Ranch. the overall theme of the camp. and encourages each coluola potato to spend his or her time out of • doors in a productive way. high-adventure camps. offers various "raggd activities' such as boone: back cavalcades. A jamboree is a large.addanie.byd pachloraitynr to retire .opracowat Intake met . with a gradually burgeoning Scoot population. longterm resident camps. Under supervision of Guides.przeifd ea emerylur horseback cavalcade .wtdrówka r plexakiem to devise . se..adbyf commitment . usually international gettier. The first World Jamboree took place in 1920 in London. with 8.zakorrenic sip thriving .twardy. Northern Tier National High Adventure Program offers wilderness canoe expeditions and cold-weather camping in Canada and Minnesota.doskonale rozwijajqcy sit to persuade .general brnni to stick to sth .1 million young people went to camps organised by Boy Scouts of America.kawalkada konaa corns manual . Scout camps are usually organised twice a year.spotkanie sic ionrheree .ukurad sip couch yaloto .rosrgd.egdiny the Beer War . depending on the age of participants. after which they gather together round the campfire and pass the time singing songs and playing games. through organization of camps.people & lifestyle Scouts.stofdwka ciepte tuteceki to attend .popreednik gratitude .sacrycid sip czymf toburgeor .iog of Scouts which takes place every three or four years.wuina barska to be engrossed in sth . For instance.atworryd overall . and learn new skills like how to make fire.adziiczrofd to sell like hstcakes .lv: udad siq na spoceynek lieuten ant gen era l .trzymad six czegnk to set up . as it is specifically aimed at young boys and girls. or skills to be acquired.vprredawalisitjak to praise .ukaeadsip canteen . promote international co-operation with other members of The World Organisation of the Scout Movement. like The Scout Association in the UK.. projects and grantalt! for going abroad.S.podrcznik to spread . and high-adventure programs for Boy Scouts and Venturers. For instance.000 Scouts from 34 countries and over three hundred memberufrom the U.zseleanik to come out ..frodki rugged . backpacking treks and service and training programs.eli english matters 22/201 0 25 . Some of these. Scouts go walking and exploring their surroundings. zaangazowanie to transpire . In the evening they have a meal at the canteen. predecessor . There are various kinds of camps.. over 1. there are day camps and family camps for Cub Scouts.twierdal sip. .uczestoiczyd gathering . In 2008.chwaliti it is alleged that. located in northern New Mexico. surovry backpacking trek .rorprrestrteeili sit resources . they retire to their tents. It has many ecintor ontan among young and old alike. All in all.riot to stress .

-4'-mas7L1I Jp achieve ourl .-~ie.II $( but we are all strong enough to aim higher. 17 .ha7to4DjLf!nd such strength within Qr2om - our vpJrnwtdevelop Alain Robert _____ ers2212010 - - / / VI 1.040- peopie I it MP3 - :- / 4/ nt OS0 LnsmiU1uI I 1~/ 00 / / Stojy of the / •/ i4U Ifl51 u NOV byAgnieszka D dek /7 - .

however.balka a rriasleni ladder .roughen relatively .spribuwad venture .przyciqgaf uwagq opposition ..kara Imierci to . then I am prepared to pay the price the death penalty. In this way he drew attention to global warming.s(ng.people & lifestyle rying to climb the Sears Towers with one's bare hands can be fa ta! Not for Alain Robert.wyrddniad itisno wonder tyaf.hacardzista device . For him climbing up giant structures is as important as eating or drinking. However.zezwelenie release . .urza4annie death penalty . d±wigntc to distinguish . in particular environmental issues. I need the climb". then the chances are that one day you are going to I one.tracicgruntpod n ego mi to set .sprzpt challenging .smieroelny feat .rynna window ledge .. wytyczyc to achieve a goal osiqgnql cnl with bare hands . and ((see! $1.a philosophy of life. I also know that when you gamble so much.ubJjc(ty? Let's take a closer look at this amazing personality.he says.przedsiewzincin Os cal l attention On public . w1indow ledge or frame to hoist he body.wymagajycy route . Later be trained on the cliffs around Valence. Jing Mao in Shanghai (420 m(.wypuucic On line. As he grew up. One of the most spectacular stunts was on the release of the 5i.wyonaczyc. he also climbs with authorization.udernajqcy hardy ever . he relies on his strength and technique as well as any sijoport a building can offer. be it a drain clue. kept In jail for 24 hours. he climbed up to the eighth floor without any ropes or other equipment.ockbuiuter Spider-Man . Alain likes to disturb the public peace from time to time and is frequently stopped by the police. If I make a mistake.be 110- talese one's grip .parapet frame . While trying to climb the Sinjuku Centre Building in Japan he was arrested.byctrzymanym w wiozienlu On be remanded in custody zostab tymczasowo aresztoeanym On release . " have loosed at it. Out it is too small".drapaco chmur to date .wtargnicie.pnprosnc rappel . he wore the slogan "No War" to show his 0000nition to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. his home town in France.wspiqc sif no skyscraper .org" a website which promotes energy saving.500. jyvoLorinoner.nicdziwn ego. to promote the openingof the ernptyfatn oftlrecapital to the homeless.uwrocif uwagq opinii yubliccnej environmental issues .te. be.powsoechnie togofnr . and beaten for five days. the Petronan Twin Towers in Koala Lumpur (452 m( and Taipei 101 (508 m( the tallest building on Earth at the time.On: dawka adrenaliny commonly . During his attempt to scale the One Houston Center in Tenon he was pulled to the ground by the cops having climbed only two metres. His feats earned him the name of the French Sp derman.golymi rkami fatal . Bare hand climbing is what distinguishes him.dotejpory a piece of cake . the Tour Eiffel is nothing but a big ladder!' . instead. But I cant he I p myself I need the fix. Robert replied. narusoenie wlaseofci On be keptprisoner .prawie nigdy to rely on .stosurkowa rope .nosib to draw attention . Alain climbed the Marriott Hotel in Warsaw (150 ni).sziak. He was also remanded in custody for 23 days. The Eiffel Tower was a niece of cake for him (313 m) . Alum performs what is commonly known an urban coo climbing. it is ever more . he opted for more and more challenging cQu5ns and taller b u i I dingy. While climbing the Tour ELF in Paris in 2003.(oi cliffs. pomoc drain pipe . 'I climb with my bare hands and I absolutely refuse to wear safety T devices of any kind.he said. He has scaled over 50 aitte secapch. They handcuffed him englnfi matters 12212010 27 . to name just the most spectacular and challenging ascents. What is so special aboatth sguy performing his daredev ii stunts? Will he go down in history as the best solo climber. In Sydney he was caught by the Rescue Police.nkaracgrzywnq authorization .sproeciw to request.wichrzvcinl publicity ."After all. tram to scale . Ibis no wonder that his autobiography was titled With bare hands. the association ADT Quart Monde requested his and eflccocl him mumiflo criminal tesor g. he also occasionally gn.ou. though. Just to add a Polish accent. and released after five days thanks to the intervention of the French Embassy.rome to hoist .zakucwkajdanki to charge with nnkadyc trespassing . Having forgotten the keys to his apartment at the age of twelve..podniest.drabina ascent wspinaczka gorge . gambler .wyczyn to earn .zdebyf daredevil stunts Imiale wyczyny kaskaderskie troublemaker . What is striking about Alain is that he hardly ever uses any safety equipment.zagadnienia ochrony drodowiska to bear .zjazd na linie frequently -czqsto to handcuff. Then came the Sears Towers in Chicago (443 m). In Paris. a troublemaker in urban areas nra showman flirttngwith death for p.wejtcie na ekraey blockbuster hit presence for a cgepo(. Ala n's climbing career started role: tivWy early and quite by accident. in the gorge of the Verdon (south of France(..lina equipment . 'I am a gambler and I like to gamble with my life" .polegac na support wsparcie. He also achieved a world record for the most extreme solo per formance. During a few of his yotWidres be bred to call attention to public. When asked about Big Ben.prantom striking . He climbed Portland House located in Victoria Street at the heart of London wearing a T-shirt bearing the slogan 'thesolutionssimple.

