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Fluorine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fluorine is the chemical element with atomic number 9,


oxygen ← fluorine → neon
represented by the symbol F. Fluorine forms a single bond with
-
itself in elemental form, resulting in the diatomic F2 molecule. 9F
navigation ↑
F2 is a supremely reactive, poisonous, pale, yellowish brown
Main page F
gas. Elemental fluorine is the most chemically reactive and
Contents ↓
electronegative of all the elements. For example, it will readily Periodic table
Featured content Cl
"burn" hydrocarbons at room temperature, in contrast to the
Current events
combustion of hydrocarbons by oxygen, which requires an input Appearance
Random article
of energy with a spark. Therefore, molecular fluorine is highly Yellowish gas
search dangerous, more so than other halogens such as the poisonous
chlorine gas.
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Fluorine's highest electronegativity and small atomic radius give
unique properties to many of its compounds. For example, the
interaction
enrichment of 235 U, the principal nuclear fuel, relies on the
About Wikipedia
volatility of UF 6 . Also, the carbon–fluorine bond is one of the
Community portal
strongest bonds in organic chemistry. This contributes to the
Recent changes
stability and persistence of fluoroalkane based organofluorine
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compounds, such as PTFE/(Teflon) and PFOS. The carbon–
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fluorine bond's inductive effects result in the strength of many
fluorinated acids, such as triflic acid and trifluoroacetic acid.
toolbox Drugs are often fluorinated at biologically reactive positions, to
What links here prevent their metabolism and prolong their half-lives.
Related changes
General properties
Upload file Contents [hide]
Special pages Name, symbol, fluorine, F, 9
1 Characteristics
Printable version number
2 Isotopes
Permanent link Element category halogen
3 Applications
Cite this page
3.1 Industrial use of fluorine-containing compounds Group, period, 17, 2, p
languages 3.2 Dental and medical uses block
4 Chemistry of fluorine
Afrikaans Standard atomic 18.9984032(5) g·mol−1
5 Production
weight
Asturianu 6 History
Electron 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5
Azərbaycan 7 Biological role
configuration
8 Precautions
Bân-lâm-gú 8.1 Elemental fluorine Electrons per shell 2, 7 (Image)
Bosanski 8.2 Fluoride ion Physical properties
Български 8.3 Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid
Phase gas
Català 8.4 Organofluorines
Ч вашла 9 See also Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
Česky 1.7 g/L
10 References
Corsu
11 External links Melting point 53.53 K, −219.62 °C,
Cymraeg
−363.32 °F
Dansk
Deutsch Characteristics Boiling point 85.03 K, −188.12 °C,
Eesti −306.62 °F
Ελληνικά
F2 is a corrosive pale yellow or brown [1] gas that is a powerful
Critical point 144.13 K, 5.172 MPa
Español oxidizing agent. It is the most reactive and most electronegative
of all the elements on the classic Pauling scale (4.0), and Heat of fusion (F 2 ) 0.510 kJ·mol−1
Esperanto

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Fluorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Euskara readily forms compounds with most other elements. It has an Heat of (F 2 ) 6.62 kJ·mol−1
oxidation number -1, except when bonded to another fluorine in vaporization
Français F2 which gives it an oxidation number of 0. Fluorine combines Specific heat (25 °C) (F 2 )
Frysk with the noble gases argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Even in capacity 31.304 J·mol −1 ·K −1
Furlan dark, cool conditions, fluorine reacts explosively with hydrogen.
Vapor pressure
Gaeilge The reaction with hydrogen can occur at extremely low
Gaelg temperatures, using liquid hydrogen and solid fluorine. It is so
Galego P/Pa 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k
reactive that metals, water, as well as most other substances,
Hak-kâ-fa burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas. In moist air, it at T/K 38 44 50 58 69 85

reacts with water to form the also dangerous hydrofluoric acid.


Hawai`i Atomic properties
Fluorides are compounds that combine fluorine with some
positively charged counterpart. They often consist of crystalline Oxidation states −1

ionic salts. Fluorine compounds with metals are among the most (Weaklyacidic oxide)
Hrvatski
Ido stable of salts. Electronegativity 3.98 (Pauling scale)
Bahasa Indonesia Hydrogen fluoride is a weak acid when dissolved in water, but Ionization energies 1st: 1681.0 kJ·mol−1
Íslenska
is still very corrosive and attacks glass. Consequently, fluorides (more) 2nd: 3374.2 kJ·mol−1
Italiano
of alkali metals produce basic solutions. For example, a 1 M
‫עברית‬ 3rd: 6050.4 kJ·mol−1
solution of NaF in water has a pH of 8.59 compared to a 1 M
Covalent radius 57±3 pm
solution of NaOH, a strong base, which has a pH of 14.00. [2]
Kiswahili (see covalent radius of fluorine)
Kreyòl ayisyen
Kurdî /
Isotopes Van der Waals 147 pm
radius
Latina
Main article: Isotopes of fluorine
Latviešu Miscellanea
Lëtzebuergesch Although fluorine (F) has multiple isotopes, only one of these
Crystal structure cubic
Lietuvių isotopes (F-19) is stable, and the others have short half-lives
and are not found in nature. Fluorine is thus a mononuclidic Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Líguru
Lojban element. Thermal (300 K) 27.7 m W·m −1 ·K −1
Magyar
The nuclide 18 F is the radionuclide of fluorine with the longest conductivity
Македонски
half life (about 110 minutes), and commercially is an important CAS registry 7782-41-4
source of positrons, finding its major use in positron emission number
Māori
tomography scanning. Most stable isotopes

Bahasa Melayu Main article: Isotopes of fluorine


Монгол
Applications
Nederlands Elemental fluorine, F2 , is mainly used for the production of two iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
compounds of commercial interest, uranium hexafluoride and 18 F syn 109.77 min β + (97%) 0.64 18 O
Norsk (bokmål)
sulfur hexafluoride.[3]
Norsk (nynorsk) ε (3%) 1.656 18 O

Novial
Industrial use of fluorine-containing 19 F 100% 19 F is stable with 10 neutrons
Occitan
compounds
O'zbek
This box: view • talk • edit
Atomic fluorine and molecular fluorine are used for plasma
etching in semiconductor manufacturing, flat panel display
Plattdüütsch production and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems)
Polski fabrication. [4] Xenon difluoride is also used for this last purpose.
Português Hydrofluoric acid (chemical formula HF) is used to etch glass in
Română light bulbs and other products.
Runa Simi Tetrafluoroethylene and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are
Русский
directly used in the production of low friction plastics such as
Seeltersk
Teflon (or polytetrafluoroethylene).
Shqip
Fluorine is used indirectly in the production of halons such as
Sicilianu
freon.
Simple English
Slovenčina
Along with some of its compounds, fluorine is used in the

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Fluorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Slovenščina production of pure uranium from uranium hexafluoride and in the


Српски / Srpski synthesis of numerous commercial fluorochemicals, including
Srpskohrvatski / vitally important pharmaceuticals, agrochemical compounds,
Српскохрватски lubricants, and textiles.
Suomi Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are used extensively in air
Svenska conditioning and in refrigeration. Chlorofluorocarbons have been
banned for these applications because they contribute to ozone
destruction and the ozone hole. Interestingly, since it is chlorine
and bromine radicals which harm the ozone layer, not fluorine,
То ик Fluorite (CaF 2 ) crystals
compounds which do not contain chlorine or bromine but contain
Türkçe
only fluorine, carbon and hydrogen (called hydrofluorocarbons)
Українська
are not on the United States Environmental Protection Agency list of ozone-depleting substances, [5] and
Uyghurche /
have been widely used as replacements for the chlorine- and bromine-containing fluorocarbons.
Tiếng Việt
Hydrofluorocarbons do have a greenhouse effect, but a small one compared with carbon dioxide and
Winaray
Yorùbá
methane.
Sodium hexafluoroaluminate (cryolite), is used in the electrolysis of aluminium.
In much higher concentrations, sodium fluoride has been used as an insecticide, especially against
cockroaches.
Fluorides have been used in the past to help molten metal flow. Hence the name, which derives from
Latin verb fluere, meaning to flow.[6]
Some researchers including US space scientists in the early 1960s have studied elemental fluorine gas as
a possible rocket propellant due to its exceptionally high specific impulse. The experiments failed because
fluorine proved difficult to handle, and its combustion products proved extremely toxic and corrosive.
Compounds of fluorine such as fluoropolymers, potassium fluoride and cryolite are utilized in applications
such as anti-reflective coatings and dichroic mirrors on account of their unusually low refractive index.

Dental and medical uses


Inorganic compounds of fluoride, including sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF 2 ) and sodium
MFP, are used in toothpaste to prevent dental cavities. These or related compounds are also added to
some municipal water supplies, a process called water fluoridation, although the practice has remained
controversial since its beginnings in 1945.
Many important agents for general anesthesia such as sevoflurane, desflurane, and isoflurane are
hydrofluorocarbon derivatives.
The fluorinated antiinflammatories dexamethasone and triamcinolone are among the most potent of the
synthetic corticosteroids class of drugs. [7]
Fludrocortisone ("Florinef") is one of the most common mineralocorticoids, a class of drugs which mimics
the actions of aldosterone.
Fluconazole is a triazole antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic
fungal infections.
Fluoroquinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
SSRI antidepressants, except in a few instances, are fluorinated molecules. These include citalopram,
escitalopram oxalate, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine maleate, and paroxetine. A notable exception is sertraline.

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Fluorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Because of the difficulty of biological systems in dealing with metabolism of fluorinated molecules,
fluorinated antibiotics and antidepressants are among the major fluorinated organics found in treated city
sewage and wastewater.
Compounds containing 18 F, a radioactive isotope that emits positrons, are often used in positron emission
tomography, because its half-life of 110 minutes is long by the standards of positron-emitters. One such
species is fluorodeoxyglucose.

Chemistry of fluorine
Fluorine forms a variety of very different compounds, owing to its small atomic size and covalent behavior.
Elemental fluorine is a dangerously powerful oxidant, reflecting the extreme electronegativity of fluorine.
Hydrofluoric acid is extremely dangerous, whereas in synthetic drugs incorporating an aromatic ring (e.g.
flumazenil), fluorine is used to help prevent toxication or to delay metabolism [citation needed] .
The fluoride ion is basic, therefore hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid in water solution. However, water is not an
inert solvent in this case: when less basic solvents such as anhydrous acetic acid are used, hydrofluoric acid
is the strongest of the hydrohalogenic acids. Also, owing to the basicity of the fluoride ion, soluble fluorides
give basic water solutions. The fluoride ion is a Lewis base, and has a high affinity to certain elements such
as calcium and silicon. For example, deprotection of silicon protecting groups is achieved with a fluoride. The
fluoride ion is poisonous.
Fluorine as a freely reacting oxidant gives the strongest oxidants known.
The reactivity of fluorine toward the noble gas xenon was first reported by Neil Bartlett in 1962. Fluorides of
krypton and radon have also been prepared. Argon fluorohydride has been observed at cryogenic
temperatures.
The carbon-fluoride bond is covalent and very stable. The use of a fluorocarbon polymer,
poly(tetrafluoroethene) or Teflon, is an example: it is thermostable and waterproof enough to be used in frying
pans. Organofluorines may be safely used in applications such as drugs, without the risk of release of toxic
fluoride. In synthetic drugs, toxication can be prevented. For example, an aromatic ring is useful but presents
a safety problem: enzymes in the body metabolize some of them into poisonous epoxides. When the para
position is substituted with fluorine, the aromatic ring is protected and epoxide is no longer produced.
The substitution of fluorine for hydrogen in organic compounds offers a very large number of compounds. An
estimated fifth of pharmaceutical compounds and 30% of agrochemical compounds contain fluorine. [8] The -
CF 3 and -OCF 3 moieties provide further variation, and more recently the -SF5 group.[9]

See also: Category:fluorine compounds

Production
Industrial production of fluorine entails the electrolysis of hydrogen
fluoride in the presence of potassium fluoride. This method is
based on the pioneering studies by Moissan (see below). Fluorine
gas forms at the anode, and hydrogen gas at the cathode. Under
these conditions, the potassium fluoride (KF) converts to potassium
bifluoride (KHF 2 ), which is the actual electrolyte. This potassium
bifluoride aids electrolysis by greatly increasing the electrical
conductivity of the solution.
HF + KF → KHF2
2 KHF2 → 2 KF + H 2 + F2 Fluorine cell room at F2 Chemicals Ltd,
The HF required for the electrolysis is obtained as a byproduct of Preston, UK

the production of phosphoric acid. Phosphate-containing minerals


contain significant amounts of calcium fluorides, such as fluorite. Upon treatment with sulfuric acid, these
minerals release hydrogen fluoride:

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Fluorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

CaF 2 + H 2 SO4 → 2 HF + CaSO 4


In 1986, when preparing for a conference to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of fluorine, Karl
Christe discovered a purely chemical preparation involving the reaction of solutions in anhydrous HF,
K2 MnF6 , and SbF5 at 150 °C: [10]
2 K2 MnF6 + 4 SbF5 → 4 KSbF 6 + 2 MnF3 + F2
Though not a practical synthesis on the large scale, this report demonstrates that electrolysis is not the sole
route to the element.

History
The mineral fluorspar (also called fluorite), consisting mainly of calcium fluoride, was described in 1530 by
Georgius Agricola for its use as a flux.[11] Fluxes are used to promote the fusion of metals or minerals. The
etymology of the element's name reflects its history: Fluorine is pronounced /'fl əri n/, /'fl ər n/, or
commonly /'fl r-/; from Latin: fluere, meaning "to flow". In 1670 Schwanhard found that glass was etched
when it was exposed to fluorspar that had been treated with acid. Carl Wilhelm Scheele and many later
researchers, including Humphry Davy, Caroline Menard, Gay-Lussac, Antoine Lavoisier, and Louis Thenard
all would experiment with hydrofluoric acid, easily obtained by treating fluorite with concentrated sulfuric acid.
Owing to its extreme reactivity, elemental fluorine was not isolated until many years after the characterization
of fluorite. Progress in isolating elemental fluorine was slowed because it could only be prepared
electrolytically and even then under stringent conditions since the gas attacks many materials. In 1886, the
isolation of elemental fluorine was reported by Henri Moissan after almost 74 years of effort by other
chemists.[12] The generation of elemental fluorine from hydrofluoric acid is exceptionally dangerous, killing or
blinding several scientists who attempted early experiments on this halogen. These individuals came to be
referred to as "fluorine martyrs". [13] For Moissan, it earned him the 1906 Nobel Prize in chemistry. [14]
The first large-scale production of fluorine was undertaken in support of the Manhattan project, where the
compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6 ) had been selected as the form of uranium that would allow separation
of its 235 U and 238 U isotopes. Today both the gaseous diffusion process and the gas centrifuge process use
gaseous UF 6 to produce enriched uranium for nuclear power applications. In the Manhattan Project, it was
found that UF 6 decomposed into UF 4 and F2 . The corrosion problem due to the F2 was eventually solved by
electrolytically coating all UF 6 carrying piping with nickel metal, which forms a nickel difluoride that is not
attacked by fluorine. Joints and flexible parts were made from teflon, then a very recently discovered
fluorocarbon plastic which is also not attacked by F2 .

Biological role
Though F2 is too reactive to have any natural biological role, fluorine is incorporated into compounds with
biological activity. Naturally occurring organofluorine compounds are rare, the most notable example is
fluoroacetate, which functions as a plant defence against herbivores in at least 40 plants in Australia, Brazil
and Africa.[15] The enzyme adenosyl-fluoride synthase catalyzes the formation of 5'-deoxy-5'-
fluoroadenosine. Fluorine is not an essential nutrient, but its importance in preventing tooth decay is well-
recognized. [16] The effect is predominantly topical, although prior to 1981 it was considered primarily
systemic (occurring through ingestion).[17]

Precautions

Elemental fluorine
Elemental fluorine (fluorine gas) is a highly toxic, corrosive oxidant, which can cause ignition of organic
material. Fluorine gas has a characteristic pungent odor that is detectable in concentrations as low as 20 ppb.
As it is so reactive, all materials of construction must be carefully selected and metal surfaces must be
passivated.

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Fluorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fluoride ion
Main article: Fluoride poisoning

Fluoride ions are toxic: the lethal dose of sodium fluoride for a 70 kg human is estimated at 5–10 g. [18]

Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid


Main article: Hydrofluoric acid
Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid are dangerous, far more so than the related hydrochloric acid,
because undissociated molecular HF penetrates the skin and biological membranes, causing deep and
painless burns. The free fluoride, once released from HF in dissociation, also is capable of chelating calcium
ion to the point of causing death by cardiac dysrhythmia. Burns with areas larger than 25 square inches
(160 cm 2 ) have the potential to cause serious systemic toxicity. [19]

Organofluorines
Organofluorines are naturally rare compounds. They can be nontoxic (perflubron and perfluorodecalin) or
highly toxic (perfluoroisobutylene and fluoroacetic acid). Many pharmacueticals are organofluorines, such as
the anti-cancer fluorouracil. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant.

