You are on page 1of 72

Augmented and Virtual Reality

Prepared for
LAS 432

Prepared by
Andrew Steinmetz, Christopher Rocha, Scott Harvel
Jerry Bakman, Trevor Cooke and James Fortunato

June 17, 2015


Table of Contents
Abstract .3
Introduction to the technology 4
History of VR ..12
Media Influences 19
Political and legal influences 27
Implications for the environment .30
Psychological considerations and sociological effects 35
Economic considerations .41
Ethical and Moral issues ..52

Abstract
In this paper, our team will discuss and explain the many aspects that are involved with
the virtual and augmented reality technology. Virtual and augmented reality technology
is a huge part of the future of society and we take a look at the huge impacts that it will
have. We researched and explored what the technology is, how it has evolved over the
decades, and where it is going. Our team researched the economic considerations
along with the ethical, moral, physiological, and sociological implications that are
involved as well. Additionally, we explored the impacts this could have on the
environment, the political, legal and media aspects of society. In the end, the
conclusions that we reached were that there are many upsides and downsides that are
included with this amazing new technology. We found that the future will hold a great
environment for the introduction of virtual reality.

In the near future, virtual and augmented reality will quickly become a way that we will
be able to interact with our environment. It will change the way we view the world and
will open up new opportunities around the world.

A brief description of the technology and an explanation of the


associated sciences
What is Augmented Reality?
Augmented Reality, or more commonly referred to as AR, combines our reality
with virtual aspects for a hybrid experience. Elizabeth Zak (2014) stated that Ronald
Azuma, one of the innovators in the research and creation of AR, describes AR as a
supplement to reality (p. 24). A supplement can be defined as something that
completes or makes an addition (Supplement, Def. 1a.). Essentially AR is a way in
which we can enhance our everyday lives simply by blending our reality with digital
manipulation. This AR can only be accessed through the use of certain technologies,
which will be discussed in the following sections.
Augmented Reality Technologies
AR can be used in a variety of methods; one of the most popular methods of
incorporating AR is through video games. In video gaming, AR is achieved by using
peripherals, usually a camera, and displaying the results on a screen. Three of the most
common AR peripherals used in gaming are the Nintendo 3DS, Sony PlayStation
Camera, and the Microsoft RoomAlive. Another common use of AR currently in practice
is via the use of a mobile device, usually a smartphone or tablet. First, we will discuss

how each of the AR gaming platforms work then proceed with the use of the mobile
device variation.

Nintendo 3DS
All Nintendo 3DS handheld gaming systems come equipped out of the box to
handle AR. The Nintendo 3DS achieves AR by incorporating the use of AR Cards. In
order to use these AR Cards, the user must access the AR Games application that
comes preinstalled on all 3DS systems. Once the application is running an AR Card
needs to be placed within the view of the systems camera that displays on the handheld
devices screen. Once a card is chosen and placed on a surface in the cameras field of
view, a special code printed on the card is read by the camera and in turn displays a
virtual character that you can interact with on the system. You can then take photos, or
play a game with the character while they are on any surface in your house. Figure 1
depicts three AR Cards coming to life on a desk of their owner. Figure 2 shows large
scaled cards that can be printed from the Nintendo website, which allow the characters
to truly interact with their surroundings.

Figure 1 (Nintendo AR Cards)

Figure 2 (Nintendo AR Cards)

PlayStation Camera
The PlayStation Camera is an accessory that can be purchased for the
PlayStation4 to enhance the users gaming experience. The AR provided by the
PlayStation Camera is simple; the camera displays yourself on your video output
device, whether it is a TV, monitor, or projector, and then tracks your movements to
allow you to interact with certain applications. The basic AR program that comes with
the system is named The Playroom. Within The Playroom is a robot known as Asobi,
who appears on your screen and interacts with you. Asobi can be seen in Figure 3,
following this paragraph. You can touch, punch, throw things at Asobi and he will
respond to your actions. All of this is made possible because the camera tracks your
motions and synchronizes them up with the game.

Figure 3 (PlayStationCamera)

Microsoft RoomAlive
Although Microsofts RoomAlive is still just in its development stages it shows
promise to completely revolutionize in home AR technology. RoomAlive allows you to
actually extend your game into your room, hence the name RoomAlive. This is achieved
by using multiple Xbox Kinect cameras and projectors. First, the camera maps out the
dimensions of the room, and includes the spots where furniture and other obstacles are
in the layout. Once the main configuration is complete, the projectors then extend the
field of gameplay into your room. Furniture becomes part of the game, and the field of
vision extends onto walls and the ceiling. This allows you to actually feel like you are
inside the game while simply being in your home. Of all of the AR gaming technologies

this is the greatest one to be developed, it will truly change the way things are done for
gaming in the future.
Mobile Augmented Reality Applications
AR for mobile devices has been on the ride as of lately. Many developers are
acknowledging the fact that AR is becoming more of a consumer product. AR on mobile
devices operates on the same rules of the gaming platforms that were discussed. The
mobile devices camera is used as the link between our reality and the virtual reality, just
as it is used for the gaming aspect. The mobile device then uses the information from
your GPS to add digital media onto the screen, depending on the application you are
using a variety of different things can appear in your blended reality. Another common
way that AR is brought onto mobile devices is through the use of QR Codes, which is an
abbreviation for Quick Response Codes. They are by definition,a two-dimensional
barcode widely used for many purposes (QR code). The camera scans the codes and
once the application registers them, the AR programmed into the code activates.
What is Virtual Reality?
Unlike AR, Virtual Reality, or VR, is the full immersion into a virtual world. Virtual
reality is all about the creation of a virtual world that users can interact with. This virtual
world should be designed in such a way that users would find it difficult to tell the
difference from what is real and what is not (McKalin, 2014).
VR worlds can be created with any rules the developer sees fit, meaning that they can
follow the rules of physics or completely abandon them allowing you to do anything you
wish while inside their world. VR can only be explored through the use of a headset,
9

which allows you to hear and see whats going on. There are a few different models of
VR headsets currently on the market, as well as additional peripherals that allow you to
truly feel like you are in a different world.
Real World Virtual Reality Technologies
There are many different headsets currently being produced that allow you to
experience VR. Of these headsets the Oculus Rift, as seen in Figure 4, is the most
popular, it is worn on your head and enables you to explore inside of a virtual world. It
contains sensors that track the movements of your head to enable you to see around
the virtual world you decide to explore (DK2). In order to fully immerse you in VR there
are different peripherals that can be utilized, such as haptic gloves and treadmills. The
haptic gloves allow you to actually feel what you are touching while inside the VR. This
is achieved by placing tiny air bags inside of the tips of the fingers of the gloves that
inflate when objects are touched in VR, giving you the sensation that you are actually
touching an object in real life (Moren, 2015). Treadmills are available which continuously
move in the direction you turn your body so that movement is controlled by your own
legs rather than by a controller. As VR becomes more popular these peripherals
become more advanced allowing your virtual world to feel more like reality and less like
a computer generated world.

10

Figure 4 (DK2)

Science Fiction Virtual Reality Technologies


There are many examples of VR in works of science fiction; one of the most
advanced versions of VR to date appears in the Japanese animation, referred to as an
anime, titled: Sword Art Online. In this anime, the VR technology is named Nerve Gear
and differs from the VR configurations we have available to us as it taps into the users
brain waves. The headset must be worn while the user is lying down, and once it is
11

turned on the headset picks up all brain activity. This allows all five senses to be
enabled while in VR, this type of VR is known as Full Immersion. Anything that the user
thinks becomes an action, allowing them to forget anything about the real world so long
as they are connected to the Nerve Gear (THE WORLD OF SWORDS).

History of VR
The history of augmented and virtual reality started in 1957 with the invention of
the Sensorama, which was created by a cinematographer, named Morton Heilig. Since
the invention of the Sensorama, innovation has continued to excel and push the
boundaries of technology in the world of augmented and virtual reality. The Sensorama
was the very first device to be invented in both the augmented and virtual reality worlds

12

of technology. The Sensorama was a motorcycle simulator with visuals, smells,


vibrations, wind, and sound. ((Nelson, Yam, 2014), (Candy, 2013)) The Sensorama
looked very similar to what our voting booths look like toady, except instead of standing
there was a seat for the user so they could enjoy the machine. The Sensorama was a
machine far ahead of its time but without it, much of what man has today in the
technology field may not have come to be.
Roughly, four years later in 1961, a company called Philco Corp developed the
next step in the world of virtual reality with a project named Headsight. Headsight was
a helmet that incorporated a video screen and a head-tracking system. (Nelson, Yam,
2014) The Headsight looked like a very early prototype to the Google Glasses concept,
but without the simplicity. Headsight was a very heavy device and could only be used if
it was suspended from the ceiling because it was said that the apparatus was too heavy
for the human head to hold. Because of this drawback, the pursuit for a lighter, more
user-friendly device was underway and after roughly four years, in 1965 a man by the
name Ivan Sutherland came up with a concept, which he called Ultimate Display. This
was the first head-mounted system to be thought up. The HMD, as Sutherland called it,
had to be connected to a computer and once connected the user was able to see a
virtual, 3D world that was made out of simple wireframes because the graphical
technology was not very advanced at this time. (Nelson, Yam, 2014)
As virtual reality became more and more user friendly, two industries started
taking large interest in the uses for virtual reality: the military and the small, but growing,
entertainment industry. The military was interested in virtual reality for flight training
purposes. With the invention of a flight simulator, pilots were able to safely train,
13

practice their skills without actually getting into a plane, and potentially crash it. Flight
simulators, at first, were very basic and did not even have a screen; they were simply a
mock aircraft cockpit. As technology advanced, screens were added to the simulations
and pilots were able to see what all of their movements were actually doing to the mock
aircraft. The entertainment industry took advantage of this up-and-coming technology
and used it to create some of the biggest science fiction movies or all time: Star Wars,
Terminator, and Jurassic Park. (Virtual Reality:History, 1995) Another movie that did not
make a hit in the box office but was big in the technology world was Tron. Tron was the
very first movie to use almost only virtual reality technology to create the content for the
movie. The background of the sets were all digitally rendered on massive green
screens, actors wore glowing, futuristic-looking outfits to create the look that they were
living in a digital world. Tron was also the first movie to depict what virtual reality could
be like if humanity were put into virtual worlds.
1987 was a big year for virtual reality. 1987 was the year that the term Virtual
Reality was coined by a man named Jaron Lanier. On top of Lanier coining the name,
he brought to light a different type of virtual reality device, the DataGlove. DataGlove
was a computer interface device that was designed to detect hand movements of the
user. It was invented to produce music by linking hand gestures to a music synthesizer.
(Virtual Reality:History, 1995) This same year, the Holodeck made its first appearance
in Star Trek: The Next Generation. (Nelson, Yam, 2014)