He had two serious ac- 28 english matters 122/2010 cdents in 1982. Of doing what I wart to do. It isay if you are being reborn again and again and again". Many more happy rebirths for you. and heels. His numerous fractures and uurio have not stopped him from climbing yet. He completed the ascent with 15 stitches in his left elbow.fmialy.ragla opera cja stitch .bi bold . head first which resulted in his being in a coma for five days and multiple fractures: skull.jgg.popierad to bother.zmagucsiz emergency surgery . first ofal I beisuman who iu not a raid to dream:"Winning is the feeling oftriumph. He is therefore said to know his limits.y. wrists.podjpd to deem . Best ofluck! had to climb the highest skyscraper in Venezuela..bnkiec pelvis . p. His bold ascents have left him up to 66'tdj. udwaSny disabled .ub. He climbed Taipei 101 only six days after emergency sorcery for an arm injury.miednica heel pipta ve rti go -oawrotyglowy to struggle with . dressed as Spidermar.scow death-defying grajecyze Cmiorci to take up .. that doesn't bother me it's not their dream. Is it exciting to be close to falling? Because this has happened to ore hundreds of times. Toying with death? Over-confident about his skills? A father of three children performing death -defying feats? He is often accused of doing so. yes.pnuoso of it. Yet. no But afterwards.p. I am lucky enough to be able to otunstuc my dream.I people & lifestyle prognosis was no joke at a I: "this guy will never be able to climb aga ri However he stood up. Not at the time. how ever. The doctors' elbows.mamowif przosakadzad to be rebom. Especially a :15-mescm fall. nose.ceusoka wrist .nudgarstek elbow . U Alan.. it must be added here than Alain also sets realistic goals for himself and refuses to take up challenges which he deemstoo demanding.spiczka multiple fractures licznezlamania skull . If other people don't a.udrudzidsi best ofluck! -pwwodzenia! .gfowewddl coma .niepelnospruwny headfrst . Every new ascent scans struggling with his limitations.ocean to pursue dp±ycdo to approve sfsth . Alain is aware he is flirting with death.

In 2006 Boruc was the first-choice Polish goalkeeper during the World Cup tournament in Germany.ooigadsukcesy. he was Ii2aOWci to Dolcan Zgbki. where he was going great guns (he was named 'Spaceman' by the Austrian and German press). Soon he became the best goalkeeper in the Polish league. it was just a years loan and then Celtic proposed aermanent contract. In 2005 be signed a contract with a famous Scottish club . I outline .e rn.ypo±yczyb goalkeeper .Celtic.leisure Warsaw.staly tournament .zarys scout . First. iddjak burza spaceman . First. He played his first league match for Legia in 2002.a. but after several months returned to Legia.turniej to go great guns .bnamkarz friendly match .kosmonauta english mailers 22/2010 29 .mecztowarzyoki permanent . of Glasgow.teis against Ireland).lowea talentOw to loan . In 2004 his debut for Poland took place (in a fniencii.

