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Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and

biological sciences, (including but not limited to Ecology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology,
Soil Science, Geology, Atmospheric Science and Geography) to the study of the
environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science
provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of
environmental systems.[1]

Blue Marble composite images generated by NASA in 2001 (left) and 2002 (right).
Related areas of study include environmental studies and environmental engineering.
Environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human
relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. Environmental
engineering focuses on design and technology for improving environmental quality.
Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes,
evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource
management, and the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues almost
always include an interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes.
Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental
problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to
relate space, and time relationships as well as quantitative analysis.
Environmental science came alive as a substantive, active field of scientific investigation
in the 1960s and 1970s driven by (a) the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to
analyze complex environmental problems, (b) the arrival of substantive environmental
laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation and (c) the growing
public awareness of a need for action in addressing environmental problems. Events that
spurred this development included the publication of Rachael Carson's landmark
environmental book Silent Spring[2] along with major environmental issues becoming
very public, such as the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill, and the Cuyahoga River of
Cleveland, Ohio, "catching fire" (also in 1969), and helped increase the visibility of
environmental issues and create this new field of study.

Atmospheric sciences focuses on the Earth's atmosphere, with an emphasis upon its
interrelation to other systems. Atmospheric sciences can include studies of meteorology,
greenhouse gas phenomena, atmospheric dispersion modeling of airborne contaminants,[3]
sound propagation phenomena related to noise pollution, and even light pollution.

Taking the example of the global warming phenomena, physicists create computer
models of atmospheric circulation and infra-red radiation transmission, chemists examine
the inventory of atmospheric chemicals and their reactions, biologists analyze the plant
and animal contributions to carbon dioxide fluxes, and specialists such as meteorologists
and oceanographers add additional breadth in understanding the atmospheric dynamics.
Ecology. An interdisciplinary analysis of an ecological system which is being impacted
by one or more stressors might include several related environmental science fields. For
example, one might examine an estuarine setting where a proposed industrial
development could impact certain species by water and air pollution. For this study,
biologists would describe the flora and fauna, chemists would analyze the transport of
water pollutants to the marsh, physicists would calculate air pollution emissions and
geologists would assist in understanding the marsh soils and bay muds.
Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical alterations in the environment.
Principal areas of study include soil contamination and water pollution. The topics of
analysis include chemical degradation in the environment, multi-phase transport of
chemicals (for example, evaporation of a solvent containing lake to yield solvent as an air
pollutant), and chemical effects upon biota.
As an example study, consider the case of a leaking solvent tank which has entered the
habitat soil of an endangered species of amphibian. As a method to resolve or understand
the extent of soil contamination and subsurface transport of solvent, a computer model
would be implemented. Chemists would then characterize the molecular bonding of the
solvent to the specific soil type, and biologists would study the impacts upon soil
arthropods, plants, and ultimately pond-dwelling organisms that are the food of the
endangered amphibian.
Geosciences include environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic
phenomena and evolution of the Earth's crust. In some classification systems this can also
include hydrology, including oceanography.
As an example study of soils erosion, calculations would be made of surface runoff by
soil scientists. Fluvial geomorphologists would assist in examining sediment transport in

overland flow. Physicists would contribute by assessing the changes in light transmission
in the receiving waters. Biologists would analyze subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and
fauna from increases in water turbidity.

Regulations driving the studies

Environmental science examines the effects of humans on nature (Glen Canyon Dam in
the U.S.)
In the U.S. the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 set forth requirements
for analysis of major projects in terms of specific environmental criteria. Numerous state
laws have echoed these mandates, applying the principles to local-scale actions. The
upshot has been an explosion of documentation and study of environmental consequences
before the fact of development actions.
One can examine the specifics of environmental science by reading examples of
Environmental Impact Statements prepared under NEPA such as: Wastewater treatment
expansion options discharging into the San Diego/Tijuana Estuary, Expansion of the San
Francisco International Airport, Development of the Houston, Metro Transportation
system, Expansion of the metropolitan Boston MBTA transit system, and Construction of
Interstate 66 through Arlington, Virginia.
In England and Wales the [[Environment Ag c(:/ref> formed in 1996, is a public body for
protecting and improving the environment and enforces the regulations listed on the
communities and local government site.[5] (formerly the office of the deputy prime
minister). The agency was set up under the Environment Act 1995 as an independent
body and works closely with UK Government to enforce the regulations.