Next in the timeline to enter

the world of virtual reality was a company called Virtuality Group. Virtuality Group was
the first to add virtual reality to arcade video games in 1991. They created what was
called the, Virtuality Cabinet and what users would do is step into the cabinet and use
14

goggles to enter a three-dimensional gaming world. As this became more and more
popular, even games like Pac-Man were equipped and modified to have virtual reality
versions. Heading back towards the idea of everyday consumer, in 1993 Sega Gaming
Company came out with, Wrap-around VR glasses which included a built-in headset
for sound, video screens, and head-tracking. (Nelson, Yam, 2014)
Unfortunately, this virtual reality device was only to arcades, the consumer
models that were planned to be compatible with Sega Genesis and Sega Saturn were
scrapped. On the other end of the spectrum, 2012 brought upon a large interest in
virtual reality with the Oculus Rift virtual reality headset. This headset was one of the
most successful prototypes to ever come out of the virtual reality scene. Oculus Rift
was a build, programmed and designed by a very small team of developers and was
funded by people from all around the world through a website called Kickstarter.com.
Oculus was such a huge hit with people that the company raised $2,437,429 with over
9,500 backers. (Kickstarter) The original idea behind Oculus Rift was to create a base
platform and then sell if off to other developers so that they could configure the device
to their needs, but in March of 2014 Facebook bought the company of Oculus for two
billion dollars with their own undisclosed plans for the product. (The Gaurdian) Around
the same time that Facebook purchased Oculus Rift, another startup company under
the name Virtuix announced that they raised $3 million in funding to develop the first
virtual reality treadmill. Virtuix says, This treadmill will allow gamers to use their own
body movements to move characters through a game. (Nelson, Yam, 2014) Virtual
reality is not the only immerging technology of tomorrow, it has a partner throughout all

15

this called augmented reality. Some of the technology that falls under the category of
augmented reality is even more mind boggling than virtual reality.
Augmented reality is a relatively recent invention, the term being coined by Tom
Caudell in 1990. In 1992, Louis Rosenburg developed one of the first functioning
augmented reality systems for the United States Air Force, called Virtual Fixtures. The
main reason for Rosenburg developing this program was so that the military was able to
work in remote places. Just like virtual reality, augmented reality wasnt only used by the
military, the entertainment industry also started to pick up on the augmented reality
technology and in 1994 augmented reality was first used when Julie Martin created,
what is believed to be, the first augmented reality theater production called Dancing in
Cyberspace. An area of interest that was not prevalent in the virtual reality technology
that is in the augmented reality is NASA. In 1999, NASA used augmented reality to work
with the X-38 program. This allowed scientists and researchers to better understand
what technologies would be needed to build an inexpensive and reliable spacecraft.
Back down on the ground, in 2004 a group of German researchers developed seethrough augmented reality. What this technology does is it uses the camera on a smart
phone and overlays information over the live image, such as street names and even
reviews on restaurants as the user pans the phone around. 2014 brought about a big
hit in the world of augmented reality, Google Glass. Google Glass was the next big thing
in augmented reality technology that other companies starting coming up with their own
variations. One company took it to an even further level and created a startup
fundraiser to create augmented reality contact lenses. (Nelson, Yam. 2014)

16

Future technology in both the augmented and virtual reality worlds will become
more and more discrete and could become part of the normal, everyday grind. It has, in
a small way, already started to become everyday technology. Owners of Google Glass
can sync the wearable technology to their phones via Bluetooth and see everything that
goes through their phone and much more. The wearable revolution is heading beyond
Google Glass, fitness tracking and health monitoring. The future is wearables that
conjure up a digital layer in real space to "augment" reality. (Farber. 2013) What virtual
reality is to the military and to video gaming, augmented reality is to the everyday
person; it is another way to see the world we live in and how we interact with it. Virtual
reality has taken the gaming world by storm with, primarily, Oculus Rift. Oculus Rift first
made a public appearance at E3, one of the largest gaming conventions in the world, in
2012 and was nominated for Best of E3. Oculus has been the springboard into the
proverbial pool that is the race for the next big thing in virtual reality. As was stated
above, there is now a company that is in the process of developing a virtual reality
treadmill, which will connect gamers to their games in ways they have never been able
to before. This device is still very early in development and does not have a release
date as of today. Pairing the Oculus Rift and the virtual reality treadmill together will
create the ultimate experience for any hardcore virtual reality emersion fan. The next
step is to have a whole rooms become part of the experience, similar to a few scenes
from the movie Gamer where a human in a fully virtual reality room controls another
person in real life. Of course, controlling another person would be highly frowned upon
but the idea would be, not to control a person, but instead a character in a game;

17

without a headset or a virtual reality treadmill, but one system that scans your body as a
player and then translates the movements you make into the game.
One step in this direction has been prototyped by Google, it is called RoomAlive.
RoomAlive is a proof-of-concept prototype that transforms any room into an immersive,
augmented, magical entertainment experience. RoomAlive presents a unified, scalable
approach for interactive projection mapping that dynamically adapts content to any
room. Users can touch, shoot, stomp, dodge and steer projected content that
seamlessly co-exists with their existing physical environment. (Microsoft) Swinging
back towards the augmented reality side, there is one application out in the world of
augmented reality that can get users as close as currently possible to time travel as
they can get. Thanks to the French Company VENTURI this will be possible. Trs
Clotres Numrique is a product they will be releasing that is to act as what the
developers are calling a, living memorial to a neglected quarter of Grenoble; a small
city in the south eastern end of France. The project was designed to appeal to people
familiar with the neighborhood as well as those who are interested in Grenoble's rich
cultural heritage and human history. Users of the application will be able to, through
the use of a virtual lens, learn about the history of Grenoble through the use of, 3D
reconstruction and historical pictures. These types of application have existed for a
few years now, but they were mostly used for restaurant reviews in cities.
Eventually humanity may be walking around with their Google Glass-like devices
and able to open an application and learn everything about anything simply because the
whole world will be digitized into applications. Never again will people walk into
restaurant and not know what is on the menu. Maybe all people will have to do is look
18

down at the table they are sitting at and a menu will appear in front of them, but fully
digital and to flip pages all they will need to do it swipe their hands across the table. In
the matter of almost 60 years of virtual reality, and about 15 years of augmented reality
being around, the technology has made huge leaps in innovation. From having just
simple motorcycle simulations to having entire rooms at your command just by waving
your hand, the future of technology in the virtual and augmented reality fields is endless.
From staring at a screen in something that looks like a modern day voting booth, to a
virtual reality piece of exercise equipment, humanity may be in for a big change when it
comes to how we interact with each other and the world.

Media Influences
Throughout the years, Augmented and Virtual Reality has made huge impacts on
our society. Moreover, it has changed the culture of our people and made us live in a
19

world that we would have never thought was possible. Fifty years ago, people all over
the world would have never imagined seeing a computer or even a video game that
shows amazing graphics. These are some of the various technologies that have been
given to us and it has caused a cultural movement in our world. Augmented Reality
along with Virtual has made one of its biggest impacts in the media world. What will be
discussed are the numerous things that these realities have done to affect such a huge
part of our daily lives, which is the media. Augmented reality and Virtual reality have had
a huge influence on the media and it is and will be growing every single day. As stated
by Cooper, it is a fairly new technology that is still being developed into tools that add
some use or productivity to our lives (Cooper, 2011). Four years have gone by since
this article was written, but it still is relevant because we know that AR and VR are still
being developed to become better for our daily uses.
Today, devices like the smartphone, tablet, and iWatch are all pieces that are
able to handle augmented and virtual reality worlds. These are what we use now to
create a world that we can interact with and even get important information from. I will
be mentioning some of these devices with examples of how they help with shaping our
society now and every day of the future. The many categories that are going to be
spoken about will include art, education, social interactions, and even tourism. In the
cultural context, AR and VR have made huge impacts to all of them while still growing
making them much better and greater. Along with the cultural effect, I will be discussing
the media influence. This of course will deal with the two biggest Medias, which are
music and uses for television. By the end of the paper, I will be finishing off with how

