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Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921

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Electric Power Systems Research
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/epsr

The pollution flashover on high voltage insulators
Muhsin Tunay Genc¸o˘glu ∗ , Mehmet Cebeci
Firat University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Elazig, Turkey

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 13 March 2006
Received in revised form 23 March 2008
Accepted 24 March 2008
Available online 6 May 2008
Keywords:
Insulator
Pollution flashover
Pollution resistance
Flashover voltage
Insulator equivalent model

a b s t r a c t
The pollution flashover, observed on insulators used in high voltage transmission, is one of the most
important problems for power transmission. It is a very complex problem due to several factors such as the
modeling difficulties of complex shapes of the insulators, different pollution density at different regions,
non-homogeneous pollution distribution on the insulator surface and unknown effect of humidity on the
pollution. In the literature, some static and dynamic models were developed by making some assumptions
and omissions to predict the flashover voltages of polluted insulators. In this study, historical development
of insulator modeling was investigated and a dynamic arc model was proposed. For this purpose, scaled
shape of a concerned insulator was firstly partitioned into triangular elements, then finite element method
(FEM) was implemented and finally potential distribution on the insulator surface, variation of pollution
resistance and flashover voltage were determined. The computed flashover voltage values of the selected
string insulator have been compared to results from other research.
© 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The flashover performance of insulators under polluted conditions is one of the guiding factors in the design and dimensioning
of insulation in power transmission lines [1]. Hence the flashover
on polluted transmission line insulators is a major problem which
has to be solved by power engineers.
The pollution flashover on high voltage insulators usually
involves the propagation of an arc root across the surface of an
electrolyte. However, flashover is achieved through two successive phases characterized as ignition and subsequent growth of
discharges under favorable conditions. The starting point of the
first phase has long been attributed to the formation of scintillations in the form of glow and quasistable discharges across the dry
bands. These discharges grow under favorable conditions to form
stable arcs. There may be several such arcs burning stably under
the leading arc at different places on the insulator surface. The second phase is more important, but it is still unsolved. Though several
mechanisms, proposed by different researchers [2–4], seem to have
physical acceptance, none of them has yet received any definite
experimental evidence. During arc propagation the heat dissipated
in the series pollution layer in front of the discharges, significantly
changes the characteristics of the pollution layer from one point to
another on the insulator surface.

∗ Corresponding author.
E-mail address: mtgencoglu@firat.edu.tr (M.T. Genc¸o˘glu).
0378-7796/$ – see front matter © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2008.03.019

Moreover, after ignition of the discharges across the dry bands,
the increasing leakage current causes additional variation and
nonuniformity in the series pollution layer [5]. The flashover of a
polluted insulator under AC voltage is the final stage of the complicated mechanisms. According to Rahal [6], three cases of AC
flashover mechanisms can be distinguished:
1. Immediate flashover of the pollution band similar to the
flashover phenomenon under DC voltage;
2. flashovers on several consecutive voltage cycles in which case
the problem of the arc re-ignition is posed each time the current
passes through zero;
3. no flashover; that is the case in which, despite the heating effect
which may increase the conductivity of the surface layer, the
applied voltage is insufficient to induce a flashover.
The potential distribution on the insulator surface and around the
insulator must be determined and the resistance values of the
pollution layer must be calculated for investigation of pollution
problem. Moreover, the effects of pollution on change of the resistance and the flashover performance in the operation conditions
of the insulator must be investigated. The finite element method
(FEM) is commonly used for numerical investigation of electric field
distribution on insulators. The surface of a zone-applied FEM is
defined by triangular or quadrilateral elements. The FEM provides
important advantages in ease of use, calculation speed and accuracy. The greatest disadvantage of FEM relates to the difficulty in
building the geometrical data that describe the problem zone.

