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1. Define maintenance?

Maintenance is the routine and recurring process of keeping a particular machine or

asset in its normal operating conditions. So that it can deliver the expected
performance or service without any loss or damage.
2. Whatare the objectives of maintenance?
The objectives of maintenance are to ensure the desired plant availability at an
optimum cost within the safety prescription. In other words, it may be mentioned that the
objective of maintenance is to minimize the total cost of unavailability and resources.
3. List the types of maintenance.
a) Breakdown maintenance
b) Corrective maintenance
c) Preventive maintenance
d) Predictive maintenance
4. Define breakdown maintenance.

It is a type of maintenance approach in which equipment is allowed to

function / operate till no failure occurs that no maintenance work is carried out
ion advance to prevent failure.
5. Define preventive maintenance.
It is a maintenance program which is committed to the elimination or
prevention of corrective and breakdown maintenance. It is designed for day to day
maintenance like cleaning, inspection, lubricating, retightening etc. to retain the
healthy condition of equipments.
6. Define the term predictive maintenance.
Predictive maintenance is a management technique that uses regular evaluation of
the actual operating conditions of plant equipment, production systems and plant
management function to optimize total plant operation.
7. Define corrective maintenance.

Corrective maintenance is the program focused on regular planed tasks that will
maintain all critical machinery and system in optimum operation conditions.
8. List the objectives of corrective maintenance.

1. Elimination break downs

2. Elimination deviations from optimum operating condition.
3. Elimination unnecessary repair
9. List the benefits of implementing preventive maintenance.
1. It maintains the equipment in good condition to prevent them from bigger
2. Prolongs the effective life of the equipments.
3. Detects the problem at earlier stages.
4. minimizes/eliminates the rework/scrap and helps in reducing the process
5. Significantly reduces unplanned downtime.
10. Write a note on lubrication.
Lubrication is one of the most important functions of maintenance. Lubrication
for the machine plays the same role as blood for the human being.
11. What are the functions of lubrication?
a) Friction and wear control
b) Corrosion control
c) Temperature control
d) Contamination control.
12. How will you classify lubricants?
Lubricants are classified according to the usage.
a) Greases
b) Hydraulic
c) Engine oils.
13. What is limitation of breakdown maintenance?
1. Most repairs are poorly planned due to time constraint caused by
production and plant management. This will cost three to four times than
the same repair when it is well planned.
3. This approach focus only on repair or the symptoms of failure and not on
the root cause of failure. This results only in increase in the frequency of
repair and correspondingly the maintenance costs.
14.Define Repair cycle.
The stages through which a reparable item passes from the time of its removal
or replacement until it is reinstalled or placed in stock in a serviceable condition.

15.What is Repair complexity?

Complex repair is defined as a repair that requires more than layered
closure, such as scar revision, debridement (as of traumatic lacerations),
extensive undermining, stents, or retention sutures. In dermatology the
overriding use of the code is for repairs of surgical excisions of malignant and
benign tumors. Such repairs may require extensive undermining or retention

1. Classify various planned maintenance approach.

Preventive maintenance
Corrective maintenance
Predictive maintenance
Condition based maintenance

2. List out some condition based monitoring techniques and briefly discuss on them
1. Vibration monitoring
2. Thermograph
3. Tribology
4. Electrical motor analysis
3. What does safety, health and environment pillar of TPM aims at?
This pillar aims at achieving Zero accident, Zero health damage and Zero fires.
4. Name the five S principles used for implementations of TPM.

SEIRI Sort out

SEITON Organize
SEISO Shine workplace
SEIKETSU Standardization
SHITSUKE Self discipline

5. List the various pillars of TPM?

(a) 5, S Principle
(b) Jishuhozen (JH)
(c) Kaizen
(d) Planned maintenance
(e)Quality maintenance.
(f) Training
(g) Office TPM
(h)Safety, health and environment
6. What are the objectives of TPM?

