144 views

Uploaded by halel111

dasdasd

save

- Guidelines for Overhead Line Design
- Power System Protection
- Electrical and chemical diagnostics of transformer insulation
- Suspension Insulator String
- Tandelta Basics
- Testing Power Transformers
- Advances in High Voltage Engineering
- 06 - Transformer Diagnostics
- Transformer Oil - DGA - From Sampling to Analysis
- ISEI 2010-Diagnostics Techniques of Power Transformers
- Causes of Negative Dissipation Factor
- High Voltage Insulation
- IEEE C57 123 Transformer Loss Measurement
- IEC 60567 Oil Filled Electrical Equipment Sampling of Gases and of Oil for Analysis
- DGA and Duval Triangle
- Mit30 Ds Usen v04
- ABB Vacuum Breaker
- TESTING AND MEASURING EQUIPMENT/ALLOWED SUBCONTRACTING
- Electrical and Electronics Engineering Materials_J. B. Gupta
- Transformer Testing
- vijay 2.docx
- s24p03.pdf
- Megger - GuardTerminal
- Extra High Voltage Ac
- 10_accesorios de Los Transformadores(Parte2)
- glass_izol Copy.pdf
- Raychem-Cata MV Termination
- lec5
- Gang Technical Detail
- High Voltage Transmission Line Protection With Single Pole Tripping and Reclosing GET 6555
- Interconnect Protection of Dispersed Generators
- Relay Coordination Guide
- Real-Time Implementation 1333420538
- The Three A’s of Arc Flash.pdf
- Appl_ Pf Correction of a Motor Protection_756152_ENa
- Cross Arms
- Coordinating Ground Fault Protection With Phase Overcurrent Protection
- Dunsborough Fire Report
- Flammability of CCA Treated Timber Poles
- Pole-Top Fires Risk Assessment a South African Perspective
- Fundamentals of Overcurrent Protection
- GE Protection Selective
- New HV and LV Bonding Methods for Cross Arms
- 2012 Safety Performance Report on MECs - FINAL for WEBSITE 20130812
- 88SM558-9
- Specific Gravity Experiment
- Specific Gravity Experiment
- Estimated Service Life of Wood Poles
- Specific Heat of Wood - Beall
- Wood Moisture
- Thermodynamics of the Swelling of Wood
- The Electrical Proporties of Treated Wood With a Focus on Utility Pole Conductivity
- Wood Laminated Composite Poles
- Reviewing Pole Strength
- Magnetic Field
- New HV and LV Bonding Methods for Cross Arms
- Currents in Power Line Wood Poles
- Wood Cross Arms Failure Modes
- Some Electrical Properties of Wood Pulp
- Seccionador - Schneider
- sing Thermal Performance of Building Envelope
- Skript
- Atomka Eng
- Orc Analysis
- Strela
- 2.009 Portfolio Workshop S2-Web
- ححححححححححححححححح
- LOFT]_AUTOCAD.pdf
- paper_chromatology
- Boiler and Furnace
- An Improved Control Strategy for Grid Connected
- chemistry- Fundamentals
- electrostaics coulomb force and electrical dipoles
- Parque Das Conchas BC-10
- Preparation of Laurel Alkanolamide From Laurel Oil
- KS3 Science
- jual theodolite nikon NE-101,NE102,NE-100 HUB 085717824653
- PowerPD Case Studies for Motor & Generator
- 199908061064
- Siddhanta Shiromani Ch 1 Translated.doc
- Reservoir Engineering for Geologists
- Fremap Osram Sylvania Catalog
- course reflection
- Loudspeaker
- Irrigation Design
- Enzymes
- Cnc
- Down-Stream Process
- TF6912_CH06 alkali silica reaction on concrete chapter 06

You are on page 1of 8

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

**Electric Power Systems Research
**

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/epsr

**The pollution ﬂashover on high voltage insulators
**

Muhsin Tunay Genc¸o˘glu ∗ , Mehmet Cebeci

Firat University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Elazig, Turkey

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 13 March 2006

Received in revised form 23 March 2008

Accepted 24 March 2008

Available online 6 May 2008

Keywords:

Insulator

Pollution ﬂashover

Pollution resistance

Flashover voltage

Insulator equivalent model

a b s t r a c t

The pollution ﬂashover, observed on insulators used in high voltage transmission, is one of the most

important problems for power transmission. It is a very complex problem due to several factors such as the

modeling difﬁculties of complex shapes of the insulators, different pollution density at different regions,

non-homogeneous pollution distribution on the insulator surface and unknown effect of humidity on the

pollution. In the literature, some static and dynamic models were developed by making some assumptions

and omissions to predict the ﬂashover voltages of polluted insulators. In this study, historical development

of insulator modeling was investigated and a dynamic arc model was proposed. For this purpose, scaled

shape of a concerned insulator was ﬁrstly partitioned into triangular elements, then ﬁnite element method

(FEM) was implemented and ﬁnally potential distribution on the insulator surface, variation of pollution

resistance and ﬂashover voltage were determined. The computed ﬂashover voltage values of the selected

string insulator have been compared to results from other research.

© 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The ﬂashover performance of insulators under polluted conditions is one of the guiding factors in the design and dimensioning

of insulation in power transmission lines [1]. Hence the ﬂashover

on polluted transmission line insulators is a major problem which

has to be solved by power engineers.