See also
Fluorocarbon
Isotopes of fluorine
Halide minerals
Water fluoridation

References
1. ^ Theodore Gray. "Real visible fluorine" . The Wooden Periodic Table.
2. ^ "pKa's of Inorganic and Oxo-Acids" . Evans Group. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
3. ^ M. Jaccaud, R. Faron, D. Devilliers, R. Romano (2005). Fluorine, in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3527310975.
4. ^ Leonel R Arana, Nuria de Mas, Raymond Schmidt, Aleksander J Franz, Martin A Schmidt and Klavs F Jensen (2007).
"Isotropic etching of silicon in fluorine gas for MEMS micromachining". J. Micromech. Microeng. 17: 384. doi:10.1088/0960-
1317/17/2/026 .
5. ^ "Class I Ozone-Depleting Substances" . Ozone Depletion. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
6. ^ compiled by Alexander Senning. (2007). Elsevier's dictionary of chemoetymology : the whies and whences of chemical
nomenclature and terminology . Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 149. ISBN 9780444522399.
7. ^ Steve S Lim. "eMedicine - Corticosteroid-Induced Myopathy" .
8. ^ "Fluorine's treasure trove" . ICIS news. 2006-10-02. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
9. ^ Bernhard Stump, Christian Eberle, W. Bernd Schweizer, Marcel Kaiser, Reto Brun, R. Luise Krauth-Siegel, Dieter Lentz,
François Diederich (2009). "Pentafluorosulfanyl as a Novel Building Block for Enzyme Inhibitors: Trypanothione Reductase
Inhibition and Antiprotozoal Activities of Diarylamines". ChemBioChem 10 (1): 79. doi:10.1002/cbic.200800565 . PMID
19058274 .
10. ^ K. Christe (1986). "Chemical synthesis of elemental fluorine". Inorg. Chem. 25: 3721–3724. doi:10.1021/ic00241a001 .
11. ^ "Discovery of fluorine" . Fluoride History.
12. ^ H. Moissan (1886). "Action d'un courant électrique sur l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre" . Comptes rendus hebdomadaires
des séances de l'Académie des sciences 102: 1543–1544.
13. ^ Richard D. Duncan. (2008). Elements of faith : faith facts and learning lessons from the periodic table . Green Forest,
Ark.: Master Books. p. 22. ISBN 9780890515471.
14. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906" . Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
15. ^ Proudfoot AT, Bradberry SM, Vale JA (2006). "Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning". Toxicol Rev 25 (4): 213–9.
doi:10.2165/00139709-200625040-00002 . PMID 17288493 .
16. ^ Olivares M and Uauy R (2004). "Essential nutrients in drinking-water (Draft)" . WHO. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
17. ^ Pizzo G, Piscopo MR, Pizzo I, Giuliana G (September 2007). "Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a
critical review". Clin Oral Investig 11 (3): 189–93. doi:10.1007/s00784-007-0111-6 . PMID 17333303 .
18. ^ Aigueperse, Jean; Paul Mollard, Didier Devilliers, Marius Chemla, Robert Faron, Renée Romano, Jean Pierre Cuer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorine[2/19/2010 12:15:30 AM]


Fluorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(2005). "Fluorine Compounds, Inorganic". in Ullmann. Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.
19. ^ "Recommended Medical Treatment for Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure" (PDF). Honeywell Specialty Materials. Retrieved
2009-05-06.

External links
WebElements.com – Fluorine
Wikimedia Commons has media
It's Elemental – Fluorine related to: Fluorine
Picture of liquid fluorine – chemie-master.de
Chemsoc.org
Look up fluorine in Wiktionary,
the free dictionary.

v• d • e Diatomic chemical elements

Hydrogen H2 | Nitrogen N2 | Oxygen O 2 | Fluorine F2 | Chlorine Cl 2 | Bromine Br2 | Iodine I 2 | Astatine At 2 |

v• d • e Periodic table
H He

Li Be B C N O F Ne

Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe

Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo

Uue Ubn

Alkaline earth Transition Other


Alkali metals Lanthanoids Actinoids Other metals Metalloids Halogens Noble gases
metals metals nonmetals

Categories: Chemical elements | Halogens | Fluorine | Fluorinating agents | Biology and pharmacology of
chemical elements

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Chlorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Chlorine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the chemical element. For the bleach, see Sodium hypochlorite.
Chlorine (pronounced /'kl əri n/ KLOR-een, from the Greek
sulfur ← chlorine → argon
navigation word 'χλωρóς' (khlôros, meaning 'pale green'), is the chemical
F
element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is a halogen, 17 Cl
Main page ↑
Contents
found in the periodic table in group 17 (formerly VII, VIIa, or
Cl
Featured content VIIb). As the chloride ion, which is part of common salt and

Current events other compounds, it is abundant in nature and necessary to Periodic table
Br
Random article most forms of life, including humans. In its elemental form (Cl2
or "dichlorine") under standard conditions, chlorine is a powerful Appearance
search
oxidant and is used in bleaching and disinfectants, as well as an pale yellow-green gas
essential reagent in the chemical industry. As a common
Go Search
disinfectant, chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to
keep them clean and sanitary. In the upper atmosphere,
interaction
chlorine-containing molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have
About Wikipedia
been implicated in the destruction of the ozone layer.
Community portal
Recent changes Contents [hide]
Contact Wikipedia
1 Characteristics
Donate to Wikipedia
1.1 Isotopes General properties
Help
1.2 Occurrence Name, symbol, chlorine, Cl, 17
toolbox 2 History number
What links here 3 Production
Element category Halogen
Related changes 3.1 Electrolysis
Upload file 3.2 Other methods Group, period, 17, 3, p
Special pages 3.3 Industrial production block
Printable version 4 Compounds Standard atomic 35.453(2) g·mol−1
Permanent link 4.1 Oxidation states weight
Cite this page 5 Applications and uses
Electron [Ne] 3s 2 3p 5
languages 5.1 Production of industrial and consumer products
configuration
5.2 Purification and disinfection
Afrikaans
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 7 (Image)
5.3 Chemistry
5.4 Use as a weapon Physical properties
Asturianu
Azərbaycan 5.5 Chlorine cracking Phase gas
5.6 Other uses
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
Беларуская 6 Health effects
3.2 g/L
Bosanski 7 See also
Български 8 References Melting point 171.6 K, -101.5 °C, -

Català 9 External links 150.7 °F


Ч вашла Boiling point 239.11 K, -34.04 °C, -
Česky 29.27 °F
Corsu
Characteristics
Critical point 416.9 K, 7.991 MPa
Cymraeg At standard temperature and pressure, two chlorine atoms form
Dansk Heat of fusion (Cl 2 ) 6.406 kJ·mol−1
the diatomic molecule Cl 2 . This is a pale yellow-green gas that
Deutsch
has its distinctive strong smell, the smell of bleach. The bonding Heat of vaporization (Cl 2 ) 20.41 kJ·mol−1

between the two atoms is relatively weak (only of 242.580 Specific heat (25 °C) (Cl 2 )
Eesti
±0.004 kJ/mol) which makes the Cl 2 molecule highly reactive. capacity 33.949 J·mol −1 ·K −1
Ελληνικά
Español Along with fluorine, bromine, iodine and astatine, chlorine is a Vapor pressure

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Chlorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Esperanto member of the halogen series that forms the group 17 of the
Euskara periodic table—the most reactive group of elements. It P/Pa 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k
combines readily with nearly all elements. at T/K 128 139 153 170 197 239
Français
Compounds with oxygen, nitrogen, xenon, and krypton are
Furlan
known, but do not form by direct reaction of the elements. [2] Atomic properties
Gaeilge
Chlorine, though very reactive, is not as extremely reactive as Oxidation states 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1
Gaelg
Galego
fluorine. Pure chlorine gas does, however, support combustion (strongly acidic oxide)
Hak-kâ-fa of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, although the
Electronegativity 3.16 (Pauling scale)
carbon component tends to burn incompletely, with much of it
Ionization energies 1st: 1251.2 kJ·mol−1
Hawai`i remaining as soot. [3] At 10 °C and atmospheric pressure, one
liter of water dissolves 3.10 L of gaseous chlorine, and at 30 °C
(more) 2nd: 2298 kJ·mol−1
(86 °F), 1 L of water dissolves only 1.77 liters of chlorine. [4] 3rd: 3822 kJ·mol−1
Hrvatski
Chlorine is a member of the salt-forming halogen series and is Covalent radius 102±4 pm
Ido
extracted from chlorides through oxidation often by electrolysis. Van der Waals 175 pm
Bahasa Indonesia
With metals, it forms salts called chlorides. As the chloride ion, radius
Íslenska
Italiano
Cl − , it is also the most abundant dissolved ion in ocean water.
Miscellanea
‫עברית‬
Isotopes Crystal structure orthorhombic

Main article: Isotopes of chlorine Magnetic ordering diamagnetic [1 ]


Kiswahili Electrical resistivity (20 °C) > 10 Ω·m
Chlorine has a wide range of isotopes, the two principal stable
Kreyòl ayisyen
isotopes being 35 Cl (75.77%) and 37 Cl (24.23%); they give Thermal (300 K) 8.9x10 -
Latina
chlorine atoms an apparent atomic weight of 35.4527 g/mol. conductivity 3 W·m −1 ·K −1
Latviešu
Lëtzebuergesch Trace amounts of radioactive 36 Cl exist in the environment, in a Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 206 m/s
Lietuvių ratio of about 7x10 −13 to 1 with stable isotopes. 36 Cl is CAS registry 7782-50-5
Líguru produced in the atmosphere by spallation of 36 Ar by interactions number
Lingála with cosmic ray protons. In the subsurface environment, 36 Cl is
Most stable isotopes
Lojban
generated primarily as a result of neutron capture by 35 Cl or
Magyar Main article: Isotopes of chlorine
muon capture by 40 Ca. 36 Cl decays to 36 S and to 36 Ar, with a
Македонски
combined half-life of 308,000 years. The half-life of this
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
hydrophilic nonreactive isotope makes it suitable for geologic
Māori 35 Cl 35 Cl
dating in the range of 60,000 to 1 million years. Additionally, 75.77% is stable with 18 neutrons

Bahasa Melayu large amounts of 36 Cl were produced by irradiation of seawater 36 Cl trace 3.01×10 5 y β− 0.709 36 Ar

Nederlands during atmospheric detonations of nuclear weapons between ε - 36 S


1952 and 1958. The residence time of 36 Cl in the atmosphere is 37 Cl 37 Cl
24.23% is stable with 20 neutrons
Norsk (bokmål) about 1 week. Thus, as an event marker of 1950s water in soil
Norsk (nynorsk) and ground water, 36 Cl is also useful for dating waters less than
This box: view • talk • edit
Novial 50 years before the present. 36 Cl has seen use in other areas
Occitan of the geological sciences, including dating ice and sediments.
O'zbek
Occurrence
See also: Category:Halide minerals
Plattdüütsch
Polski In nature, chlorine is found primarily as the chloride ion, a component of the salt that is deposited in the earth
Português or dissolved in the oceans — about 1.9% of the mass of seawater is chloride ions. Even higher
Română concentrations of chloride are found in the Dead Sea and in underground brine deposits. Most chloride salts
Runa Simi are soluble in water, thus, chloride-containing minerals are usually only found in abundance in dry climates or
Русский deep underground. Common chloride minerals include halite (sodium chloride), sylvite (potassium chloride),
Seeltersk and carnallite (potassium magnesium chloride hexahydrate). Over 2000 naturally-occurring organic chlorine
Shqip
compounds are known. [5]
Simple English
Slovenčina Industrially, elemental chlorine is usually produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water.
Slovenščina Along with chlorine, this chloralkali process yields hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide, according to the

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Српски / Srpski following chemical equation:


Srpskohrvatski / 2 NaCl + 2 H 2 O → Cl 2 + H 2 + 2 NaOH
Српскохрватски
Suomi
History
Svenska
The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known
since ancient times; archaeologists have found evidence that rock salt was
То ик used as early as 3000 BC and brine as early as 6000 BC.[6] Hydrochloric
Türkçe acid was probably known to alchemist Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber)
Українська
around 800 AD.[7] Before 1400 AD, aqua regia (a mixture of nitric acid and
Tiếng Việt
hydrochloric acid) began to be used to dissolve gold, [8] and today this is
Winaray
still one of the few reagents that will dissolve gold. Upon dissolving gold in
Yorùbá
aqua regia, chlorine gas is released along with other nauseating and
Žemaitėška
irritating gases, but this wasn't known until much more recently.
Chlorine was first prepared and studied in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl
Wilhelm Scheele, and therefore he is credited for its discovery. [9] He called
it "dephlogisticated muriatic acid air" since it was a gas (then called "airs")
and it came from hydrochloric acid (then known as "muriatic acid"). [9]
However, he failed to establish chlorine as an element, mistakenly thinking
that it was the oxide obtained from the hydrochloric acid (see phlogiston
theory).[9] He named the new element within this oxide as muriaticum.[9]
Regardless of what he thought, Scheele did isolate chlorine by reacting
Liquid chlorine MnO 2 (as the mineral pyrolusite) with HCl:
4 HCl + MnO 2 → MnCl 2 + 2 H 2 O + Cl 2
Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: the bleaching effect on litmus, the deadly effect on
insects, the yellow green color, and the smell similar to aqua regia.
A number of chemists, including Claude Berthollet, suggested that Scheele's dephlogisticated muriatic acid air
must be a combination of oxygen and an undiscovered element, muriaticum.[10]
In 1809 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard tried to decompose dephlogisticated muriatic
acid air by reacting it with charcoal to release the free element muriaticum (and carbon dioxide). [9] They did
not succeed and published a report in which they considered the possibility that dephlogisticated muriatic acid
air is an element, but were not convinced. [11]
In 1810, Sir Humphry Davy tried the same experiment again, and concluded that it was an element, and not a
compound. [9] He named this new element as chlorine, from the Greek word χλωρος (chlōros), meaning
green-yellow.[12] The name halogen, meaning salt producer, was originally defined for chlorine (in 1811 by
Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger), and it was later applied to the rest of the elements in this family. [13]
In 1822, Michael Faraday liquefied chlorine for the first time. [14]

Chlorine was first used to bleach textiles in 1785. [15] In 1826, silver chloride was used to produce
photographic images for the first time. [16] Chloroform was first used as an anesthetic in 1847. [16] A chlorine
solution in lime-water (hypochlorite) was first used as a germicide to prevent the spread of puerperal fever in
the maternity wards of Vienna General Hospital in Austria in 1847, [17] and in 1850 by John Snow to disinfect
the water supply in London after an outbreak of cholera. The US Department of Treasury called for all water
to be disinfected with chlorine by 1918. [16] Polyvinylchloride (PVC) was invented in 1912, initially without a
purpose. [16] Chlorine gas was first introduced as a weapon on April 22, 1915 at Ypres by the German
Army,[18][19] and the results of this weapon were disastrous because gas masks had not yet been invented.

Production
Main article: Chlorine production

Electrolysis

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Chlorine can be manufactured by electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution


(brine). The production of chlorine results in the co-products caustic soda
(sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2 ). These two products, as
well as chlorine itself, are highly reactive. Chlorine can also be produced by
the electrolysis of a solution of potassium chloride, in which case the co-
products are hydrogen and caustic potash (potassium hydroxide). There are
three industrial methods for the extraction of chlorine by electrolysis of
chloride solutions, all proceeding according to the following equations:

Cathode: 2 H + (aq) + 2 e − → H 2 (g)


Anode: 2 Cl − (aq) → Cl 2 (g) + 2 e −
Overall process: 2 NaCl (or KCl) + 2 H 2 O → Cl 2 + H 2 + 2 NaOH (or KOH)
Mercury cell electrolysis
Mercury cell electrolysis, also known as the Castner-Kellner process, was
the first method used at the end of the nineteenth century to produce
chlorine on an industrial scale.[20][21] The "rocking" cells used have been
improved over the years. [22] Today, in the "primary cell", titanium anodes Chlorine gas
(formerly graphite ones) are placed in a sodium (or potassium) chloride
solution flowing over a liquid mercury cathode. When a potential difference is applied and current flows,
chlorine is released at the titanium anode and sodium (or potassium) dissolves in the mercury cathode
forming an amalgam. This flows continuously into a separate reactor ("denuder" or "secondary cell"), where it
is usually converted back to mercury by reaction with water, producing hydrogen and sodium (or potassium)
hydroxide at a commercially useful concentration (50% by weight). The mercury is then recycled to the
primary cell.
The mercury process is the least energy-efficient of the three main technologies (mercury, diaphragm and
membrane) and there are also concerns about mercury emissions.
It is estimated that there are still around 100 mercury-cell plants operating worldwide. In Japan, mercury-
based chloralkali production was virtually phased out by 1987 (except for the last two potassium chloride
units shut down in 2003). In the United States, there will be only five mercury plants remaining in operation
by the end of 2008. In Europe, mercury cells accounted for 43% of capacity in 2006 and Western European
producers have committed to closing or converting all remaining chloralkali mercury plants by 2020. [23]
Diaphragm cell electrolysis
In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos (or polymer-fiber) diaphragm separates a cathode and an anode,
preventing the chlorine forming at the anode from re-mixing with the sodium hydroxide and the hydrogen
formed at the cathode.[24] This technology was also developed at the end of the nineteenth century. There
are several variants of this process: the Le Sueur cell (1893), the Hargreaves-Bird cell (1901), the Gibbs cell
(1908), and the Townsend cell (1904). [25][26] The cells vary in construction and placement of the diaphragm,
with some having the diaphragm in direct contact with the cathode.
The salt solution (brine) is continuously fed to the anode compartment and flows through the diaphragm to
the cathode compartment, where the caustic alkali is produced and the brine is partially depleted.
As a result, diaphragm methods produce alkali that is quite dilute (about 12%) and of lower purity than do
mercury cell methods. But diaphragm cells are not burdened with the problem of preventing mercury
discharge into the environment. They also operate at a lower voltage, resulting in an energy savings over the
mercury cell method,[26] but large amounts of steam are required if the caustic has to be evaporated to the
commercial concentration of 50%.
Membrane cell electrolysis
Development of this technology began in the 1970s. The electrolysis cell is divided into two "rooms" by a
cation permeable membrane acting as an ion exchanger. Saturated sodium (or potassium) chloride solution is
passed through the anode compartment, leaving at a lower concentration. [27] Sodium (or potassium)
hydroxide solution is circulated through the cathode compartment, exiting at a higher concentration. A portion

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of the concentrated sodium hydroxide solution leaving the cell is diverted as product, while the remainder is
diluted with deionized water and passed through the electrolysis apparatus again.
This method is more efficient than the diaphragm cell and produces very pure sodium (or potassium)
hydroxide at about 32% concentration, but requires very pure brine.
Other electrolytic processes
Although a much lower production scale is involved, electrolytic diaphragm and membrane technologies are
also used industrially to recover chlorine from hydrochloric acid solutions, producing hydrogen (but no caustic
alkali) as a co-product.
Furthermore, electrolysis of fused chloride salts (Downs process) also enables chlorine to be produced, in this
case as a by-product of the manufacture of metallic sodium or magnesium.