he has been worshioped by the Celtic supporters.kolega odruzyny poise . Crossing Oneself . According to Borne.was very pleased with the transfer .bnamkarz to set up .skandowaeie something exceptional in the history of football.wobudoademocje Although the conch of Celtic .stunowld przyklad deliberately . rivalry . That is why at Celtic Park riot only green and white flags can be seen. it was not a provocation. Yet he soon cubooud "the greatest hope of Scottish football' .nywalizacja crusade .sekciarski chant . but also the Irish tricolour flags are often displayed.zastpiii to win respect . . but this decision stirred up a tattoo controversy. although it is Rangers that have won more titles. For many years experts and supporters have been discussing which club is better.wielbit supporter. not only because it is Catholic. political and cultural phenomenon. He even socotid colt status as "The Holy Goalie".dtgai5 attachment . eksponowab a sense of belonging . bitter. Losing their extremist policy would probably mean financial losses. It seems that hiarbouring hatred is beneficial for both clubs as it attracts many people who are oegun to defend their ethnic identity.are believed to have been underprivileged for a long time. stawld czemud czolo bigotry . In 1971 about 60 supporters were killed.poczucie przyealebnodci to mention ..zatanty Glasgow Rivalry .dogmatyczoodd firmly embedded .the Old Firm There are not nnaey eve ots in Scotland that stir oju such strong emotions as matches between Celtic and Rangers. to seethe . Stephen Smith from the Rangers Supporters group said: "Professional footballers are meant to set an examine.I leisure Boruc in Celtic substitute .tu:peknzywdzony te stir up emotions .zauwataley arguably .zdobycszacunek teammate .are a sociological. He quickly won the r. he was deliberately provocative and completely done to wind tip the fans." Ever since he played some great matches . which took place in front of the Rangers' fans during Glasgow derby matches.living in the poorer.obrona (bnamki) little won denthat.mocnozakorzeeioey to harbour hatred .chytny I cross oneself/to bless oneself .zapncotknwad to tackle .wywioozad.Provocation? Artur Boruc made himself famous not only by means of great secus. is the manifestation of sectarianism in most often likely to result in violence. According to the Scottish government 'One of the most readily discernible expressions of intolerance in Scot- land today. annydlole to wind up ..eieprzewidywalny to caution . fe.pewnoddsiebie performance . and arguably one which is Celtic was set up by a group of poor Irish immigrants and is traditionally ec gardieci as a Catholic club.zdenerwowac fixture . Many .wzik siq za cod.udnielid upomeienia (pnzez sdziego) there are pubs only for the fans of Celtic or Rangers and it is better not to openly show one's attachment to either of the clubs in the street. And although both clubs have lately ictarintied a project to tackle bigotry and sectarianism.espect of bistttrn cloths.wspomnied underprivileged . They are also believed to be religious minicrusades with sectarian songs and chants on both sides. Celtic is a dab generally liked in Poland. is always ready to give the highest-level performance. Roil Lennon says: "Hen the boot goalkeeper I have ever played with. and in 1999 the rivalry of various football clubs in Scotland.pnzyciygaf eager.and became the main Celtic goalkeeper.pestrzogat to display . The flrstfights between thetwo groups of supporters took place on the Glasgow streets in 1896. Little wonder that they were soothing with anger. Zurawski. eastern part of the city . if it were not for its main rival.kip led to set an example .wyprawa knzyvowa to stab .apanowanie confidence .Le enough.przezegnadsi save .. but also because several Polish footboIlers played or play there (Wdowczyk.atworoyc to regard .Glasgow Rangers (traditionally Protestant).David Marshall .kibic to earn . but also blessing himself.called Old Firm games . Dzielvanowski.Gordon Strachan . He says he always crosses himself before a match and will always dose. it seems fynmiyernbedded in Scottish football.impmza sportowa volatile .zapewne tolauech . The matches . The club was supposed to help local Catholics and give them a sense of beionlJtut It should be mentioned that the Celtic supporters .Artar Boruc was at first supposed to be a substitute.. What he was." Boruc was cautioned. The first derby match was played in 1888 (Celtic won 5:2).przywivzanie discernible . which is the other local team . This n/veiny is 30 english matters 22/2010 about 100 fans were injured and in the same year a lb-year-old Celtic fan was stabbed to death.tywidnienawidit taattract .celewu. as if the fixture isn'tsoaf." and: "He always has so much oo(so and confidence. Celtic would not be what it is.zasfufyd goalie .nicdziwn ego.wyniki to worship . In Glasgow Celtic sectarian .zastfpca to replace .like against Manchester United or Milan . Boruc).

' in October 2009 he was replaced in the Celtic goal by another Polish goalkeeper . His blunders have become more frequent. he '.the ITI group. Even some of the best goalkeepers in theworld have hada checkere history. And such attacks could unferns rather than reduce religious antagonism. His talent cannot be questioned. Jaroslaw Kaczyñski.ograniczad turtaclent.niestety offense ...a Catholic Church spokesman in Scotland said: 'It is extremely regrettable that Scotland seems to have made itself one of the few countries in the world where this simple religious gesture is considered an oifenss' There were numerous reactions even abroad. isn't just error-prone [ .podatny no popelnianie biçddw english matters 122/2010 31 . but his mind and dedication to football cartainly can be. including matches both for Celtic and in the rational team. the then Polish Prime Minister expressed his anxiety and doubt whether crossing oneself can be regarded as provocation and called what had happened a form of restricting liberty. ] but looks in got jjas danger of burning out. As Paul Kearney .obraza to restrict .burzliwy blunder. Boruc Now Boruc has lately had a period of weaker performances. According to some experts.Zalusko .. One of the reasons might be a tiutbiulend period in his private life (he and his wife separated).leisure I people claim that gestures of religious significance should not be considered offensive.bltd error-prone .. Boruc is still an ardent fan of Lagia Warsaw. belongs to the Legia Warsaw Supporters Association and has helped the supporters in their conflict with the • club's authorities . to inflame .but the fans still believe he can soon get his bearings and regain the status of a hero.rreczoih regrettable .podsycaf spokesman .

succinct and clear prose style has exerted a lot of influence on world fiction in the 20th century.culture by MARIA BuszKIEwIcz 32 english matters 122/2010 Ernest Hemingway was one of the most famous American writers.iyel simple. . whose cJcept.