20

movies have been affected by these realities and how they will still be impacted for
years to come.
First, let me start by discussing how Augmented Reality along with Virtual has
made their mark on the art community. The category of art is a very broad category and
can be have many other topics within it. However, let us just take a look at what it has
become over the years. Art is something that takes skill and emotion with the use of the
human brain and hands to create a visual piece. Not all the time can it be a visual, but
even musical as well. Hundreds of years ago there were artists that were creating
sculptors and paintings that gave the whole world something to talk and feel about.
People have always loved to be a part of art and see what new things have been made.
For instance, music is another big part of the art community and that is always evolving.
More and more people every day love to be a part of something new and since music is
always changing, that will make for something big to come. Even in museums where art
is such a big part of the displays, it will become very popular with these realities. For
museums searching for ways to bring their collections to life, the appeal of AR is clear
the technology allows rich media content such as images, videos, 3D environments and
animations to be layered over real environments or objects (Estella, 2014). Because art
is such an evolving category, it changes right beside technology and the two play very
big roles in the changes and expansion of our culture. This is where AR and VR will step
in an take the whole culture to a new level that we have never seen before especially
when it comes down to augmented reality.
Our culture is always evolving, even the way that we teach in the classrooms
seen an enormous jump. The classroom of a normal public school has seen its
21

interactivity with the use of chalkboards, whiteboards, and even hard covered books.
While these were a part of the learning system, it was always tough to get the children
to focus and be engaged in the activities of a class. Many classes in the past ten years
have installed computers to get students more involved with their studies. With virtual
reality being made possible with on screen simulations and interactive games, the
education world has very much been impacted a lot. You now have students that want
to learn and be engaged with their homework and classwork. However, desktop
computers have been around for a long time and the use of them has died down in
some ways with the extreme uses of smartphones and tablets like the iPad. With the
completely new generation of augmented reality coming into our world, education now
is going to get a big growth.
New applications and devices are now going to be mixed in with the learning
curriculum to make the experience much more advanced. With schools jumping aboard
with this idea of integrating these advanced new realities to the learning system, it will
produce a better environment for the students and change the way kids and teens get
their knowledge. Augmented Reality is the newest form of technology that is being
developed especially in the education environment. Using augmented reality in
education creates a totally new dimension to learning. Its creative, engaging and offers
something new, especially for children to get excited about (Business Using AR, 2014).
Certainly, this means that the education world is going to get a very big taste of the
augmented reality world soon enough. This will indeed create an environment like no
other to get each student from the elementary all the way to the college level engaged

22

and excited about their work and learning. More into detail on the classroom setting and
what Augmented and Virtual reality can do will be discussed more later in this paper.
Another great part about the world of augmented and virtual reality is still in the
art category, but it has to do with tourism. You used to always go into a museum, see
various different statues and paintings, and read very interesting information on it. In
addition, this applies to visiting a city that you have never seen before and standing
beside huge skyscrapers. Tourism is an activity that millions of people do every single
day from different countries and it has made people very much aware of the history
behind everything that they look at. However, what if now you were in a virtual world
and wanted to get quick information about anything you wanted with a click and point of
your device? Well now, it is possible because there are applications on your phone that
you can use to point at an object and get info and data on it faster than ever. With
Google Glass becoming the newest invention in augmentation, this along with your
mobile devices and tablets will become great tools to use when comes down to tourism.
The eyewear that is known as Google Glass makes for an experience like no other that
can provide you with the sense that you are in a world where you are touching
something that is not there, but the glasses make it possible to get the information. With
augmented reality, even without the eyewear there are still worlds and simulations
being made for you to get the feeling of another world. This brings me back to the
meaning of what these realities will do to tourism. An AR browser suited for the needs
of tourism enriches the real-world with interactive virtual information that allows visitors
to unfamiliar locations to identify the most important and interesting points of interest
and learn more about their surroundings (Dimitrios, 2015). With the information that is
23

made possible with AR, it is really an amazing part about what tourism is really turning
into. Dimitrios also points out that one of the applications as of now that is best to use
with tourism that has Augmented Reality already built in is Yelp. Yelp is a very popular
travel do that many people use and it is especially useful to the tourists that come here
from other countries. Because it also comes in different languages, it gives everybody a
chance from all over the world to get involved with the culture and history of anywhere
they look. You just point your device at a location, and in seconds, information about this
destination will come onto the screen so that you can always stay on point like
everybody that is not a tourist.
Since tourists coming from other countries are not familiar with the areas, GPS is
an important feature needed with these applications. In addition, adding GPS to these
applications will help run everything much smoother. It is said that tourism is dying down
with the use of our mobile devices, tablets, and desktop computers because of all the
information that you can already get about a certain destination and from the use of
video conferencing programs. Augmented Reality is going to change this for the better
by the many different apps that are being made available for the use of tourism. For
example, there is an application made specifically for tourists that are very interested in
architecture and buildings, and this is named Urban Augmented Reality (UAR). By
means of advanced 3D models, UAR shows the user what is not there: The city as it
once was for instance by showing buildings that once stood there (Dedale). UAR is
meant to show visitors touring a certain area to view buildings or structures that were
once there before and get clear information on what happened to them. You will also get
a 3D model on the device that you are looking through to see what they actually looked
24

like. It is pretty much giving life back to the structures of architecture that was once
there before.
Let me now discuss what augmented and virtual realities have done to influence
the media. This is such a big section and these realities have made such big impacts on
the world of the media, which even at this moment is changing our world. Because of
the devices that we use today, we are very much connected to the media and know at
every moment what the new things that are happening around us. AR and VR are
making the same impact on what we hear and watch daily whether it is on our mobile
devices, movie theaters, television, and especially with music and the concerts that
people attend. Augmented reality is bringing in changes in many sectors, one of them
being the media. With new technologies coming up, people are looking for variety in
their daily life (Bridget, 2014). One of the biggest examples that Bridget mentions is
how AR will be very affective with the use of television. Next Generation TV Viewing is
what this is being dubbed and there is no doubt that with this new type of technology,
everybody is going to fall in love. Three applications that are mentioned are the Point
App an application called InAir, and VisualSync AR.
Now, still on the subject of the media, I will now discuss music and its future
relationship with Augmented Reality. How often have you gone to a concert or musical
and have been blown away by the performances? The answer most likely is you have
most of the time, but it may just be getting much more interesting with AR coming in to
the picture. Augmented Reality will play a big part in theater and arts, which will make
performances much more dynamic and interesting to all audience members. The idea
that will change these types of performances is something called Projection Based
25

Augmented Reality. Using projection-based AR, it is easy to implement graphical


representation that ordinary lighting techniques cannot express. (Lee & Kim, 2015).
Using this new technology will definitely make the shows and performances much more
dynamic and lively.
Finally, when we speak about augmented reality and even virtual, we have to
discuss how these two worlds have influenced the movie industry. AR and VR are not
only used as a part of the action in films, but have even influenced what we are seeing
being developed today. For instance, there is a movie from many years ago called They
Live, which makes a huge at AR without even knowing what will come of it. It was a pair
of sunglasses in the film, which created a big buzz around the industry. But little did
they know that the creators behind the film would actually detail a life of AR that will be
possible in the future (Stuart, 2011). Films like this have been around for a while and
we are only seeing that technology has actually made it possible for devices like the
glasses to become a reality. This is of course referring to the new Google Glasses that
have been developed. Stuart also talks about other movies that involve AR technologies
and these include Iron Man 1 and 2, Minority Report, Avatar, Robocop, and all of the
Terminator Movies. The film industry is very popular in promoting new technologies and
these movies are great examples of what we see now and can see being developed in
the near future.
As a whole, Augmented and Virtual Reality have made their impacts on media
and the culture that we live in today. This impact will live straight through for many more
years into the future until technology takes it as far as it could go.

26

Political and Legal Influences


Government funding
Before technology reaches the hands of the public, most of the time it needs to
be approved by the government, if the government doesnt approve of a technology that
can ultimately change the way the entire world is run and operated then there is a good
27

chance that technology wont make it very far. Luckily, for us, the government has been
using both AR and VR. The FBI has ideas in place for the use of AR to help with
surveillance and policing in order to more accurately patrol areas, in order to provide a
safer atmosphere for the public. NASA and the military have been using VR in training
simulations to test out new technologies, and get field experience from the safety of a
monitored control unit.
Augmented Reality in the FBI
The FBI has been aware of AR and its possible uses to improve the combating
techniques used against crime and terrorism. Police patrolling can greatly benefit from
the use of AR through the use of a real-time display. This display can offer services such
as:
Real-time language translation along with data on cultural customs and
traditions, real-time intelligence about crimes and criminals in the patrol area,
facial, voiceprint and other biometric recognition data of known criminals to allow
instantaneous identification. Integration of chemical, biological, and explosive
sensors to immediately notify officers of any local contamination and recommend
appropriate protective measures for themselves and the public. Scalable, three
dimensional maps, complete with building floor plans, sewer system schematics,
public utility information and public transportation routes, accessed at will to
improve situational awareness and response to problems, and patrol car operator
data and regional traffic management information to make driving safer and more
efficient, especially in pursuit and rapid response situations. (Cowper, 4)

All of this information can be displayed on a headset that can be worn by officers of the
law and federal agents. This real time information that is displayed in their field of vision
will make dealing with criminals much more efficient. Any known criminals will be stored