Earth's Many Environments

An environment is a collection of all the animals and plants in a specific area of land or
water. Examples of environments are wetlands, deserts, grasslands, forests, and oceans.
Scientists also refer to environments as ecosystems. Many people use the two terms
interchangeably, for example, desert environment or desert ecosystem. Each
environment has its own characteristics such as climate, soil or water make-up, and plant
and animal life. Sometimes people just talk about the environment. They might say,
We need to help protect the environment. What they mean is everything on Earth the
whole Earth environment.

Physical and Biological Environments

Earth is the only planet in our solar system - or anywhere else in the universe we know of
- that has environments that support animal and plant life. Earths environments exist
under a thin layer of protective gases called the atmosphere. Environments are shaped by
many factors, one of which is weather.

Scientists are interested in both physical environments and biological environments. A

physical environment is made up of elements such as the atmosphere, climate, land, and
water. The biological environment includes animals, plants, and bacteria. Both the
physical and biological environments are connected to each other and can never be

Environments Keep Changing

Environments are always changing. Day by day as weather, temperature, and daylight
change, an environment also changes. Seasons are an example of how an environment
can change. Your environment may have seasons very different from the environment
kids somewhere else on Earth live in.

Changes Can Be a Big Deal

Some events have a huge impact on the environment. Hurricanes like Isabelle in 2003
dumped millions of liters of water on the southern coast of the United States. Much of the
water will refill underground water supplies that plants, animals, and people will use for
many years.

Environmental changes may be small or large. Water levels changing at the beach may
seem hardly noticeable to us, but they can be very important to a crab. Changes after a
hurricane or volcano can be dramatic. They may cause the plants and animals that live in
the environment to change or disappear.
Changes Can Take a Long Time

Environmental changes may take only a few months or years. Some may occur over
hundreds or thousands of years. We humans only live about 60 to 80 years, so we often
only think of environmental change based on what happens in our lifetime.

Types of Environments
Different types of environments exist all over our planet. When you are in the middle of
one it is often easy to see what makes it special. Around the edges it becomes more
difficult to recognize. It starts to blend with the environment it borders. These edges are
places of great species diversity.
Scientists divide environments into smaller groups to better explore them and explain
them. For example, forests are one of the major types of environment. But, there are
different types of forests in different parts of the world. For example, rainforests are one
forest type. Even rainforests are divided into tropical rainforests and temperate


Urban environments may look different from other environments until you examine them
closely. Urban environments have animals, plants, and resources just as other
environments do. If you live in an urban environment, think about where your town
meets the next type of environment. What different kinds of plants and animals begin to
Tropical Rainforest

Tropical rainforests have the greatest number of animal and plant species of any
environment on Earth. Located on either side of the equator, tropical rainforests are warm
and wet. They get at least 200cm of rain each year. These environments are very lush.
The forests support so much life, because they are always wet and receive the same
amount of sunlight almost every day. Constant conditions help many species of plants
and animals develop and survive.

Deserts are defined by how much rain they get. Most deserts, like the Sonoran in North
America and Sahara in Africa, are hot. They receive less than 25cm of rain each year. The
South and North Poles are also deserts but very cold.

Despite extreme cold weather, polar environments still have plant and animal diversity.
Birds and mammals that live there are adapted to survive the polar extremes.
The southernmost polar region is called Antarctica, which means "no bears." The
northern polar region is the Arctic. The name Arctic comes from the Greek word
arctos, meaning bear. Polar bears are the bears of the Arctic. Polar penguins live only
in Antarctica. They are a type of flightless bird.

Wetlands are environments where the land and the water meet and mix. Types of
wetlands are swamps, bogs, marshes, and fens. Many wetlands have local names. In
Canada, bogs are called muskegs. In the southeastern United States, swamps are called
Each wetland type is classified by the plant species that live in it. The worlds major
wetland swamps are located in Africa, North America, South America, and Asia. The
largest wetlands in the world are the bogs of the western Siberian lowlands in Russia.
These bogs are three times the size of the United Kingdom. Wetlands are becoming one
of the most endangered environments. Many of the animals and plants living there are
also endangered.