Young Ernest published his earliest stories and poems for the high school papers Trapeze and Tabula.zatrudnif cub reporter . From 1913 until 1917 Ernest Hem ingway attended public schools in Oak Park. where he fell n love wth a Red Cross nurse.operowy cello. where young Ernest would sinner fish in the different streamo that ran into the lake.nous English.eoergiczoy unit . he once said. Because of his serous wounds. he suffered a severe leg wound by moiiax tire as he ran an errand to the canteen. Cuba. On the other hand. Hemingway's at faii: with Agnes von Kurowsky during his hospital recuperation provided the basis for the novel A Farewell To Arms.yg alone in the wilderness or yeacjitag across a river." Six months later he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in Italy during World War I. which he also partly edited.aniow on the Hemingway's W IThE SUN ST ALSO RISES english matters 122/201033 . he was able to create unique.zaiatwiad spraw canteen ." His mother. W forests.klub dyskusyj ny to edit .. for his adventurous and widely oublicized life. but he later admitted the music lessons were useful while wr ting For Whom The Del Tolls. Grace Hall (whom he never forgave for dressing him as a little girl in his youth) had 00= orate aspirations before marrying Dr. all these places were convenient for huntingand fishing. discovering the eciwnife to B deceptively . he had to spend six months in the hospital. it was the school period where his gift for writing started to develop.gg.publish serenity spokit to wander wçdrowac be found while wanifri. The real relationship ended as a painful disappointment in love which is said to caxtanih. Hemingway was known both for the intense gja5Lulinity of his writing and." In fact. Be positive.kantyna affair . He also used to go sauirrel hunting in the cteai:. which he could not live without.zwiçzly to exert . upper middle-class sn. Clarence Edmonds Hemingway. The ambition to teach her son the ecilo became 'a source of conflict'.zajpcia na dwiezym powietrzu rowboat . unforgettable works. or would take a f sisset out to do some fishing from there. which he used as a foundation for his further writing. in Oak Park. On July 8. Use short first paragraphs.pezyznaf outdoorlife .thdzwiostowa squirrel huniing polnwanie na wiewiinio nearby. There he was involved with sports such like boning. or San Francisco de Paula.wiolonczela to admit .dogodny to attend uczçszczac debatngteam . "It was something he could always go back to throughout his life.wywrzec masculinity.brodzic touchstone .poczpttiujqcy reporter vigorous .naginsnic tool -glupiec suburb . Use v.pozemie succinct. privately. Illinois. his biographers say.tiy.przedmiescie lawn . Hemingway's father taught his son to love the outdoor The Hemingways had a summer house called Windemere on Walloon Lake in northern Michigan.redagowaf to graduate skoriczyc szkolq/ u n i we rsytet to hire . He also showed some talent in English classes and was on the debating team. 1918. The writer was born in 1899. 'An intelligent man is sometimes forced to be drunk to spend time with his fools".romans recuperation powmtdn zdrvwia to provide . Moreover. Toronto and Paris early in his career. or Ketchum.mozdzierz to run an errand . "Nature would be the touchstone of Hemingway's life and work. The place was a mainly protestant. not negative'. Hemingway learnt from the Star's style guide: "Use short sentences. once he became successful he chose somewhat isolated places to live like Key West.culture used on the rule of looking at words as though seeing them for the first time'. being hired as a cub reporter for The Kansas City Star.dostarcoyd to cast shadow rzucic cien I said: 'Those were the best rules I ever learned for the business of writing. water polo and football. fictionalized characters based on the nurse appear also in his short stories A Very Short Story and The Snows of Kilimanjaro.ednostka iosuttera wound odnieticrant mortar . and though he often found himself living in major cities like Chicago. Hemingway later to wade . Idaho. I've never forgotten them. After graduating.mqskosct to publicize . wherever he was". only a few weeks after arriving.trawnik nanowmind -owekooeankaorrydr horyznrrtach operatic .podstawa somewhat niece convenient .i.rb of Ch icago that Hemingwaywould later refer to as a town of 'wide lawns and narrow minds.

he covered the Geneva Conference in April of 1922. From 1925 to 1929 Hemingway was already producing works that are said . then wherever you go for the rest of your life.tu:arlykvt to tackle .dojrzewad toshnnk . ijacd piece . and just as he and his wife were travelling around Europe.later he wrote in A Moveable Feast: "If you are lucky enough to have lived in Paris as a young man. the young writer specs his time walking. James Joyce and Ford Maddox Ford. The Greco-Turkish War in October.zawirowania to mature . He was to be a t. John Hadley Nicanor Hemingway was born on October 10. Hemingway's reporting was prolific. Besides political pieces. Hemingwaytotured France. promised to introduce the young writer to. twiezo upieczony to board a ship . skiing. Luckily.przygotowad rnlaclt na temat convention .1culture P to lkoo love life and may have caused all the turbulence In it. Hemingway was noticed by Harriett Connable.kongrcs. Hemingway's short story Soldier's Home describes his feelings of frustration and shame upon returning home to a mundane town and to parents who still had a romantic notion of war and who did not really understand the psychological impact that the war had had on their son. Hemingway himself would not miss his chance to change it as well . The war experiences had matured him beyond his years. Hemingway worked for the Star Weekly even after moving to Chicago in the full of 1920. social life in Europe and many others. the editorof which. While living at a friend's house he met Hadley Richardson. 1923 is Tororto.raczkajcy. Hemingway and his new bride left for Paris where the mainstream of literature was being changed by the likes of Ezra Pound. As an es-soldier at home. the wife ofan eculiun for the Woolworth's company in Toronto.utor for her son. Gertrude Stein.wsiqdnt no statek 34 english matters 22/2010 ingway accepted as otter to work with the Toronto Daily Star as its European correspondent. nieciekawy notion .zwiedzad to make a name for oneself -.lwito ruchome totorge .zajmuwac Si bullfighting .skurczydsiç mundane .ptodny to cover . Hemingway took the position. By November of the same year Hem- turbulence .mary. When he was not writing for the newspaper or for himself. tu. Switzerland. Hemingway could not find interest in anything his parents wasted him to do.podobni konoab rooveablefeast .praystuga tutor .przedstawid full . In 1922 he went to Greece and Turkey to report on the war between those countries. he also wrote lifestyle ones. tasted first love and so did not like the idea of further education or regular work in suddenly uticunlutin Oak Park.despite the fact.walki bykhw to tour . Just as Hemingway was beginning to make a name for himself as ajournalist and a fledgling fiction writer. In 1923 Hemingway made two trips to Spain.nawizad bittersweet . he saw different countries. wyrabiadsobie reeumq. During his first two years in Paris. so that Hemingway could eventually continue making a name for himself as a writer. which also allowed him to write and gave him a chance to work for the Toronto Star Weekly. during one of his speeches.pnjcie euploit.cisjjng such topics as bullfighting.korepetytor to introduce . The two quickly fell in love and married in September 1921. and Italy with his wife. By January of 1924 the young family boarded aalnjp and headed backto Paris. the second to see the famous bullfights at Pamplona's annual festival. while travelling to Europe. Having received $1.wyczyn executive . fishing. it stays with you. that many of these relationships were bittersweet. who asked him for a favour.panna rnfeda the likesofsb . Ralph Connable.pracuwnikszczebla kierewnicoego favour.000 dollars from insurance. for Paris is a moveable feast" It was the capital of France. where the young writer forged important friendships for his career with people who would be instrumental in his development as a writer and an artist . reading and speaking publicly about his war exploits.jesief bode . the Lausanne Conference in November and the post-war coryzentJoti in the Ruhr Valley in early 1923.garzks-slsdki prolific . st aw 9 siq sfawnym fledgling . the couple found out that Hadley was pregnant with their first child.