Other methods
Before electrolytic methods were used for chlorine production, the direct oxidation of hydrogen chloride with
oxygen or air was used in the Deacon process:
4 HCl + O 2 → 2 Cl2 + 2 H 2 O
This reaction is accomplished with the use of copper(II) chloride (CuCl 2 ) as a catalyst and is performed at
high temperature (about 400 °C). The amount of extracted chlorine is approximately 80%. Due to the
extremely corrosive reaction mixture, industrial use of this method is difficult and several pilot trials failed in
the past. Nevertheless, recent developments are promising. Recently Sumitomo patented a catalyst for the
Deacon process using ruthenium(IV) oxide (RuO 2 ).[28]
Another earlier process to produce chlorine was to heat brine with acid and manganese dioxide.
2 NaCl + 2 H 2 SO4 + MnO 2 → Na2 SO4 + MnSO4 + 2 H 2 O + Cl 2
Using this process, chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was the first to isolate chlorine in a laboratory. The
manganese can be recovered by the Weldon process.[29]
In the latter half of the 19th century, prior to the adoption of electrolytic methods of chlorine production, there
was substantial production of chlorine by these reactions to meet demand for bleach and bleaching powder
for use by textile industries; by the 1880s the UK, as well as supporting its own (then not inconsiderable)
domestic textile production was exporting 70,000 tons per year of bleaching powder. [30] This demand was
met by capturing hydrochloric acid driven off as a gas during the production of alkali by the Leblanc process,
oxidizing this to chlorine (originally by reaction with manganese dioxide), later by direct oxidation by air using
the Deacon process (in which case impurities capable of poisoning the catalyst had first to be removed), and
subsequently absorbing the chlorine onto lime.
Small amounts of chlorine gas can be made in the laboratory by putting concentrated hydrochloric acid in a
flask with a side arm and rubber tubing attached. Manganese dioxide is then added and the flask stoppered.
The reaction is not greatly exothermic. As chlorine is denser than air, it can be collected by placing the tube
inside a flask where it will displace the air. Once full, the collecting flask can be stoppered.
Another method for producing small amounts of chlorine gas in a lab is by adding concentrated hydrochloric
acid (typically about 5M) to sodium hypochlorite or sodium chlorate solution.

Industrial production
Large-scale production of chlorine involves several steps and many pieces
of equipment. The description below is typical of a membrane plant. The
plant also simultaneously produces sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and
hydrogen gas. A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell
operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & liquefaction,
liquid chlorine storage & loading, caustic handling, evaporation, storage &
loading and hydrogen handling.
Brine

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Key to the production of chlorine is the operation of the brine


saturation/treatment system. Maintaining a properly saturated solution with
the correct purity is vital, especially for membrane cells. Many plants have a
salt pile which is sprayed with recycled brine. Others have slurry tanks that
are fed raw salt.
The raw brine is partially or totally treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium
carbonate and a flocculant to reduce calcium, magnesium and other
impurities. The brine proceeds to a large clarifier or a filter where the
impurities are removed. The total brine is additionally filtered before entering
ion exchangers to further remove impurities. At several points in this
process, the brine is tested for hardness and strength.
Liquid Chlorine Analysis
After the ion exchangers, the brine is considered pure, and is transferred to
storage tanks to be pumped into the cell room. Brine, fed to the cell line, is heated to the correct temperature
to control exit brine temperatures according to the electrical load. Brine exiting the cell room must be treated
to remove residual chlorine and control pH levels before being returned to the saturation stage. This can be
accomplished via dechlorination towers with acid and sodium bisulfite addition. Failure to remove chlorine can
result in damage to the cells. Brine should be monitored for accumulation of both chlorate anions and sulfate
anions, and either have a treatment system in place, or purging of the brine loop to maintain safe levels,
since chlorate anions can diffuse through the membranes and contaminate the caustic, while sulfate anions
can damage the anode surface coating.
Cell room
The building that houses many electrolytic cells is usually called a cell room or cell house, although some
plants are built outdoors. This building contains support structures for the cells, connections for supplying
electrical power to the cells and piping for the fluids. Monitoring and control of the temperatures of the feed
caustic and brine is done to control exit temperatures. Also monitored are the voltages of each cell which vary
with the electrical load on the cell room that is used to control the rate of production. Monitoring and control
of the pressures in the chlorine and hydrogen headers is also done via pressure control valves.
Direct current is supplied via a rectified power source. Plant load is controlled by varying the current to the
cells. As the current is increased, flow rates for brine and caustic and deionized water are increased, while
lowering the feed temperatures.
Cooling and drying
Chlorine gas exiting the cell line must be cooled and dried since the exit gas can be over 80 °C (176 °F) and
contains moisture that allows chlorine gas to be corrosive to iron piping. Cooling the gas allows for a large
amount of moisture from the brine to condense out of the gas stream. This reduces both the cooling
requirements and feed flow of sulfuric acid required in the drying towers. Cooling also improves the efficiency
of both the compression and the liquefaction stage that follows. Chlorine exiting is ideally between 18 °C
(64 °F) and 25 °C (77 °F). After cooling the gas stream passes through a series of towers with counter
flowing sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid is fed into the final tower at 98% and the first tower typically has a
strength between 66% and 76% depending on materials of construction. These towers progressively remove
any remaining moisture from the chlorine gas. After exiting the drying towers the chlorine is filtered to remove
any remaining sulfuric acid.
Compression and liquefaction

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Several methods of compression may be used: liquid ring, reciprocating, or centrifugal. The chlorine gas is
compressed at this stage and may be further cooled by inter- and after-coolers. After compression it flows to
the liquefiers, where it is cooled enough to liquefy. Non condensable gases and remaining chlorine gas are
vented off as part of the pressure control of the liquefaction systems. These gases are routed to a gas
scrubber, producing sodium hypochlorite, or used in the production of hydrochloric acid (by combustion with
hydrogen) or ethylene dichloride (by reaction with ethylene).
Storage and loading
Liquid chlorine is typically gravity-fed to storage tanks. It can be loaded into rail or road tankers via pumps or
padded with compressed dry gas.
Caustic handling, evaporation, storage and loading
Caustic, fed to the cell room flows in a loop that is simultaneously bled off to storage with a part diluted with
deionized water and returned to the cell line for strengthening within the cells. The caustic exiting the cell line
must be monitored for strength, to maintain safe concentrations. Too strong or too weak a solution may
damage the membranes. Membrane cells typically produce caustic in the range of 30% to 33% by weight.
The feed caustic flow is heated at low electrical loads to control its exit temperature. Higher loads require the
caustic to be cooled, to maintain correct exit temperatures. The caustic exiting to storage is pulled from a
storage tank and may be diluted for sale to customers who require weak caustic or for use on site. Another
stream may be pumped into a multiple effect evaporator set to produce commercial 50% caustic. Rail cars
and tanker trucks are loaded at loading stations via pumps.
Hydrogen handling
Hydrogen produced may be vented unprocessed directly to the atmosphere or cooled, compressed and dried
for use in other processes on site or sold to a customer via pipeline, cylinders or trucks. Some possible uses
include the manufacture of hydrochloric acid or hydrogen peroxide, as well as desulfurization of petroleum
oils, or use as a fuel in boilers or fuel cells. In Porsgrunn the byproduct is used for the hydrogen fueling
station at Hynor.
Energy consumption

Production of chlorine consumes a large amount of energy. [31] Energy consumption per unit weight of product
is not far below that for iron and steel manufacture [32] and greater than for the production of glass [33] or
cement. [34]
The amount of electrical energy required to produce a given amount of chlorine is fixed by the nature of the
electrochemical reaction. Any energy savings, therefore, can only be made by improving the efficiency of the
process and reducing ancillary energy use.

Compounds
See also: Category:Chlorine compounds

For general references to the chloride ion (Cl− ), including references to specific chlorides, see chloride. For
other chlorine compounds see chlorate (ClO −3 ), chlorite (ClO −2 ), hypochlorite (ClO− ), and perchlorate (ClO −4 ),
and chloramine (NH 2 Cl). [35]
Other chlorine-containing compounds include:
Fluorides: chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF 5 )
Oxides: chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), dichlorine monoxide (Cl 2 O), dichlorine heptoxide (Cl 2 O 7 )
Acids: hydrochloric acid (HCl), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), chloric acid (HClO 3 ) and perchloric acid.

Oxidation states

Oxidation
Name Formula Example compounds
state
−1 chlorides Cl − ionic chlorides, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid

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0 chlorine Cl 2 elemental chlorine


+1 hypochlorites ClO − sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite
+3 chlorites ClO −2 sodium chlorite
+4 chlorine dioxide ClO 2
+5 chlorates ClO −3 sodium chlorate, potassium chlorate, chloric acid
potassium perchlorate, perchloric acid, magnesium perchlorate
+7 perchlorates ClO −4
organic perchlorates, ammonium perchlorate, dichlorine heptoxide

Chlorine exists in all odd numbered oxidation states from −1 to +7, as well as the elemental state of zero.
Progressing through the states, hydrochloric acid can be oxidized using manganese dioxide, or hydrogen
chloride gas oxidized catalytically by air to form elemental chlorine gas. The solubility of chlorine in water is
increased if the water contains dissolved alkali hydroxide. This is due to disproportionation:

Cl 2 + 2 OH − → Cl − + ClO − + H 2 O
In hot concentrated alkali solution disproportionation continues:

2 ClO − → Cl − + ClO −2
ClO − + ClO −2 → Cl − + ClO −3
Sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate can be crystallized from solutions formed by the above reactions. If
their crystals are heated, they undergo the final disproportionation step.

4 ClO −3 → Cl − + 3 ClO −4
This same progression from chloride to perchlorate can be accomplished by electrolysis. The anode reaction
progression is:[36]

Electrode
Reaction
potential
Cl − + 2 OH − → ClO − + H 2 O + 2 e − +0.89 volts
ClO − + 2 OH − → ClO −2 + H 2 O + 2 e − +0.67 volts
ClO −2 + 2 OH − → ClO −3 + H 2 O + 2 e − +0.33 volts
ClO −3 + 2 OH − → ClO −4 + H 2 O + 2 e − +0.35 volts

Each step is accompanied at the cathode by

2 H 2 O + 2 e − → 2 OH− + H 2 (−0.83 volts)

Applications and uses

Production of industrial and consumer products


Chlorine's principal applications are in the production of a wide range of industrial and consumer
products. [37][38] For example, it is used in making plastics, solvents for dry cleaning and metal degreasing,
textiles, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, insecticides, dyestuffs, household cleaning products, etc.

Purification and disinfection


Chlorine is an important chemical for water purification (such as water treatment plants), in disinfectants, and
in bleach. Chlorine in water is more than three times more effective as a disinfectant against Escherichia coli
than an equivalent concentration of bromine, and is more than six times more effective than an equivalent
concentration of iodine.[39]
Chlorine is usually used (in the form of hypochlorous acid) to kill bacteria and other microbes in drinking
water supplies and public swimming pools. In most private swimming pools chlorine itself is not used, but
rather sodium hypochlorite, formed from chlorine and sodium hydroxide, or solid tablets of chlorinated
isocyanurates. Even small water supplies are now routinely chlorinated. [3] (See also chlorination)

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It is often impractical to store and use poisonous chlorine gas for water treatment, so alternative methods of
adding chlorine are used. These include hypochlorite solutions, which gradually release chlorine into the
water, and compounds like sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione (dihydrate or anhydrous), sometimes referred to
as "dichlor", and trichloro-s-triazinetrione, sometimes referred to as "trichlor". These compounds are stable
while solid and may be used in powdered, granular, or tablet form. When added in small amounts to pool
water or industrial water systems, the chlorine atoms hydrolyze from the rest of the molecule forming
hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which acts as a general biocide killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, and so on.

Chemistry
Elemental chlorine is an oxidizer. It undergoes halogen substitution reactions with lower halide salts. For
example, chlorine gas bubbled through a solution of bromide or iodide anions oxidizes them to bromine and
iodine respectively.
Like the other halogens, chlorine participates in free-radical substitution reactions with hydrogen-containing
organic compounds. This reaction is often—but not invariably—non-regioselective, and hence, may result in a
mixture of isomeric products. It is often difficult to control the degree of substitution as well, so multiple
substitutions are common. If the different reaction products are easily separated, e.g. by distillation,
substitutive free-radical chlorination (in some cases accompanied by concurrent thermal dehydrochlorination)
may be a useful synthetic route. Industrial examples of this are the production of methyl chloride, methylene
chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride from methane, allyl chloride from propylene, and
trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from 1,2-dichloroethane.
Like the other halides, chlorine undergoes electrophilic additions reactions, most notably, the chlorination of
alkenes and aromatic compounds with a Lewis acid catalyst. Organic chlorine compounds tend to be less
reactive in nucleophilic substitution reactions than the corresponding bromine or iodine derivatives, but they
tend to be cheaper. They may be activated for reaction by substituting with a tosylate group, or by the use of
a catalytic amount of sodium iodide.
Chlorine is used extensively in organic and inorganic chemistry as an oxidizing agent and in substitution
reactions because chlorine often imparts many desired properties to an organic compound, due to its
electronegativity.
Chlorine compounds are used as intermediates in the production of a number of important commercial
products that do not contain chlorine. Examples are: polycarbonates, polyurethanes, silicones,
polytetrafluoroethylene, carboxymethyl cellulose and propylene oxide.

Use as a weapon
World War I
Main article: Poison gas in World War I
Chlorine gas, also known as bertholite, was first used as a weapon in World War I by Germany on April 22,
1915 in the Second Battle of Ypres. As described by the soldiers it had a distinctive smell of a mixture
between pepper and pineapple. It also tasted metallic and stung the back of the throat and chest. Chlorine
can react with water in the mucosa of the lungs to form hydrochloric acid, an irritant which can be lethal. The
damage done by chlorine gas can be prevented by a gas mask, or other filtration method, which makes the
overall chance of death by chlorine gas much lower than those of other chemical weapons. It was pioneered
by a German scientist later to be a Nobel laureate, Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, in
collaboration with the German chemical conglomerate IG Farben, who developed methods for discharging
chlorine gas against an entrenched enemy. It is alleged that Haber's role in the use of chlorine as a deadly
weapon drove his wife, Clara Immerwahr, to suicide. After its first use, chlorine was utilized by both sides as
a chemical weapon, but it was soon replaced by the more deadly gases phosgene and mustard gas.[40]
Iraq War
Main article: 2007 chlorine bombings in Iraq
Chlorine gas has also been used by insurgents against the local population and coalition forces in the Iraq
War in the form of chlorine bombs. On March 17, 2007, for example, three chlorine filled trucks were

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detonated in the Anbar province killing two and sickening over 350. [41] Other chlorine bomb attacks resulted
in higher death tolls, with more than 30 deaths on two separate occasions. [42] Most of the deaths were
caused by the force of the explosions rather than the effects of chlorine, since the toxic gas is readily
dispersed and diluted in the atmosphere by the blast. The Iraqi authorities have tightened up security for
chlorine, which is essential for providing safe drinking water for the population.

Chlorine cracking
The element is widely used for purifying water owing to its powerful
oxidizing properties, especially potable water supplies and water
used in swimming pools. Several catastrophic collapses of
swimming pool ceilings have occurred owing to stress corrosion
cracking of stainless steel rods used to suspend them. [43] Some
polymers are also sensitive to attack, including acetal resin and
polybutene. Both materials were used in hot and cold water
domestic supplies, and stress corrosion cracking caused
widespread failures in the USA in the 1980s and 90s. One example
Chlorine "attack" of an acetal resin
shows an acetal joint in a water supply system, which when it
plumbing joint.
fractured, caused substantial physical damage to computers in the
labs below the supply. The cracks started at injection molding
defects in the joint and grew slowly until finally triggered. The fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts
which were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure.

Other uses
Chlorine is used in the manufacture of numerous organic chlorine compounds, the most significant of which in
terms of production volume are 1,2-dichloroethane and vinyl chloride, intermediates in the production of PVC.
Other particularly important organochlorines are methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform, vinylidene
chloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, allyl chloride, epichlorohydrin, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzenes
and trichlorobenzenes.
Chlorine is also used in the production of chlorates and in bromine extraction.