Propagation of pre-discharge along the surface and short circuit.7–12].i). which may fluctuate as a result of depositing and purring events. Pollution deposited on the insulator surface becomes a conductive electrolyte when the insulator surface is wetted by rain or fog. depending on the design of the insulator. It will be assumed that the discharge extends along a straight line on the polluted surface and there is no current passage between the discharge column and the surrounding pollution layer except at the discharge root. Formation of pre-discharge on the surface of polluted insulator (a) Formation of dry bands. i. uniform pollution distribution and uniform wetting.T. 2. Whatever their nature. a lot of studies have been made to set up the models which can approximately show the critical characteristics (flashover voltage. the physical pollution on the insulators and flashover equation are given. 3. In Section 2. 2. The pollution flashover consists of three main phases. an insulator will carry a resident contamination layer. will increase its surface conductivity possibly leading to flashover and consequent power outages [14]. The pollution layer conductivity is a function of the discharge root position and the size of the arc root is a function of the local conductivity. a constant numerical value for Ve is generally taken in the theoretical calculations [19]. the problem of pollution flashover is most certainly solved [16]. The pollution increases the conductivity on the insulator surface. This layer. These assumptions are single dominant arc. 2. Where L–x is the length of pollution resistance in series with the discharge. 1). can be either lower or higher than in the case of uniform pollution [15]. decreases the flashover performance of the insulator and sometimes causes the breakdowns [13]. it is assumed that A = 63 and n = 0. respectively [16. Rumeli [16] has proposed a model (AR model) the length of which is equal to the leakage path of the given practical insulator (Fig. The pollution flashover Flashover on high voltage insulators due to natural pollution reduces the flashover performance and reliability of overhead lines in polluted areas. It also depends upon the form and polarity of the applied voltage. For an arc burning in air. E being in V/cm and i in A. However. the form E = E(i) = Ai−n (1) where A and n are called the discharge constants. The flashover equation The discharge considered in theoretical studies is generally an arc type having a falling voltage gradient current characteristic of Fig. Some assumptions have been made for the development of these models. If any one of these phases can be controlled completely. leakage current. when exposed to random occurrences like condensation. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 1915 The development of flashover models of the polluted insulators which can take the practical conditions into consideration is quite difficult due to complication of flashover phenomenon [8]. are rather inactive. 2. However. The flashover model. Formation of conductive pollution film (a) Covering of insulator surface with pollution layer. In service. 1. (b) Ignition of pre-discharge along dry bands. M. This. Genc¸o˘glu. when dry. these values are estimated as A = 518 and n = 0. In this case the integral surface conductivity is not a proper parameter of contamination severity. For an arc discharge burning in an atmosphere of steam.) of the polluted insulators [4. 2. In Section 3. The values of A and n depend on the atmosphere in which the discharge burns. 1. The voltage drop at the discharge roots basically depends upon the current value and the pollution specific conductivity of the contact surface at the discharge roots. For the same integral surface conductivity the flashover voltage of the nonuniformly polluted insulator. the pollutants. 2. The AR model of an insulator. A developed new dynamic arc model is introduced and an application on an insulator is given in Section 4. The width of the AR model is variable and is defined as a() = D() 0≤≤L (2) If it is considered a single discharge starting from one of the electrodes of an insulator and its equivalent AR model is given in Fig. The contents of this paper are organized as follows. is more or less stable.M.275. Fig.e. accumulated since its installation or the last cleaning operation.18]. etc. Surface flashover on insulators High voltage outdoor insulators are exposed to pollution because of salt in the regions near the sea and dust and chemical residues in the industrial regions. (b) Wetting of pollution layer by effect of humidity.1. water and/or ionisable materials are added. historical development of insulator modeling is investigated. This allows leakage currents to increase over the insulator surface and decreases the electrical withstand voltage of the insulator [16.2.7. The distribution of surface conductivity on insulators in the field is usually very non-uniform.17]. Ve = Ve (x. . frost and onshore gales. critical length. (a) Insulator and (b) flashover on the AR model of the insulator. Although the discharge anode and cathode falls depend upon the state of the contact surface.