The pollution ﬂashover on high voltage insulators usually

involves the propagation of an arc root across the surface of an

electrolyte. However, ﬂashover is achieved through two successive phases characterized as ignition and subsequent growth of

discharges under favorable conditions. The starting point of the

ﬁrst phase has long been attributed to the formation of scintillations in the form of glow and quasistable discharges across the dry

bands. These discharges grow under favorable conditions to form

stable arcs. There may be several such arcs burning stably under

the leading arc at different places on the insulator surface. The second phase is more important, but it is still unsolved. Though several

mechanisms, proposed by different researchers [2–4], seem to have

physical acceptance, none of them has yet received any deﬁnite

experimental evidence. During arc propagation the heat dissipated

in the series pollution layer in front of the discharges, signiﬁcantly

changes the characteristics of the pollution layer from one point to

another on the insulator surface.

∗ Corresponding author.

E-mail address: mtgencoglu@ﬁrat.edu.tr (M.T. Genc¸o˘glu).

0378-7796/$ – see front matter © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2008.03.019

**Moreover, after ignition of the discharges across the dry bands,
**

the increasing leakage current causes additional variation and

nonuniformity in the series pollution layer [5]. The ﬂashover of a

polluted insulator under AC voltage is the ﬁnal stage of the complicated mechanisms. According to Rahal [6], three cases of AC

ﬂashover mechanisms can be distinguished:

1. Immediate ﬂashover of the pollution band similar to the

ﬂashover phenomenon under DC voltage;

2. ﬂashovers on several consecutive voltage cycles in which case

the problem of the arc re-ignition is posed each time the current

passes through zero;

3. no ﬂashover; that is the case in which, despite the heating effect

which may increase the conductivity of the surface layer, the

applied voltage is insufﬁcient to induce a ﬂashover.

The potential distribution on the insulator surface and around the

insulator must be determined and the resistance values of the

pollution layer must be calculated for investigation of pollution

problem. Moreover, the effects of pollution on change of the resistance and the ﬂashover performance in the operation conditions

of the insulator must be investigated. The ﬁnite element method

(FEM) is commonly used for numerical investigation of electric ﬁeld

distribution on insulators. The surface of a zone-applied FEM is

deﬁned by triangular or quadrilateral elements. The FEM provides

important advantages in ease of use, calculation speed and accuracy. The greatest disadvantage of FEM relates to the difﬁculty in

building the geometrical data that describe the problem zone.

Propagation of pre-discharge along the surface and short circuit.7–12].i). which may ﬂuctuate as a result of depositing and purring events. Pollution deposited on the insulator surface becomes a conductive electrolyte when the insulator surface is wetted by rain or fog. depending on the design of the insulator. It will be assumed that the discharge extends along a straight line on the polluted surface and there is no current passage between the discharge column and the surrounding pollution layer except at the discharge root. Formation of pre-discharge on the surface of polluted insulator (a) Formation of dry bands. i. uniform pollution distribution and uniform wetting.T. 2. Whatever their nature. a lot of studies have been made to set up the models which can approximately show the critical characteristics (ﬂashover voltage. the physical pollution on the insulators and ﬂashover equation are given. 3. In Section 2. 2. The pollution ﬂashover consists of three main phases. an insulator will carry a resident contamination layer. will increase its surface conductivity possibly leading to ﬂashover and consequent power outages [14]. The pollution layer conductivity is a function of the discharge root position and the size of the arc root is a function of the local conductivity. a constant numerical value for Ve is generally taken in the theoretical calculations [19]. the problem of pollution ﬂashover is most certainly solved [16]. The pollution increases the conductivity on the insulator surface. This layer. These assumptions are single dominant arc. 2. Where L–x is the length of pollution resistance in series with the discharge. 1). can be either lower or higher than in the case of uniform pollution [15]. decreases the ﬂashover performance of the insulator and sometimes causes the breakdowns [13]. it is assumed that A = 63 and n = 0. respectively [16. Rumeli [16] has proposed a model (AR model) the length of which is equal to the leakage path of the given practical insulator (Fig. The pollution ﬂashover Flashover on high voltage insulators due to natural pollution reduces the ﬂashover performance and reliability of overhead lines in polluted areas. It also depends upon the form and polarity of the applied voltage. For an arc burning in air. E being in V/cm and i in A. However. the form E = E(i) = Ai−n (1) where A and n are called the discharge constants. The ﬂashover equation The discharge considered in theoretical studies is generally an arc type having a falling voltage gradient current characteristic of Fig. Some assumptions have been made for the development of these models. If any one of these phases can be controlled completely. leakage current. when exposed to random occurrences like condensation. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 1915 The development of ﬂashover models of the polluted insulators which can take the practical conditions into consideration is quite difﬁcult due to complication of ﬂashover phenomenon [8]. are rather inactive. 2. However. The ﬂashover model. Formation of conductive pollution ﬁlm (a) Covering of insulator surface with pollution layer. In service. 1. (b) Ignition of pre-discharge along dry bands. M. This. Genc¸o˘glu. when dry. these values are estimated as A = 518 and n = 0. In this case the integral surface conductivity is not a proper parameter of contamination severity. For an arc discharge burning in an atmosphere of steam.) of the polluted insulators [4. 2. In Section 3. The values of A and n depend on the atmosphere in which the discharge burns. 1. The voltage drop at the discharge roots basically depends upon the current value and the pollution speciﬁc conductivity of the contact surface at the discharge roots. For the same integral surface conductivity the ﬂashover voltage of the nonuniformly polluted insulator. the pollutants. 2. The AR model of an insulator. A developed new dynamic arc model is introduced and an application on an insulator is given in Section 4. The width of the AR model is variable and is deﬁned as a() = D() 0≤≤L (2) If it is considered a single discharge starting from one of the electrodes of an insulator and its equivalent AR model is given in Fig. The contents of this paper are organized as follows. is more or less stable.M.275. Fig.e. accumulated since its installation or the last cleaning operation.18]. etc. Surface ﬂashover on insulators High voltage outdoor insulators are exposed to pollution because of salt in the regions near the sea and dust and chemical residues in the industrial regions. (b) Wetting of pollution layer by effect of humidity.1. water and/or ionisable materials are added. historical development of insulator modeling is investigated. This allows leakage currents to increase over the insulator surface and decreases the electrical withstand voltage of the insulator [16.2.7. The distribution of surface conductivity on insulators in the ﬁeld is usually very non-uniform.17]. Ve = Ve (x. . frost and onshore gales. critical length. (a) Insulator and (b) ﬂashover on the AR model of the insulator. Although the discharge anode and cathode falls depend upon the state of the contact surface.