Health effects
Chlorine is a toxic gas that irritates the respiratory system. Because it is heavier than NFPA 704
air, it tends to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces. Chlorine gas is a
strong oxidizer, which may react with flammable materials. [44] 0
Chlorine is detectable in concentrations of as low as 0.2 ppm. Coughing and vomiting may
3 0
OX,₩
occur at 30 ppm and lung damage at 60 ppm. About 1000 ppm can be fatal after a few deep
breaths of the gas. [4] Breathing lower concentrations can aggravate the respiratory system,
and exposure to the gas can irritate the eyes. [45]
Chlorine's toxicity comes from its oxidizing power. When chlorine is inhaled at concentrations above 30ppm it
begins to react with water and cells which change it into hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid
(HClO).
When used at specified levels for water disinfection, although chlorine reaction with water itself usually doesn't
represent a major concern for human health, other materials present in the water can generate disinfection
by-products that can damage human health. [46][47]

See also
Polymer degradation

References
1. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds , in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorine[2/19/2010 12:25:18 AM]


Chlorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

CRC press.
2. ^ Windholz, Martha et al., ed (1976). Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed.. Rahway, N.J.: Merck & Co.. ISBN
0911910263.
3. ^ a b Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN
0849304814.
4. ^ a b "WebElements.com – Chlorine" . Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK]. Retrieved
2007-03-17.
5. ^ "Risk assessment and the cycling of natural organochlorines" . Euro Chlor. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
6. ^ "The earliest salt production in the world: an early Neolithic exploitation in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania" . Retrieved
2008-07-10.
7. ^ Pereira, Jonathan (1854). The elements of materia medica and therapeutics, Volume 1 . Longman, Brown, Green, and
Longmans. p. 387.
8. ^ Hoover, Herbert Clark (2003). Georgius Agricola de Re Metallica . Kessinger Publishing. p. 354. ISBN 0766131971.
9. ^ a b c d e f "17 Chlorine" . Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
10. ^ Ihde, Aaron John (1984). The development of modern chemistry . Courier Dover Publications. p. 158. ISBN
0486642356.
11. ^ Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis; Thénard, Louis-Jacques (1809). "On the nature and the properties of muriatic acid and of
oxygenated muriatic acid" . Mémoires de Physique et de Chimie de la Société d'Arcueil 2: 339–358 .
12. ^ Sir Humphry Davy (1811). "On a Combination of Oxymuriatic Gas and Oxygene Gas" . Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society 101: 155–162. doi:10.1098/rstl.1811.0008 .
13. ^ Snelders, H. A. M. (1971). "J. S. C. Schweigger: His Romanticism and His Crystal Electrical Theory of Matter" . Isis 62
(3): 328.
14. ^ "Discovery of Chlorine" . Retrieved 2008-07-10.
15. ^ "History of Chlorine" . Retrieved 2008-07-10.
16. ^ a b c d Jacqueline Brazin. "Chlorine & its Consequences" . Retrieved 2008-07-10.
17. ^ "Chlorine Story" . americanchemistry. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
18. ^ "Chlorine - History" . Retrieved 2008-07-10.
19. ^ "Weaponry: Use of Chlorine Gas Cylinders in World War I" . historynet.com. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
20. ^ Pauling, Linus (1970). General Chemistry. Dover publications. ISBN 0-486-65622-5.
21. ^ "Electrolytic Processes for Chlorine and Caustic Soda" . Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V.,
Rotterdamseweg 402 M, 2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
22. ^ "Mercury cell" . Euro Chlor. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
23. ^ "Regional Awareness-raising Workshop on Mercury Pollution" . UNEP. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
24. ^ "Diaphragm cell" . Euro Chlor. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
25. ^ "The Electrolysis of Brine" . Salt Manufacturers' Association. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
26. ^ a b Kiefer, David M.. "When the Industry Charged Ahead" . Chemistry Chronicles. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
27. ^ "Membrane cell" . Euro Chlor. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
28. ^ Lopez, N; Gomezsegura, J; Marin, R; Perezramirez, J (2008). "Mechanism of HCl oxidation (Deacon process) over
RuO2". Journal of Catalysis 255: 29. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2008.01.020 .
29. ^ "The Chlorine Industry" . Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V., Rotterdamseweg 402 M, 2629 HH
Delft, The Netherlands. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
30. ^ Reader W J (1970 SBN 19 215937 2). Imperial Chemical Industries; A History. Volume 1. The Forerunners 1870-1926.
Oxford University Press. p. 102. citing Haber L F (1958). The Chemical Industry during the Nineteenth Century. Oxford:
Clarendon Press.
31. ^ "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Chlor-
Alkali Manufacturing Industry" . European Commission. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
32. ^ "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Best Available Techniques Reference Document on the Production
of Iron and Steel" . European Commission. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
33. ^ "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Glass
Manufacturing Industry" . European Commission. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
34. ^ "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Cement
and Lime Manufacturing Industries" . European Commission. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
35. ^ "Chlorine compounds of the month" . Euro Chlor. Retrieved 2007-08-29.
36. ^ Cotton, F. Albert and Wilkinson, Geoffrey (1966). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed.. John Wiley & sons. p. 568.
37. ^ "Uses" . Euro Chlor. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
38. ^ "Chlorine Tree" . Chlorine Tree. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
39. ^ Koski TA, Stuart LS, Ortenzio LF (1966). "Comparison of chlorine, bromine, iodine as disinfectants for swimming pool

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorine[2/19/2010 12:25:18 AM]


Chlorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

water" . Applied Microbiology 14 (2): 276–279. PMID 4959984 . PMC 546668 .


40. ^ "Weapons of War: Poison Gas" . First World War.com. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
41. ^ Mahdi, Basim (2007-03-17). "Iraq gas attack makes hundreds ill" . CNN. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
42. ^ "'Chlorine bomb' hits Iraq village" . BBC News. 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
43. ^ Bertolini, Luca; Elsener, Bernhard; Pedeferri, Pietro; Polder, Rob B. (2004). Corrosion of steel in concrete: prevention,
diagnosis, repair . Wiley-VCH. p. 148. ISBN 3527308008.
44. ^ "Chlorine MSDS" . October 23, 1997 (Revised November 1999.
45. ^ Winder, Chris (2001). "The Toxicology of Chlorine". Environmental Research 85 (2): 105–114.
doi:10.1006/enrs.2000.4110 . PMID 11161660 .
46. ^ "What's in your Water?: Disinfectants Create Toxic By-products" . ACES News. College of Agricultural, Consumer and
Environmental Sciences - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
47. ^ Richardson, D.; Plewa, J.; Wagner, D.; Schoeny, R.; Demarini, M. (Nov 2007). "Occurrence, genotoxicity, and
carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research".
Mutation research 636 (1-3): 178–242. doi:10.1016/j.mrrev.2007.09.001 . ISSN 0027-5107 . PMID 17980649 . edit

External links
Electrolytic production
Wikimedia Commons has media
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Chlorine Production Using Mercury, Environmental
Considerations and Alternatives
Look up chlorine in Wiktionary,
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Page
WebElements.com — Chlorine
Chlorine Institute - Trade association and lobby group representing the interests of the chlorine industry
Chlorine Online - Chlorine Online is an information resource produced by Eurochlor - the business
association of the European chlor-alkali industry

v• d • e Chlorine compounds

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Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory · Chlorine bombings in Iraq · Herbicidal warfare · List of topics ·
Related topics
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v• d • e Chemical agents
Blood Cyanogen chloride (CK) · Hydrogen cyanide (AC)

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Bromine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Bromo" redirects here. For other uses, see Bromo (disambiguation).


Bromine (pronounced /'bro mi n/ BROH-meen or /'bro m n/
selenium ← Bromine → krypton
navigation BROH-min, from Greek: βρῶμος, brómos, meaning "stench (of
Cl
he-goats)"),[2] is a chemical element with the symbol Br and 35 Br
Main page ↑
Contents atomic number 35. A halogen element, bromine is a reddish-
Br
Featured content brown volatile liquid at standard room temperature that is

intermediate in reactivity between chlorine and iodine. Bromine Periodic table
Current events
I
Random article vapors are corrosive and toxic. Approximately 556,000 metric
tons were produced in 2007. [3] The main applications for Appearance
search
bromine are in fire retardants and fine chemicals. gas/liquid: red-brown
solid: metallic luster
Go Search Contents [hide]
1 History
interaction
2 Characteristics
About Wikipedia
2.1 Isotopes
Community portal
2.2 Allotropes
Recent changes
3 Occurrence and production
Contact Wikipedia
4 Compounds
Donate to Wikipedia
4.1 Organic chemistry
Help
4.2 Inorganic chemistry General properties
toolbox 5 Applications Name, symbol, Bromine, Br, 35
What links here 5.1 Flame retardant number
Related changes 5.2 Gasoline additive
Element category halogen
Upload file 5.3 Pesticide
Special pages Group, period, block 17, 4, p
5.4 Medical and veterinary
Printable version 5.5 Other uses Standard atomic 79.904(1) g·mol−1
Permanent link weight
6 Biological role
Cite this page
7 Safety Electron [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5
languages 8 References configuration
Afrikaans 9 External links
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 7 (Image)

Physical properties
Azərbaycan
History [edit]
Phase liquid
Беларуская Bromine was Density (near r.t.) (Br 2 , liquid) 3.1028
Bosanski discovered g·cm−3
Български independently by two
Melting point 265.8 K, -7.2 °C, 19 °F
Català chemists Antoine
Ч вашла Boiling point 332.0 K, 58.8 °C,
Balard [4] and Carl
Česky 137.8 °F
Jacob Löwig[5] in
Corsu
1825 and 1826. [6] Critical point 588 K, 10.34 MPa
Cymraeg
Balard found bromide Heat of fusion (Br 2 ) 10.571 kJ·mol−1
Dansk
Deutsch chemicals in the ash Heat of vaporization (Br 2 ) 29.96 kJ·mol−1
Eesti of sea weed from the Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (Br 2 )
Ελληνικά salt marshes of 75.69 J·mol −1 ·K −1
Español Montpellier in 1826.
Esperanto Illustrative and secure bromine sample Vapor pressure
The sea weed was
Euskara for teaching
used to produce

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Bromine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

P/Pa 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k


iodine, but also
Français at T/K 185 201 220 244 276 332
contained bromine. Balard distilled the bromine from a solution
Furlan
of seaweed ash saturated with chlorine. The properties of the
Gaeilge Atomic properties
resulting substance resembled that of an intermediate of
Gaelg
chlorine and iodine; with those results he tried to prove that the Oxidation states 7, 5, 4, 3, 1, -1
Galego
substance was iodine monochloride (ICl), but after failing to do (strongly acidic oxide)
Hak-kâ-fa
so he was sure that he had found a new element and named it Electronegativity 2.96 (Pauling scale)
muride, derived from the Latin word muria for brine. [4]
Ionization energies 1st: 1139.9 kJ·mol−1
Carl Jacob Löwig isolated bromine from a mineral water spring
2nd: 2103 kJ·mol−1
Hrvatski from his hometown Bad Kreuznach in 1825. Löwig used a
Ido solution of the mineral salt saturated with chlorine and extracted 3rd: 3470 kJ·mol−1
Bahasa Indonesia
the bromine with diethylether. After evaporation of the ether a Atomic radius 120 pm
Íslenska
brown liquid remained. With this liquid as a sample for his work Covalent radius 120±3 pm
Italiano
he applied for a position in the laboratory of Leopold Gmelin in
‫עברית‬ Van der Waals radius 185 pm
Heidelberg. The publication of the results was delayed and
Basa Jawa
Balard published his results first. [5] Miscellanea

Crystal structure orthorhombic


Kiswahili After the French chemists Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Louis
Kreyòl ayisyen Jacques Thénard, and Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac approved the Magnetic ordering diamagnetic [1 ]
Latina experiments of the young pharmacist Balard, the results were Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 7.8×1010 Ω·m
Latviešu presented at a lecture of the Académie des Sciences and
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 0.122 W·m −1 ·K −1
Lëtzebuergesch published in Annales de Chimie et Physique. [7] In his
Lietuvių Speed of sound (20°C) 206 m/s
publication Balard states that he changed the name from muride
Líguru
to brôme on the proposal of M. Anglada. Other sources claim CAS registry number 7726-95-6
Lojban
that the French chemist and physicist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac Most stable isotopes
Magyar
suggested the name brôme for the characteristic smell of the
Македонски Main article: Isotopes of Bromine
vapors.[8] Bromine was not produced in large quantities until
Māori
1860.
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
The first commercial use, besides some minor medical 79 Br 79 Br
50.69% is stable with 44 neutrons
Bahasa Melayu applications, was the use of bromine for the daguerreotype. In
81 Br 49.31% 81 Br is stable with 46 neutrons
Nederlands 1840 it was discovered that bromine had some advantages over
the previously used iodine vapor to create the light sensitive
Norsk (bokmål) This box: view • talk • edit
silver halide layer used for daguerreotypy.[9]
Norsk (nynorsk)
Occitan Potassium bromide and sodium bromide were used as anticonvulsants and sedatives in the late 19th and
O'zbek early 20th centuries, until they were gradually superseded by chloral hydrate and then the barbiturates.[10]

Polski Characteristics [edit]


Português
Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element at room temperature, and one of only two elements on the
Română
Runa Simi
periodic table that are liquid at room temperature. The melting point of bromine is −7.2 °C and the boiling
Русский point 58.8 °C (138 °F). The pure chemical element has the physical form of a diatomic molecule, Br2 . It is a
Seeltersk dense, mobile, reddish-brown liquid, that evaporates easily at standard temperature and pressures to give a
Simple English red vapor (its color resembles nitrogen dioxide) that has a strong disagreeable odor resembling that of
Slovenčina chlorine. Bromine is a halogen, and is less reactive than chlorine and more reactive than iodine. Bromine is
Slovenščina slightly soluble in water, and highly soluble in carbon disulfide, aliphatic alcohols (such as methanol), and
Српски / Srpski acetic acid. It bonds easily with many elements and has a strong bleaching action. Bromine, like chlorine, is
Srpskohrvatski / also used in maintenance of swimming pools.
Српскохрватски
Certain bromine-related compounds have been evaluated to have an ozone depletion potential or
Suomi
bioaccumulate in living organisms. As a result many industrial bromine compounds are no longer
Svenska
manufactured, are being restricted, or scheduled for phasing out. The Montreal Protocol mentions several
organobromine compounds for this phase out.
То ик Bromine is a powerful oxidizing agent. It reacts vigorously with metals, especially in the presence of water, as

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Bromine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Türkçe well as most organic compounds, especially upon illumination.


Українська
Uyghurche / Isotopes [edit]
Tiếng Việt
Main article: Isotopes of bromine
Winaray
Yorùbá Bromine has 2 stable isotopes: 79 Br (50.69 %) and 81 Br (49.31%). At least another 23 radioisotopes are
known to exist. [11] Many of the bromine isotopes are fission products. Several of the heavier bromine
isotopes from fission are delayed neutron emitters. All of the radioactive bromine isotopes are relatively short
lived. The longest half life is the neutron deficient 77 Br at 2.376 days. The longest half life on the neutron rich
side is 82 Br at 1.471 days. A number of the bromine isotopes exhibit metastable isomers. Stable 79 Br exhibits
a radioactive isomer, with a half life of 4.86 seconds. It decays by isomeric transition to the stable ground
state.[12]

Allotropes [edit]

At a pressure of 55 GPa bromine converts to a metal. At 75 GPa it converts to a face centered orthorhombic
structure. At 100 GPa it converts to a body centered orthorhombic monoatomic form.[13]

Occurrence and production [edit]

See also: Category:Halide minerals and Halide mineral


The diatomic
element Br2 does
not occur naturally.
Instead, bromine
exists exclusively as
bromide salts in
diffuse amounts in
crustal rock. Due to
leaching, bromide
World bromine production trend
salts have
accumulated in sea
water (65 ppm),[14] but at a lower concentration than chloride.
Bromine may be economically recovered from bromide-rich
brine wells and from the Dead Sea waters (up to 50000
ppm). [15][16] View of salt evaporation pans on the Dead
Sea, where Jordan (right) and Israel (left) produce
Approximately 556,000 metric tonnes (worth around US$2.5 salt and bromine
billion) of bromine are produced per year (2007) worldwide
with the United States, Israel, and China being the primary
producers. [17][18][19] Bromine production has increased sixfold since the 1960s. The largest bromine reserve
in the United States is located in Columbia and Union County, Arkansas, U.S. [20] China's bromine reserves
are located in the Shandong Province and Israel's bromine reserves are contained in the waters of the Dead
Sea. The bromide-rich brines are treated with chlorine gas, flushing through with air. In this treatment,
bromide anions are oxidized to bromine by the chlorine gas.

2 Br− + Cl 2 → 2 Cl− + Br2


Because of its commercial availability and long shelf-life, bromine is not typically prepared. Small amounts of
bromine can however be generated through the reaction of solid sodium bromide with concentrated sulfuric
acid (H2 SO4 ). The first stage is formation of hydrogen bromide (HBr), which is a gas, but under the reaction
conditions some of the HBr is oxidized further by the sulfuric acid to form bromine (Br 2 ) and sulfur dioxide
(SO 2 ).
NaBr (s) + H 2 SO4 (aq) → HBr (aq) + NaHSO4 (aq)
2 HBr (aq) + H 2 SO4 (aq) → Br2 (g) + SO2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (l)

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Bromine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Similar alternatives, such as the use of dilute hydrochloric acid with sodium hypochlorite, are also available.
The most important thing is that the anion of the acid (in the above examples, sulfate and chloride,
respectively) be more electronegative than bromine, allowing the substitution reaction to occur.
Reaction involving a strong oxidizing agent, such as potassium permanganate, on bromide ions in the
presence of an acid also gives bromine. An acidic solution of bromate ions and bromide ions will also
disproportionate slowly to give bromine.
Bromine is only slightly soluble in water. But the solubility can be increased by the presence of bromide ions.
However, concentrated solutions of bromine are rarely prepared in the lab as they will continually give off
toxic red-brown bromine gas due to its very high vapor pressure. Sodium thiosulphate is an excellent reagent
for getting rid of bromine completely including the stains and odor.