Oceans are the large body of continuous salt water that cover over 70% of Earth's surface.
Earth has five oceans including the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern oceans.
It also has 13 seas. Both vertebrates and invertebrates flourish in the ocean environment,
including the smallest and largest animals on Earth.

Grasslands are environments where grasses are the main type of vegetation. The grass
species are usually mixed with herbs and sometimes with shrubs. Less than 10% of the
land is covered with trees. Grasslands are found on every continent except Antarctica.
In Africa (and elsewhere) grassland dotted with trees is called savanna. Grassland
wildlife species include horses, elephants, zebras, antelopes, buffalo and bison, hawks,
and snakes.

Environments and People

Many years ago, there were fewer people than there are today. This meant their impact on
the environment was smaller. As human populations increased over time, so did their
effect on the environments they inhabited.
Today, there are over 6.3 billion people on Earth. The quantity of natural resources we
consume is creating more and faster changes to the environment of the whole Earth.
Human activities can have huge and long-reaching impacts that affect multiple
For example, people cut trees in the tropical rainforests of Borneo to sell the wood to
furniture makers in Thailand. They, in turn, sell their tables and chairs to people in
Europe, North America, and elsewhere. In this way, a human activity, say, buying

furniture in North America, may be linked to damage to the tropical rainforest home of
orangutans - halfway around the world. This happens because all species and
environments are connected.

Environmental Conservation
In upcoming years, people will need to keep working together to solve environmental
problems. Urgent problems include overfishing in the oceans, cutting rainforests, draining
water from rivers and wetlands, and polluting of the air and water caused by cars and
The solutions will come from conservation and the creation of new technologies that
need fewer resources. Conservation is important to make certain that changes in the
environment dont happen too quickly. Rapid change can cause animals, plants, places, or
people to become endangered or extinct. Each of us plays a very important role in
conservation each day through the resources we use, reuse, and recycle.
Prime Minister - India

Profile: Prime Minister India

Dr. Manmohan Singh

India's fourteenth Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh is rightly acclaimed as a thinker
and a scholar. He is well regarded for his diligence and his academic approach to work, as
well as his accessibility and his unassuming demeanour.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was born on September 26, 1932, in a village in the
Punjab province of undivided India. Dr. Singh completed his Matriculation examinations
from the Panjab University in 1948. His academic career took him from Punjab to the
University of Cambridge, UK, where he earned a First Class Honours degree in
Economics in 1957. Dr. Singh followed this with a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield
College at Oxford University in 1962. His book, "India's Export Trends and Prospects for
Self-Sustained Growth" [Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1964] was an early critique of India's
inward-oriented trade policy.

Dr. Singh's academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of
Punjab University and the prestigious Delhi School of Economics. He had a brief stint at
the UNCTAD Secretariat as well, during these years. This presaged a subsequent
appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and
In 1971, Dr. Singh joined the Government of India as Economic Advisor in the
Commerce Ministry. This was soon followed by his appointment as Chief Economic
Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the many Governmental positions
that Dr. Singh has occupied are Secretary in the Ministry of Finance; Deputy Chairman of
the Planning Commission; Governor of the Reserve Bank of India; Advisor of the Prime
Minister; and Chairman of the University Grants Commission.
In what was to become the turning point in the economic history of independent India,
Dr. Singh spent five years between 1991 and 1996 as India's Finance Minister. His role in
ushering in a comprehensive policy of economic reforms is now recognized worldwide.
In the popular view of those years in India, that period is inextricably associated with the
persona of Dr. Singh.
Among the many awards and honours conferred upon Dr. Singh in his public career, the
most prominent are India's second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan (1987);
the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress (1995); the
Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994); the Euro Money
Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993), the Adam Smith Prize of the University
of Cambridge (1956); and the Wright's Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John's
College in Cambridge (1955). Dr. Singh has also been honoured by a number of other
associations including by the Japanese Nihon Keizai Shimbun.
Dr. Singh has represented India at many international conferences and in several
international organizations. He has led Indian Delegations to the Commonwealth Heads
of Government Meeting in Cyprus (1993) and to the World Conference on Human Rights
in Vienna in 1993.
In his political career, Dr. Singh has been a Member of India's Upper House of Parliament
(the Rajya Sabha) since 1991, where he was Leader of the Opposition between 1998 and
Dr. Singh and his wife Mrs. Gursharan Kaur have three daughters.