w) and dw = R i2 dt. snow and ice in heavy pollution. For the purposes of standardization. Genc¸o˘glu.26]. He has considered the temperature variation in the pollution ﬁlm until the formation of the ﬁrst dry band on the insulator surface. e. R = R(x. Heavy IV. Several analytical studies have been carried out in order to calculate ﬂashover voltage of polluted insulators. for each level of pollution. The most commonly accepted model of ﬂashover of polluted insulation was developed independently by German. from light pollution to very heavy pollution. One of the ﬁrst quantitative analysis of arcs on contaminated surfaces was made by Obenaus [25. The discharge voltage drop Vd is Vd = xE + Ve (4) where x is the discharge length. Determination of ESDD on insulators installed on transmission line towers is possible but it requires skilled personnel [21]. A major disadvantage of the ESDD method is that the insulators must be removed from the transmission line for an exact measurement [21].g. respectively. Combining Eqs. Wilkins [9] has made an attempt to calculate the ﬂashover voltage of a uniformly polluted insulator. etc. It is thought that R decreases with increasing x due to shortening of the length of the series pollution region. heavy rain and arid areas. This method is generally used for calculating average pollution based on average density of soluble salt [24]. four levels of pollution are qualitatively deﬁned.1916 M. very close to the coast and exposed to sea-spray or to very strong and polluting winds from the sea Desert areas. w) = f (x. E is the discharge voltage gradient and Ve is the discharge fall voltage which is the sum of the anode and cathode voltage falls at the discharge roots. Evaluation of pollution severity (3) where Vd and Vr indicate the voltage drops across the discharge and the series pollution region. Obenaus considered a ﬂat model. [20]. Table 1 The levels of pollution severity and examples Pollution level I. characterized by no rain for long periods. The equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) is the most commonly used method to characterize pollution quality and quantity on the surface of insulators.T. In this approach. (6) is called the “ﬂashover equation” [19].3. Russian and British [27–29] research teams. It is also used the same approach to calculate the ﬂashover voltage of practical insulators which were represented by the form factors and leakage lengths [31]. i) + iR(x. Very heavy Examples of typical environments Areas without industries and with low density of houses equipped with heating plants Areas with low density of industries or houses but subjected to frequent winds and/or rainfall Agricultural areasa Mountainous areas All these areas shall be situated at least 10 km to 20 km from the sea and shall not be exposed to winds directly from the seab Areas with industries not producing particularly polluting smoke and/or with average density of houses equipped with heating plants Areas with high density of houses and/or industries but subjected to frequent winds and/or rainfall Areas exposed fo wind from the sea but not too close to the coast (at least several kilometres distant)b Areas with high density of industries and suburbs of large cities with high density of heating plants producing pollution Areas close to the sea or in any case exposed to relatively strong winds from the seab Areas generally of moderate extent. Table 1 gives. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 The applied voltage V is V = Vd + Vr 2. will change water’s conductivity to the level equal to that resulting from the solution of polluted deposits gathered from insulator surface divided by the insulator’s surface area (mg/cm2 ) [23]. A common feature of all these models is a simpliﬁed representation of a propagating arc consisting of a partial arc in series with the resistance of the unbridged section of the polluted layer [8]. an approximate description of some typical corresponding environments. exposed to strong winds carrying sand and salt. or the burning of crop residues. as far as possible. Insulator equivalent models An alternative to natural and artiﬁcial pollution tests is to compute the ﬂashover voltage of polluted insulators by making use of theoretical models. Speciﬁc conductivity depends upon the temperature which changes as energy (w) is dissipated in this region. and subjected to regular condensation a Use of fertilizers by spraying. 3. the density of ESDD equals an amount of sodium chloride which. Light II. The voltage drop across the discharge free region is Vr = iR (5) where R is the resistance of the pollution region in series with the discharge. The method determines the salt deposition density by washing down the insulator surface with a known amount of water and then measuring the conductivity of the water. Separately this method is labor intensive and is subject to the experience level and attention to detail of the ﬁeld personnel [22]. subjected to conductive dusts and to industrial smoke producing particularly thick conductive deposits Areas generally of moderate extent. R is basically controlled by the discharge length (x) and the speciﬁc conductivity of the pollution layer. w) (6) Eq. however due to complex shapes of the insulators and lack of computational facilities. (2)–(4) V = xE(i) + Ve (x. Medium III. sufﬁciently precise analysis of the phenomenon has not been possible [19].e. Other extreme environmental conditions exist which merit further consideration. A similar approach has been used with different coefﬁcients in the arc characteristics [30]. i. Rizk [7] added the criteria for AC ﬂashover. M. solved in water. This is the Obenaus ﬂashover equation for DC conditions. the insulator is represented by an equivalent rectangular (cylin- . ∂R/∂x < 0. it is based on the premise that a surface discharge can extend if equality of stresses is present in the discharge and in the unspanned section of polluted path. These studies have not considered the time variation and nonuniformity of the pollution ﬁlm.e. composed by an arc of length in series with a resistance representing the wet pollution layer and supplied by a constant voltage. can lead to a higher pollution level due to dispersal by wind. It is desirable to assess the ﬂashover performance of polluted insulators using analytical methods in order to eliminate. the need for expensive test facilities and tedious and lengthy experiments. i. b Distances from sea coast depend on the topography of the coastal area and on the extreme wind conditions. i. The ﬁrst analytical approach to the problem is a polluted rectangular model with a uniform and time-invariant pollution ﬁlm [2]. By deﬁnition.