Compounds [edit]

See also: Category:Bromine compounds

Organic chemistry [edit]


Organic compounds are brominated by either addition or substitution reactions. Bromine
undergoes electrophilic addition to the double-bonds of alkenes, via a cyclic bromonium
intermediate. In non-aqueous solvents such as carbon disulfide, this affords the di-
bromo product. For example, reaction with ethylene will produce 1,2-dibromoethane.
Bromine also undergoes electrophilic addition to phenols and anilines. When used as
N-
bromine water, a small amount of the corresponding bromohydrin is formed as well as Bromosuccinimide
the dibromo compound. So reliable is the reactivity of bromine that bromine water is
employed as a reagent to test for the presence of alkenes, phenols, and anilines. Like
the other halogens, bromine participates in free radical reactions. For example hydrocarbons are brominated
upon treatment with bromine in the presence of light.
Bromine, sometimes with a catalytic amount of phosphorus, easily brominates carboxylic acids at the α-
position. This method, the Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction, is the basis of the commercial route to bromoacetic
acid. N-Bromosuccinimide is commonly used as a substitute for elemental bromine, being easier to handle,
and reacting more mildly and thus more selectively. Organic bromides are often preferable relative to the less
reactive chlorides and more expensive iodide-containing reagents. Thus, Grignard and organolithium
compound are most often generated from the corresponding bromides.

Inorganic chemistry [edit]

Bromine is an oxidizer, and it will oxidize iodide ions to iodine, being itself reduced to
bromide: Oxidation states
of bromine
Br2 + 2 I− → 2 Br− + I2
-1 HBr
Bromine will also oxidize metals and metalloids to the corresponding bromides.
Anhydrous bromine is less reactive toward many metals than hydrated bromine, 0 Br2
however. Dry bromine reacts vigorously with aluminium, titanium, mercury as well as +1 BrCl
alkaline earths and alkali metals.
+3 BrF3
If bromine is dissolved in hydroxide containing water not only bromide (Br − ) is formed, +5 BrF5
but also the hypobromite (OBr − ). This hypobromite is responsible for the bleaching
+5 BrO −3
abilities of bromide solutions. In warm solutions the disproportion reaction of the
hypobromite is quantitative. The resulting bromate is a strong oxidising agent and very +7 BrO −4
similar to the chlorate.

3 BrO − → BrO −3 + 2 Br−


The perbromates are not accessible through electrolysis like the perchlorates, but only by reacting bromate
solutions with fluorine or ozone.

BrO 3 − + H 2 O + F2 → BrO −4 + 2 HF
− −

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Bromine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

BrO 3 + O 3 → BrO 4 + O 2

Applications [edit]

A wide variety of organobromine compounds are used in industry. Some are prepared from bromine and
others are prepared from hydrogen bromide, which is obtained by burning hydrogen in bromine. [3]

Illustrative of the addition reaction [21] is the preparation of 1,2-Dibromoethane, the organobromine compound
produced in the largest amounts:
C 2 H 4 + Br2 → CH2 BrCH2 Br

Flame retardant [edit]


Brominated flame retardants represent a commodity of growing
importance. If the material burns the flame retardants produce
hydrobromic acid which interferes in the radical chain reaction of
the oxidation reaction of the fire. The highly reactive hydrogen
oxygen and hydroxy radicals react with hydrobromic acid and form
less reactive bromine radicals. [22][23] The bromine containing
compounds can be placed in the polymers either during
polymerization if a small amount of brominated monomer is added Tetrabromobisphenol A
or the bromine containing compound is added after polymerization.
Tetrabromobisphenol A can be added to produce polyesters or epoxy resins. Epoxy used in printed circuit
boards (PCB) are normally made from flame retardant resins, indicated by the FR in the abbreviation of the
products (FR-4 and FR-2. Vinyl bromide can be used in the production of polyethylene, polyvinylchloride or
polypropylene. Decabromodiphenyl ether can be added to the final polymers. [24]

Gasoline additive [edit]


Ethylene bromide was an additive in gasolines containing lead anti-engine knocking agents. It scavenges lead
by forming volatile lead bromide, which is exhausted from the engine. This application accounted for 77% of
the bromine uses in 1966 in the US. This application has declined since the 1970s due to environmental
regulations. [25] Ethylene bromide is also used as a fumigant, but again this application is declining.[19]

Pesticide [edit]
Methyl bromide was widely used as pesticide to fumigate soil. The Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone scheduled the phase out for the ozone depleting
chemical until 2005. In 1991, an estimated 35,000 metric tonnes of the chemical were
used to control nematodes, fungi, weeds and other soil-borne diseases.[26][27]
Methyl bromide
Medical and veterinary [edit]
(bromomethane)
Bromide compounds, especially potassium bromide, were frequently used as
sedatives in the 19th and early 20th century. Bromides in the form of simple salts are still used as
anticonvulsants in both veterinary and human medicine.

Other uses [edit]


The bromides of calcium, sodium, and zinc account for a sizable part of the bromine
market. These salts form dense solutions in water that are used as drilling fluids
sometimes called clear brine fluids. [19][28]
Bromine is also used in the production of brominated vegetable oil, which is used as an
emulsifier in many citrus-flavored soft drinks (e.g. Mountain Dew). After the introduction
Orange in the 1940s the compound was extensively used until the UK and the US limited its
fluoresces of DNA use in the mid 1970s and alternative emulsifiers were developed.[29]
Ethidium bromide
Soft drinks containing brominated vegetable oil are still sold in the US (2009). [30]
intercalate
Several dyes, agrichemicals, and pharmaceuticals are

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Bromine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

organobromine compounds. 1-Bromo-3-chloropropane, 1-bromoethylbenzene, and 1-


bromoalkanes are prepared by the antimarkovnikov addition of HBr to alkenes.
Ethidium bromide, EtBr, is used as a DNA stain in gel electrophoresis.
High refractive index compounds
Water purification compounds, disinfectants and insecticides, such as tralomethrin Tralomethrin

(C22 H 19 Br4 NO 3 ).[19]


Potassium bromide is used in some photographic developers to inhibit the formation of fog (undesired
reduction of silver).
Vapor is used as the second step in sensitizing daguerreotype plates to be developed under Mercury (Hg)
vapor. Bromine acts as an accelerator to the light sensitivity of the previously iodized plate.
Bromine is also used to reduce mercury pollution from coal-fired power plants. This can be achieved either
by treating activated carbon with bromine or by injecting bromine compounds onto the coal prior to
combustion.

Biological role [edit]

Bromine has no known essential role in human or mammalian health, but inorganic
bromine and organobromine compounds do occur naturally, and some may be of use to
higher organisms in dealing with parasites. For example, in the presence of H 2 O 2
formed by the eosinophil, and either chloride or bromide ions, eosinophil peroxidase
provides a potent mechanism by which eosinophils kill multicellular parasites (such as,
for example, the nematode worms involved in filariasis); and also certain bacteria (such
as tuberculosis bacteria). Eosinophil peroxidase is a haloperoxidase that preferentially
uses bromide over chloride for this purpose, generating hypobromite (hypobromous Tyrian purple
acid).[31]

Marine organisms are the main source of organobromine compounds. Over 1600 compounds were identified
by 1999. The most abundant one is methyl bromide with estimated 56,000 metric tonnes produced by marine
algae. [32] The essential oil of the Hawaiian alga Asparagopsis taxiformis consists of 80% methyl bromide.[33]
A famous example of a bromine-containing organic compound that has been used by humans for a long time
is Tyrian purple.[32][34] The brominated indigo is produced by a medium-sized predatory sea snail, the
marine gastropod Murex brandaris. It took until 1909 before the organobromine nature of the compound was
discovered by Paul Friedländer.[35] Most organobromine compounds in nature arise via the action of
vanadium bromoperoxidase.[36]

Safety [edit]

See also: List of highly toxic gases


Elemental bromine is toxic and causes burns. As an oxidizing agent, it is incompatible with most organic and
inorganic compounds. Care needs to be taken when transporting bromine; it is commonly carried in steel
tanks lined with lead, supported by strong metal frames.
When certain ionic compounds containing bromine are mixed with potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) and an
acidic substance, they will form a pale brown cloud of bromine gas. This gas smells like bleach and is very
irritating to the mucus membranes. Upon exposure, one should move to fresh air immediately. If symptoms of
bromine poisoning arise, medical attention is needed.

References [edit]

1. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds , in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition,
CRC press.
2. ^ Gemoll W, Vretska K (1997). Griechisch-Deutsches Schul- und Handwörterbuch ("Greek-German dictionary"), 9th ed..
öbvhpt. ISBN 3-209-00108-1.
3. ^ a b Jack F. Mills (2002). Bromine: in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag.

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Bromine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_391 .
4. ^ a b Balard, Antoine (1826). "Memoire of a peculire Substance contained in Sea Water" . Annals of Philosophy: 387–
and 411–.
5. ^ a b Landolt, Hans Heinrich (1890). "Nekrolog: Carl Löwig" . Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 23: 905.
doi:10.1002/cber.18900230395 .
6. ^ Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XVII. The halogen family.". Journal of Chemical Education 9:
1915.
7. ^ Balard, A.J. (1826). Annales de Chimie et Physique 32: 337.
8. ^ Wisniak, Jaime (2004). "Antoine-Jerôme Balard. The discoverer of bromine" . Revista CENIC Ciencias Químicas 35.
9. ^ Barger, M. Susan; White, William Blaine (2000). "Technological Practice of Daguerreotypy". The Daguerreotype:
Nineteenth-century Technology and Modern Science. JHU Press. pp. 31–35. ISBN 9780801864582.
10. ^ Shorter, Edward (1997). A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac. John Wiley and Sons.
p. 200. ISBN 9780471245315.
11. ^ GE (1989). Chart of the Nuclides, 14th Edition. Nuclear Energy.
12. ^ Audi, Georges (2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A (Atomic Mass
Data Center) 729: 3. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001 .
13. ^ Duan, Defang (2007-09-26). "Ab initio studies of solid bromine under high pressure". Pysical Review B 76.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.76.104113 .
14. ^ Tallmadge, John A.; Butt, John B.; Solomon Herman J. (1964). "Minerals From Sea Salt". Ind. Eng. Chem. 56: 44.
doi:10.1021/ie50655a008 .
15. ^ Oumeish, Oumeish Youssef (1996). "Climatotherapy at the Dead Sea in Jordan". Clinics in Dermatology 14: 659.
doi:10.1016/S0738-081X(96)00101-0 .
16. ^ Al-Weshah, Radwan A. (2008). "The water balance of the Dead Sea: an integrated approach". Hydrological Processes
14: 145. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(200001)14:1<145::AID-HYP916>3.0.CO;2-N .
17. ^ Emsley, John (2001). "Bromine". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford
University Press. pp. 69–73. ISBN 0198503407.
18. ^ Lyday, Phyllis A.. "Comodity Report 2007: Bromine" . United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
19. ^ a b c d Lyday, Phyllis A.. "Mineral Yearbook 2007: Bromine" . United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
20. ^ "Bromine:An Important Arkansas Industry" .
21. ^ N. A. Khan, F. E. Deatherage, and J. B. Brown (1963), "Stearolic Acid" , Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 4: 851
22. ^ Green, Joseph (1996). "Mechanisms for Flame Retardancy and Smoke suppression -A Review". Journal of Fire Sciences
14: 426. doi:10.1177/073490419601400602 .
23. ^ Kaspersma, Jelle; Doumena, Cindy; Munrob Sheilaand; Prinsa, Anne-Marie (2002). "Fire retardant mechanism of
aliphatic bromine compounds in polystyrene and polypropylene". Polymer Degradation and Stability 77: 325.
doi:10.1016/S0141-3910(02)00067-8 .
24. ^ Weil, Edward D.; Levchik, Sergei (2004). "A Review of Current Flame Retardant Systems for Epoxy Resins". Journal of
Fire Sciences 22: 25. doi:10.1177/0734904104038107 .
25. ^ Alaeea, Mehran; Ariasb, Pedro; Sjödinc, Andreas; Bergman, Åke (2003). "An overview of commercially used brominated
flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release".
Environment International 29: 683. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00121-1 .
26. ^ Messenger, Belinda; Braun, Adolf (2000). "Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for the Control of Soil-Borne Diseases and
Pests in California" . Pest Management Analysis and Planning Program. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
27. ^ Decanio, Stephen J.; Norman, Catherine S. (2008). "Economics of the "Critical Use" of Methyl bromide under the
Montreal Protocol". Contemporary Economic Policy 23: 376. doi:10.1093/cep/byi028 .
28. ^ Darley, H. C. H.; Gray, George Robert (1988). Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids. Gulf
Professional Publishing. pp. 61–62. ISBN 9780872011472.
29. ^ Kaufman, Vered R.; Garti, Nissim (1984). "Effect of cloudy agents on the stability and opacity of cloudy emulsions for soft
drinks". International Journal of Food Science & Technology 19: 255. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb00348.x .
30. ^ Horowitz, B. Zane (1997). "Bromism from Excessive Cola Consumption',Clinical Toxicology". Clinical Toxicology 35: 315.
doi:10.3109/15563659709001219 .
31. ^ Mayeno AN, Curran AJ, Roberts RL, Foote CS (April 1989). "Eosinophils preferentially use bromide to generate
halogenating agents". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (10): 5660–8. PMID 2538427 .
32. ^ a b Gordon W. Gribble (1999). "The diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds". Chemical Society
Reviews 28: 335. doi:10.1039/a900201d .
33. ^ Burreson, B. Jay; Moore, Richard E.; Roller, Peter P. (1976). "Volatile halogen compounds in the alga Asparagopsis
taxiformis (Rhodophyta)". Journal of Agricultural snd Food Chemistry 24: 856. doi:10.1021/jf60206a040 .
34. ^ Gordon W. Gribble (1998). "Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds". Acc. Chem. Res. 31: 141.
doi:10.1021/ar9701777 .

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Bromine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

35. ^ Friedländer, P. (1909). "Über den Farbstoff des antiken Purpurs aus murex brandaris". Berichte der deutschen
chemischen Gesellschaft 42: 765. doi:10.1002/cber.190904201122 .
36. ^ Butler, Alison; Carter-Franklin, Jayme N. (2004). "The role of vanadium bromoperoxidase in the biosynthesis of
halogenated marine natural products". Natural Product Reports 21: 180. doi:10.1039/b302337k .

External links [edit]

WebElements.com – Bromine
Wikimedia Commons has media
Theodoregray.com – Bromine related to: Bromine
USGS Minerals Information: Bromine
Bromine Science and Environmental Forum (BSEF)
Look up bromine in Wiktionary,
Thermal Conductivity of BROMINE the free dictionary.
Viscosity of Bromine
Chemistry in its element podcast (MP3) from the Royal Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World:
Bromine

v• d • e Diatomic chemical elements

Hydrogen H2 | Nitrogen N2 | Oxygen O 2 | Fluorine F2 | Chlorine Cl 2 | Bromine Br2 | Iodine I 2 | Astatine At 2 |

v• d • e Periodic table
H He

Li Be B C N O F Ne

Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe

Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo

Uue Ubn

Alkaline earth Transition Other


Alkali metals Lanthanoids Actinoids Other metals Metalloids Halogens Noble gases
metals metals nonmetals

Categories: Chemical elements | Halogens | Bromine | Highly Hazardous Chemicals

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Iodine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation).


Iodine (pronounced /'a . da n/ EYE -o-dyne, /'a . d n/ EYE -
tellurium ← iodine → xenon
navigation o-dən, or in chemistry /'a . di n/ EYE -o-deen; from Greek:
Br
ιώδης iodes meaning violet (or purple), is a chemical element 53 I
Main page ↑
Contents
that has the symbol I and the atomic number 53.
I
Featured content Chemically, iodine is the second least reactive of the halogens, ↓
Periodic table
Current events and the second most electropositive halogen, trailing behind At
Random article astatine in both of these categories. However, the element does
Appearance
search not occur in the free state in nature. As with all other halogens
(members of Group 17 in the periodic table), when freed from Lustrous metallic gray, violet as a gas

its compounds iodine forms diatomic molecules (I 2 ).