hoduwac descendant potamek to roam . The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber. The Torrents of Spring was satirical treatment of pretentious writers.zuliczka pretentious .. He and Hadley divorced in 1927. In the same year Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer. culled Snowball. This resulted in other changes the writer moved with his second wife to Key West. so far as the subject of extraordinary reality is concerned". which are said to reveal Hemingway's true ways.pnminqd to state .epis. His first books. is a non-fiction story of a hunting safari in East Africa. The first.culture to be significant for 20th century fiction. The second. The book introduced the world to "the lost generation" and was u critical and commercial success. Got tight lust night on absinthe and did knife tricky. Green Hills of Africa.Qiint of Spanish bullfighting.gnupudarstws domnwe engliohrnattern 122/2010 35 .zmeczenie wealthy . says one of his biographers.". przemierzad account.osiqgniqcio to quote . The civil war caused a marital war in the the writer's household as well.pretensjonalny "the lostgeneratier" .. relacju to insert wstawiak. s i gnificant .gru ba zwierzyna flaw . be was able to collect enough writing material for two more short stories. Wallace Stevens. zamieszczac big game . for which he received no advance at al.wstawifsiq to raise . food.stracene pekelenie acclaim unnanie wear . In contrast with Hemingway's writing career.nadzwiczujny achievement .matostkowesd to tarnish spiamul.. Nowadays its descendants still roam the grounds near The Ernest Hemingway Home and Museum in Key West. toucciad Hemingway "the most significant of living poets. people. during which Hemingway wanted to test his hunting skills against the biggest and most dangerous au 'a a on earth. asnargail to toni . a stianitby fashion editor. His much cicioteci iceberg theory was that "if a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about. in these short stores the main heroes show their flaws and negative attitudes.nteczenie toturneorra new leaf.tumuryndowiec guava tree . In 1927 came Men Without Women and soon after he began working on A Farewell To Arms. were published in Paris. In the summer of 1933 the Hemingways and their Key West friend Charles Thompson journeyed to Africa for a big game safari.stwierddc. politics and history.cytawak to omit .znoczqcy fiction .. Thus. wyrazic firsthand zpierwszoj ryki marital . Flor ida in search of new surroundings and look ingto turn over a new leaf.guaiaoa to get tight . guava trees.' In 1937 Hemingway observed the Spanish Civil war firsthand.wad a attitude nastawienie to obscure . Unlike in Green Hills. By "poet" Stevens referred probably to the author's stylistic achievements in his short fiction since Hemingway was not stared to change and to experiment.wluczydsip.. Three Stories and Ten Poems. above any negative quality that would tarnish that image". an American modernist poet. be may om it th i n gs that h e knows and the reader (. writens. coconut palms.' It is also an interesting point that at this place the writer raised a rare six toed cat... As re suit.beletrystyka advance . arid Hemingway found it a wonderful pace not only to work. from which caries the famous line: "All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. which also ended up winning critical acclaim. tamarind trees. and In Our Time. In the 1930s Hemingway wrote his major works. but also to fish: "It's the best plate I've ever been anytime. he said.aumazey surroundings . "Often in his non-fiction work the truth is obscured by Hemingway's need to promote his public personality.okmkiic extraordinary . above nsttb ness.przesionld pettiness .naalzenski household . his personal life had began to show signs of wear. He had 10. anywhere. his need to portray himself as above fear. where he inserts observations on Spanish culture. Death in the Afternoon.rnzpaczqc rawy razdzial wzyciu tamarind tree . Hemingway's first serious novel was The Sun Also Rises. they lived there for nearly twelve yearn. is a non-fiction acc. flowers..)will have a feeling of those things as though the writer had stated them.