It is based on an empirical relationship between the minimum arc re-ignition voltage and the arc current. Earc and the pollution voltage gradient Ep are calculated as instantly and checked for the arc propagation criterion (Ep > Earc ) for a given voltage and surface conductivity. It has been shown [39] that the non-uniform distribution of the pollution ﬁlm affected the ﬂashover voltage and strict relation existed between the ﬂashover voltage. Mercure and Drouet [35] have measured that current intensity directly and shown that during the ﬂashover of a channel of electrolyte. The ﬂashover equation and a dynamic arc model have been used to investigate analytically the relation of the leakage current to the surface conductivity and the arc length [12]. whose value depends on the geometry. the effects of arc extinction and re-ignition on the discharge growth are considered together with the internal impedance of the AC source. Genc¸o˘glu.46]. using new quantities and the calculations are repeated. In this study. geometry of the insulator and pollution severity. The meshed case by triangular elements of AR half-model belong to 7K3 insulator. Otherwise. the arc propagates for that voltage and conductivity. has been considered. the form factor varies and so do the other quantities. Dhahbi-Megriche and Beroual [8] have developed a new dynamic model which computes variation of current against the time.T. the arc propagation velocity and ﬂashover time for applied voltage. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 drical) model covered with a uniform pollution ﬁlm having hot average surface conductivity [19]. The calculation of ﬂashover voltages of a rectangular model covered with uniform and non-uniform and time-invariant pollution ﬁlms has been made [33. The insulator is divided into a number of zones for numerical calculations. is converted to surface conductivity S in the form S = F rp L (7) where L F= dL d(L) (8) 0 F is a form factor of the insulator. Wilkins and Al-Baghdadi [3] have signaled the existence of a current parallel to the arc column in the electrolyte on an Obenaus type of model. The variations of conductivity of pollution ﬁlm and temperature on an insulator surface caused by the leakage current have been studied [42]. along with a layer of pollution is modeled as a discharge in series with a resistance [7]. then a ﬂashover has occurred. the dynamic behavior of the discharge growing on a polluted surface has been examined.34]. The pollution severity in the present investigation. The surface of the insulator is divided into ﬁnite elements. The calculation of pollution gradient requires the instantaneous pollution resistance. 3. The AR model is a “one-to-one” model and effectively represents the shape of a practical insulator. . this analysis was used in the high voltage engineering for performance study of different type insulator. It has been found that the same arc gradient current characteristic (E = AI−n ) could be used taking different values for the discharge constants A and n (for AC: A = 68. 4. thus utilizing the inﬂuence of geometry of the insulator in the ﬂashover process. layer temperature and physical state. If it is satisﬁed. Astorga and Do Prado [44] have suggested that the pollution layer has a deﬁnite thickness and the thickness is not ﬁxed. the change in arc resistance is calculated. For wide and narrow rectangular models.7). across the creepage length [45. but its complexity and the large number of assumptions required for its solution make it difﬁcult to appraise. The AC ﬂashover voltages of a practical insulator are calculated considering a plane model which has an elliptic shape. having the same surface area and the same leakage length of the given insulator [43]. A simpliﬁed model for AC ﬂashover estimation of polluted insulators is suggested in [41]. Computation of AC ﬂashover voltages An insulator with its partial arc. In the calculation of the critical voltage causing ﬂashover. In this study. The effect of voltage form on the propagating discharge has been investigated [40]. the arc resistance. approximate analytical expressions have been obtained for the pollution resistance as a function of the propagating discharge length [32]. The method of dimensional analysis is applied to determine ﬂashover characteristics of polluted insulators. the zone where the discharge current transfer towards the liquid takes place can spread over several centimeters. The arc voltage gradient. A mathematical model was applied for the calculation 1917 of the dielectric strength of the insulator under the determined non-uniform distribution. They have shown that dynamic behavior of ﬂashover phenomenon can be more effectively analyzed. and S is the surface conductivity in S [47]. Another AC model was proposed by Claverie and Porcheron [36]. These zones were simulated with various levels of pollution in the case of the uniform pollution distribution study. the peak leakage current and the pollution layer conductivity. Considering instantaneous changes of the discharge parameters. Recently. which in turn is calculated from the form factor.M. n = 0. a similar analytical approach used [26]. assuming a uniform pollution ﬁlm. expressed in terms of rp . Depending upon the length of the arc. Jolly et al. A theoretical approach to calculate the ﬂashover voltage of a uniformly polluted model has been made [38]. It has been shown that the discharge growth and thus the ﬂashover are signiﬁcantly controlled by the nonuniformity of pollution layer. uniformly contaminated. Rizk [10] suggested a dynamic model using dimensional analysis. [37] have presented a model applicable to a discharge having parallel paths. M. The leakage current (IL ) during an arc free period can be calculated by IL (t) = V (t) RL (9) Fig. AR model has been introduced [16] which was deﬁned in terms of the leakage path and the corresponding radius of the given practical insulator.