The main objectives of TPM are

1. To achieve zero defects

2. Achieve zero accidents and zero break downs in all functional areas
of an organization
3. To create different team of people to have active participation.
4. To aim at minimization of defects and
5. To inculcate autonomous policy

7. What is equipment health monitoring?

Conditions monitoring is one of the maintenance methods which are used to
assess the health and condition of equipments machines, systems or process by
absorbing checking, measuring and monitoring several parameters. This
technique is also called as equipment health monitoring.
8. List down the factors for increasing the demand condition monitoring.
1. Increased quality expectations reflected in produces liability legislation
2. Increased automation to improve profitability and
maintain competitiveness
3. Increased safety and reliability expectations
4. Increased cost of maintenance due to labor and material cost.
9. List down the key features of condition monitoring.
1. Links between cause and effect
2. Systems with sufficient response
3. Mechanisms for objective data assessment
10. Write down the basic steps in condition monitoring

Identifying critical systems

Selecting suitable techniques for condition monitoring
Setting baselines
Data collection
Data assessment
Fault diagnosis and repair
System review

11. What are three types of condition monitoring?

a. Subjective condition monitoring
b. Minimized breakdown costs
c. Improved morality of the operating personnel and safety
12. State the advantages and disadvantages and disadvantages of
condition monitoring.

1. Improved availability of equipment

2. Minimized breakdown cost
3. Improved reliability
1. Gives only marginal benefits
2. Increased running cost
3. Sometimes difficult to organize

13. Mention the various costs involved in costing of condition

I. Installation cost
II. Operating cost
14. State the methods of measuring vibration.
(a) Amplitude
15. Name the types of pyrometers.
1. Total radiation pyrometers
2. Infra red pyrometers
3. Optical radiation pyrometers
16. State the application of thermistors.
1. It is used for varying temperatures
2. It is used in time delay circuits
3. Thermistors are used for temperature compensation.
17. What are two main types of infrared thermography?
1. Passive thermography
2. Active thermography
18. What are the principles very important for the study of eddy current test?
i. Permeability
ii. Conductivity
iii. Material thickness
iv. Edge effect and end effect
v. Lift off
vi. Fill factor
19. Describe the limitation of eddy current test.
The main limitation is the low penetration of parts being examined, using limited
to thin walls or near surface flaws. It is difficult to use on ferromagnetic materials.
False indications are possible because of mixed variables, edge effects and lift-off
effects. Extensive technical knowledge is required for the development of

inspection procedures, specific probes and to interpret the inspection data.

20. What are the limitations of ultrasonic test?

a. Unfavorable geometries and coarse anisotropic grain structures are
difficult to inspect.
b. Extensive technical knowledge is required for the development of
inspection procedure.
c. Parts that are rough, irregular in shape, very small or thin or not
homogenous are difficult to examine, specific probes and to
interpret the inspection data.

21. Name some of the methods of leakage monitoring


Interstitial monitoring
level monitoring
Vapor monitoring
Liquid Monitoring

22. Define Total productive maintenance (TPM).

Total productive maintenance is a philosophy of continuous improvement that
creates a sense of ownership in the operators and other connected persons for
machine as well as in their supervisor.
23. Write a short note on economics of maintenance.
Both production and maintenance have the same objective to produce a quality
product at maximum efficiency and minimum cost.
24. What is computer aided maintenance?
Computer-aided maintenance refers to systems that utilize software to organize
planning, scheduling and support of maintenance and repair. A common application of
such systems is the maintenance of computers, either hardware or software,
themselves. It can also apply to the maintenance of other complex systems that
require periodic maintenance, such as reminding operators that preventive
maintenance is due or even predicting when such maintenance should be performed
based on recorded past experience.
1. Define reliability?
Reliability is defined as the probability that a component /system, when operating
under given condition, will perform its intended functions adequately for a
specified period of time. It refers to the like hood that equipment will not fail
during its operation.
2. State the benefits of reliability analysis in industries?
The main advantages of imposing reliability requirements are increased productivity

and reductions in forced outage equipment due to planned maintenance activity.