Jayalalithaa Jayaram, born 24 February 1948) commonly referred to as J. Jayalalitha,

is the Chief Minister of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. She is the incumbent general
secretary of All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), a Dravidian party.
She is called Amma (English: Mother) and Puratchi Thalaivi (English: Revolutionary
Leader) by her followers.[1] She was a successful film actor in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada
and Hindi before entering politics.

Early life
Jayalalithaa was born on 24 February 1948 and was also known at that time as
Komalavalli. Her birthplace was near to the city of Mysore. Her grandfather was in the
service of the then Mysore kingdom as a surgeon, and the prefix Jaya has been added to
all the names in the family to reflect their association with king Jayachamarajendra
Wodeyar of Mysore.[2]
Jayalalithaas father, who had been a wealthy lawyer, died when she was two years old
having lost all of his money.[2] Her mother then moved with her children to Bangalore,
where Jayalalithaa's maternal grandparents lived. Her mother eventually began to work as
an actress in Tamil cinema, based in Chennai and having taken the screen name of
Sandhya.[2][3] While in Bangalore, Jayalalithaa attended Bishop Cotton Girls' High School.
She completed her childhood education at Sacred Heart Matriculation School
(popularly known as Church Park Presentation Convent or Presentation Church Park

Convent) in Chennai.[3] She excelled at school and has said that she was offered a
government scholarship to pursue further education[4] and that her ambition was to
become a lawyer, but that the financial position of her family prevented this.[5] She
appears not to have taken up a place offered to her at Stella Maris College, Chennai.[2]

Film career-Early career

Her mother persuaded her to work in films when Jayalalitha was still in school, taking
assurances from producers that shooting would take place only during summer vacations
and that she would not miss her classes. Jayalalitha acted in an English language film,
Epistle, released in 1961. She made her debut as the lead actress in Kannada films while
still in school, aged 15, in Chinnada Gombe (1964). [2]
She got her first break in Tamil movie industry in Vennira Aadai (1965), directed by C. V.
Sridhar. The following year, she made her debut in Telugu cinema with the film
Manushulu Mamathalu. She was perhaps the first heroine to appear in skirts in Tamil
films.[citation needed]
Between 1965 and 1972 she acted frequently with M. G. Ramachandran and she also
worked with B. Saroja Devi in Arasa Kattali. Her other early roles were in suspense films
such as Naan and comedies such as Galatta Kalyanam.[6]
Later career

She won her first Filmfare Best Actress Award[clarification needed] for her performance in
Pattikada Pattanama, which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in
Tamil. She also won the first Filmfare Best Tamil Actress Award and Filmfare Best
Telugu Actress Award, in 1972. Her performance in Suryakanthi and Chandradhoyam
were critically acclaimed and she won her second Filmfare Best Tamil Actress Award in
Her films with Sivaji Ganesan include Galatta Kalyanam and Deiva Magan. She
continued pairing up with younger actors such as Ravichandran and Jaishankar in films
such as Vairam.
Later Tamil films in which she acted included Kandan Karunai and she also starred in
Bollywood films, initially in Izzat, which saw her paired with Dharmendra.[7] She also
established her popularity in Telugu films, including Sri Krishna Satya. Her last film was
Nadhiyai Thedi Vandha Kadal which released in 1980.[citation needed]

Political career
Her involvement in politics grew from her association with Ramachandran, who had
founded the AIADMK and was Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu as well as an actor, In 1980
he made Jayalalithaa the party's Propaganda Secretary. She was nominated to the Rajya