the values of the pollution resistance in series with the arc have been computed using AR model. Genc¸o˘glu. l is the distance from upper electrode (cup) on the insulator surface.T. The surface conductivity is calculated from these equations using the leakage current and line voltage. an initial ﬁle which contains different parameters was prepared. Flowchart of the computer program. 4.1918 M. this solution zone has been meshed by triangular elements (Fig. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 The surface resistance is calculated from the form factor. Potentials on the AR model were used for calculation of variation at pollution resistance. Before the program initialization. L is the insulator leakage length. In the program. 3) and initial conditions have been applied to cap and pin of the insulator. V(t) is the sinusoidal line to neutral voltage. potential distributions and ﬁeld strength on the insulator surface and around it have been computed using FEM and ﬁeld strength values have been determined along the leakage length on the insulator surface [48]. the values of potential and electric ﬁeld strength. Finally. as 1 RL = L dl 2r(l) (10) 0 where. M. the pollution resistance in series with the arc and ﬂashover voltage have been computed using the computer program. . The surface conductivity is a measure of pollution severity. The time variation of the conductivity values permits the continuous estimation of actual pollution severity on an insulator surface [12]. is the layer conductivity in ohm/cm. These parameters are Fig. 4. ﬁrstly. a computer program is developed for the computation of AC ﬂashover voltages of the polluted insulators. For this reason. The ESDD is approximately proportional to the surface conductivity. In this study. Then. r(l) is the radius of the insulator at a distance of l from the upper electrode. A generalized ﬂowchart of the computer program is shown in Fig.

7K3 insulator which has seven units is a string insulator. d: Sundararajan [12]. b: Cron [16]. etc. The ﬁnite element meshing for the insulator is shown in Fig. initially reads the nodes on the leakage length and their coordinates. The coordinates of all the nodes along the insulator surface are obtained and these coordinates are arranged for the FEM solution. Then. The node numbers and potential values of the nodes between which the arc occurs are added to series set up by known nodes potentials. The computed ﬂashover voltage values for 7K3 insulator. leakage length. etc. If the arc occurs between all the nodes. 5. if AI−n (V/cm) is the discharge voltage gradient. The cross-section of the cap and pin insulator’s (7K3) each unit has 185 mm of height. Considering the discharge on the insulator surface ignites in the air. The computations were performed for one unit of the insulator. dielectric constant of the pollution layer. 6 shows how the program simulated a pollution layer of ﬁnite thickness using meshed triangular elements. the potentials of all the nodes are computed. Fig. After ﬂowing current from the pollution layer and ﬁeld strengths of all the nodes are computed difference of ﬁeld strength between every two nodes is calculated along the leakage length. M. Genc¸o˘glu. 6.76 were used for computation of AC ﬂashover voltages. Comparison of ﬂashover voltages for 7K3 insulator (a. Then the application returns to the section where the potentials of the nodes have obtained and the potential value is increased. 8. it has been assumed that the pollution layer on the insulator surface has a homogeneous structure.7) [19]. They have found that the same arc gradient current characteristics (E = AI−n ) could be used taking different values for the discharge constants A and n (for AC: A = 68. n = 0. Then. conductivity. diameter. the following parameters are respectively read from the ﬁle: the coordinates of all the nodes belong to the ﬁnite element meshing. [40]. voltage level and voltage type. 7.76. Checking ﬁeld strength values between the nodes the application examines whether the arc occurs or not. Finally.30]. respectively [16. 6. 7. frequency. the three node numbers for each triangle (element). e: dynamic model). Flashover voltages were computed for different surface conductivities of the pollution layer using the computer program. and the coordinates belong to boundary points describing the insulator. the variations of temperature on the pollution layer during the discharge and effect of humidity were neglected. 288 mm of diameter and 304 mm of leakage length. Additionally. Fig. 5. Using the developed dynamic model in this study. The effect of voltage form on the propagating discharge has been investigated by Nosseir et al. c: Wilkins [9]. dielectric constant of the air. The ﬁnite element mesh generation for 7K3 insulator. The application. . Fig. is given in Fig. If the arc occurs between any of the two nodes. All the computations have been done for a seven-unit string. it has been assumed that the partial discharges occur on the leakage path of the insulator and these discharges increase and they cover the leakage length completely and so the ﬂashover forms. It is seen Fig. the dielectric constants of each element. are assigned by the user.M.T. the potential values of these nodes are computed. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 1919 Fig. Furthermore. When the new dynamic arc model is obtained in this study. skirt number and proﬁle of the insulator. atmospheric conditions. AC ﬂashover voltage values for a seven-unit string were found. Rumeli [16]. the nodes on the leakage length and their coordinates. ﬁxed values of A = 63 and n = 0. A and n are 63 and 0. Afterwards. the ﬂashover occurs along the insulator surface. 7K3 insulator. the pollution density of the region. the nodes which deﬁnes the function and their potentials. the variation of computed AC ﬂashover voltage against surface conductivity for 7K3 insulator for a seven-unit string is given in Fig. In this study.