w) and dw = R i2 dt. snow and ice in heavy pollution. For the purposes of standardization. Genc¸o˘glu.26]. He has considered the temperature variation in the pollution film until the formation of the first dry band on the insulator surface. e. R = R(x. Heavy IV. Several analytical studies have been carried out in order to calculate flashover voltage of polluted insulators. for each level of pollution. The most commonly accepted model of flashover of polluted insulation was developed independently by German. from light pollution to very heavy pollution. One of the first quantitative analysis of arcs on contaminated surfaces was made by Obenaus [25. The discharge voltage drop Vd is Vd = xE + Ve (4) where x is the discharge length. Determination of ESDD on insulators installed on transmission line towers is possible but it requires skilled personnel [21]. A major disadvantage of the ESDD method is that the insulators must be removed from the transmission line for an exact measurement [21].g. respectively. Combining Eqs. Wilkins [9] has made an attempt to calculate the flashover voltage of a uniformly polluted insulator. etc. It is thought that R decreases with increasing x due to shortening of the length of the series pollution region. heavy rain and arid areas. This method is generally used for calculating average pollution based on average density of soluble salt [24]. four levels of pollution are qualitatively defined.1916 M. very close to the coast and exposed to sea-spray or to very strong and polluting winds from the sea Desert areas. w) = f (x. E is the discharge voltage gradient and Ve is the discharge fall voltage which is the sum of the anode and cathode voltage falls at the discharge roots. Evaluation of pollution severity (3) where Vd and Vr indicate the voltage drops across the discharge and the series pollution region. Obenaus considered a flat model. [20]. Table 1 The levels of pollution severity and examples Pollution level I. characterized by no rain for long periods. The equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) is the most commonly used method to characterize pollution quality and quantity on the surface of insulators.T. In this approach. (6) is called the “flashover equation” [19].3. Russian and British [27–29] research teams. It is also used the same approach to calculate the flashover voltage of practical insulators which were represented by the form factors and leakage lengths [31]. i) + iR(x. Very heavy Examples of typical environments Areas without industries and with low density of houses equipped with heating plants Areas with low density of industries or houses but subjected to frequent winds and/or rainfall Agricultural areasa Mountainous areas All these areas shall be situated at least 10 km to 20 km from the sea and shall not be exposed to winds directly from the seab Areas with industries not producing particularly polluting smoke and/or with average density of houses equipped with heating plants Areas with high density of houses and/or industries but subjected to frequent winds and/or rainfall Areas exposed fo wind from the sea but not too close to the coast (at least several kilometres distant)b Areas with high density of industries and suburbs of large cities with high density of heating plants producing pollution Areas close to the sea or in any case exposed to relatively strong winds from the seab Areas generally of moderate extent. Table 1 gives. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 The applied voltage V is V = Vd + Vr 2. will change water’s conductivity to the level equal to that resulting from the solution of polluted deposits gathered from insulator surface divided by the insulator’s surface area (mg/cm2 ) [23]. A common feature of all these models is a simplified representation of a propagating arc consisting of a partial arc in series with the resistance of the unbridged section of the polluted layer [8]. an approximate description of some typical corresponding environments. exposed to strong winds carrying sand and salt. or the burning of crop residues. as far as possible. Insulator equivalent models An alternative to natural and artificial pollution tests is to compute the flashover voltage of polluted insulators by making use of theoretical models. Specific conductivity depends upon the temperature which changes as energy (w) is dissipated in this region. and subjected to regular condensation a Use of fertilizers by spraying. 3. the density of ESDD equals an amount of sodium chloride which. Light II. The voltage drop across the discharge free region is Vr = iR (5) where R is the resistance of the pollution region in series with the discharge. The method determines the salt deposition density by washing down the insulator surface with a known amount of water and then measuring the conductivity of the water. Separately this method is labor intensive and is subject to the experience level and attention to detail of the field personnel [22]. subjected to conductive dusts and to industrial smoke producing particularly thick conductive deposits Areas generally of moderate extent. R is basically controlled by the discharge length (x) and the specific conductivity of the pollution layer. w) (6) Eq. however due to complex shapes of the insulators and lack of computational facilities. (2)–(4) V = xE(i) + Ve (x. Medium III. sufficiently precise analysis of the phenomenon has not been possible [19].e. Other extreme environmental conditions exist which merit further consideration. A similar approach has been used with different coefficients in the arc characteristics [30]. i. Rizk [7] added the criteria for AC flashover. M. solved in water. This is the Obenaus flashover equation for DC conditions. the insulator is represented by an equivalent rectangular (cylin- . ∂R/∂x < 0. it is based on the premise that a surface discharge can extend if equality of stresses is present in the discharge and in the unspanned section of polluted path. These studies have not considered the time variation and nonuniformity of the pollution film.e. composed by an arc of length in series with a resistance representing the wet pollution layer and supplied by a constant voltage. can lead to a higher pollution level due to dispersal by wind. It is desirable to assess the flashover performance of polluted insulators using analytical methods in order to eliminate. the need for expensive test facilities and tedious and lengthy experiments. i. b Distances from sea coast depend on the topography of the coastal area and on the extreme wind conditions. i. The first analytical approach to the problem is a polluted rectangular model with a uniform and time-invariant pollution film [2]. By definition.