After returning from Spain and divorcing Pauline.grnecony delighted zachwycnny to release . the writer was already seriously ill and sufferings lot. left hand and right forearm. adorin . could no longer recall the facts and images he required to create his works Writing. and for Hemingway it was a catastrophic loss.przypumnied untie protagonist bahuter to commit su ici de popelnrdsumobdjstwo eventually . be moved buck to the United States. Minnesota. Hemingway had written better works than this one. Hemingway's drinking had started already when he was a reporter.umoflieic fallow . until Fidel Castro's 1959 resolution. hush przyplyw to enable . A month later he was again badly injured in a bushfire accident. which left him with second degree burns on his legs. His ignorance of the dangers of alcohol cvb. the Bahamas.leezenie to restate .zrani6 caring troskliwy adoring . He was c.optywac to be overweight m 1 cc nudwagq nod pressure .noduzywanie alkoholu electric shock tb era py . Hemingway developed a passion for deep-sue fishing in the waters off Key West. Across the River and Into the Trees. was now nearly impossible. had to be taken to a hospital. front torso. The two would have a secret love affair for almost four years before Hemingway divorced Pauline and finally married Martha in 1940. She unwilling Companion niepubqdane t000rZystwa published first in Life magazine in 1952.I culture met a young writer and war correspondent named Martha Gellhorn in Key West." In 1946 Hemingway. True at First Light. The same happened with his brothers. while Martha did not care and had lost all admiration for her man. Hemingway and Martha moved to a large house outside Havana. Hemingway's first novel in a decade. A fhialo of money from The Old Man and the Sea enabled Hemingway to continue his wanderlust.ostatecznie shotgun . While visiting Africa. for treatment of depression.ctrj. with his wife Mary. after returning to Cuba. The first years of this marriage were happy.pdiskna conscious . the sharks eat the huh. lips. Gellhorn called Hemingway her "Unwilling Companion during her travels. For a long time. On July 2. restored his fume again. He was also has 1 ng liver problems. they are not conscious liars. secured to his boat. which was decorated with huntingaropl'iies from African safaris. Several of Hemingway's novas have been published oouthumously. He supported Castro but when the living became too difficult. U . Mary was cafe. a correspondent for Time magazine.zamilowanie do podriby mythomaniac: .wypuseif liver .przywrucic to recall . but an ambitious journalist.swiaolnmy to injure . a depiction of a safari in Kenya. marred Mary Welsh. however. Later Martha said that having 'I ved with a mythomaniac. In addition to hunting exped tions in Africa and Wyoming. As he returns to the barber. he was overweight and the blood pressure was high.wyruzac ai poehlebnie toalfect .ekqcyodtngiem. 1961 Hemingway Committed suicide with his favourite attotgutt at his home in Ketchum. was poorly received. One of the sad side effects of shock therapy is the loss of memory.ojagtitej.port posthumously . but soon Hemingway rae I iced that Gellhorn was not a housewife. but the allegorical story The Old Man and The Sea. The next ten years are described o ten by biographers an a creatively fallow period for Hemingway. I know they believe everything they say.wOowko eiektrowstrzqaam harbor .przedrumiq polite . and complimentary.oiute.uau was revealed when be taught his 12yearod son Patrick to drink. they invent to increase everything about themselves and their lives and believe it. During this time he was given afo. murtwy wanderlust .proedulo cztsctuinwia torooms . but not greatly d. The protagonist is an old Cuban fisherman named Santiago. whom he had met in a London restaurant in 1944. In October 1954 Hemingway received the Nobel Prize for Literature. who eventu ally was the opposite of Martha. This decade included World War II as well as Hemingway's bitter divorce with Gellhorn in 1945. and he could tolerate large amounts of alcohol. He returned to Europe to take in some bullfights in Spain and then to Africa later in the summer for another safari with his wife Mary. which had already become difficult. appeared in July 1999. and released in 1961.p0400 uwielbionlu to be complimentary . In 1960 Hemingway was hospital i zed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester.whtrubu alcohol abuse . Idaho. Cuba.posmierinie to secure przymocnwad depiction opis 36 engliahmcaltera 22/2010 catches a giant fish after weeks of disappointments. But with the passing of time it just got worse and worse.citnien i e hrwi second degree burns poparzenia drugiegu stopnia front torso . Hemingway spent much of his time in Cuba. and Cuba. two flying accidents took place and the writer. In the late 1940s he started to hear voices in his head.c shock therapy for two months. According to the critics. Without his memory he could no longer write.imitomnu to take in . In the 1950s. drinking did not affect the quality of his writing.

The city with a reputation for excellent performing arts. brama industrial . There g. the world does tomorrow. Manchester was mentioned in the Domesday Book. Situated in northwest England.bye gospndarzem saying . and by the 13th century was already a centre for the wool trade.han del wen to rest .pruemysinwy MP31 to mention .pnwieutoenie 4 'I .wspomnieC Domesday Book .yjng is a that what Manchester does today.ksigfa katastralna o czasów Wilhelma Zdobywcy the wool trade . 0.weifcie. shops and famous sporting traditions also bouts various international events. Q gateway.Manchester Gateway to England's North Country by Maria Tokarz re of Englands largest industrial and financial cities is the truly cosmopolitan Manchester.

.gcd access to the players' lounge. The Royal Exchange and Library Theatre are major venues.ayskacdontep hue ite collection to the contemporary work esii. dressing room. with roast duck. Manchester United 's Museum and Tour Centre will take you from the club's small beginnings right up to the mighty footballing force it is today in words. and the Opera House has a continuous venue trlejsce programme of opera and ballet performances by leading national and interna- resident . Textile and decorative arts at the Whitworth Art Gallery add to the artistic tress lounge uros of the city.stab with more theatres than anywhere else outside London. The committedto .. Wings restaurant situated in Lincoln Square i s a fanner ite with the city's footbul players. playwrights.ted at the Castlefield Gallery.ps both of those achievements in 1998/99.I travel I= England's North West has tong been admired for its boundless artistic talent boundless and creativity. They then tcyp. The service and Chinese banquets are excellent. FA Cup and League Championship all in the same year. During the tour. and the Contact Theatre stages experimental work of new writers throughout the year. dressingruom . Manchester U ted were the first English football team to win the European Cup - szatkowaf praystole itisamust-try . Blockbusting West End touring abjaidnwy shows come next to the Palace Theatre.poawoliczrozumien Visual art thrives in Manchester.musisztegesprdbowac wI makea great day out for fans both old and you ngalike and give an insight to turf darn - timber . the Hale and the BBC Philharmonic. pictures.drewno railway stad ion waterside1k - loads - stacja kolejowa d wodq ntis ordinary . udrial .r.guj. continuous . shrutL- dod at tableside a ywj. in 1993-94 and in 1995-96. for the many poets. winning the Champions League.no miejscu tonal jgj.g companies. actors and musi playwright nines who began their careers here.I -11=1111p---in 1968 and the fist English club to do the double of winning the FA Cup and the League Championship in the same year on two occasions. comedians.yyf/. Manchester was one birthplace of the ppy repertory -- beokresny dramatnp sara teatrrepertuaowy ectoriy movement and today is Britain's most important regional theatre certre. from the City Art Gallery's beautfu Pie-Rap tngainaccess . togiveaninsight . totbrive kwrtnqb contemporary wspdtczesny wystawian to exhibit Manchester is home to the prestigious Royal Northern Col lege of Max cand two international orchestras.upraywilejosany to top uManchester 'irru. exhibits and ever a tour of the stadium.nddany Green Room is one of the only houses in the country committed to contempo to stage wystawiab gpgy work. 38 englioh matters 12212010 1 I damp lgutruy waterway gum heritage la edzictwo contribution raslugi. you will gain Qfinute. . and each have their own professional resident theatre companies.zwyrzajny -r. the Press Centre and even the players' tunnel.szatnia privileged ..j. prarwybsayf to shred attableside Anistto Manchester United football grou odat the Old Trafford and the Museum why United are the most successful footba I ng empire in the world.0Footballi - soon pruebid.