But. Because some results are theoretical. But this decline is not linear. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 Fig. the variation of computed AC ﬂashover voltage against surface conductivity for U40BL insulator for a six-unit string is given in Fig. The ﬁnite element mesh generation for U40BL insulator. U40BL insulator which has six units is a string insulator. U40BL insulator. M. Using the developed dynamic model in this study. a lot of researchers have tried to represent the insulators with the static models for a long time. the static models do not consider the effects on the model parameters of the discharges on the insulator surface. It can be seen that dry ﬂashover voltage is bigger than wet ﬂashover voltage. In order to solve this problem.1920 M. The difference of the ﬂashover voltages between results of the dynamic model and results of other researchers is excessive in small values (5–10 S) of surface conductivity. It appears that the ﬂashover voltage of U40BL insulator is about 57 kV and 31 kV for 5 S (no signiﬁcant pollution) and 25 S (heavy pollution). The ﬁnite element meshing for the insulator is shown in Fig. Thus. the ﬂashover voltages of string insulators can be computed easily. and is given in Fig. In order to eliminate this drawback. All the computations have been done for a six-unit string. 5. the ﬂashover characteristics of different insulators can be . AC ﬂashover voltage values for a six-unit string were found. the difﬁculties during the experiments were eliminated. Then. respectively in Fig. Dry power frequency average ﬂashover voltage is 55 kV and wet power frequency average ﬂashover voltage is 30 kV for U40BL insulator by experiment [49]. 8. 11. The ﬂashover voltages of a polluted high voltage insulator were computed using the developed new dynamic model in this study. 10. 9. 7 that if the surface conductivity increases the ﬂashover voltage decreases. the dynamic models were developed in recent years. the difference is acceptable.T. It was shown that the theoretically computed ﬂashover voltage values using the dynamic model are quite similar to the experimental and theoretical results of other researches. The comparison of computed AC ﬂashover voltages using the dynamic model with the theoretical or experimental results of other researchers for 7K3 insulator is given in Fig. Using the new dynamic model. the dynamic models which consider the effects of the instantaneous changes in the discharge parameters represents the ﬂashover phenomenon better than the static models. The pollution ﬂashover problem on high voltage insulators in the polluted regions has not yet been solved completely. Conclusion Fig. this difference is smaller for greater values of surface conductivity. But. Genc¸o˘glu. 11. 10. 11. Fig. some results are experimental and some results are obtained from the static model. from Fig. But in spite of this. 9. The computed ﬂashover voltage values for U40BL insulator. The computations were performed for one unit of the insulator. 175 mm of diameter and 185 mm of leakage length. Each unit of the cross-section of the cap and pin insulator (U40BL) has 110 mm of height. Because the ﬂashover is a very rapid phenomenon. The occurred partial discharge after the formation of the dry band is considered as static at the static models.