28

on a database and known thanks to the real time sync the AR will display important
information based on matches it makes via the attached camera on the officer.
This technology will make police seem like they are right out of the movies that
we see today about the future. This form of AR alone will vastly change how our world is
operated, crime will be able to be fought in real-time and if they wanted judgment could
be made on the spot thanks to the real time information that is constantly being fed to
the officers on the field.
Virtual Reality in the Military
The military has been using VR for multiple reasons since the technology first
was advanced enough to operate, as it was intended. VR simulation is used for training
purposes in the Army, Marines, and Navy. VR is particularly useful for training soldiers
for combat situations or other dangerous settings where they have to learn how to react
in an appropriate manner(Virtual Reality in the Military). This allows soldiers to practice
until they have mastered their technique. Bomb squads can virtually disarm a bomb in
the middle of heavy enemy gunfire; jet fighters can fight enemies mid-flight, and medics
can perform operations on the battlefield all without the risk of death or serious injury.
Legal Issues of Virtual Reality
Since VR is a world created by a person, it can take the form of anything. This
means that developers must be careful of the worlds that they create. Someone may
want to recreate a world based of a movie, but since copyright laws are in place it may
not be the best idea to recreate worlds from movies, books, or games unless the
developer gets permission to recreate such world or worlds. Even is a virtual object has
29

the look and feel of a copyrighted material it can be subject to fines and punishment
determined by the court (Russo, 1993).
Age restrictions in VR would apply to the same rules used when rating video
games. Once a world is created, it would have to be reviewed by the Entertainment
Software Rating Board, ESRB, and then user will be able to make informed decisions if
they should play or not. This applies only if the VR will be offline, once the VR becomes
an online entity that anyone in the world can explore and interact in then the ESRB has
no control over what happens since interactions with other living people will not be
programmed or scripted. Essentially these types of interactions will be at the users own
risk.

Implications for the environment


There are two things in this world that do not mix no matter how you introduce
them, and that is the concepts of technology and the environment. However, in this
section, we are going to try to do the impossible, with explaining how this type of
technology can improve the educational system, and how it can be implemented into a

30

persons daily life. Starting this topic by going over the pros and cons that augmented
and virtual reality can have when it is placed inside the educational environment, or in
other words, the classroom.
AR and VR in Education
Going over some of the recent changes made by the education system,
technology is definitely becoming more and more blended during daily school activities.
Some examples of this are that more classes are being held in online environments,
where the instructor can communicate with their students by means of instructor-guided
video lessons and video discussions. This would mean that the teacher would either
connect to their classroom from their home, or show up on a monitor screen when they
are unable to physically attend. However, with the help of technologies such as virtual
and augmented reality, a list was created back in 2013, which mentions a few of the
ways teachers are introducing their students to different subjects through interactivity
and example (EdTech, 2013). One example of this list is that a teacher by the name of
Karin Schrier, used standard GPS and individual personal computers in order to
immerse her class in the battle of Lexington, by having them walk through a
representation of the Massachusetts City where the battle was held. (Schrier, 2006)
This is just one of many of the positive aspects that these technologies can do. On the
contrary, there are also many things that can go wrong with these aforementioned
implementations. One such thing is that Schrier had kept some of her students in line
with the program. She stated in her article, that those who did participate in the
experience found ways to bend the rules.

31

When interacting with the virtual historic figures they discovered, the participants could
not ask questions as their role or make decisions that affected others based on their
role. (Schrier, 2006)

This meant that in some cases, students would not play their parts in the game
correctly, and in turn caused Schrier to rethink her way around these problems. In the
end, the activity went well, even with a few bumps in the road along the way. Not to
forget though, even if the technology works well, it should still be maintained and
regulated by those who use it. Which brings us to the next part in this section,
regulating the technologies into a well-maintained and controlled community.

Maintained and Controlled


With all of these new technologies coming to fruition and being created so
rapidly, there is one question that will need to be answered first. How does one control
something, when you dont even know who controls it? That question is about to be
solved right here and now. In the online technological magazine known as Marketwire,
there is a team known as the Immersive Technology Alliance that are currently in
development of a new form of compatibility standard for all devices that use virtual and
augmented reality as their base function. (Marketwired, 2015) The magazine is quoted
as stating this when it comes to the severity of this project;

The less time content makers spend on reinventing the wheel, and more time spent on
valuable differentiation of their products will accelerate the industry. (Marketwired, 2015)

32

By this statement, the team is saying that if more focus is put into making this regulation
equipment work, the quicker that equipment can become regulated and more
manageable. However, the people of ITA are not the only ones who are looking to
regulate this technology. There is another individual that instead wants to enforce a
kind of democracy as a means of keeping the virtual communities in order. This
individual, Darrel Woodford, proposed his goal to govern the virtual community by giving
the players who inhabit them the rights they deserve, much like the way when a new
state gets added to a larger nation. The problem with this is, as Woodford states it,
could prove problematic for game-based worlds, where the rights players want may be
in conflict with the design decisions taken by the developers for game play reasons.
(Woodford, 2009) This means that it could cause drastic changes for any other people
who would be affected by these rights, and would fall apart as quickly as it was built up.
The real way to decide how to run these virtual communities is to instead mix the two
ideas together. To better explain, have the community that is being created be
governed the same way as the national senate, but make them of honorable
importance, so that way they will be respected as a fellow community member rather
than that of a virtual god or all-controlling deity. Another good mention by Woodfords
article states that these virtual environments are meant to be maintained like any realworld environment. (Woodford, 2009) Which brings to the final section, how the
creation of the virtual environments and technologies will affect the environment that is
currently around us.

Environmental Impact
33

The only ways that these technologies can affect the environment we currently
call the real world, is if someone were to use them to their own personal advantage.
For example, there have been many reports of hijacking virtual profiles and getting
players credit card information and even their personal address. The best way to avoid
this is to strengthen your personal security, put only what you need to when creating
your virtual profile, and maintain your privacy. To many this has been lost due to the
free speech that is seen every day on social media sites like Facebook and Twitter. The
bottom line is that unless the regulation is followed and everyone does their assigned
job, no harm should ever come to the real or virtual environments.

Conclusion
The best way to solve the governing of virtual and augmented reality is by simply
going back to the basics, to treat it with tender care, much like you would a garden. The
same goes for any virtual community that is created, instead of looking at it like some
brand new unexplored nation, it should be looked at as a neighbor on a suburban street.
It can be compared to someone moving into a new school and wanting to be accepted
for whom they are. Therefore, when this coming generation enters the virtual age,
surely others will follow them in as well.

34

Psychological considerations and sociological effects


Over the past few hundred years, technology has become a staple in many
peoples lives. Since the introduction of films and media such as the classic film from
1982, Tron, there have been thoughts of the technologies of virtual and augmented
reality being able to project people into the world of the computer. Alternatively, in some
cases, having the world of the computer at our very fingertips. However, where this
may sound like an amazing dream or a screenplay for a movie or film, it is closer to the
35

truth than one might expect. In this section, the two technologies will be evaluated on
their potential psychological considerations, as well as the sociological effects that they
have on the individuals who use it on a day-to-day basis. Starting with the first topic in
this section on how virtual and augmented reality can cause some users to forget their
surroundings within a controlled environment.

36

Figure 1 - Top: Computer screen showing two objects in a small room with two pictures (A Bike H

Psychological Effects
With the introduction of these new technologies, there are going to be some kind
of effects on individuals who continue to use them over a long period of time. One such
effect is that they start to forget where certain things are in relation to its real-world
counterpart. In order to figure out why this happens, two studies were executed at the
School of Psychology and Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia to explain the
cause forgetting had on the human mind. The first study comprised of two groups of
participants, where one learned in a virtual environment, while the other learned in an
equivalent real-world environment. In the real-world group, they had to study the
location of several framed photographs, each showing different objects by rotating
around in a swivel chair located in the center of the room. This was while the other
37

group executed the same process, the only difference being that their viewpoint was
being simulated and displayed by the use of a computer screen. After each group had
learned their surroundings, the groups spatial knowledge was tested by asking them to
recall the locations of the target objects that were in the room by means of the relation
chart seen above in Figure 1. (Tlauka, 2008) The same test was executed again after a
weeks time had passed since the first test.

Figure 2 - Experiment Test Results being shown in a bar graph format where the blue represents

The results can be seen here (see Figure 2). In the graph, it shows the recorded error
scores taken each time one of the participants were not able to remember where each
of the objects were located during the second test. (Taluka, 2008) This lead to the
conclusion that the spatial recognition of ones mind can vary if the information is not
retained fast enough, the same reasoning goes for when an individual uses virtual
technology for a long period of time.

38

Social Interactions
Moving on to the next factor that virtual and augmented reality can have an effect
on is the persons social interaction with the outside world. To elaborate further, there
was a group of interview questions by Sherry Turkle from the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology that brought up the question Have we lost something fundamental about
being human? (Fichetti, 2008) Some of the questions that Turkle asks and the
answers that she receives makes it feel like the latest always on hand electronics and
technology are causing humans to toss aside some of the more major things like social
interaction and basic thinking. To clarify, instead of a person coming up with creative
and productive ideas, the ideas become smothered by other influences being fed to
them through the other sources. These influences can stem from places like many
social media sites (i.e. Facebook and Twitter) and online discussion boards (i.e. Reddit
and 9Gag). It is these kinds of things that distract people, causing them to converse
with thousands of anonymous individuals and others than holding face-to-face
conversation with someone that is more than a few feet in front of them. One question
that Turkle was presented with was very intriguing, and it explains a lot about the
technologies when given the answer. Do avatars and virtual reality present the same
issues? (Fichetti, 2008) This was how Turkle put her answer,
In these cases, we are moving from life to the mix of your real life and your virtual life.
People forgot about virtual reality for a while, but now the acquisition of Oculus [Rift] by
Facebook raises it again. We're evolving toward thinking of that as a Utopian image.
(Fichetti, 2008)

39

The fact of the matter is that this technology is already being created. For instance,
currently Microsoft is working on this visor known as the Hololens, and it is essentially
going to turn anyones personal space into their very own virtual headquarters. This is
just one way that, based on Turkles answers, will turn humanity away from the
pleasures of real physical interactions with other people, and replace them with artificial
ones. This is a good segue into the third effect that virtual and augmented reality can
have on people, accepting the virtual world as the real world.