It is based on an empirical relationship between the minimum arc re-ignition voltage and the arc current. Earc and the pollution voltage gradient Ep are calculated as instantly and checked for the arc propagation criterion (Ep > Earc ) for a given voltage and surface conductivity. It has been shown [39] that the non-uniform distribution of the pollution film affected the flashover voltage and strict relation existed between the flashover voltage. Mercure and Drouet [35] have measured that current intensity directly and shown that during the flashover of a channel of electrolyte. The flashover equation and a dynamic arc model have been used to investigate analytically the relation of the leakage current to the surface conductivity and the arc length [12]. whose value depends on the geometry. the effects of arc extinction and re-ignition on the discharge growth are considered together with the internal impedance of the AC source. Genc¸o˘glu.46]. using new quantities and the calculations are repeated. In this study. geometry of the insulator and pollution severity. The meshed case by triangular elements of AR half-model belong to 7K3 insulator. Otherwise. the arc propagates for that voltage and conductivity. has been considered. the form factor varies and so do the other quantities. Dhahbi-Megriche and Beroual [8] have developed a new dynamic model which computes variation of current against the time.T. the arc propagation velocity and flashover time for applied voltage. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 drical) model covered with a uniform pollution film having hot average surface conductivity [19]. The calculation of flashover voltages of a rectangular model covered with uniform and non-uniform and time-invariant pollution films has been made [33. The insulator is divided into a number of zones for numerical calculations. is converted to surface conductivity  S in the form S = F rp L (7) where L F= dL d(L) (8) 0 F is a form factor of the insulator. Wilkins and Al-Baghdadi [3] have signaled the existence of a current parallel to the arc column in the electrolyte on an Obenaus type of model. The variations of conductivity of pollution film and temperature on an insulator surface caused by the leakage current have been studied [42]. along with a layer of pollution is modeled as a discharge in series with a resistance [7]. then a flashover has occurred. the dynamic behavior of the discharge growing on a polluted surface has been examined.34]. The pollution severity in the present investigation. The surface of the insulator is divided into finite elements. The calculation of pollution gradient requires the instantaneous pollution resistance. 3. The AR model is a “one-to-one” model and effectively represents the shape of a practical insulator. . this analysis was used in the high voltage engineering for performance study of different type insulator. It has been found that the same arc gradient current characteristic (E = AI−n ) could be used taking different values for the discharge constants A and n (for AC: A = 68. 4. thus utilizing the influence of geometry of the insulator in the flashover process. layer temperature and physical state. If it is satisfied. Astorga and Do Prado [44] have suggested that the pollution layer has a definite thickness and the thickness is not fixed. the change in arc resistance is calculated. For wide and narrow rectangular models.7). across the creepage length [45. but its complexity and the large number of assumptions required for its solution make it difficult to appraise. The AC flashover voltages of a practical insulator are calculated considering a plane model which has an elliptic shape. having the same surface area and the same leakage length of the given insulator [43]. A simplified model for AC flashover estimation of polluted insulators is suggested in [41]. Computation of AC flashover voltages An insulator with its partial arc. In the calculation of the critical voltage causing flashover. In this study. The effect of voltage form on the propagating discharge has been investigated [40]. the arc resistance. approximate analytical expressions have been obtained for the pollution resistance as a function of the propagating discharge length [32]. The method of dimensional analysis is applied to determine flashover characteristics of polluted insulators. the zone where the discharge current transfer towards the liquid takes place can spread over several centimeters. The arc voltage gradient. A mathematical model was applied for the calculation 1917 of the dielectric strength of the insulator under the determined non-uniform distribution. They have shown that dynamic behavior of flashover phenomenon can be more effectively analyzed. and  S is the surface conductivity in ␮S [47]. Another AC model was proposed by Claverie and Porcheron [36]. These zones were simulated with various levels of pollution in the case of the uniform pollution distribution study. the peak leakage current and the pollution layer conductivity. Considering instantaneous changes of the discharge parameters. Recently. which in turn is calculated from the form factor.M. n = 0. a similar analytical approach used [26]. assuming a uniform pollution film. expressed in terms of rp . Depending upon the length of the arc. Jolly et al. A theoretical approach to calculate the flashover voltage of a uniformly polluted model has been made [38]. It has been shown that the discharge growth and thus the flashover are significantly controlled by the nonuniformity of pollution layer. uniformly contaminated. Rizk [10] suggested a dynamic model using dimensional analysis. [37] have presented a model applicable to a discharge having parallel paths. M. The leakage current (IL ) during an arc free period can be calculated by IL (t) = V (t) RL (9) Fig. AR model has been introduced [16] which was defined in terms of the leakage path and the corresponding radius of the given practical insulator.