Manchester could be called the music capital city of the UK with such succenful acts as: Joy Division and New Order. This area is now known as Cauheielu Britain's first lrrbdri Heritage Park.travel I Manchester's history began as far back as the Roman occupation of Britain. using cotton imported from North America and India. Here you have the partial reconstruction of the original Roman Fort. Better expect the unexpected.what else professional footballers of course! Manchester's clamp climate and many jjayay made it ideal for the production of cotton. plus the oldest tatway station in the world. The BeeGees.nocy working people in Manchester over the last 200 years. The Museum of Science and Industry provides a unique insight into the industrial herltag and the development of Manchester as the world's first industrial city. Lisa Stansheld and Verne english matters 122/2010 39 . For its contribution to pop music. the first industrial canal and great waterside walks and Loads of places to eat and drink. as you can stake hands with yourself. The Stone Roses. which tells the story of the lives of onci. opened in 1894 is 58 km long and it links the city with the River Mersey and the Irish Sea. Take That. when the fort of Marrcuminm was bui It in 79AD us pg f.. and from the mid 18th century onwards the Manchester area was a world Centre of manufacture. The Manchester Ship Canal. from Victorian Cotton workers to . Sim I h Red. and the Experiment gallery shows children just how much fun science can be. Oasis. The Happy Mondays. introduced in the 16th century. hunt the alien and meet an intelligent pig at the museum.jcf and fjojboa. Nearby is The Pumphosse: People's History Museum. The Smiths. walk away from your own shadow.

pafalowane wzgdrza fire . The city.o.ou. The city views once it gets dark can only be compared to those is New York. where Manchester's heritage comes to life in a colourful mix of canals.cj. 40 english matters 122/2010 rugged . unspoilt scenery marks the b.colorfulmerlia. Dearisgate. has excellent transport links by rail and road to all parts of the North. with spectacular scenery in five National Parks located in this region.spakoiny England's North Country Manchester.nagrndzony oibront .wspanialy stately .plJ . The coutryside offers ttsn.uij lakes amongst tugged mountains. that in the 1720s was threw days' travel from London. Just a few kilometren away from the centre of Manchester. One of the must-do things to consider when visiting Manchester is to gate the Cloud 23 Bar at the new Hilton Hotel.rozlegiy limestone cavern . east limestone caverns with fantastic rock formations and rolling hills. railways and award-winnin. Manchester and the area around the city is ideal for day visits.tQJJufl fertile green valleys.i3 attractions.zachtwanywnienawszanymstanie border . high iigggb.wapierro oshinia rolling hills .posuarpany heather moorlands fertile .ukazaly 0Mkoddostqpu:MENC659 www. for U groups and families. including Manchester Youth Hostel in city centre Castletield. must-dothings .nglann of the Peak Dintrict National Park.grarica tranquil . There is an excellent choice of places to stay. is a gateway to the wide open spaces of the North of England. now with its international airport. Visitors to England's North Country can enjoy the very bent of everything. Some of England's finest stately homes and gardens are also to be found there.rzeczyobswigrkuwe award-winning . one of Britain's most vjb cities.bony oast vast .If ravel FBeethem Tower I / (Hilton Hotel) - ! I.ttnigcyvyciem unspoilt. short breaks.

ul.21 (od razu)oraznumerykoIejne23-25)gdytylkosiuka24)..prenumerata specjalna"? : 24.w przeciwnym wypadku do prenemeratyzostanie dotpczony paragon. Pa dokonaniu preelewu pros! my o j a k najozybozy kontakt (e-mailem: prenumerata@colorfulmedia... Wystarczywycia....19. - • ptacisztaniejniwkioskuczyksigarni : • nie pokrywasz kosztow preesylki : • otrzymujesz pismo regularnie I .. aAron.. Dane potrzebne do pnzelewu: nr konta: 18 1140 2004 0000 3702 4324 6790 adreo: Colorful Media • uI. htórzy eakapili najuowsoy (22/2010) prenumerata zbiorowa numer niagazynu.. eaiedypomrozyd jq pram iicaiiç prenumeraioriw UWAGA: Prey prenumeratach zbiorowych powyzej lOad n a pre nam era tagratis.50z15 2673-2f urea lednej prenemeeaty..Lednicka23 • 60-413Pozna6 Jak otrzymac faktur VAT na zakup prenumeraty? . 8. ul.90z1 26/7-0-of : : od dwóch prenumerat English Matters : : : : .c i wypelnid.. (6 numerOwarchiwa)nych + 3 kolejne) Podane dane osobowe body przetwanzane przez Colorful Media a siedzlbw Poznaniu.. 61 833 63 28 e-mail: prenumerata@colottelmedia... konzystajaczponiszegoformulanza Iubza pomnchanku internetowego.colorfulmedra.60z1 5 -40-zf • cenamagazynuwczasietrwaniaopfaconejprenumeratyniezmieniasi prenumerata pofroczna (3 numery) Co to jest .pl strona magazynu: www. Zawiera wszystkie dostpne numery archiwalne oraz trzy kolejne. rip.pl Formulare przelewu przydatnyna poczcie lubw banku.nynulera" pod adinnormaryç. prenumerata speclaina dia nowych Czytelnikow 65.. 44.50 zt° 5-340--zf To proniocja dia nowych CzyLelnikôw.. wpisujycimi... od ktOrego numeru ma sin eaceynad erenumerana... - ceny prenumeraty prenumerata indywidualna prenumerata roczna (6 numerOw) 49... . Zamawiajgcy pre numeraty specjaIn q otrayma numery archiwalne 1.' flaj!añs2y spo:d6. 2.ENGLiSH prenumerata I'.. Kaddemu prenumeraterowi przysluguje prawo wglydu do swoich danych osobowych arm ich emiany.Lednicka23 40114020040000350230240030 mRiank COLORFUL MEDIA UL. Przelewu modna dokonad na poczcie/w banku.90 of 68550 24 ....17.. tel.pl Iubtelefonicznie: 61833 63 28) : : prenumerata pólroczna (3 numery) 22. LEDNICKA 23 60-413 P0ZNA) mBank 7 - 111111] iii _m_' nazwa I Ti 3 CL fytufem1 I Y LOem I I I I I I ENGLISH MATTERS .. am polo . Led nicka 2 3 w celu real izacji prenumeraty eran marketingu wiasnych prod uktiw. W przypadku zamOwienia pre rnumereny specjalnei nalezy podad nunnery.. nazaisko. 6V mied kady Prenumerata English Matters Dlaczego warto zaprenumerowaé English Matters? .. pre nrumerana specjalna 1211 23-25 ENGLISH MATTERS COLORFUL MEDIA 60-413 Pnznaii. najeden adres prenumerata roczna (6 numerów) akzaprenuinerowac inagazyn? Nalezywplacidodpowiedniepkwotç na nasee konto.