Virtual World vs. Reality


Going back to the introduction of this section, Tron was referenced as one of
the ways film has gone to represent a way to connect the virtual world to the real one. A
small point of the final installment in the series, Tron Legacy, is that the main character
decides to stay in the digital world rather than return to his normal, real world life. This
is the same case for many people in todays world as well, that according to a section
from ScienceClerified.coms online resource Chapter 6, people are starting to create
virtual worlds and treating them as ways to escape their real life problems and
hardships (Advameg Inc., 2015). Some are even going to even greater lengths, by
recreating their real world lives within the virtual world in order to make it better. This
can actually be seen as occurring in the popular computer game franchise, The Sims.
Other scenarios that support this is that some individuals have used virtual technology
to create alternate personas, or avatars of themselves. One such person was that of

40

1980s actor Matt Frewer,

Figure 3 - Actor Matt Frewer and his alternate persona,


Max Headroom.

who created the charismatic talk show host Max Headroom, referenced here by Figure
3 (Advamg Inc, 2015). Now this particular character was to be strictly used as a means
of entertainment, but imagine if avatars such as Mr. Headroom were made more lifelike
and realistic, who knows what people would use them for, such as an alternative means
of interaction or even to replace them with someone else.
Conclusion
In conclusion, where the technologies of virtual and augmented reality can be
seen as a window into another world and can be explored at will, people must always
remember to take a reality check every now and again. This is so they can 100
percent differentiate between what is real and what is not.

41

Economic considerations of Augmented/Virtual Reality


In the near future, virtual and augmented reality will quickly become a way that
we will be able to interact with our environment. It will change the way we view the world
and will open up new opportunities around the world. In my section of this paper, I will
be discussing the economic considerations and questions that will arise from the
development of augmented and virtual reality technology. There are economic benefits
associated with this technology as well as drawbacks. Nations and corporations can see
a potential increase in their economy as they begin to sell and use the virtual reality to
their advantage. Users as well will see benefits such as potential jobs, money, and other
related economic advantages. There are also downfalls to this technology that will affect
the economy. Costs associated will include the potential costs to businesses,
corporations and nations as well. The users of the virtual reality could see loss of money
and employment as well.
Economic benefits for nations
Nations that choose to develop and introduce augmented and virtual reality could
possibly see a boost to their national economy. Tourism is one place where nations
could see an economic benefit. As described in the report by Najafipour, Advances in
technology have direct and lasting impacts on tourism. Recently, developments in
information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been transforming tourism in
many ways, with impacts on areas ranging from consumer demand to site
42

management. Najafipour, A. A., Heidari, M., & Foroozanfar, M. H. (2014) Areas that
could see potential benefits from virtual reality in tourism include, planning and
management, marketing, entertainment, education, accessibility, and heritage
preservation are six areas of tourism in which VR may prove particularly effective and
useful. A Virtual Community (VC) can be set up where e-communities interact with
officials from the national government to more easily and readily present their countries
potential as an attract tourist destination (fig.1.) VCs are used to share information
among their members with common interests. In this regard, anyone who uses a virtual
community to target users with tourist ads and then go to such sites are all part of the
virtual community and interact together and share a goal that is similar, to explore
potential tourist activities and locations. Virtual reality allows for the creation of realistic
3-D models, navigable virtual environments that planners can use when analyzing
possible developments. It also offers much more detail than traditional 2-D blueprints
offer. For instance, VR models allow planners to show off an environment from an
unlimited number of angles instead of just the normal two-dimensional birds eye views.
VR also can serve as a tool for communicating plans to other people in the same
age group and/or community. Most important of all to the respective nations is to
achieve success in tourism to boost their economy. Najafipour and his co-authors
explain that In order to be successful, tourism community organizers need to provide
their customers with shared interests a way to come together, express themselves,
conduct easy and secure transactions with goods and services they provide, and try to
match and expand upon the various needs of the community and the functional aspects
of the Internet. Najafipour, A. A., Heidari, M., & Foroozanfar, M. H. (2014) clearly, it is
43

important for tourist organizations to provide a safe, natural environment for their
potential customers to interact in. Through these types of virtual communities, tourism
industries in all countries can benefit from implementing virtual reality into their
businesses and therefore boost their national economy.

Fig. 1. Model for the definition of virtual community


Economic benefits for corporations
There are many different ways in which virtual reality can be used to the
economic benefit of corporations. One way is through marketing products to consumers.
Virtual reality can be used to market products and conduct commerce. Christopher
Ryan explains an advantage of using virtual reality as a means of marketing in his
article. Vast increase in market potential since your product experience can be shared
by anyone in the world who has the necessary computer hardware/software. (Ryan

44

2001) The ability for companies to directly interact with consumer in their marketing is a
huge advantage in using virtual reality. They can show the consumer the product
without having to physically ship the item to them. Consumers can interact with the
product through sensory means such as visual, auditory, and tactile. The products can
be shown to customers in real-time with user-defined parameters that can be readily
changed on a whim by the user. Virtual reality can be used in different applications to
further the future of marketing in many different ways. One of the biggest advantages of
digital and virtual advertising is ability for companies to customize their ad to specific
individuals. Ryan describes an example of this in his article. In a scene where two
actors are conversing next to a coffee table, the product sitting on the table would
appear different depending on the demographics of the household that is viewing the
program. (Ryan 2001) This is just one example how a company can use virtual reality
to market their products. Just think of the possibilities that are presented because of
this. This transcends more than one kind of market; any product that is viewable can be
marketed to customers on an individualistic approach. The virtual reality environment
will forever change the future of marketing.
Entertainment is one industry in which virtual reality will be used now and in the
future. Games, movies, shopping and others are all ways in which VR can be used.
Gaming is a huge industry that is only growing currently. As less and less people are
going out for entertainment such as movies, consumers are now looking for new
entertainment that is easier to access. In comes virtual reality. A growing number of
gamers and people interested in virtual reality are using products that immerse them in
the game world, achieving a completely new level of interactivity with their games.
45

There is going to be a huge market for these products in the near future as technology
progresses. With smaller and smaller devices coming out, the technology can allow
even the regular consumer to afford a virtual reality device. New and old companies as
well can enter a new industry that can provide them with potentially millions of dollars to
be made on this emerging industry and technology. Pre-existing technology will be
open-source and developed with the help of current leading industry professionals at
respected businesses all around the world.
Economic benefits for individuals
Obviously, if these economic benefits apply to corporations and businesses they
should also apply to individuals as well, albeit in different ways. Such as job creations,
income across different industries and others. Virtual reality poses a huge change in the
industry of electronics and computer related fields. It has the potential to open to market
to thousands upon thousands of newly educated people fresh from college. Those who
are interested in fields such as gaming, education, electronics and many others could
have a chance in a completely new area. Due to the fact that it is an emerging
technology, many are interested in its development and its applications to everyday life.
There is potentially a lot of money to be made as a developer of this awesome new
technology. In fields such as architects, designers, artists, advertisers, engineers and
scientists, virtual reality can be a very useful tool that can make their jobs much easier.
Product design, development, testing, and training can take a huge leap in terms of
efficiency. There are huge implications for doctors. In an article by Himanshu Patel and
his co-author Richard Cardinali, they describe such uses. Stanford Medical School and

46

NASA have developed a prototype of a simulated patient so that entire operations can
be performed on virtual patients. New techniques and rare and intricate operations can
be performed and tested. Risk avoidance for a virtual patient undergoing a new and
risky operation will no longer be paramount. (Patel 1994)
Another area in which virtual reality can be applied to is the military. The US army
has begun to use virtual reality as a training tool for these soldiers. These soldiers can
easily learn commands, heighten their senses, and improve their battlefield technique.
Equipment will no longer have to be destroyed thus saving them huge amounts of
money, as well as lives that can be saved due to accidents. Education could become a
huge industry for the use of virtual reality. Patel describes such a situation, Imagine
what education would be like if you were to bring your students to the Battle of
Gettysburg, Custers last stand, or maybe on board the Monitor or the Merimack during
the Battle of the Ironclads. Education would become big business. (Patel 1994)
Everyone would be at the doors to school districts waiting to sell virtual reality to every
aspect of education. Students would be more interested in history. They can be able to
teleport to history locations instead of having to listen to a teacher or read about it in a
book. It would immerse them in the history and allow them to travel to another time. This
could potentially lead to newfound interest in history for more students and maybe even
boost their grades in the subject. These students might even go on to become teachers
of history themselves and contribute to the growing education economy and industry.
The following chart indicates the usage of current VR technology in the associated
fields.