the values of the pollution resistance in series with the arc have been computed using AR model. Genc¸o˘glu. l is the distance from upper electrode (cup) on the insulator surface.T. The surface conductivity is calculated from these equations using the leakage current and line voltage. an initial file which contains different parameters was prepared. Flowchart of the computer program. 4.1918 M. this solution zone has been meshed by triangular elements (Fig. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 The surface resistance is calculated from the form factor. Potentials on the AR model were used for calculation of variation at pollution resistance. Before the program initialization. L is the insulator leakage length. In the program. 3) and initial conditions have been applied to cap and pin of the insulator. V(t) is the sinusoidal line to neutral voltage. potential distributions and field strength on the insulator surface and around it have been computed using FEM and field strength values have been determined along the leakage length on the insulator surface [48]. the values of potential and electric field strength. Finally. as 1 RL =  L dl 2r(l) (10) 0 where. M. the pollution resistance in series with the arc and flashover voltage have been computed using the computer program. . The surface conductivity is a measure of pollution severity. The time variation of the conductivity values permits the continuous estimation of actual pollution severity on an insulator surface [12].  is the layer conductivity in ohm/cm. These parameters are Fig. 4. firstly. a computer program is developed for the computation of AC flashover voltages of the polluted insulators. For this reason. The ESDD is approximately proportional to the surface conductivity. In this study. Then. r(l) is the radius of the insulator at a distance of l from the upper electrode. A generalized flowchart of the computer program is shown in Fig.

7K3 insulator which has seven units is a string insulator. d: Sundararajan [12]. b: Cron [16]. etc. The finite element meshing for the insulator is shown in Fig. initially reads the nodes on the leakage length and their coordinates. The coordinates of all the nodes along the insulator surface are obtained and these coordinates are arranged for the FEM solution. Then. The node numbers and potential values of the nodes between which the arc occurs are added to series set up by known nodes potentials. The computed flashover voltage values for 7K3 insulator. leakage length. etc. If the arc occurs between all the nodes. 5. if AI−n (V/cm) is the discharge voltage gradient. The cross-section of the cap and pin insulator’s (7K3) each unit has 185 mm of height. Considering the discharge on the insulator surface ignites in the air. The computations were performed for one unit of the insulator. dielectric constant of the pollution layer. 6 shows how the program simulated a pollution layer of finite thickness using meshed triangular elements. the potentials of all the nodes are computed. Fig. After flowing current from the pollution layer and field strengths of all the nodes are computed difference of field strength between every two nodes is calculated along the leakage length. M. Genc¸o˘glu. 6.76 were used for computation of AC flashover voltages. Comparison of flashover voltages for 7K3 insulator (a. Then the application returns to the section where the potentials of the nodes have obtained and the potential value is increased. 8. it has been assumed that the pollution layer on the insulator surface has a homogeneous structure.7) [19]. They have found that the same arc gradient current characteristics (E = AI−n ) could be used taking different values for the discharge constants A and n (for AC: A = 68. n = 0. Then. conductivity. diameter. the following parameters are respectively read from the file: the coordinates of all the nodes belong to the finite element meshing. [40]. voltage level and voltage type. 7.76. Checking field strength values between the nodes the application examines whether the arc occurs or not. Finally.30]. respectively [16. 6. 7. frequency. the three node numbers for each triangle (element). e: dynamic model). Flashover voltages were computed for different surface conductivities of the pollution layer using the computer program. and the coordinates belong to boundary points describing the insulator. the variations of temperature on the pollution layer during the discharge and effect of humidity were neglected. 288 mm of diameter and 304 mm of leakage length. Additionally. Fig. 5. Using the developed dynamic model in this study. The effect of voltage form on the propagating discharge has been investigated by Nosseir et al. c: Wilkins [9]. dielectric constant of the air. The finite element mesh generation for 7K3 insulator. The application. . Fig. is given in Fig. If the arc occurs between any of the two nodes. All the computations have been done for a seven-unit string. it has been assumed that the partial discharges occur on the leakage path of the insulator and these discharges increase and they cover the leakage length completely and so the flashover forms. It is seen Fig. the dielectric constants of each element. are assigned by the user.M.T. the potential values of these nodes are computed. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 1919 Fig. Furthermore. When the new dynamic arc model is obtained in this study. skirt number and profile of the insulator. atmospheric conditions. AC flashover voltage values for a seven-unit string were found. Rumeli [16]. the nodes on the leakage length and their coordinates. fixed values of A = 63 and n = 0. A and n are 63 and 0. Afterwards. the flashover occurs along the insulator surface. 7K3 insulator. the pollution density of the region. the nodes which defines the function and their potentials. the variation of computed AC flashover voltage against surface conductivity for 7K3 insulator for a seven-unit string is given in Fig. In this study.