90 ci Wydawnictwo Edgard Wipcej informacji: www. nalezatoby spgdzid za granicu ladnych parp lot. Jzyk angleiski Kazdy. Niestety.jezykiobrce. Natomiastjedli chodzi o uCzucie cody. Dopelnieniem catodci Langenschdt yc ilastracje. Boo ich znajomodci nie zrozumienny potowy diaWt logow w senialach coy ksigbkach lob zrozonniemy Jo calkiern opacznie. O czym mowa? OczywideN . knip±tsa jednak ttsipzka zawiera jedyny w swoim rodza- skutecznie pokazuje. by wreszcie zro- - jest jpzykiem przystppnym. ozasem bardzo niestandardowych technik. Kabde wyrazenie. nibobieteodpowiedzi. Nie znaczy to.wjpzyku polskim. kto cozy zyka sic jo Pp intetgeotn:zabawwyjptkowo podstppne.literackim. jak jest wjaknie dia Ciebie. zostaic przettumoczone wyje±d±ajpcym za granicp. Ceno 34. Podrpcznik w formacie A4 256 str. Jpzyk angielski to proskiego samodzielnie. pada na pytanie ots.bo DOOATEK:iakWViIOIJyiten aHAlelsili cIiwk przecieb weale taka ale jest. brzmiaty a angielska. Dzieje sip tab diatego. Zamiast tego jest • - btwym i. JaNe- patio somego Autora dia jgzyko angielskiego liege gramatyki. Pakiet (ksipzka + plyta CD Audio) perlecany jest zwlaszcza osobom. ktOre chcp sprawdzict i doskonalid swtje omiejptnodci pried pnoystypieniem be egoarninu. ibAutor tradycyjnegc wyktactu. ktiry przedstawia tunkcjonowanie Wipcej nforrnocji 0 ksip±ce no clanej konstrukcji w tekdcie. zwyczajowa odpowiedb Gwarancja kompleksowego psoygotowarnia do egzamino maturalnego ERUNEKMATURAZezowki to nowa na rynko ksipzka zawierajrtcp wszystkie rodzaje 70dod. nie ma przera- owlasocra jedli caledb wiedzy ukiada sip w Warto sprbbewad! biania czasOw. o co tab naprawdy chodzi z tymi prawp Czyto siq a prawdziwy przyjemnctcip.Mozna tu tez szybko i wygocinie kupid ornujpzyka naleby done wyrozenie . natywa dla toga karkolomnego rszwipza. oby dobtze psznad trazeologip jpzyka obcego. ktdre pcmagajp epic] zaparniptorb znaczenie idiomu. nie oak z poiska. honeysIL wy egzaminacyjne oraz plytg z nagraniorni. nie ma przyjemny dia oka model gramatycznoj Wyspy. Zroeumiate wwwIangenscheidtpI kwolifikatory wskozujp. cc w nauce jpzyka sprawia naj- laNe] gramatyki jeszcze nie byo! iebeli pomimo energii podwigccnej nouce . Taka sama odpowiedb niepowtarzalna szansa. jaNe modna spotkad no matures. marcy do czynienia cc secomatowaniern kcrlckwialnym. do jakiego poor. lytut pnzogotcwoje do egzaminu o jpzyka angielskiego no poziornie podstnwowynn. prezontowone w ksipbce. wkucia.Julian Brudzewski Wyprawa na wysp angielskicb czasOw E - Wyprawa nawyspç j! Na Itanie.1000 idiomUw. beby Nie ma tu regutek do mama angielskie czasy osweid i zrozumied.JLngielski KIENUNEK MATURA lestawv. bo Wy- zumied. zjej kart bije sym- brzmi: gramatyka.o idiomach. Wy- . Dodatkowo zorniesocooro pony zapis nagrad do cadad na 'coremienlo ze stochu. wskazOwki Poziom podstawowy - w Bielsku-Bia?ej.Chod ksit±ka dedykowana jest przede wszyseoiin cyril. miejscami darts- wcej trudnodoi. zadania. mercy aces sip alger1000 idiomów. Przyda sip tez osoburn sowanych. Co bardzo wa±ne. Jpzyk angiel5ki to alter.tzyka angielskiego cabal Np wahasz. bpdzie dookonaty pornscp rbwnieb dla korepetytorOw pozycja dia pcczptkajpcych i zaawani nauczycieli. costa- 42 english matters 122/2010 Wydawnictwo KOS dnny przez Langeescheidt sameaczek tanie z ksipbki utatwia indeks haset 1000 idiom6w. co jest nojnudniejsze dr Anna Turola. be ksipbka napisana angielskimi czasami.pl . uzyskiwad angleiskie ddwipki tab. slangowym. W Inteligentnym Kluczu siczegOlowo omiwiont prawidlowe rezwipzania. be za pomoco roznyeh. a instrukcjp skutecznie pokozujpcg.nowoci Recenzja dr Anny Turull: . styki Wydziatu Humanistyczno-Spoleczne- spp angielske]h coo Kstyzka Wyprawa sopy sdwiuliana Brudzewskiegc maszansp ernie- go Akademil Technlczno-Humanlsiycznej obiecuje. W podrozdololach znajclojp sip riwiczenba pojawiojpce sip on matures oraz proktyczne wnknzOwkb be zadab w speojalnych dymkacb). coy cube .coy publikacjp. be gramatyka stone nip tatwa . nie zazna go zytelnik no pewno.) abodowany jest identycznie job prowdziwy egoamin matoralny: sklada sip o dwich czq§ci dotyczpcych egzaminu pisemnego oraz ustnego. eajpzyk peiski i opatresne przyklodem. a taboo nauccycielom do wykorzystania w trakcie Iekcji. adiunkt w Katedrze Angli- a rzeczy nudnych na lekcji jpzpka obcego. .

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