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You are on page 1of 6

42 Spring 2005

Prof. A.H. Techet

Spring 2005

1. Radiation and Diffraction Potentials

The total potential is a linear superposition of the incident, diffraction, and radiation potentials,

= (I + D + R ) eit .

(1)

The radiation potential is comprised of six components due to the motions in the six directions,

direction for a body floating in a quiescent fluid. The resulting body boundary condition follows

from lecture 15:

= i n j ; ( j = 1, 2, 3)

(2)

= i (r n) j 3 ; ( j = 4, 5, 6)

(3)

n

j

n

r = ( x, y, z )

(4)

n = n j ( j = 1, 2, 3) = (nx , ny , nz )

(5)

In order to meet all the boundary conditions we must have waves that radiate away from the body.

Thus j e ikx as x .

For the diffraction problem we know that the derivative of the total potential (here the incident

potential plus the diffraction potential without consideration of the radiation potential) normal to

the body surface is zero on the body:

version 1.0

updated 3/29/2005

T

n

= 0 on S B , where T = I + D .

-1-

2005, aht

= D ; on S B

n

n

(6)

We have so far talked primarily about the incident potential. The formulation of the incident

potential is straight forward from the boundary value problem (BVP) setup in lecture 15. There

exist several viable forms of this potential function each are essentially a phase shifted version of

another. The diffraction potential can also be found in the same fashion using the BVP for the

diffraction potential with the appropriate boundary condition on the body. This potential can be

approximated for a long wave condition. This long wave approximation assumes that the incident

wavelength is very long compared to the body diameter and thus the induced velocity field from

the incident waves on the structure can be assumed constant over the body and approximated by

the following equation:

i I

1 + I 2 + I 3

y

z

x

(7)

Ultimately, if we assume the body to be sufficiently small as not to affect the pressure field due to

an incident wave, then we can diffraction effects can be completely ignored. This assumption

comes from the Froude-Krylov hypothesis and assures a resulting excitation force equivalent to

the froude-krylov force:

F FK (t ) =

version 1.0

updated 3/29/2005

-2-

I

n dS

t

(8)

2005, aht

z

x

T

B

Deep water incident wave potential is:

I =

a kz

e Re i ei (t kx )

k

(9)

The force in the vertical direction is found from the incident potential using eq. 8 along the bottom

of the vessel. Here the normal in the z-direction, nz , is negative: nz = 1 , so the force per unit

length in the z-direction is

ia kT i (t kx )

B/ 2

i

FzFK = Re

e e

dx

B/ 2

k

o 2

k2

= Re

(10)

(11)

= Re 2 2 a e kT eit sin(kB/ 2)

k

eiz e iz

2i

(12)

Using the vertical velocity we can rewrite the force in terms of the velocity.

version 1.0

updated 3/29/2005

w(t ) = Re a ekz i ei (t kx )

(13)

w(t ) = Re a 2 e kz ei (t kx )

(14)

w( x = 0, z = 0, t ) = Re a 2 eit

(15)

-3-

2005, aht

Now we can write the force in the vertical direction as a function of the vertical (heave)

acceleration,

2

Fz = Re 2 e kT sin(kB / 2) w(0, 0, t ) .

k

(16)

Lets look at the case where 0 the wavenumber, k = 2 /g 0 , also goes to zero and the

following simplifications can be made:

e kt

1 kT

sin(kB/ 2)

(17)

kB/ 2

(18)

k2

Re 2

FzFK

a (1 kT ) (kB/ 2) eit

(19)

2 it

Re g aB 1

Te

(20)

If we look at the case where 0 and consider the heave restoring coefficient, C33 = g B ,

and the free surface elevation, ( x, t ) = Re a ei (t kx ) we can rewrite this force as

Re {C33 ( x = 0, t )}

FzFK

(21)

The horizontal force on the vessel above can be found in a similar fashion to the vertical force.

Fx =

SB

= Re i

i a

k

I

nx dS

t

(22)

e kz dz ei (t kB/ 2) ei (t + kB/ 2)

(23)

a 2

kT i t

= Re i

2 sin( kB/ 2)

1 e

e

version 1.0

updated 3/29/2005

-4-

(24)

2005, aht

As frequency approaches zero similar simplifications can be made like above for the vertical

force:

a 2

Re i

( KT ) eit 2 kB/ 2

k

Fx (t )

(25)

u (t ) = Re a ekz ei (t kx )

(26)

u (t ) = Re i a 2 e kz ei (t kx )

(27)

Fx (t )

Re { TB u ( x = 0, z = 0, t )}

(28)

Where TB = , and is the vessel volume such that we are left with the surge force

(29)

C33 + w

(30)

Fx

Fz

z

-B/2

B/2

T

Lets look at the force in the x-direction:

FxFK

bT u ( x = B/ 2, z = 0, t ) + bT u ( x = B/ 2, z = 0, t )

(31)

( x, t ) = a cos(t kx)

(32)

u ( x, z, t ) = a 2 e kz sin(t kx)

(33)

(34)

version 1.0

updated 3/29/2005

-5-

2005, aht

FxFK

(35)

2 b T (a 2 ) cos(kB/ 2) sin(t )

(36)

z

-B/2

B/2

c

b

Use the same assumptions from above to find the x-force adjusted for the additional pontoon

between the two hulls.

FxFK

2 b T (a 2 ) cos(kB/ 2) sin(t )

+c p ( x = B / 2 + b / 2, z = 0, t )

c p ( x = B / 2 b / 2, z = 0, t )

The last two terms are the adjustment to the force for the addition of the pontoon, FxFK (t ) .

k

2

(37)

FxFK (t )

version 1.0

updated 3/29/2005

-6-

(38)

2005, aht

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