Go Search

Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in medicine,


interaction photography, and dyes. Iodine is rare in the solar system and
About Wikipedia Earth's crust; however, the iodides are very soluble in water and
Community portal the element concentrates in seawater, where it occurs in far
Recent changes higher amounts than in rocks. This mechanism helps to explain
Contact Wikipedia how the element came to be required in trace amounts by all
Donate to Wikipedia animals and some plants, being the heaviest element commonly General properties
Help used by living organisms (only tungsten, used in enzymes by a Name, symbol, iodine, I, 53
toolbox few bacteria, is heavier[2][3] ). number

What links here Element category halogen


Contents [hide]
Related changes
Group, period, 17, 5, p
Upload file 1 Characteristics
block
Special pages 2 Occurrence
Printable version 3 Structure Standard atomic 126.90447 g·mol−1
Permanent link 4 Production weight
Cite this page 5 Isotopes Electron [Kr] 4d 10 5s 2 5p 5
6 History configuration
languages
7 Applications
Afrikaans Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 7 (Image)
7.1 Disinfectant and water treatment
7.2 Staining Physical properties

7.3 Radiocontrast agent Phase solid


Беларуская
7.4 Radioiodine Density (near r.t.) 4.933 g·cm−3
Bosanski
Български 8 Iodine compounds
Melting point 386.85 K, 113.7 °C,
Català 8.1 Organic compounds
236.66 °F
Ч вашла 9 Chemistry
9.1 Organic synthesis Boiling point 457.4 K, 184.3 °C,
Česky
Corsu 9.2 Clandestine synthetic chemical use 363.7 °F

Cymraeg 10 Biological role Triple point 386.65 K (113°C), 12.1 kPa


Dansk 11 Extrathyroidal iodine
Critical point 819 K, 11.7 MPa
Deutsch 11.1 Iodine and the development of cancer
11.2 Iodine and immunity Heat of fusion (I2 ) 15.52 kJ·mol−1

Eesti 11.3 Iodine in salivary glands and oral health Heat of vaporization (I2 ) 41.57 kJ·mol−1
Ελληνικά 11.4 Human dietary intake Specific heat (25 °C) (I2 ) 54.44
Español 11.5 Deficiency capacity J·mol −1 ·K −1
Esperanto 12 Radioiodine in biology
Euskara Vapor pressure (rhombic)
12.1 Radioiodine and the thyroid

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Iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

12.2 Iodine 125


Français P/Pa 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k
12.3 Iodine 129
Furlan at T/K 260 282 309 342 381 457
12.3.1 Radioiodine and the kidney
Gaeilge
13 Precautions and toxicity of elemental iodine
Gaelg
13.1 Toxicity of iodide ion Atomic properties
Galego
13.2 Iodine sensitivity Oxidation states 7, 5, 3, 1, -1
Hak-kâ-fa
14 See also (strongly acidic oxide)
15 References
Electronegativity 2.66 (Pauling scale)
16 External links
Ionization energies 1st: 1008.4 kJ·mol−1
Hrvatski
2nd: 1845.9 kJ·mol−1
Ido Characteristics [edit]
Bahasa Indonesia 3rd: 3180 kJ·mol−1
Иронау Iodine under standard conditions is a shiny grey solid. It can be
Atomic radius 140 pm
Íslenska seen apparently sublimating at standard temperatures into a
Italiano violet-pink gas that has an irritating odor. This halogen forms Covalent radius 139±3 pm

‫עברית‬ compounds with many elements, but is less reactive than the Van der Waals 198 pm
Basa Jawa other members of its Group VII (halogens) and has some radius
Kiswahili metallic light reflectance. Miscellanea
Kreyòl ayisyen
Elemental iodine dissolves easily in most Crystal structure orthorhombic
Latina
organic solvents such as hexane or
Latviešu Magnetic ordering diamagnetic [1 ]
chloroform due to its lack of polarity, but is
Lëtzebuergesch
only slightly soluble in water. However, the Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 1.3×107 Ω·m
Lietuvių
Líguru solubility of elemental iodine in water can Thermal (300 K) 0.449 W·m −1 ·K −1
Lojban be increased by the addition of potassium conductivity
Magyar iodide. The molecular iodine reacts Bulk modulus 7.7 GPa
Македонски In the gas reversibly with the negative ion, generating
CAS registry 7553-56-2
the triiodide anion I 3 − in equilibrium, which
phase iodine
shows its violet number
color. is soluble in water. This is also the
Nederlands formulation of some types of medicinal Most stable isotopes

(antiseptic) iodine, although tincture of iodine classically Main article: Isotopes of iodine
Norsk (bokmål) dissolves the element in aqueous ethanol.
Norsk (nynorsk)
Solutions of elemental iodine have the unique property of iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
Occitan
O'zbek
exhibiting dramatically different colors depending on the polarity 123 I syn 13 h ε, γ 0.16 123 Te

of the solvent. When dissolved in nonpolar solvents like hexane, 127 I 100% 127 I is stable with 74 neutrons

Plattdüütsch the solution appears deep violet; in moderately polar


129 I trace 15.7×10 6 y β− 0.194 129 Xe
Polski dichloromethane the solution is dark crimson, and in strongly
Português polar solvents like acetone or ethanol, it appears dark orange or
131 I syn 8.02070 d β − , γ 0.971 131 Xe

Română brown. This is due to ligand field interactions of solvent


Runa Simi molecules with the d-orbitals of iodine, which is the only This box: view • talk • edit

Русский halogen with a sufficiently occupied electronic configuration to


Seeltersk allow such interactions. This same property allows the formation of hypervalent iodine compounds, which
Shqip have expanded bonding orbitals beyond the generally allowed octet rule.
Sicilianu
Students who have seen the classroom demonstration in which iodine crystals are gently heated in a test
Simple English
tube to violet vapor may gain the impression that liquid iodine does not exist at atmospheric pressure. This
Slovenčina
Slovenščina
misconception arises because the vapor produced has such a deep colour that the liquid appears not to form.
Српски / Srpski In fact, if iodine crystals are heated carefully to just above their melting point of 113.7 °C, the crystals melt
Srpskohrvatski / into a liquid which is present under a dense blanket of the vapor.
Српскохрватски When iodine is encapsulated into carbon nanotubes it forms atomic chains, whose structure depends on the
Suomi
nanotube diameter. [4]
Svenska
Tagalog
Occurrence [edit]

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Iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Iodine naturally occurs in the environment chiefly as a dissolved iodide in


seawater, although it is also found in some minerals and soils.[5] This element
То ик also exists in small amounts in the mineral caliche, found in Chile, between the
Türkçe
Andes and the sea. A type of seaweed, kelp, tends to be high in iodine as well.
Українська
Organoiodine compounds are produced by marine life forms, the most notable
Tiếng Việt being iodomethane (commonly called methyl iodide). The total iodomethane
Winaray that is produced by the marine environment, by microbial activity in rice paddies
Yorùbá Iodomethane and by the burning of biological material is estimated to be 214 kilotonnes. [6]
The volatile iodomethane is broken up by oxidation reactions in the atmosphere
and a global iodine cycle is established. [5][6] Although the element is actually
quite rare, kelp and certain plants and other algae have some ability to concentrate iodine, which helps
introduce the element into the food chain.

Structure [edit]

Iodine crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmca No 64,


Pearson symbol oS8, the same as black phosphorus. In the solid
state, I2 molecules are still represented by a short I-I bond of
270 pm.

Production [edit]

From the several places in which iodine occurs in nature only two
are used as source for iodine: the caliche, found in Chile and the
iodine containing brines of gas and oil fields, especially in Japan Structure of solid iodine
and the United States.
The caliche, found in Chile contains sodium nitrate, which is the main product of the mining activities and
small amounts of sodium iodate and sodium iodide. During leaching and production of pure sodium nitrate the
sodium iodate and iodide is extracted. [7] The high concentration of iodine in the caliche and the extensive
mining made Chile the largest producer of iodine in 2007.
Most other producers use natural occurring brine for the production
of iodine. The Japanese Minami Kanto gas field east of Tokyo and
the American Anadarko Basin gas field in northwest Oklahoma are
the two largest sources for iodine from brine. The brine has a
temperature of over 60°C due to the depth of the source. The brine
is first purified and acidified using sulfuric acid, then the iodide
present is oxidized to iodine with chlorine. An iodine solution is Iodine output in 2005

produced, but is dilute and must be concentrated. Air is blown into


the solution, causing the iodine to evaporate, then it is passed into an absorbing tower containing acid where
sulfur dioxide is added to reduce the iodine. The hydrogen iodide (HI) is reacted with chlorine to precipitate
the iodine. After filtering and purification the iodine is packed. [7][8]
2 HI + Cl 2 → I2 ↑ + 2 HCl
I2 + 2 H 2 O + SO2 → 2 HI + H 2 SO4
2 HI + Cl 2 → I2 ↓ + 2 HCl
The production of iodine from seawater via electrolysis is not used due to the sufficient abundance of iodine-
rich brine. Another source of iodine was kelp, used in the 18th and 19th centuries, but it is no longer
economically viable.
Commercial samples often contain a large amount of impurities; they may be removed by sublimation. The
element may also be prepared in an ultrapure form through the reaction of potassium iodide with copper(II)
sulfate, which gives copper(II) iodide initially. That decomposes spontaneously to copper(I) iodide and iodine:

Cu2+ + 2 I– → CuI 2

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Iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2 CuI 2 → 2 CuI + I2
There are also other methods of isolating this element in the laboratory, for example the method used to
isolate other halogens: oxidation of the iodide in hydrogen iodide (often made in situ with an iodide and
sulfuric acid) by manganese dioxide (see below in Descriptive chemistry).

Isotopes [edit]

Main article: Isotopes of iodine

There are 37 known (characterized) isotopes of iodine, but only one, 127 I, is stable.

In many ways, 129 I is similar to 36 Cl. It is a soluble halogen, fairly non-reactive, exists mainly as a non-
sorbing anion, and is produced by cosmogenic, thermonuclear, and in-situ reactions. In hydrologic studies,
129 I concentrations are usually reported as the ratio of 129 I to total I (which is virtually all 127 I). As is the case

with 36 Cl/Cl, 129 I/I ratios in nature are quite small, 10 −14 to 10 −10 (peak thermonuclear 129 I/I during the
1960s and 1970s reached about 10 −7 ). 129 I differs from 36 Cl in that its half-life is longer (15.7 vs. 0.301
million years), it is highly biophilic, and occurs in multiple ionic forms (commonly, I− and IO3 − ) which have
different chemical behaviors. This makes it fairly easy for 129 I to enter the biosphere as it becomes
incorporated into vegetation, soil, milk, animal tissue, etc.

Excesses of stable 129 Xe in meteorites have been shown to result from decay of "primordial" iodine-129
produced newly by the supernovas which created the dust and gas from which the solar system formed. 129 I
was the first extinct radionuclide to be identified as present in the early solar system. Its decay is the basis of
the I-Xe Iodine-xenon radiometric dating scheme, which covers the first 85 million years of solar system
evolution.
Effects of various radioiodine isotopes in biology are discussed below.

History [edit]

Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in 1811. [9][10] He was born to a manufacturer of saltpeter (a vital
part of gunpowder). At the time of the Napoleonic Wars, France was at war and saltpeter was in great
demand. Saltpeter produced from French niter beds required sodium carbonate, which could be isolated from
seaweed washed up on the coasts of Normandy and Brittany. To isolate the sodium carbonate, seaweed was
burned and the ash then washed with water. The remaining waste was destroyed by adding sulfuric acid.
One day Courtois added too much sulfuric acid and a cloud of purple vapor rose. Courtois noted that the
vapor crystallized on cold surfaces making dark crystals. Courtois suspected that this was a new element but
lacked the money to pursue his observations.
However he gave samples to his friends, Charles Bernard Desormes (1777–1862) and Nicolas Clément
(1779–1841), to continue research. He also gave some of the substance to Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–
1850), a well-known chemist at that time, and to physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836). On 29
November 1813, Dersormes and Clément made public Courtois’s discovery. They described the substance to
a meeting of the Imperial Institute of France. On December 6, Gay-Lussac announced that the new
substance was either an element or a compound of oxygen. [11][12][13] Ampère had given some of his sample
to Humphry Davy (1778–1829). Davy did some experiments on the substance and noted its similarity to
chlorine. [14] Davy sent a letter dated December 10 to the Royal Society of London stating that he had
identified a new element.[15] A large argument erupted between Davy and Gay-Lussac over who identified
iodine first but both scientists acknowledged Courtois as the first to isolate the chemical element.

Applications [edit]

Disinfectant and water treatment [edit]

Elemental iodine is used as a disinfectant in various forms. The iodine exists as the element, or as the water
soluble triiodide anion I 3 - generated in situ by adding iodide to poorly-soluble iodine (the reverse chemical
reaction makes some free elemental iodine available for antisepsis). Alternatively, iodine may come from

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iodophors, which contain iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent (iodide ion may be thought of loosely as
the iodophor in triiodide water solutions). Examples of such preparations include:[16]
Tincture of iodine (iodine in ethanol, or iodine and sodium iodide in a mixture of ethanol and water)
Lugol's iodine (iodine and iodide in water, forming mostly triiodide)
Povidone iodine (an iodophor)

Staining [edit]

See also: Staining


Iodine is a common general stain used in thin-layer
chromatography. It is also used in the Gram stain as a mordant,
after the sample is treated with crystal violet.
In particular, iodine forms an intense blue complex with the glucose
polymers starch and glycogen. Many applications rely on this
property:
Iodometry. The concentration of an oxidant can be determined
by adding it to an excess of iodide with a little free iodine, to
destroy elemental iodine/triiodide as a result of oxidation by the
oxidant. A starch indicator is then used as the indicator close to Testing a seed for starch with a solution
the end-point, in order to increase the visual contrast (dark blue of iodine

becomes colorless, instead of the yellow of dilute triiodide


becoming colorless).
An Iodine test may be used to test a sample substance for the presence of starch.
The Iodine clock reaction is an extension of the techniques in iodometry.
Iodine solutions are used in counterfeit banknote detection pens; the premise being that counterfeit
banknotes made using commercially available paper contain starch.
Starch-iodide paper are used to test for the presence of oxidants such as peroxides. The oxidants convert
iodide to iodine, which shows up as blue. A solution of starch and iodide can perform the same
function. [17]
During colposcopy, Lugol's iodine is applied to the vagina and cervix. Normal vaginal tissue stains brown
due to its high glycogen content (a color-reaction similar to that with starch), while abnormal tissue
suspicious for cancer does not stain, and thus appears pale compared to the surrounding tissue. Biopsy of
suspicious tissue can then be performed. This is called a Schiller's Test.

Radiocontrast agent [edit]


Iodine, as a heavy element, is quite radio-opaque. Organic
compounds of a certain type (typically iodine-substituted benzene
derivatives) are thus used in medicine as X-ray radiocontrast
agents for intravenous injection. This is often in conjunction with
advanced X-ray techniques such as angiography and CT scanning

Radioiodine [edit]
Some radioactive iodine isotopes can be used to treat thyroid
cancer. The body accumulates iodine in the thyroid, thus
radioactive iodine can selectively damage growing thyroid cancer
Diatrizoic acid, a radiocontrast
cells while the radioactive dose to the rest of the body remains
small.

Iodine compounds [edit]

See also: Category:Iodine compounds


Iodine forms many compounds. Potassium iodide is the most commercially significant iodine compound. It is a

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convenient source of the iodide anion; it is easier to handle than sodium iodide because it is not hygroscopic.
Sodium iodide is especially useful in the Finkelstein reaction, because it is soluble in acetone, while
potassium iodide is poorly so. In this reaction, an alkyl chloride is converted to an alkyl iodide. This relies on
the insolubility of sodium chloride in acetone to drive the reaction:
R-Cl (acetone) + NaI (acetone) → R-I (acetone) + NaCl (s)
Iodic acid (HIO 3 ) and its salts are strong oxidizers. Periodic acid (HIO 4 ) cleaves vicinal diols along the C-C
bond to give aldehyde fragments. 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid and Dess-Martin periodinane are hypervalent iodine
oxidants used to specifically oxidize alcohols to ketones or aldehydes. Iodine pentoxide is a strong oxidant as
well.
Interhalogen compounds are well known; examples include iodine monochloride and trichloride; iodine
pentafluoride and heptafluoride.

HI He
IF,
I2 O 4 ,
IF 3 ,
LiI BeI 2 BI 3 CI4 NI3 I2 O 5 , Ne
IF 5 ,
I4 O 9
IF 7
PI 3 , ICl,
NaI MgI2 AlI 3 SiI 4 S Ar
P2 I4 ICl3
GeI2 ,
KI CaI 2 Sc TiI 4 VI 3 Cr MnI2 Fe CoI 2 NiI2 CuI ZnI2 Ga 2 I6 AsI3 Se IBr Kr
GeI4
SnI 4 ,
RbI SrI2 Y ZrI4 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd AgI CdI 2 InI 3 SbI 3 TeI4 I Xe
SnI 2
Hg 2 I2 ,
CsI BaI 2 Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt AuI TlI PbI 2 Bi Po At Rn
HgI 2
Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo

La Ce Pr Nd Pm SmI 2 Eu Gd TbI3 Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac ThI4 Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Organic compounds [edit]

See also: Organoiodine compound


Many organoiodine compounds exist, the simplest is iodomethane, approved as a soil fumigant. Iodinated
organics are used as synthetic reagents, and also radiocontrast agents.

Biologically active substances like the thyroid hormones are naturally occurring organoiodine compounds.[18]

Chemistry [edit]

Elemental iodine is poorly soluble in water, with one gram dissolving in 3450 ml at 20 °C and 1280 ml at
50 °C. By contrast with chlorine, the formation of the hypohalite ion (IO – ) in neutral aqueous solutions of
iodine is negligible.