47

Fig. 2. The structure of the population according to their country of origin


Economic downfalls for nations
While there are many benefits for people, nations and corporations, there are, as
with any technology, many downfalls as well. In terms of national downfalls, there are
concerns with the availability of jobs to certain individuals, taxations issues with
corporations, potential displacement and outsourcing concerns for local residents and
employees. In regards to companies, how much has to be invested into research and
development before it is good enough before the public can use it. Price stability and
stock market prices must be evaluated before it can be considered a success in terms
of economic results. One important consideration must be taken into account before
nations can adopt this technology, how does a government implement and enforce tax
regulations on virtual assets. Some analysis from different researchers has indicated
that the virtual world has a combined net value of over $3 billion. While not directly
48

associated with virtual and augmented reality, the following information is nonetheless is
important. William Arnold states in his report on the possibility of taxation in virtual
reality and virtual worlds. China's virtual markets are unique in that the country is home
to a relatively new phenomenon called "gold farming. there is a high demand for rare
items and other virtual goods in MMORPGs. Gold farmers fill the niche created by this
demand by providing items and services that are purchasable on the virtual market.
Indeed, gold farmers do not participate in MMORPGs for enjoyment; they are there to
make money. (William E. Arnold 2008) This issue for the Chinese nation is an important
one that could potentially affect the United States as well. This largely unregulated
market allows for cheap unskilled labor of unemployed workers to work long hours and
attain untaxed money free. It has been estimated to have around 100,000 dedicated
works that do this. The conclusion that we can draw from this is that the virtual market
inside a video game or virtual reality system, is largely unregulated, unstable, and
fragmented.
Economic downfalls for corporations
Potential downfalls of virtual reality as it relates to the business side of things are
numerous as well. Corporations have to sink money into the research and development
of their own development of the technology. If they choose not to, they must pay the
licensing fee to another company who owns the rights to the technology. The amount of
money that a business might need to invest into an unproven technology is unknown
and good lead to them having to shut down, as they are not able to turn a profit. If a
company wants to hire employees to work on their technology, whom do they hire? Is it

49

cheaper to outsource their development, have less control and say in how and in what
way it is developed? How much do virtual reality developers get to be paid? Since the
industry is still evolving, no one can be sure of these questions and a business must
take a risk in these questions.
Mihaela Tutunea in his report on the state of knowledge in virtual reality states
that, At the level of year 2011, according to researches carried out, a very low
percentage of only 0.1% of AR technology users was reported, but it is estimated that
an increased percentage of 1% of the population to become users of these applications
by 2016 (Tutunea 2013). While the final part of this statistic may be promising to
some businesses, the first part is more concerning. If there is only 0.1% of the
population that is even possible users of virtual reality, there is not much room to make
money on customers. So a company must be prepared to sink money into an unproven
technology in the hopes that more and more general citizens become users and can
afford such a device. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that perspective companies
try as hard as they can to make people aware of virtual reality and get them
accustomed to the idea of such technology. When they do, they should be able to
corner the market with successful devices.
In terms of the marketing aspect of virtual reality, there are many downsides as
well. People who hear of virtual reality often have very high expectations of what this
means. They expect to be whisked into the world of Avatar. However, this is not even
close to the case. Modern technologies are amazing, but they cannot deliver on what
most people expect. Marketing programs that do not measure up to these standards will

50

most likely be unsuccessful. Additionally, there is a small user base. In the near future,
only a small fraction of North Americans will be able to afford the devices that are
required to access virtual reality applications. There will be long lead times. Creating a
virtual reality device is and will be a very complex process. Consequently, the
promotions for virtual reality will most likely take longer to create than traditional media
such as TV, print, radio and the internet.
Economic downfalls for individuals
Finally, the consumers are one more group who can fall prey to the economic
downfalls of virtual reality technologies. As previously discussed, the concept of gold
farming is a grey area in regards to taxation. Another downfall of such a practice is the
effect on the people as well. In the same article, William describes the conditions of
such an environment. In regards to hourly wages and shift length, the article further
states that "Most of the players here actually make less than a quarter an hour,. . . there
are factories all over China . . . [in a] factory in western Gansu Province, the workers log
up to 18 hours a day." (Arnold 2008) This is an example of what happens to people
when an unregulated technology is exploited to the disadvantage of the employee and
what can happen without the proper knowledge of the technology. Individuals who work
for companies that work with virtual reality face a tough time. There are no standards
set for employment and salary in this unregulated industry. There may not be jobs
available, they might not be hiring, or they may not pay as much as you might have
expected. Employment just will not be steady or stable. Considering it may be more
economical for a company to outsource their work, it is more likely that they will be laid

51

off as a result. Being a startup company is easy and the employees are taking a huge
risk in going with a new company with unproven results. As we can clearly see, it is no
easy being a new employee in an emerging industry.
Conclusions and Recommendations
With the cost of all digital technologies slated to continue declining so quickly,
these complex applications of virtual reality are pretty much guaranteed to continue to
extend into everyones everyday life, creating remarkable new opportunities for citizens,
employees, consumers and vendors as well. Just like with the introduction of new media
types such as photography, cinema and even the internet, the first industries to be
allowed access to these incredible technologies will be games, novelties and
amusements. It will quickly become an everyday occurrence right alongside with the
cellphone and radio. As with all new technologies, there are risks and rewards related.
World economies can benefit greatly by being able to attract new tourists and build new
industries that will open new doors for their corporations and citizens. However, in doing
so, they open themselves to people who may abuse this technologies such as the
inability to tax virtual goods and services. Employees and educated individuals who are
interested in emerging technologies can find themselves in a great position to land a
new career in a growing market. Virtual reality has the ability to revolutionize the way we
interact with our environment and with others. It is important to understand that this is
an emerging technology and much research must be done. The development, economic
impact it will have, risks that people must take and who can benefit the most from it are

52

all things that must be carefully thought-out. Once people take these points into
consideration, virtual reality can become a major part of everyones lives.

Ethical and Moral Issues


Throughout our live we always will be confronted with choices, there is always a
fork in the road that will lead to different ways. One way could be a bad way, revealing
unforeseen events that lie and wait. While the other is usually the right way, which may
be harder to achieve; but the rewards make one feel better by doing the right thing.
These events happen throughout ones day, more often than someone would think. In
todays modern society, the vast majority of the population follows the laws that have
been set into place; this foundation of rules is what allows our society to live in peace.
Whereas back in barbaric times, one would always have to watch his or her own back;
as an enemy could easily kill someone and get away with it. There was no forensics
back than to try and figure out who may have killed someone, therefore murders and
other crimes were far more common back then. Even though laws may seem like a
pain in the butt, they are really there to protect everyone that is part of the community
from one another.
However, what happens when you venture off the beaten trail and into a virtual
world? Would the same set of laws exist? How would someone be trailed for murdering
someone inside a virtual world? These are the questions that are currently being asked,
from people that have been studying the effects of these virtual worlds. Currently it is
unclear whether or not someone who commits a virtual crime is trailed the same as if it
was inside the real world. This in itself opens the door for criminals to get away with acts
53

that would normally get them punished. In todays world, privacy is a big concern, every
well-known company has a code of ethics that they abide by, mix that in with an
augmented reality or virtual reality and it is unclear what is considered ethical. Identity
theft is a rising problem that is becoming more common than one might think.
Eventually this will transfer over into a virtual world; meaning that people could copy
someone elses looks completely in a virtual world. This would make the task of
identifying users in a virtual world extremely hard to accomplish. When it comes to
whats right and what is wrong there will always be different views of the topic.

What is considered right and wrong?


So than the question remains, what is considered right? There are different types
of ethical styles that were founded by philosophers thousands of years ago. One such
method of ethics is known as virtue ethics. The father of virtue ethics is Socrates
Aristotle, who lived from (469399) B.C. He proclaimed that humanity needed to start to
focus on themselves, instead of their surroundings. Socrates also claimed that human
beings will do that is right naturally, given they known what is considered right in the
situation. Acts of evil are the result of ignorance in the eyes of Socrates. Being a
catholic, we were always taught to follow the Ten Commandments, which allow people
to not turn to their evil side. The golden rule also plays a huge part on how we treat one
another; granted if everyone followed the golden rule the world would be a better place
as a whole. Humans in general will know that what they are doing is right or wrong. It is
a hard phenomenon to describe, but when you do something that is wrong you can feel
it from the inside, the same goes for when you do something that is right you feel good
54

inside. Whether this is a physiological feeling or a physical; it is there and does exist.
Getting back to virtual and augmented reality, the right and wrong feeling would still be
the same; even though the person would be within a virtual world. It would not matter
what world or setting a person is in, doing something that is wrong in a virtual world
would yield the same feeling as if they were in the real one. The only exception of this
rule would be something that could not feel emotions, such as artificial intelligence and
robotic beings. There is a controversy over whether or not a robot could determine what
is right and wrong, or if they are just programmed to perform a specific action. Unlike
robots, humans have a choice to make; there will always be that fork in the road
between what is right and wrong.

55

What ethical values are expressed implicitly or explicitly?