Otten. S. [21] Polluted insulators: a review of current knowledge. Peregrinus. 74-068-3. [16] A. A new proposal model for ﬂashover of polluted insulators. Probes for spot measurement of surface conductivity on polluted insulators. Determination of a calibration curve for an insulator pollution monitoring relay. USA. Vanderbijlpark. Amarh. [31] N. IEEE Trans.P. June 2000. F. Alston. Mechanism of ﬂashover of contaminated insulators. 546–549. Electr. [24] S. Computation of pollution ﬂashover voltages of high voltage insulators. Obenaus. Deutsche Electrotechnik 4 (1958) 135–136. A model for the determination of the dielectric strength of non-uniformly polluted insulators.M. Dynamic theory of discharge growth over contaminated insulator surfaces. Arc propagation over electrolytic surfaces under power frequency voltage. Athens.K. [20] IEC: Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions. Flashover mechanism of polluted insulation. Haznadar. in: Fourth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering. [14] J. Elazig.L. Pilling. Arc propagation along and electrolyte surface. NSDD and leakage current in distribution insulators. Claverie. Ankara. Amer. Braunschweig.A.L. France. IEE 151 (3) (2004) 334–340. I. The inﬂuence of nonuniform contamination on the ﬂashover voltage of insulators. Topalis. 2002. IEE 117 (12) (1970) 2257–2260. Al-Baghdadi. M.13. Simul. Proc. Insul. P.M. Tubitak Eng. Professorship Thesis. [41] M. Chatterjee. [3] R. in: Conference Record of the 1994 IEEE International Symposium on Electrical Insulation. Generation. Ankara. Wilkins. A. Mahdy. pp. Pract. A thesis submitted to the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of the Middle East Technical University. [5] P. Schneider. [29] B.C. Kaleseramik C¸anakkale Kalebodur Ceramic Industry Company. IEE 116 (3) (1969) 457–465. The problem of determining the layer conductivity of polluted insulators under service conditions. J. I. Wilkins. A. [37] D. Krahenbuhl. Astorga. 4 (3) (1996) 529–536. [46] S. in: Sixth International Symposium on HV Engineering.A. Kriechubershlag von isolatoren mit fremdschichten. Power Delivery 12 (4) (1997) 1493–1500. 24. PA. A. 2005.. Technol. J. Power and Energy Systems. 92 (1973) 1121–1131. Phys. 7 (2) (2000) 283– 289. Thesis. Application of dimensional analysis to ﬂashover characteristics of polluted insulators. A. IEEE. 467. [48] M. Beroual. Theoretical analysis of ﬂashover contaminated insulation with a time-invariant and nonuniformly distributed contamination resistivity. Proc. ¨ [19] M. Looms. [38] T. Finite element modeling of dry zone formation on polluted outdoor HV insulators. Suﬂis. Ramirez. Insul.A. [9] R. 1999. CIGRE´ technical publication 158. Proc. Ghosh. Evaluation of leakage current measurement for site pollution severity assessment. [32] A. [7] F. [6] E. Rizk. L.S. LA.I. Research Group. 1921 ¨ [25] F. Transmission and Distribution. Anal.N. Dynamic measurements of the current distribution in the foot of an arc propagating along the surface of an electrolyte. A. H. Rumeli.G. Correlation Among ESDD. Dielect. [2] L. 6 (10) (2007) 39–54. IEEE Trans. [18] B. Rasmussen. IEEE C72 203 (3) (1972).C. Renyu. in: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference. Sur les mecanismes physiques du contournement des isolateurs haute tension. F. Gholami. Turkey 25 (1) (1972). Braunschweig. Phys. Beroual. A. Fremdschichtuberschlag und Kriechweglange. Huraux. 2002. H. Z. Gonos. M. in: Fifth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering. IE(I) J.F.M. 58 (1978).J. Stathopulos. USA. Danis. Cheng. [22] W. 38 (2) (2000) 249–263. in: Fourth International Symposium on HV Engineering.H. 1966. in: Proceedings of the XIV International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering. [30] J. [27] F.F. [8] N. J. [39] H. Sokolija. 1987. Chrzan.H. 276 (1988). Genc¸o˘glu. [35] H.L. Project No. 1979. Investigation of ﬂashover phenomenon on high voltage insulators using artiﬁcial neural network.A. Electr. IEEE PES Winter Power Meeting. 1994. Gellert. Jolly. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst. [15] K. 1999. Khalifa. Mathematical models for pollution ﬂashover. 101 (3) (1982) 725–736. Dynamic modeling of AC insulator ﬂashover characteristics. IEEE Trans.P. D. Alexsandrov. Universite Paul Sabatier. P. Calculation of DC and AC ﬂashover voltage of polluted insulators. Greece. Vosloo. IEEE Trans. USA. 301-084. A. Drouet. Toulouse. D.V. Ph. Berndt. Elektrizitatswirtschaft 24 (1960) 878–882. Istanbul.S. Topalis. [28] G. Gonos. Cheng. 2002. Computation of withstand voltages of high voltage insulators covered by homogeneous dirt. Turkey.C. Ankara. References ¨ [1] N. 2003. Power Apparatus Syst.07. These de doctorat es Sciences Physiques. Ghosh. IEC/TR 60815 (1986-05). A thesis submitted to the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of the Firat University. C. J. MAG-294.G. Temperature and resistivity distribution on the insulator surface. Univ. Obenaus. Appl. R.E. Farzaneh.A. New Orleans. J. Boheme. Rahal. [45] I. [40] A. The ﬂashover phenomenon: an analysis with inﬂuence of the thickness of the layer pollution of the high voltage polluted insulators. Porcheron.S.S. [49] Insulator catalogue. Rahal.Y. Federal Republic of Germany. 1973. Federal Republic of Germany. Flashover voltage of HV insulators with uniform surface pollution ﬁlms. 1993.C. Kazemi. USA. Las Vegas. Tsinghua University. Insul. Ozbek. Masoum. Electr. V. N. in: Fifth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering. S. T. Model. Proc. [33] A. Holtzhausen. E. [13] J. Conference Paper No. 30 (1997) 889–894. Dielect. Chatterje. Greece. Pollution severity performance chart. London 111 (1964) 985–990. Cigre. [26] H.M. 1974. Flashover dynamic model of polluted insulators under AC voltage.T. Sadovic. Karady. J. 1983. Pittsburgh. Montoya. Flashover of polluted insulation having a uniform and time-invariant pollution resistivity. Chatterjee. MIT. [36] P.E.A. IEE 110 (7) (1963) 1260–1266. 98 (6) (1979) 2223–2231. 1979. IZV VUZ Energetika 5 (1962) 20–27. Zoledziowski. Development of discharges along the conducting surface of high voltage insulation in electrical networks. Obenaus. El-Sharkawi.H. Schwardt. [11] Z. Lannes. M.M. [34] A.S. Conference Publication No. Paper No.T. [44] O. Flashover characteristics of polluted insulators. in: Fourth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering. F. Mercure. IEEE Trans. Bull. Zhicheng. V. Proc.V. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 compared and so the selection of the insulator types which will be used in the polluted regions can be done. [4] A. Rumeli. [42] R. Rizk.T. in: Sixth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering. paper 407. key to justin-time insulator maintenance. Streubel. Dynamic model of pollution ﬂashover. China. K. Computation methods in simulation of the dielectric behavior of non uniformly polluted insulators. Hampton. Insul. Athens. Athens. A stochastic pollution ﬂashover model. paper 46. [23] G. 1974. Qureshi. 1989. IEEE Trans. Electr. Nabavi. Flashover mechanism of high voltage insulators. Polluted insulator ﬂashover model for AC voltage. Dhahbi-Megriche. Kizevetter. Nosseir. 1987. I.A.H. [12] G. [43] G. High Voltage Engineering Symposium. Proc. N. M.D. Growth of discharges on polluted insulation. F. Pollution ﬂashover tests on insulators in the laboratory and in systems and the model concept of creepage path ﬂashover. in: Fourth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering. Rumeli. 1983. IEEE Trans. 2 (1) (1995) 128–136. Syst. [47] P. Leonardo Electron. Do Prado. Insulators for high voltages. .A.M. Computer-aided estimation of the ﬂashover performance of polluted high voltage insulators. Tech. Montoya. METU. Dielect. Dhahbi-Megriche. IEE 118 (12) (1971) 1886–1892. Greece.-EL. 1983. 25 (4) (1990) 723–729. Electra 78 (1981) 71–103. [17] W. How to choose insulators for polluted areas. Athens. A. L. Dynamic characteristic of propagating arcs on polluted insulators. Zarzoura. SAUPEC. A simpliﬁed model for AC ﬂashover of polluted insulators. Sundararajan. 1989.M. Rumeli. [10] F. Y. Genc¸o˘glu.