But. Because some results are theoretical. But this decline is not linear. Cebeci / Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 1914–1921 Fig. the variation of computed AC flashover voltage against surface conductivity for U40BL insulator for a six-unit string is given in Fig. The finite element mesh generation for U40BL insulator. U40BL insulator which has six units is a string insulator. U40BL insulator. M. Using the developed dynamic model in this study. a lot of researchers have tried to represent the insulators with the static models for a long time. the static models do not consider the effects on the model parameters of the discharges on the insulator surface. It can be seen that dry flashover voltage is bigger than wet flashover voltage. In order to solve this problem.1920 M. The difference of the flashover voltages between results of the dynamic model and results of other researchers is excessive in small values (5–10 ␮S) of surface conductivity. It appears that the flashover voltage of U40BL insulator is about 57 kV and 31 kV for 5 ␮S (no significant pollution) and 25 ␮S (heavy pollution). The finite element meshing for the insulator is shown in Fig. Thus. the flashover voltages of string insulators can be computed easily. and is given in Fig. In order to eliminate this drawback. All the computations have been done for a six-unit string. 5. the flashover characteristics of different insulators can be . AC flashover voltage values for a six-unit string were found. the difficulties during the experiments were eliminated. Then. respectively in Fig. Dry power frequency average flashover voltage is 55 kV and wet power frequency average flashover voltage is 30 kV for U40BL insulator by experiment [49]. 8. 11. The flashover voltages of a polluted high voltage insulator were computed using the developed new dynamic model in this study. 10. 9. 7 that if the surface conductivity increases the flashover voltage decreases. the dynamic models were developed in recent years. the difference is acceptable.T. It was shown that the theoretically computed flashover voltage values using the dynamic model are quite similar to the experimental and theoretical results of other researches. The comparison of computed AC flashover voltages using the dynamic model with the theoretical or experimental results of other researchers for 7K3 insulator is given in Fig. Using the new dynamic model. the dynamic models which consider the effects of the instantaneous changes in the discharge parameters represents the flashover phenomenon better than the static models. The pollution flashover problem on high voltage insulators in the polluted regions has not yet been solved completely. Conclusion Fig. this difference is smaller for greater values of surface conductivity. But. Genc¸o˘glu. 11. 10. 11. Fig. some results are experimental and some results are obtained from the static model. from Fig. But in spite of this. 9. The computed flashover voltage values for U40BL insulator. The computations were performed for one unit of the insulator. 175 mm of diameter and 185 mm of leakage length. Each unit of the cross-section of the cap and pin insulator (U40BL) has 110 mm of height. Because the flashover is a very rapid phenomenon. The occurred partial discharge after the formation of the dry band is considered as static at the static models.

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