As with any technology that comes out there will always be something that is
gained by it, whether that be ease of use, profitability, or for malicious use. As it stands,
today virtual and augmented realities have a lot of positive effects that will help out both
the people using the product, as well as the companies that will be producing it.
However, as with anything that has good effects, there will always be something that
can be abused about it. This technology in the wrong hands can produce some bad
effects, which could forever change the way crimes are committed. An example of this
would be using the technology with malicious intent in mind. A user could go into the
virtual space and use it to do illegal activities Such as going inside of a virtual world a
committing a murder. The question of course would be, whether not it is possible to kill
someone in a virtual world. Depending on how the technology advances, it could very
well be a possibility. When the technology is in its early stages, it probably will not be
possible to put a whole human within the virtual world. It will be more of a simulated
experience, which would mean that the person would not be able to feel anything within
the world, as they are only seeing the world through their eyes.
A more immersive world would act as close as possible as the current world that
we are all in. Thus allowing more of what happens in the real world; happen in the
virtual one, such as being able to feel objects within the environment. This interaction
with other objects would allow a criminal to use one as a potential weapon. The
56

experience of murdering someone within the virtual world would mirror that of being
inside of the real one; meaning that the crimes would have to be committed out of sight
from other users that are in the world. The more interesting question in this virtual world
would be, would there be a crime scene? In this virtual world, would someone end up
bleeding? That of course would depend on whether or not the user was physical
brought into the world, or if they are just a skeletal mesh of pixels and light. Other
crimes besides murder could take place within a virtual world, stolen credit cards could
be exchanged within the world; making it even easier for criminals to exchange goods.

Laws and Enforcement


In our present world, there are laws in place to keep social order for the masses.
This same approach would have to be taken within virtual worlds. Otherwise, users
within the virtual world could go wild within them, making the virtual world an unsafe
place to be in. This would open up new possibilities for jobs that could be created within
these virtual realms. Law enforcement would be needed, to protect users from one
another, as well as shady activities that could happen within the virtual realm. Having
law enforcement would allow the virtual world to thrive, allowing for safe activities to
occur. The virtual world could very well turn into the real world in a sense, allowing
users to sell merchandise that could be used within it. The same currency that is
currently being used within our world would be used within a virtual one; creating even
more opportunity for malicious activities to occur. Having law enforcement of the
premises would mean that someone or something would have to control them. There

57

could be virtual government that would have to regulate laws and rules that would be
set up within this virtual world. As a world without laws would quickly become social
chaos. Which would mean that there would need to be some kind of funding to occur, so
that law enforcement within the virtual world could occur, as nobody is going to work as
an enforcer for free. The question would then be whether or not virtual users could be
taxed money, in order to pay the users that are there to protect them. However, this
could depend on whether a virtual world is a private or public one. A private virtual world
would be one that is only with people that somebody would know, such as friends and
family members; whereas a public virtual world would be with users that are from
anywhere in the world. The public virtual world would definitely have rules and
regulations in place, as there can be no trust between complete strangers. The exact
opposite is true with private virtual worlds, friends and family members can be trusted,
and thus virtual rules and laws would not be needed.

58

Moral Concerns
As with any technology that is game changing, there will always be people who
do not agree with the technology or what it stands for. Some such examples could be
abortion and contraception, both of which are technologies developed a long time ago.
The same can be said about using virtual reality or augmented reality. Some religions
do not believe in what virtual reality stands for, how it changes the way the world is
presented. They are mostly religious fanatics, which believe the world has been created
by their god. By entering a virtual world, the person ends up cheating the real world for
the virtual one; meaning that people should live within the real world, because that one
has been created by their god. Whereas people that want technology to advance, dont
compare it to what their religion believes. There will always be a group of people that
will disagree with a technology or advancement based on what their religion dictates to
59

them. Just as some people agree that abortion is wrong, while others say that it is
perfectly fine. This exact situation will happen to virtual reality environments but not to
the degree of what abortion stands for. There could be potential for protestors using
picket signs that read, Our world is gods world outside of the Whitehouse. But this
wont change the development of the current technology, as previously protested events
still continued their growth and advancement.

Companies Producing the Technology Code of Ethics


The companies that are trying to make virtual and augmented reality an actual
reality are some big and well known cooperations, such as Microsoft, Google and
Oculus. They all have a company code of ethics that they abide to. Microsoft for
example outlines six values that they follow to insure that their employees are as
productive as possible, while also allowing them to respect one another both in the
60

workplace and off of it. Google also has a company code of ethics that is very similar to
Microsoft, but their privacy terms of service is a bit unsettling to consumers, as Google
is known to share their customers data with third party services. Privacy concerns will
always be one of the top problems that customers will face when they use these
products, as they are so new and game changing. The companies want to know how
the users use the product, allowing them to market it at specific people, allowing them to
sell more of their product. They can also use the product to kind of spy on their
customers. Whenever you first use a product that includes software, there is a terms of
service that the user must agree to. By agreeing to these terms of service, the user can
continue to use the product as it was intended to be, but if they decline the terms of
service than they cannot use the software that is used to run the hardware.
Often companies will hide little small statements in the terms of service allowing
them to collect data about the user. Which is a kind of shady move to do, but it is
understandable when a product is so new. The companies want to figure out what the
users are doing on their product, allowing them to either improve on their services or
offer them a service for a certain amount of cash. The companies may claim that they
are doing their product investments for the good of their employees and customers, but
collecting data about a customer without them really knowing about it is a bit too far. A
simple agreement that could be seen by the user, telling them that their data is being
collected and used for a reason that they know about would be completely acceptable.
At its current state, it is more of a secret than it ought to be.

61

Quality of Life
The result of using virtual and augmented reality will enable life as we know it to
be a lot easier. Designing products will be simpler than using a traditional 2d screen,
users will be able to so their product in a three dimensional space, allowing them to see
the product in real time; instead of how it is traditional. For doctors this technology will
change the way that they can interact with patients than ever before. Instead of having
to describe to a patient what is going on within their body, they can use an augmented
reality image to show them a dimensional image of their body part that is affected. This
will allow patients a better understanding of what is going on and what needs to be done
to fix any problems. Virtual reality headsets could also be used while driving car or flying
planes. Real time images could be displayed in front of the user, telling them how far
away that they are from the car in front of them, as well as how fast the car is traveling.
It could even be used to detect if an accident occurred ahead of the driver and warn
them to slow down or avoid a potential threat. For pilots in the sky, virtual reality headset
could warn them if they are going to collide with another plane or object in real time,
thus eliminating the need to look down at a cluster of instruments.
The possibilities for human improvement are almost endless, as the computer
that would be controlling the device can know more about its surroundings than the user
could process. Virtual reality devices would also make it a lot easier for our military
personal that are training for a war or are in it. The technology could guide the user
were to shoot the enemy in real time, showing were they are vulnerable for a kill shot.
This could potential save the lives of military personal that would have not known about
the incoming danger or how to guide the user for a kill shot.
62

Wrapping Up
Overall, virtual reality is still a new and developing technology; it has its
weaknesses and strengths. There are still a lot of question that can be asked about the
technology. Such as would virtual worlds have their own set of laws and rules? Or would
there be law enforcement present within the worlds. What is considered right and
wrong has been controversial since they day it has been talked about. Peoples morals
and standards have changed over the years compared to the people that lived forty or
fifty years ago. Most people are much more understanding of new technologies that
have arrived to enrich our everyday lives. However, there will always be debates on
what is consider right and wrong. Companies that are going to be producing this
technology must understand that it is potentially very powerful, and in the wrong hands
can produce a lot of harm. Although the good does out weight the bad, it should be
treated as a privilege to use; allowing people to treat the technology with more respect.
The respect must also be agreed upon with the companies that are developing
this technology. Users data should not be taken from them without their knowledge
about it. Even if these companies proclaim that, it is for the betterment of the user
experience. These should not go as excuses for the companies betterment of
themselves instead of what it should be targeting, which is the users that are using the
product. Hopefully there will be order within these virtual worlds which could even be
easier the previously intended. The server that is hosting the virtual world could include
A.I law enforcement within the virtual world to protect its users, allowing for a cheaper
alternative to hiring virtual police officers; thus allowing the virtual environment to be
more enriched with like mined individuals that all want to be a part of this virtual world.
63

There is good and evil within all of us, but most of the good shines out of people,
hopefully this is the same case within our virtual world. This will allow users to thrive
within these worlds instead of always watching ones back. Deciding on what is right and
wrong is something that happens every day throughout our lives.

64

References
Sources for Economic Considerations
1. Ryan, C. (2001). Virtual reality in marketing. Direct Marketing, 63(12), 57-62.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/212775746?
accountid=44759

2. Patel, H., & Cardinali, R. (1994). Virtual reality technology in business.


Management Decision, 32(7), 5. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/212084015?accountid=44759

3. Najafipour, A. A., Heidari, M., & Foroozanfar, M. H. (2014). DESCRIBING THE


VIRTUAL REALITY AND VIRTUAL TOURIST COMMUNITY (APPLICATIONS
AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TOURISM INDUSTRY). Kuwait Chapter of the
Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(12), 12-23. Retrieved
from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1553535098?accountid=44759

4. By, P. C. (1999, Dec 31). The wall street journal millennium (A special report):
Industry & economics --- (un)real world: Virtual reality may seem kind of clunky
today; in time, it will radically alter how we live. Wall Street Journal Retrieved
from http://search.proquest.com/docview/398726312?accountid=44759

5. Aurich, J. C., Ostermayer, D., & Wagenknecht, C. H. (2009). Improvement of


manufacturing processes with virtual reality-based CIP workshops. International
Journal Of Production Research, 47(19), 5297-5309.
doi:10.1080/00207540701816569
6. Woodward, D., & Sillince, J. (1996). Accounting and virtual reality: Solving the
communication dilemma? Management Accounting, 74(3), 36. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/195656782?accountid=44759
7. TUTUNEA, M. F. (2013). AUGMENTED REALITY - STATE OF KNOWLEDGE,
USE AND EXPERIMENTATION. USV Annals Of Economics & Public
Administration, 13(2), 215-227.
65

8. Arnold,William E.,,IV. (2012). TAX ENFORCEMENT IN VIRTUAL WORLDS VIRTUALLY IMPOSSIBLE? Syracuse Journal of International Law and
Commerce, 40(1), 187-216. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/1319814877?accountid=44759
Figure 1. Model for the definition of virtual community. Adapted from DESCRIBING
THE VIRTUAL REALITY AND VIRTUAL TOURIST COMMUNITY (APPLICATIONS AND
IMPLICATIONS FOR TOURISM INDUSTRY), by Amir Abbas Najafipour, Majid Heidari ,
and Mohammad Hossein Foroozanfar, 2013 Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of
Business and Management Review , 3, p. 18. Copyright 2013 by the Copyright Holder.
Adapted with permission.