Sabha in 1984.[8] [9][10][11][12][13][14] and her position as Ramachandran's political disciple

helped her become his political heir.[15][16][17][18][19][20] After the death of Ramachandran she
was alienated by a faction of the party who chose to support his wife, Janaki
Ramachandran.[citation needed]
She was elected to the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly in 1989. and became the first
woman to be elected Leader of the Opposition. In 1991, following the assassination of
Rajiv Gandhi just days before the elections, her alliance with the Indian National
Congress enabled her to ride the wave of sympathy that gave the coalition victory. Reelected to the assembly, she became the first elected female chief minister and the
youngest ever chief minister of Tamil Nadu, serving the full tenure from 24 June 1991 to
12 May 1996. Janaki Ramachandran had technically been the first female chief minister
following her husband's death, but she was unelected.[citation needed]
Due to an anti-incumbency wave, and several allegations of corruption and malfeasance
against her and her ministers, she lost power to the D.M.K in 1996, in a landslide defeat.
All the ministers in her erstwhile cabinet, including her, were defeated in the elections
and six of them lost their deposits, meaning that they did not even secure the minimum
number of votes expected of them.[citation needed]
She returned to power with a huge majority in the 2001 elections, having mustered a
bigger coalition and defying many pre-poll predictions. In the 2006 assembly elections,
her party lost to the DMK.[citation needed]
Controversies - lawsuits and acquittal

Her first term as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu resulted in several legal actions being
brought against her, mainly involving charges of embezzlement and monetary fraud.
In 2001, a specially designated court convicted her of criminal breach of trust and of
illegally acquiring governmental property belonging to TANSI, a state-run agency. She
was sentenced her to five years' imprisonment but appealed to the Supreme Court of
India. As the conviction stood until the outcome of the appeal was decided, she was
disqualified from contesting the 2001 elections. When her party won those elections
further controversy ensued because she was installed as Chief Minister as a non-elected
member of the state assembly.[clarification needed]
On 21 September 2001, the Supreme Court ruled that "a person who is convicted of a
criminal offence and sentenced to imprisonment for a period of not less than two years
cannot be appointed the Chief Minister of a State under Article 164 (1) read with (4) and
cannot continue to function as such". Thereby, the bench decided that "in the appointment
of Ms. Jayalalithaa as Chief Minister there has been a clear infringement of a
Constitutional provision and that a writ of quo warranto must issue".[21]
In effect, her appointment as Chief Minister was declared null and invalid. Therefore,
technically, she was not the Chief Minister in the period between 14 May 2001 and 21

September 2001. O. Panneerselvam, a minister in her party, was subsequently installed as

the Chief Minister. However, his government was widely believed to have been puppeted
and micro-managed by Jayalalithaa. In 2003, the Supreme Court acquitted her in the
specific case, for lack of conclusive evidence to convict her. This cleared the way for her
to contest a mid-term poll to the Andipatti constituency, after the elected representative
for the seat, gave up his membership. Winning the election by a handsome margin,
Jayalalithaa took over the Chief Ministership again. She till 2008 was party in a few
criminal litigations, from her first term rule, in the courts in the neighbouring Karnataka
state but has been acquitted in 2011.[22]
After the 2006 assembly elections, O. Panneerselvam was elected the AIADMK
legislature party leader and hence the Leader of the Opposition in the assembly after she
decided not to attend the assembly except if "absolutely necessary". However, she, by
virtue of her strong control over her party, was considered to be the de-facto leader of the
opposition in the state. Later that month when all the attending AIADMK MLAs were
suspended, she started attending the assembly. She was elected the legislature party
leader. Of the 11 corruption cases levied against her in period 1996-2003, she was
acquitted in 9.
Third term as Chief Minister
Main article: J. Jayalalitha's third term as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu

In April 2011 the AIADMK was part of a 12-party alliance that successfully won the 14th
state assembly elections. Jayalalitha was sworn in as the chief minister of Tamil Nadu for
the third time on 16 May 2011, having been elected unanimously as the leader of the
AIADMK party subsequent to those elections.[25]
Year Status
200 Reelect


Chief Minister
1991 Tamil Nadu state assembly
200 2006 2001 Tamil Nadu state assembly

201 Prese 2011 Tamil Nadu state assembly