I2 + H 2 O H + + I− + HIO (K = 2.0×10 −13) [19]


Solubility in water is greatly improved if the solution contains dissolved iodides such as hydroiodic acid,
potassium iodide, or sodium iodide; this extra solubility results from the high solubility of the I3 − ion. Dissolved
bromides also improve water solubility of iodine. Iodine is soluble in a number of organic solvents, including
ethanol (20.5 g/100 ml at 15 °C, 21.43 g/100 ml at 25 °C), diethyl ether (20.6 g/100 ml at 17 °C,
25.20 g/100 ml at 25 °C), chloroform, acetic acid, glycerol, benzene (14.09 g/100 ml at 25 °C), carbon
tetrachloride (2.603 g/100 ml at 35 °C), and carbon disulfide (16.47 g/100 ml at 25 °C). [20] Aqueous and

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ethanol solutions are brown. Solutions in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulfide are violet.
Molecular iodine can be prepared by oxidizing iodides with chlorine:

2 I− + Cl 2 → I2 + 2 Cl −

or with manganese dioxide in acid solution: [19]

2 I− + 4 H + + MnO 2 → I2 + 2 H 2 O + Mn 2+

Iodine is reduced to hydroiodic acid by hydrogen sulfide:[21]


I2 + H 2 S → 2 HI + S↓
or by hydrazine:
2 I 2 + N 2 H 4 → 4 HI + N 2

Iodine is oxidized to iodate by nitric acid:[22]


I2 + 10 HNO3 → 2 HIO 3 + 10 NO 2 + 4 H 2 O

or by chlorates: [22]

I2 + 2 ClO 3 − → 2 IO3 − + Cl 2
Iodine is converted in a two stage reaction to iodide and iodate in solutions of alkali hydroxides (such as
sodium hydroxide):[19]

I2 + 2 OH − → I− + IO− + H 2 O (K = 30)
3 IO− → 2 I− + IO3 − (K = 10 20 )

Despite having the lowest electronegativity of the common halogens, iodine reacts violently with some metals,
such as aluminum:
3 I2 + 2 Al → 2 AlI3
This reaction produces 314 kJ per mole of aluminum, comparable to thermite's 425 kJ. Yet the reaction
initiates spontaneously, and if unconfined, causes a cloud of gaseous iodine due to the high heat.
When dissolved in fuming sulfuric acid (65% oleum), iodine forms an intense blue solution. This has been
shown to be due to the formation of the I+2 cation, the result of iodine being oxidised by SO3 :[23]
2 I2 + 2 SO3 + H 2 SO4 → 2 I+2 + SO2 + 2 HSO −4
The I+2 cation is also formed in the oxidation of iodine by SbF5 or TaF 5 . The resulting I+2Sb2 F−11 or I+2Ta 2 F−11
can be isolated as deep blue crystals. The solutions of these salts turn red when cooled below −60 °C, due to
the formation of the I2+
4 cation:
[23]

2 I+2 I2+
4

Under slightly more alkaline conditions, I2+ +


4 disproportionates into I 3 and an iodine(III) compound. Excess
iodine can then react with I+3 to form I+5 (green) and I3+
15 (black).
[23]

Organic synthesis [edit]

With phosphorus, iodine is able to replace hydroxyl groups on alcohols with iodide. For example, the
synthesis of methyl iodide from methanol, red phosphorus, and iodine. [24] The iodinating reagent is
phosphorus triiodide that is formed in situ:
3 CH3 OH + PI 3 → 3 CH3 I + H 3 PO3
Phosphorous acid is formed as a side-product.
The iodoform test uses an alkaline solution of iodine to react with methyl ketones to give the labile
triiodomethide leaving group, forming iodoform which precipitates.
Iodine is sometimes used to activate magnesium when preparing Grignard reagents; aryl and alkyl iodides
both form Grignard reagents. Alkyl iodides such as iodomethane are good alkylating agents. Some drawbacks
to use of iodo-organics in chemical synthesis are:

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iodine compounds tend to be more expensive than the corresponding bromides and chlorides, in that
order
iodides tend to be much stronger alkylating agents, and so are more toxic (e.g. methyl iodide is very toxic
(T+) [25]
low molecular weight iodides tend to have a much higher equivalent weight, compared with other
alkylating agents (e.g. methyl iodide versus dimethyl carbonate), due to the atomic mass of iodine.

Clandestine synthetic chemical use [edit]

In the United States, the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) regards iodine and compounds containing iodine
(ionic iodides, iodoform, ethyl iodide, and so on) as reagents useful for the clandestine manufacture of
methamphetamine. Persons who attempt to purchase significant quantities of such chemicals without
establishing a legitimate use are likely to find themselves the target of a DEA investigation. Persons selling
such compounds without doing due diligence to establish that the materials are not being diverted to
clandestine use may be subject to stiff penalties, such as expensive fines or even imprisonment.[26][27]

Biological role [edit]

Main article: Iodine in biology


Iodine is an essential trace element for life, the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms, and
the second-heaviest known to be used by any form of life (only tungsten, a component of a few bacterial
enzymes, has a higher atomic number and atomic weight). Iodine's main role in animal biology is as
constituents of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These are made from addition
condensation products of the amino acid tyrosine, and are stored prior to release in an iodine-containing
protein called thyroglobulin. T4 and T3 contain four and three atoms of iodine per molecule, respectively. The
thyroid gland actively absorbs iodide from the blood to make and release these hormones into the blood,
actions which are regulated by a second hormone TSH from the pituitary. Thyroid hormones are
phylogenetically very old molecules which are synthesized by most multicellular organisms, and which even
have some effect on unicellular organisms.
Thyroid hormones play a basic role in biology, acting on gene transcription to regulate the basal metabolic
rate.[citation needed] The total deficiency of thyroid hormones can reduce basal metabolic rate up to 50%, while
in excessive production of thyroid hormones the basal metabolic rate can be increased by
100%.[citation needed] T4 acts largely as a precursor to T3, which is (with minor exceptions) the biologically
active hormone.

Extrathyroidal iodine [edit]

Iodine accounts for 65% of the molecular weight of T4 and 59% of the T3. 15–20 mg of iodine is
concentrated in thyroid tissue and hormones, but 70% of the body's iodine is distributed in other tissues,
including mammary glands, eyes, gastric mucosa, the cervix, and salivary glands. In the cells of these tissues
iodide enters directly by sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). Its role in mammary tissue is related to fetal and
neonatal development, but its role in the other tissues is unknown.[28] It has been shown to act as an
antioxidant in these tissues. [28]
Iodine may have a relationship with selenium, and iodine supplementation in selenium-deficient populations
may pose risks for thyroid function. [28]
The US Food and Nutrition Board and Institute of Medicine recommended daily allowance of iodine ranges
from 150 micrograms /day for adult humans to 290 micrograms /day for lactating mothers. However, the
thyroid gland needs no more than 70 micrograms /day to synthesize the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3.
These higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number
of body systems, including lactating breast, gastric mucosa, salivary glands, oral mucosa, thymus, epidermis,
choroid plexus, etc.[29][30][31]

Iodine and the development of cancer [edit]

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*Breast cancer. It is known that a diet lacking in iodine is connected with adverse health effects collectively
referred as iodine deficiency diseases or disorders. Studies also indicate that iodine deficiency, either dietary
or pharmacologic, can lead to breast atypia and increased incidence of malignancy in animal models, while
iodine treatment can reverse dysplasia.[32][33][34] Laboratory evidences demonstrate that the effect of iodine
on breast cancer is in part independent of thyroid function and that iodine inhibit cancer promotion through
modulation of the estrogen pathway. Gene array profiling of estrogen responsive breast cancer cell line shows
that the combination of iodine and iodide alters gene expression and inhibits the estrogen response through
up-regulating proteins involved in estrogen metabolism. Whether iodine/iodide will be useful as an adjuvant
therapy in the pharmacologic manipulation of the estrogen pathway in women with breast cancer has not
been determined clinically. [32]
*Iodine and stomach cancer. Some researchers have found an epidemiologic correlation between iodine
deficiency, iodine-deficient goitre and gastric cancer;[35] [36][37] a decrease of the incidence of death rate
from stomach cancer after implementation of the effective iodine-prophylaxis was reported too.[38] The
proposed mechanism of action is that iodide ion can function in gastric mucosa as an antioxidant reducing
species that can detoxify poisonous reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide.

Iodine and immunity [edit]

Iodine has important actions in the immune system. The high iodide-concentration of thymus suggests an
anatomical rationale for this role of iodine in immune system.[39][40][41][42][43][44]

Iodine in salivary glands and oral health [edit]


The trophic, antioxidant and apoptosis-inductor actions and the presumed anti-tumour activity of iodides might
also be important for prevention of oral and salivary glands diseases.[45][46][47][48][49][50]

Human dietary intake [edit]


The United States Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) is 150 micrograms per day (μg/day) for both men
and women, with a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for adults is 1,100 μg/day (1.1 mg/day). [51] The
tolerable upper limit was assessed by analyzing the effect of supplementation on thyroid-stimulating
hormone.[28]
Natural sources of iodine include sea life, such as kelp and certain seafood, as well as plants grown on
iodine-rich soil. [52][53] Iodized salt is fortified with iodine. [53]
As of 2000, the median intake of iodine from food in the United States was 240 to 300 μg/day for men and
190 to 210 μg/day for women. [51] In Japan, consumption is much higher due to the frequent consumption of
seaweed or kombu kelp. [28]
After iodine fortification programs (e.g. iodized salt) have been implemented, some cases of iodine-induced
hyperthyroidism have been observed (so called Jod-Basedow disease). The condition mainly seems to occur
in people over forty, and the risk appears higher when iodine deficiency is severe and the initial rise in iodine
intake is high. [54]

Deficiency [edit]

Main article: Iodine deficiency


In areas where there is little iodine in the diet, typically remote inland areas and semi-arid equatorial climates
where no marine foods are eaten, iodine deficiency gives rise to hypothyroidism, symptoms of which are
extreme fatigue, goitre, mental slowing, depression, weight gain, and low basal body temperatures. [55]
Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation, a result which occurs primarily when
babies or small children are rendered hypothyroidic by a lack of the element. The addition of iodine to table
salt has largely eliminated this problem in the wealthier nations, but as of March 2006, iodine deficiency
remained a serious public health problem in the developing world.[56] Iodine deficiency is also a problem in
certain areas of Europe. In Germany it has been estimated to cause a billion dollars in health care costs per
year.[28]

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Radioiodine in biology [edit]

Radioiodine and the thyroid [edit]


The most common compounds of iodine are the iodides of sodium (NaI) and potassium (KI) and the iodates
(KIO 3 ), as elemental iodine is mildly toxic to all living things. Normal iodine is an essential precursor for the
manufacture of thyroid hormone.

Due to preferential uptake of iodine by the thyroid, isotopes with short half lives such as I131 can be used for
thyroid ablation, a procedure in which radioactive iodine is administered intravenously or orally following a
diagnostic scan. This procedure is generally performed on patients with thyroid cancer or hyperfunctioning
thyroid tissue. After uptake, the iodine undergoes degeneration via beta decay, destroying its associated
thyroid tissue. Normally thyroidectomy is performed prior to ablation to avoid side effects of epilation and
radiation toxicity. The purpose of radioablation is to destroy remnant tissue that was unable to be removed
with surgery.
Lower energy isotopes such as iodine-123, and less commonly iodine-125, are used as tracers to evaluate
the anatomic and physiologic function of the thyroid. Abnormal results may be caused by disorders such as
Graves' Disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Potassium iodide has been distributed to populations exposed to nuclear fission accidents such as the
Chernobyl disaster. The iodide solution SSKI, a saturated solution of potassium (K) iodide in water, has
been used to block absorption of the radioiodine (it has no effect on other radioisotopes from fission). Tablets
containing potassium iodide are now also manufactured and stocked in central disaster sites by the
governments for this purpose. In theory, many harmful late-cancer effects of nuclear fallout might be
prevented in this way, since an excess of thyroid cancers, presumably due to radioiodine uptake, is the only
proven radioisotope contamination effect after a fission accident, or from contamination by fallout from an
atomic bomb (prompt radiation from the bomb also cases other cancers, such as leukemias, directly). Taking
large amounts of thyroid saturates iodide receptors prevents uptake of most radioactive iodine-131 that may
be present from fission product exposure (although it does not protect from other radioisotopes, nor from any
other form of direct radiation). The protective effect of KI lasts approximately 24 hours, so must be dosed daily
until a risk of significant exposure to radioiodines from fission products no longer exists.[57][58] Iodine-131
(the most common radioiodine contaminant in fallout) also decays relatively rapidly with a half-life of 8 days,
so that 99.95% of the original radioiodine is gone after three months.

Iodine 125 [edit]

Iodine-125 is also commonly used by radiation oncologists in low dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of
cancer at sites other than the thyroid, especially in prostate cancer. The radioiodine is encapsulated in
titanium seeds and implanted in the area of tumor involvement. In contrast to the blood-borne dissemination
of radioiodine used in the thyroid, the radioiodine acts only locally in the area where it is implanted.

Iodine 129 [edit]

Iodine-129 ( 129 I; half-life 15.7 million years) is a product of cosmic ray spallation on various isotopes of
xenon in the atmosphere, in cosmic ray muon interaction with tellurium-130, and also uranium and plutonium
fission, both in subsurface rocks and nuclear reactors. Artificial nuclear processes, in particular nuclear fuel
reprocessing and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, have now swamped the natural signal for this isotope.
Nevertheless, it now serves as a groundwater tracer as indicator of nuclear waste dispersion into the natural
environment. In a similar fashion, 129 I was used in rainwater studies to track fission products following the
Chernobyl disaster.

Radioiodine and the kidney [edit]


In the 1970s imaging techniques were developed to employ radioiodine in diagnostics for renal hypertension;
however methods using other chemical compounds, such as DMSA, are more popular in clinics nowadays.

Precautions and toxicity of elemental iodine [edit]

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Elemental iodine is an oxidizing irritant and direct contact with skin can cause lesions, so iodine crystals
should be handled with care. Solutions with high elemental iodine concentration such as tincture of iodine are
capable of causing tissue damage if use for cleaning and antisepsis is prolonged.
Elemental iodine (I2 ) is poisonous if taken orally in larger amounts; 2–3 grams of it is a lethal dose for an
adult human.
Iodine vapor is very irritating to the eye, to mucous membranes, and in the respiratory tract. Concentration of
iodine in the air should not exceed 1 mg/m³ (eight-hour time-weighted average).
When mixed with ammonia and water, elemental iodine forms nitrogen triiodide which is extremely shock
sensitive and can explode unexpectedly.

Toxicity of iodide ion [edit]

Excess iodine has symptoms similar to those of iodine deficiency. Commonly encountered symptoms are
abnormal growth of the thyroid gland and disorders in functioning and growth of the organism as a whole.
Iodides are similar in toxicity to bromides.[citation needed]

Iodine sensitivity [edit]

Some people develop a sensitivity to iodine. Application of tincture of iodine can cause a rash. Some cases of
reaction to Povidone-iodine (Betadine) have been documented to be a chemical burn.[59] Eating iodine-
containing foods can cause hives. Medical use of iodine (i.e. as a contrast agent, see above) can cause
anaphylactic shock in highly iodine sensitive patients. Some cases of sensitivity to iodine can be formally
classified as iodine allergies. Iodine sensitivity is rare but has a considerable effect given the extremely
widespread use of iodine-based contrast media [60] .

See also [edit]

Iodide as an antioxidant
Chemical oxygen iodine laser
Nutrition facts label
Starch indicator

References [edit]

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expression in extrathyroidal tissues and cloning of its complementary deoxyribonucleic acid from salivary gland, mammary
gland, and gastric mucosa". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 83: 1746. doi:10.1210/jc.83.5.1746 .
31. ^ Banerjee, R.K., Bose, A.K., Chakraborty, t.K., de, S.K. and datta, A.G. (1985). "Peroxidase catalysed iodotyrosine
formation in dispersed cells of mouse extrathyroidal tissues". J Endocrinol. 2: 159.
32. ^ a b Stoddard II, F. R.; Brooks, A. D.; Eskin, B. A.; Johannes, G. J. (2008). "Iodine Alters Gene Expression in the MCF7
Breast Cancer Cell Line: Evidence for an Anti-Estrogen Effect of Iodine" . International Journal of Medical Science 5 (4):
189. PMID 18645607 . PMC 2452979 .
33. ^ Eskin, B. A.; Grotkowski, C. E.; Connolly, C. P.; Ghent W. R.; (1995). "Different tissue responses for iodine and iodide in
rat thyroid and mammary glands". Bioligal Trace Elements Research 49 (5): 9. doi:10.1007/BF02788999 . PMID
14965610 .
34. ^ Venturi, S.; Grotkowski, CE; Connolly, CP; Ghent, WR (2001). "Is there a role for iodine in breast diseases?". The Breast
10 (1): 379. doi:10.1054/brst.2000.0267 . PMID 7577324 .
35. ^ Josefssson M, Ekblad E. (2009). Victor R. Preedy, Gerard N. Burrow MD, Ronald Watson. ed. Sodium Iodide Symporter
(NIS) in Gastric Mucosa: Gastric Iodide Secretion. In: Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine: Nutritional, Biochemical,
Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects.
36. ^ Abnet CC, Fan JH, Kamangar F, Sun XD, Taylor PR, Ren JS, Mark SD, Zhao P, Fraumeni JF Jr, Qiao YL, Dawsey SM
(2006). Self-reported goiter is associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma in a large
population-based Chinese cohort.. 119. p. 1508.
37. ^ Behrouzian R, Aghdami N. (2004). East Mediterr Health J.. 10. p. 921.
38. ^ Golkowski F, Szybinski Z, Rachtan J, Sokolowski A, Buziak-Bereza M, Trofimiuk M, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Przybylik-
Mazurek E, Huszno B. (2007). "Iodine prophylaxis--the protective factor against stomach cancer in iodine deficient areas".
Eur J Nutr. 46: 251. doi:10.1007/s00394-007-0657-8 .
39. ^ Venturi S, Venturi M (September 2009). "Iodine, thymus, and immunity". Nutrition 25 (9): 977–9.
doi:10.1016/j.nut.2009.06.002 . PMID 19647627 .
40. ^ Venturi S.; Venturi A, Cimini D, Arduini C, Venturi M, Guidi A. (1993). "A new hypothesis: iodine and gastric cancer.".
Europ. J. Cancer. Prev. 2: 17.
41. ^ Marani L; Venturi S, Masala R (1985). "Role of iodine in delayed immune response.". Isr. J. Med. Sci. 21: 864.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine[2/19/2010 12:34:01 AM]


Iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

42. ^ Ma F; Zhao W, Kudo M, Aoki K, Misumi J. (2002). "Inhibition of vacuolation toxin activity of Helicobacter pylori by iodine,
nitrite and potentiation by sodium chloride, sterigmatocystin and fluoride.". Toxicol in Vitro 16: 531. doi:10.1016/S0887-
2333(02)00045-0 .
43. ^ Klebanoff S.J. (1967). "Iodination of bacteria: A bacterial mechanism.". J Exp Med 126: 1063.
doi:10.1084/jem.126.6.1063 .
44. ^ "Iodine enhances ig-G-synthesis by human peripheral blood Iyphocytes in vitro.". Acta Endocr 103: 103. 1983.
45. ^ Venturi S.; Venturi M. (2009). "Iodine in evolution of salivary glands and in oral health". Nutrition and Health 20 (2): 119–
134. PMID 19835108 .
46. ^ Bahar, G.; Feinmesser, R.; Shpitzer, T.; Popovtzer, A.; Nagler, R.M. (2007). "Salivary analysis in oral cancer patients:
DNA and protein oxidation, reactive nitrogen species, and antioxidant profile". Cancer 109 (1): 54–59.
doi:10.1002/cncr.22386 . PMID 17099862 .
47. ^ Banerjee, R.K.; Bose, A.K.; Chakraborty, T.K.; De, S.K.; Datta, A.G. (1985). "Peroxidase-catalysed iodotyrosine formation
in dispersed cells of mouse extrathyroidal tissues". J Endocrinol 2: 159–165.
48. ^ Banerjee, R.K.; Datta, A.G. (1986). "Salivary peroxidases". Mol Cell Biochem 70 (1): 21–29. PMID 3520291 .
49. ^ Bartelstone, H. J. (1951). "Radioiodine penetration through intact enamel with uptake by bloodstream and thyroid gland".
J Dent Res 5: 728–733.
50. ^ Bartelstone, H.J.; Mandel, I.D.; Oshry, E.; Seidlin, S.M. (1947). "Use of radioactive iodine as a tracer in the Study of the
Physiology of teeth". Science 106: 132.
51. ^ a b United States National Research Council (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron,
Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc . National Academies
Press. pp. 258–259.
52. ^ "Sources of iodine" . International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.
53. ^ a b "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Iodine in diet" .
54. ^ Wu T, Liu GJ, Li P, Clar C (2002). "Iodised salt for preventing iodine deficiency disorders". Cochrane Database Syst Rev
(3): CD003204. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003204 . PMID 12137681 .
55. ^ Felig, Philip; Frohman, Lawrence A. (2001). "Endemic Goiter" . Endocrinology & metabolism. McGraw-Hill Professional.
ISBN 9780070220010.
56. ^ "Micronutrients - Iodine, Iron and Vitamin A" . UNICEF.
57. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide" . Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
58. ^ "Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies" . Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved
2009-06-06.
59. ^ D. O. Lowe, S. R. Knowles, E. A. Weber, C. J. Railton, and N. H. Shear (2006). "Povidone-iodine-induced burn: case
report and review of the literature". Pharmacotherapy 26: 1641-5. doi:10.1592/phco.26.11.1641 .
60. ^ Katelaris, Constance (2009). "'Iodine Allergy' label is misleading". Australian Prescriber, Vol. 32, 125-128. Available at
http://www.australianprescriber.com/magazine/32/5/125/8/

External links [edit]

"Micronutrient Research for Optimum Health", Linus Pauling


Wikimedia Commons has media
Institute, OSU Oregon State University
related to: Iodine
ATSDR - CSEM: Radiation Exposure from Iodine 131 U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services (public domain)
Look up iodine in Wiktionary,
ChemicalElements.com - Iodine the free dictionary.
who.int, WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency
Oxidizing Agents > Iodine
WebElements.com – Iodine

v• d • e Diatomic chemical elements

Hydrogen H2 | Nitrogen N2 | Oxygen O 2 | Fluorine F2 | Chlorine Cl 2 | Bromine Br2 | Iodine I 2 | Astatine At 2 |

v• d • e Iodine compounds

ICN · ICl · ICl 3 · IF3 · IF5 · IF7 · I 2 O 5

v• d • e Periodic table
H He

Li Be B C N O F Ne

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Iodine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe

Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo

Uue Ubn

Alkaline earth Transition Other


Alkali metals Lanthanoids Actinoids Other metals Metalloids Halogens Noble gases
metals metals nonmetals

Categories: Dietary minerals | Iodine | Halogens | DEA List I chemicals | Biology and pharmacology of
chemical elements | Chemical elements

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Astatine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Astatine (pronounced /'æstəti n/ AS-tə-teen or /'æstət n/ AS-


polonium ← astatine → radon
tət-in) is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol At
I
and atomic number 85. It is the heaviest of the discovered 85 At
navigation ↑
halogens. Although astatine is produced by radioactive decay in
Main page At
nature, due to its short half life it is found only in minute
Contents ↓
amounts. Astatine was first produced by Dale R. Corson, Periodic table
Featured content Uus
Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, and Emilio Segrè in 1940. Three
Current events
years passed before traces of astatine were also found in Appearance
Random article
natural minerals. Until recently most of the physical and black solid (presumed)
search chemical characteristics of astatine were inferred from
General properties
comparison with other elements. Some astatine isotopes are
Name, symbol, astatine, At, 85
Go Search
used as alpha-particle emitters in science applications, and
number
medical applications for astatine 211 have been tested. Astatine
interaction is currently the rarest naturally-occurring element, with less Element category halogens
About Wikipedia than 30g estimated to be contained in the entire Earth's Group, period, block 17, 6, p
Community portal crust.[1]
Standard atomic (210) g·mol−1
Recent changes
weight
Contact Wikipedia Contents [hide]
Donate to Wikipedia 1 Characteristics Electron configuration [Xe] 4f 14 5d 10 6s 2 6p 5
Help
2 History Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7
toolbox 3 Occurrence (Image)

What links here 3.1 Production


Physical properties
Related changes 4 Compounds
Phase solid
Upload file 5 Isotopes
Special pages 6 Applications Melting point 575 K, 302 °C, 576 °F

Printable version 7 Precautions Boiling point 610 K, 337 °C, 639 °F


Permanent link 8 References
Heat of vaporization 40 kJ·mol−1
Cite this page 9 External links
Vapor pressure
languages
Characteristics [edit]
P/Pa 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k
Azərbaycan
This highly radioactive element has been confirmed by mass at T/K 361 392 429 475 531 607

Беларуская
spectrometers to behave chemically much like other halogens,
especially iodine (it would probably accumulate in the thyroid Atomic properties
Bosanski
Български gland like iodine), though astatine is thought to be more metallic Oxidation states ±1, 3, 5, 7
Català than iodine. Researchers at the Brookhaven National
Electronegativity 2.2 (Pauling scale)
Ч вашла Laboratory have performed experiments that have identified
Ionization energies 1st: 890±40 kJ·mol−1
Česky and measured elementary reactions that involve astatine; [2]
Corsu however, chemical research into astatine is limited by its Covalent radius 150 pm
Dansk extreme rarity, which is a consequence of its extremely short Van der Waals radius 202 pm
Deutsch half-life. Its most stable isotope has a half-life of around 8.3
Miscellanea
Eesti hours. The final products of the decay of astatine are isotopes
Ελληνικά of lead. The halogens get darker in color with increasing Magnetic ordering no data
Español
molecular weight and atomic number. Thus, following the trend, Thermal conductivity (300 K) 1.7 W·m −1 ·K −1
Esperanto
astatine would be expected to be a nearly black solid, which, CAS registry number 7440-68-8
Euskara
when heated, sublimes into a dark, purplish vapor (darker than
Most stable isotopes
iodine). Astatine is expected to form ionic bonds with metals
Français Main article: Isotopes of astatine

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Astatine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

such as sodium, like the other halogens, but it can be displaced


Furlan
from the salts by lighter, more reactive halogens. Astatine can
Gaeilge
also react with hydrogen to form hydrogen astatide, which when iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
Gaelg
Galego dissolved in water, forms the exceptionally strong hydroastatic 210 At trace 8.1 h ε, β + 3.981 210 Po

Hak-kâ-fa acid. Astatine is the least reactive of the halogens, being less α 5.631 206 Bi

reactive than iodine. [3] 211 At syn 7.2 h

Hrvatski History [edit]


This box: view • talk • edit
Ido
Bahasa Indonesia
The existence of "eka-iodine" had been predicted by Dmitri
Íslenska Mendeleev. Astatine (after Greek αστατος astatos, meaning "unstable") was first synthesized in 1940 by Dale
Italiano R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, and Emilio Segrè at the University of California, Berkeley by
‫עברית‬ bombarding bismuth with alpha particles. [4]
Basa Jawa As the periodic table of elements was long known, several scientists tried to find the element following iodine
in the halogen group. The unknown substance was called Eka-iodine before its discovery because the name
Қазақша
of the element was to be suggested by the discoverer. The claimed discovery in 1931 at the Alabama
Kiswahili
Polytechnic Institute (now Auburn University) by Fred Allison and associates, led to the spurious name for the
Latina
element as alabamine (Ab) for a few years. [5][6][7] This discovery was later shown to be an erroneous one.
Latviešu
Lëtzebuergesch The name dakin was proposed for this element in 1937 by the chemist Rajendralal De working in Dhaka,
Lietuvių Bangladesh. [8]
Líguru
The name helvetium was chosen by the Swiss chemist Walter Minder, when he announced the discovery of
Lojban
element 85 in 1940, but changed his suggested name to anglohelvetium in 1942. [9]
Magyar
It took three years before astatine was found as product of the natural decay processes. The short-lived
element was found by the two scientists Berta Karlik and Traude Bernert.[10][11]
Монгол
Nederlands Occurrence [edit]

Norsk (bokmål) Astatine occurs naturally in three natural radioactive decay series, but because of its short half-life is found
Norsk (nynorsk) only in minute amounts. Astatine-218 ( 218 At) is found in the uranium series, 216 At is in the thorium series,
Occitan and 215 At as well as 219 At are in the actinium series[12] . The most long-lived of these naturally-occurring
astatine isotopes is 219 At with a half-life of 56 seconds.
Polski
Astatine is the rarest naturally-occurring element, with the total amount in Earth's crust estimated to be less
Português
than 1 oz (28 g) at any given time. This amounts to less than one teaspoon of the element. Guinness World
Română
Runa Simi
Records has dubbed the element the rarest on Earth, stating: "Only around 0.9 oz (25 g) of the element
Русский astatine (At) occurring naturally". Isaac Asimov, in a 1957 essay on large numbers, scientific notation, and the
Seeltersk size of the atom, wrote that in "all of North and South America to a depth of ten miles", the number of
Sicilianu astatine-215 atoms at any time is "only a trillion". [13]
Simple English
Slovenčina Production [edit]
Slovenščina Astatine is produced by bombarding bismuth with energetic alpha particles to obtain the relatively long-lived
Српски / Srpski isotopes 209 At through 211 At, which can then be distilled from the target by heating in the presence of air.
Srpskohrvatski /
The energy of the alpha particles determine which isotopes are produced:
Српскохрватски
Suomi Reaction Energy of alpha particle
Svenska 209 4 211 1
Tagalog 83 Bi + 2α → 85 At +2 0n 26 MeV[14]
209
83 Bi + 42 α → 210
85 At + 3 10 n 40 MeV[14]
Türkçe 209
83 Bi + 42 α → 209
85 At + 4 10 n 60 MeV[15]
Українська

Uyghurche / Compounds [edit]


Tiếng Việt
Winaray Multiple compounds of astatine have been synthesized in microscopic amounts and studied as intensively as

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astatine[2/19/2010 12:36:14 AM]


Astatine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Yorùbá possible before their inevitable radioactive disintegration. The reactions are normally tested with dilute
solutions of astatine mixed with larger amounts of iodine. The iodine acts as a carrier, ensuring that there is
sufficient material for laboratory techniques such as filtration and precipitation to work. [14][16]
While these compounds are primarily of theoretical interest, they are being studied for potential use in nuclear
medicine.[17] Astatine is expected to form ionic bonds with metals such as sodium, like the other halogens,
but it can be displaced from the salts by lighter, more reactive halogens. Astatine can also react with
hydrogen to form hydrogen astatide (HAt), which when dissolved in water, forms hydroastatic acid.
Some examples of astatic compounds are:
Sodium astatide (NaAt)
Magnesium astatide (MgAt 2 )
Carbon tetraastatide (CAt4 )

Isotopes [edit]

Main article: isotopes of astatine


Astatine has 33 known isotopes, all of which are radioactive; the range of their mass numbers is from 191 to
223. There exist also 23 metastable excited states. The longest-lived isotope is 210 At, which has a half-life of
8.1 hours; the shortest-lived known isotope is 213 At, which has a half-life of 125 nanoseconds.[18]

Applications [edit]

The least stable isotopes of astatine have no practical applications other than scientific study due to their
extremely short life, but heavier isotopes have medical uses. Astatine-211 is an alpha emitter with a physical
half-life of 7.2 h. These features have led to its use in radiation therapy.[19] An investigation of the efficacy of
astatine-211–tellurium colloid for the treatment of experimental malignant ascites in mice reveals that this
alpha-emitting radiocolloid can be curative without causing undue toxicity to normal tissue. By comparison,
beta-emitting phosphorus-32 as colloidal chromic phosphate had no antineoplastic activity. The most
compelling explanation for this striking difference is the dense ionization and short range of action associated
with alpha-emission. These results have important implications for the development and use of alpha-emitters
as radiocolloid therapy for the treatment of human tumors. [20]

Precautions [edit]

Since astatine is extremely radioactive, it should be handled with extreme care. Because of its extreme rarity,
it is not likely that the general public will be exposed.
Astatine is a halogen, and standard precautions apply. It is reactive, sharing similar chemical characteristics
with iodine.
There are toxicologic studies of astatine-211 on mice indicating that radioactive poisoning is the major effect
on living organisms. [21]

References [edit]

1. ^ Close, Frank. Particle Physics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press: New York, 2004. Page 2.
2. ^ C. R. Hammond (2004). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN
0849304857.
3. ^ Anders, E. (1959). "Technetium and Astatine Chemistry". Annual Review of Nuclear Science 9: 203–220.
doi:10.1146/annurev.ns.09.120159.001223 .
4. ^ D. R. Corson, K. R. MacKenzie, and E. Segrè (1940). "Artificially Radioactive Element 85". Phys. Rev. 58: 672–678.
doi:10.1103/PhysRev.58.672 .
5. ^ Fred Allison, Edgar J. Murphy, Edna R. Bishop, and Anna L. Sommer (1931). "Evidence of the Detection of Element 85 in
Certain Substances". Phys. Rev. 37: 1178–1180. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.37.1178 .
6. ^ "Alabamine & Virginium" . time. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
7. ^ Trimble, R. F. (1975). "What happened to alabamine, virginium, and illinium?". J. Chem. Educ. 52: 585.

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Astatine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

8. ^ 85 Astatine
9. ^ Alice Leigh-Smith, Walter Minder (1942). "Experimental Evidence of the Existence of Element 85 in the Thorium Family".
Nature 150: 767–768. doi:10.1038/150767a0 .
10. ^ Karlik, Berta; Bernert, Traude (1943). "Eine neue natürliche α-Strahlung". Naturwissenschaften 31 (25–26): 298–299.
doi:10.1007/BF01475613 .
11. ^ Karlik, Berta; Bernert, Trande (1943). "Das Element 85 in den natürlichen Zerfallsreihen". Zeitschrift für Physik 123 (1–2):
51–72. doi:10.1007/BF01375144 .
12. ^ "astatine (At)" . Encyclopedia Britannica online. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
13. ^ http://ia331335.us.archive.org/1/items/onlyatrillion017765mbp/onlyatrillion017765mbp_djvu.txt
14. ^ a b c Nefedov, V. D.; Norseev, Yu V; Toropova, M A; Khalkin, Vladimir A (1968). "Astatine". Russ. Chem. Rev. 37: 87–
98. doi:10.1070/RC1968v037n02ABEH001603 .
15. ^ Barton, G. W.; Ghiorso, A.; Perlman, I. (1951). "Radioactivity of Astatine Isotopes". Physical Reviews 82 (1): 13–19.
doi:10.1103/PhysRev.82.13 .
16. ^ Aten Jun., A. H. W.; Doorgeest, T.; Hollstein, U.; Moeken, H. P. (1952). "Section 5: radiochemical methods. Analytical
chemistry of astatine". Analyst 77: 774–777. doi:10.1039/AN9527700774 .
17. ^ Boyd, Jade (1007-08-27). "Nuclear Nanocapsules, The New Cancer Weapon" . Medical News Today. Retrieved 2008-
11-05.
18. ^ Audi, Georges (2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A (Atomic Mass
Data Center) 729: 3–128. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001 .
19. ^ Wilbur, D. S. (1 October 2001). "Overcoming the Obstacles to Clinical Evaluation of 211At-Labeled
Radiopharmaceuticals." . Journal Nuclear Medicine 42 (10): 1516–1518.
20. ^ Bloomer, W. D.; McLaughlin, WH; Neirinckx, RD; Adelstein, SJ; Gordon, PR; Ruth, TJ; Wolf, AP (1981). "Astatine-211--
tellurium radiocolloid cures experimental malignant ascites" . Science 212 (4492): 340–341.
doi:10.1126/science.7209534 . PMID 7209534 .
21. ^ Cobb, L.M.; Harrison, A.; Butler, S.A. (1988). "Toxicity of Astatine-211 in the Mouse". Human & Experimental Toxicology
7: 529. doi:10.1177/096032718800700602 .

External links [edit]

WebElements.com - Astatine
Wikimedia Commons has media
Doc Brown's Chemistry Clinic - Group 7 The Halogens related to: Astatine
Chemistry in its element podcast (MP3) from the Royal
Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World: Astatine
Look up astatine in Wiktionary,
the free dictionary.

v• d • e Diatomic chemical elements

Hydrogen H2 | Nitrogen N2 | Oxygen O 2 | Fluorine F2 | Chlorine Cl 2 | Bromine Br2 | Iodine I 2 | Astatine At 2 |

v• d • e Periodic table
H He

Li Be B C N O F Ne

Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe

Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo

Uue Ubn

Alkaline earth Transition Other


Alkali metals Lanthanoids Actinoids Other metals Metalloids Halogens Noble gases
metals metals nonmetals

Categories: Chemical elements | Halogens | Astatine

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Astatine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This page was last modified on 17 February 2010 at 18:00.


Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of
Use for details.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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