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Shrinkage Effect on Beams Strengthened with Additional Concrete Layers

Dr Andreas
LAMPROPOULOS
Senior Lecturer in Civil
Engineering, University of
Brighton, UK
a.lampropoulos@brighton.ac.uk
Andreas Lampropoulosis a Senior
Lecturer in Civil Engineer at the
University of Brighton in UK. He
received his diploma, masters, and PhD
from the University of Patras in Greece,
in 2003, 2005, and 2010, respectively.
His research interests include the
development of new concrete materials
and the earthquake strengthening of
existing structures.

Dr Ourania
TSIOULOU
Civil Engineer
tsioulou@hotmail.com
OuraniaTsioulouis a Civil Engineer.
She received her diploma, masters,
and PhD from the University of
Patras in 2003, 2005, and 2010,
respectively. Her research interests
include the strengthening of existing
concrete members with concrete
layers and jackets, and the
experimental and analytical
investigation of concrete interface
behaviour.

Prof.Stephanos
DRITSOS
Professor in Civil
Engineering, University of
Patras, Greece
dritsos@upatras.gr
Stephanos Dritsosis a Professor in
the Department of Civil
Engineering at the University of
Patras. He received his PhD in
civil engineering from the
University of Patras in 1986. His
research interests include the
seismic assessment and redesign
of existing buildings and the
repair and/or strengthening of
concrete structures.

Summary
A common technique used to increase the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete beams is the
addition of concrete layers in the compressive or in the tensile side. Until now, there are limited
studies for the effect of the concrete shrinkage on the performance of the strengthened beams. In
most of the published studies, concrete shrinkage is ignored and perfect connection is assumed
between the old and the new concrete which is not conservative. In this study full scale beams
strengthened with additional concrete layers in the tensile side have been investigated. The results
of an experimental investigation together with numerical and analytical results are presented. The
crucial effect of the concrete shrinkage on the slip of the interface is highlighted and the interaction
between the slip induced by concrete shrinkage and the slip due to bending loading is presented.
Keywords:concrete, strengthening, beams, shrinkage, interfaces

1.

Introduction

The technique of strengthening using additional concrete layers or jackets is extensively used in
earthquake prone areas to improve the performance of existing structures. In case of strengthening
with additional concrete layers, the shrinkage of the additional concrete layer induces additional
stresses and slip at the interface. There are studies where the effect of restrained concrete shrinkage
has been investigated [1-9] and the importance of this phenomenon has been highlighted. However,
there are not any published studiesabout the interaction of the slip due to the shrinkage of the new
layer and the slip induced during the bending of the strengthened specimens. In this paper
experimental results of full scale tests are used for the validation of the numerical and analytical
models. A parametric study has been conducted to quantify the contribution of concrete shrinkage
to the interface slip for different shrinkage strain values.

2. Experimental, Analytical and Numerical investigation


The experimental results presented in this section are part of an extensive experimental
investigation[1]. Strengthened beams with additional layers have been testedand the effectiveness
of this technique has been investigated for different interface types[10]. Together with the flexural
tests of the beams, shrinkage measurements havealso been conducted (Figure 1).

Fig. 1: Shrinkage measurements and bending tests


The results of the experimental work are used to validate the numerical and the analytical models. A
parametric study has been conducted using different values of free concrete shrinkage strain. The
slip at the interface after bending, taking into account shrinkage effect, is presented in figure 2 for
shrinkage strain values 200, 480, 600 and 800 microstrains. The slip due to shrinkage only and the
shrinkage due to bending without shrinkage are presented at the same figure. Using these results,the

ratio
has been calculated for different free concrete

200 microstrains
Shrinkage
Shrinkage & bending
480 microstrains
Shrinkage
Shrinkage & bending
600 microstrains
Shrinkage
Shrinkage & bending
800 microstrains
Shrinkage
Shrinkage & bending

0.0

0.5

1.0
1.5
2.0
Interface length (m)

2.5

2.6
2.4
Maximum slip due to Bending

Bending
(without shrinkage)

2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

Maximum slip due to Bending and Shrinkage

Interface slip (mm)

shrinkage strain values (Figure 2b).

2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0

200
400
600
Shrinkage (microstrains)

800

(b)
(a)
Fig. 2: a) Numerical results for slip distribution at the interface, and b) ratio

for different shrinkage strain values

The results indicate that there is a significant increment of slip when shrinkage effect is taken into
account and this may lead to de-bonding and failure of the strengthened specimens.

3. Conclusions
The interface slip of beams subjected to bendingloads is considerably increased when concrete
shrinkage is taken into account. The main conclusion of this study is that the additional slip induced
due to the shrinkage of the new concrete layer can considerably affect the performance of
strengthened elements. In case of concrete with high shrinkage strain values, the slip at the interface
due to shrinkage and bending can be high enough to lead to the de-bonding and the failure of the
strengthened elements.
References
[1]

TSIOULOU O., LAMPROPOULOS A. and DRITSOS S.,Experimental investigation of


interface behaviour of RC beams strengthened with concrete layers,Construction and
Building Materials, Vol. 40, 2013, pp. 50-59.