- Guidelines for Overhead Line DesignUploaded bymrasdan
- Power System ProtectionUploaded byAsghar Ali
- Electrical and chemical diagnostics of transformer insulationUploaded byVikas Vooturi
- Suspension Insulator StringUploaded byneo
- Tandelta BasicsUploaded bylankesh_db
- Testing Power TransformersUploaded byAbdul Kadhir
- Advances in High Voltage EngineeringUploaded byShashidhar Kasthala
- 06 - Transformer DiagnosticsUploaded byjm.mankavil6230
- Transformer Oil - DGA - From Sampling to AnalysisUploaded bylbk50
- ISEI 2010-Diagnostics Techniques of Power TransformersUploaded byAli Naderian
- Causes of Negative Dissipation FactorUploaded byTravis Wood
- High Voltage InsulationUploaded byWalter Santi
- IEEE C57 123 Transformer Loss MeasurementUploaded bySamsudin Ahmad
- IEC 60567 Oil Filled Electrical Equipment Sampling of Gases and of Oil for AnalysisUploaded bysreerahul
- DGA and Duval TriangleUploaded byshastri2010
- Mit30 Ds Usen v04Uploaded bytandin tshewang
- ABB Vacuum BreakerUploaded byVikrant
- TESTING AND MEASURING EQUIPMENT/ALLOWED SUBCONTRACTINGUploaded byAniigisela
- Electrical and Electronics Engineering Materials_J. B. GuptaUploaded byOPTICALMIMOOFDM
- Transformer TestingUploaded bymshahidshaukat
- vijay 2.docxUploaded byBonnie Monroe
- s24p03.pdfUploaded byPablo Poveda Rodriguez
- Megger - GuardTerminalUploaded bypp
- Extra High Voltage AcUploaded byLuis Vasquez Restrepo
- 10_accesorios de Los Transformadores(Parte2)Uploaded byLOURDES JANNETH LIMON ROMERO
- glass_izol Copy.pdfUploaded byromaoj671
- Raychem-Cata MV TerminationUploaded byKeshab Shrestha
- lec5Uploaded byHimanshu Ranjan
- Gang Technical DetailUploaded byEagle Collins

- High Voltage Transmission Line Protection With Single Pole Tripping and Reclosing GET 6555Uploaded byhalel111
- Interconnect Protection of Dispersed GeneratorsUploaded byhalel111
- Relay Coordination GuideUploaded byShrimant Shanbhag
- Real-Time Implementation 1333420538Uploaded byAslan Sezer
- The Three A’s of Arc Flash.pdfUploaded byhalel111
- Appl_ Pf Correction of a Motor Protection_756152_ENaUploaded byPaneendra Kumar
- Cross ArmsUploaded byhalel111
- Coordinating Ground Fault Protection With Phase Overcurrent ProtectionUploaded byAbraham Berhe
- Dunsborough Fire ReportUploaded byhalel111
- Flammability of CCA Treated Timber PolesUploaded byhalel111
- Pole-Top Fires Risk Assessment a South African PerspectiveUploaded byhalel111
- Fundamentals of Overcurrent ProtectionUploaded byhalel111
- GE Protection SelectiveUploaded byIsrael Marin
- New HV and LV Bonding Methods for Cross ArmsUploaded byhalel111
- 2012 Safety Performance Report on MECs - FINAL for WEBSITE 20130812Uploaded byhalel111
- 88SM558-9Uploaded byhalel111
- Specific Gravity ExperimentUploaded bySourav Dutta
- Specific Gravity ExperimentUploaded bySourav Dutta
- Estimated Service Life of Wood PolesUploaded byhalel111
- Specific Heat of Wood - BeallUploaded byhalel111
- Wood MoistureUploaded bymariorabelo2
- Thermodynamics of the Swelling of WoodUploaded byhalel111
- The Electrical Proporties of Treated Wood With a Focus on Utility Pole ConductivityUploaded byhalel111
- Wood Laminated Composite PolesUploaded byhalel111
- Reviewing Pole StrengthUploaded byhalel111
- Magnetic FieldUploaded byhalel111
- New HV and LV Bonding Methods for Cross ArmsUploaded byhalel111
- Currents in Power Line Wood PolesUploaded byhalel111
- Wood Cross Arms Failure ModesUploaded byhalel111
- Some Electrical Properties of Wood PulpUploaded byhalel111

- Seccionador - SchneiderUploaded byNicolás Santiago Ugarte
- sing Thermal Performance of Building EnvelopeUploaded byThrinath Endla
- SkriptUploaded byRiza Arieyanda
- Atomka EngUploaded bymusewejamesouma
- Orc AnalysisUploaded bycandhare
- StrelaUploaded bybospanker
- 2.009 Portfolio Workshop S2-WebUploaded byconfederatenur
- حححححححححححححححححUploaded byaboasheakh
- LOFT]_AUTOCAD.pdfUploaded byGiovanni Ilich Cabrera Fuenzalida
- paper_chromatologyUploaded bysiminap
- Boiler and FurnaceUploaded byEr Bali Pandhare
- An Improved Control Strategy for Grid ConnectedUploaded bysathish2103
- chemistry- FundamentalsUploaded byNicolas Dagher
- electrostaics coulomb force and electrical dipolesUploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- Parque Das Conchas BC-10Uploaded byJuan Lopez
- Preparation of Laurel Alkanolamide From Laurel OilUploaded bybellesuper
- KS3 ScienceUploaded byapi-3848723
- jual theodolite nikon NE-101,NE102,NE-100 HUB 085717824653Uploaded byandyjayasurvey
- PowerPD Case Studies for Motor & GeneratorUploaded byvtechelectric
- 199908061064Uploaded bybirbiburbi
- Siddhanta Shiromani Ch 1 Translated.docUploaded byRaaja Shekhar
- Reservoir Engineering for GeologistsUploaded bytassili17
- Fremap Osram Sylvania CatalogUploaded byFremap Industries S A
- course reflectionUploaded byapi-272556968
- LoudspeakerUploaded bygamarti2
- Irrigation DesignUploaded byabkal_321
- EnzymesUploaded bydreamydamsel
- CncUploaded byPravin Deshmane
- Down-Stream ProcessUploaded byH.J.Prabhu
- TF6912_CH06 alkali silica reaction on concrete chapter 06Uploaded byLuca Brandi