Figure 2. The structure of the population according to their country of origin, Adapted
from AUGMENTED REALITY - STATE OF KNOWLEDGE, USE AND
EXPERIMENTATION, by Mihaela Filofteia tutunea, 2013 The USV Annals of
economics and Public Administration, 13, p. 222. Copyright 2013 by Stefan cel Mare
University of Suceava Publishing House. Adapted with permission.

Sources for introduction to Technology

DK2. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2015, from https://www.oculus.com/en-us/dk2/


McKalin, V. (2014, April 6). Augmented Reality vs. Virtual Reality: What are the
differences and similarities? Retrieved June 9, 2015, from
http://www.techtimes.com/articles/5078/20140406/augmented-reality-

vs-

virtual-reality-what-are-the-differences-and-similarities.htm
Moren, D. (2015, April 27). Haptic Gloves Use Air Pressure To Simulate The Feel Of
Virtual Objects. Retrieved June 9, 2015, from
gloves-let-you-reach-out-and-touch-virtual-

http://www.popsci.com/haptic-

objects

Nintendo AR Cards. (n.d.). Retrieved June 6, 2015, from


http://www.nintendo.com/3ds/ar-cards
66

PlayStationCamera. (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from


https://www.playstation.com/en-us/explore/accessories/playstation- camera/
QR code Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2015,
from http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/61424/qr-code
RoomAlive - Microsoft Research. (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from
http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/roomalive/
Supplement[Def. 1a]. (n.d.). Retrieved June 6, 2015, from http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/supplement
THE WORLD OF SWORDS: Story - Sword Art Online US Official Website. (n.d.).
Retrieved June 9, 2015, from http://www.swordartonlineusa.com/sao1/story/index.html
Zak, E. (2014). Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of
Augmented Reality and its Implications for the User in the Field of Library and
Information Science. Information Technology & Libraries, 33(4), 23-50.

Sources for History of technology


(1995). Virtual Reality: History.
http://archive.ncsa.illinois.edu/Cyberia/VETopLevels/VR.History.html.
In my section of this report I will be going over the history of virtual reality and
augmented reality. This article is based around the full history of how and where virtual
reality started and how it has evolved over the last 40 years. The article starts off
explaining when virtual reality was first invented. Then it goes about explaining the
opportunities that it brought about. The next part talks about how virtual reality was
used by the military, followed up by virtual reality being used in video games. Finally,
this article touches on some ideas of what virtual reality may be like in the future.

67

Fritz Nelson, Marcus Yam(2014). The Past, Present, And Future Of VR And AR: The
Pioneers Speak. http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/ar-vr-technologydiscussion,3811-2.html
This article is about all the different technologies and devices that have been invented
over the years and how these devices have helped in the evolution of the virtual reality
world; starting in the 1960s all the up into today.

This article is based around the augmented reality portion of my section of this project.
The article I have provided above talks about a new technological device that can show
you the past and the potential future.

Dan Farber(2013, June 7). The next big thing in tech: Augmented reality. cnet.
http://www.cnet.com/news/the-next-big-thing-in-tech-augmented-reality/
The wearable revolution is heading beyond Google Glass, fitness tracking and health
monitoring. The future is wearables that conjure up a digital layer in real space to
"augment" reality. This article is mainly based around wearable technology.

Chris Candy(2013, October 31). The History of Augmented Reality.


http://sevenmediainc.com/the-history-of-augmented-reality/
This article is a full history of Augmented Reality; from when it was formed, to when the
term Augmented Reality was coined, all the way until the current day technology.
https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1523379957/oculus-rift-step-into-the-game
Used for money statistics.
The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jul/22/facebook-oculus-rift-

acquisition-virtual-reality
Used for money statistics.
Fritz Nelson, Marcus Yam(2014). The Past, Present, And Future Of VR And AR: The
Pioneers Speak. http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/ar-vr-technologydiscussion,3811-3.html
This article is about all the different technologies and devices that have been invented
over the years and how these devices have helped in the evolution of the augmented
reality world; starting in the 1990s up into today.
68

Microsoft. http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/roomalive/
Used for explaining Microsoft RoomAlive.

Sources for Media Influences

Bridget, W. (2014, September 15). How Augmented Reality can Influence Media.
Retrieved from Augmented Reality Trends:
http://www.augmentedrealitytrends.com/augmented-reality/media.html
Business Using AR. (2014, July 7). Using Augmented Reality in Education. Retrieved
from ITAGGED: http://www.itagged.com/using-augmented-reality-in-education/
Cooper, B. B. (2011, September 20). Augmented Reality: 5 Ways it Can Change Your
World. Retrieved from Social Media Examiner:
http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/augmented-reality-5-ways-it-can-changeyour-world/
Dedale. (n.d.). Augmented Reality: Enriching Culture. Retrieved from Digital Meets
Heritage: http://www.digitalmeetsculture.net/article/augmented-reality-enrichingculture/
Dimitrios, B. (2015). Augmented Reality in Tourism. 10 Unique Application Explained.
Retrieved from Digital Tourism Think Tank: Digital Tourism Think Tank
Estella, S. (2014, February 13). Augmented Reality Meets the Art World. Retrieved from
Apollo Magazine: http://www.apollo-magazine.com/augmented-reality/
Lee, J., & Kim, Y. (2015). Real-Time Projection-Based Augmented Reality System for
Dynamic Objects in the Performing Arts. Symmetry, 182-192.
Stuart, M. (2011, March 1). Top 10 uses of augmented reality in the movies. Retrieved
from Pocket-Lint: http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/108890-best-augmentedreality-in-movies

Sources for Implications for the environment

69

EdTech. (2013, June 16). 20 Ways to Use Augmented Reality in Education. Educational
Technology and Mobile Learning. Retrieved June 8, 2015, from
http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2013/06/20-ways-to-use-augmented-reality-in.html
(EdTech, 2013)
Marketwired. (2015, January 5). Non-Profit, Immersive Technology Alliance Gets Ready to
Standardize Virtual Reality. Marketwire (English). (Marketwired, 2015)
Schrier, K. (2006, August 31). Student Postmortem: Reliving the Revolution.
GameCareerGuide.com. Retrieved June 8, 2015, from
http://www.gamecareerguide.com/features/263/student_postmortem_reliving_the_.php.
(Schrier, 2006)
Woodford, D. (2009). Governing Virtual Worlds: To What Extent is it Possible to Empower
Players and Preserve Their Rights in Virtual Worlds, and What is the Best Method of
Doing So? IUP Journal Of Cyber Law, 8(3/4), 24. (Woodford, 2009)

Sources for Psychological considerations and sociological effects


Advameg Inc. (2015). Chapter 6 - Which World is Real? The Future of Virtual Reality.
ScienceClerified.com Retrieved May 12, 2015, from
http://www.scienceclarified.com/scitech/Virtual-Reality/Which-World-Is-Real-The-Futureof-Virtual-Reality.html (Advameg Inc., 2015)
Advameg Inc. (2015). Figure 3. B&W Photograph. ScienceClerified.com, 6(4), 46. (Advameg
Inc., 2015)

70

Fischetti, M. (2014). THE NETWORKED PRIMATE. Scientific American, 311(3), 82-85.


(Fischetti, 2014)
Tlauka, M. D. (2008). Forgetting in spatial memories acquired in a virtual environment. Applied
Cognitive Psychology, 22(1), 69-84. (Tlauka, 2008)
Tlauka, M. D. (2008). Figure 1. Color Photograph. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(1), 69-84,
p73.
Tlauka, M. D. (2008). Figure 2. Graph. Applied Cognitive Psychology, Jan2008, Vol. 22(1), 6984, p74.

Sources for Political and Legal Influences

Cowper, T., & Buerger, M. (2010, August 23). Police Augmented Reality Technology.
Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-

services/publications/police-

augmented-reality-technology-pdf/view
Russo, J., & Risch, M. (1993). The Law of Virtual Reality - Law Firm ComputerLaw

Group

LLP Attorneys Palo Alto, California. Retrieved June 9, 2015, from


http://www.computerlaw.com/Articles/The-Law-of-Virtual-Reality.shtml#3
Virtual Reality in the Military. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2015, from http://www.vrs.org.uk/virtualreality-military/index.html

Sources for Moral and Ethical issues

71

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1JWoXDYMYdHO0uZseOEhfqmqRymeUxMYffebk
KlgOB10/edit?hl=en
https://investor.google.com/corporate/code-of-conduct.html
https://ethicalrealism.wordpress.com/2010/11/11/virtue-ethics/
http://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/ethical-issues.html
http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/190612-virtual-reality-the-death-of-morality-andthe-perils-of-making-the-virtual-more-real
http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/oldcontent/cbeardon/papers/9201.html
http://www.virtuallybetter.com/af/documents/VR_Ethics_Chapter.pdf

72