3. Define failure rate?
Failure rate is the ratio of the number of failures during particular unit
interval to the average population during that interval.
This failure rate is also known as hazard rate and instantaneous failure rate.
4. What is Mean Failure Rate?
The mean failure rate h is obtained by finding the mean of the failures
rates for specified period of time.

h = (Z1 + Z2 + Z3+....+ZT)

Where Zt represents
Failure rates over the specified period of time T.
5. Define Mean Time to Failure.
Let t1 is the time to failure for the first specimen, t2 is the time to failure
for the second specimen and t n is the time to failurefor the nth specimen.
Hence the mean time to failure for N specimens are
MTTR = (t1+t2+......+t N) /N
6. What is Mean Time between Failures (MTBF)?
Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) is the mean or average time between
Successive failures of a product. Mean time between failures refers tom the average
time of breakdown until the device is beyond repair.
7. Define Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)?
Mean Time to Repair is the arithmetic mean of the time required to
perform maintenance action. MTTR is defined as theRatio of total
maintenance time and number of maintenance action. MTTR = Total
maintenance time/ Number of maintenance action.
8. Define Maintenance Action Rate?

Maintenance action rate is the number of maintenance action that can be carried out
on equipment per hour.
9. Define Failure Density?
Failure Density is the ratio of the number of failures during a given unit
interval of time to the total number of items at the very beginning of the
10. State the types of reliability?

Reliability can be generally oftwo types:

(i) Inherent Reliability: It is associated with the quality of the material
and design of machine parts.
(ii) Achievable Reliability: It depends upon other factors such as
maintenance and operation of the equipment.
11. Define maintainability?
Maintainability is defined as the probability that a unit or system will berestored to
specified working conditions within a given period when maintenance action is taken in
accordance with the prescribed procedures and resources.
12. Define availability?
Availability is the ratio of the time at which equipment is available for the
designated operation/service to the total time of operation and maintenance of
theequipment. It is also defined as the ratio of equipments uptime to the
equipment uptime and downtime over a specified period of time.

13. What is system reliability?

System reliability is defined as the probability that the system will perform its
intended function for a specified mission time under the random operational
14. Define series configurations.

A series system is a configuration such that, if any one of thesystem components

fails, the entire system fails. Conceptually, a series system is one that is as weak as
itsweakest link.
15. Define parallel configurations.
A parallel system is a configuration such that, as long as not allof the system
components fail, the entire system works. Conceptually, in a parallel configuration
the total system reliability is higher than the reliability of any single system componet.
16. Define mixed configurations.
Some systems are made up of combinations of several series andparallel
configurations. The way to obtain system reliability insuch cases is to break the
total system configuration down intohomogeneous subsystems. Then, consider each
of these subsystems separately as a unit, and calculate their reliabilities. Finally,
put these simple units back (via series or parallel recombination) into a single
system and obtain its reliability.

1. What is safety?
A thing is safe if its risks are justified to be acceptable designer thing is said to
be safe if for the person who judges the perceived risk is less.
2. Define productivity.
Productivity is a measure of economic efficiency which shows how effectively
economic inputs are converted into outputs. Productivity is measured by comparing
the amount of goods and services produced with the inputs, which were used in

3. List any four causes of accidents in industries.

A) Taking shortcuts
b) Being over confident
c) Starting a Task with Incomplete Instructions
D) Poor housekeeping
4. What is an accident?
The term "accident" can be defined as an unplanned event that interrupts the
completion of an activity, and that may (or may not) include injury or property

5. How to report the accident in industries?

Employees injured on the job are to report the injury to their supervisor as soon
as possible after the incident/accident. Near miss accidents or incidents should
be reported as well.
6. What are the reasons to investigate a workplace accident include?
a) Most importantly, to find out the cause of accidents and to prevent similar
accidents in the future
b) To fulfill any legal requirements
c) To determine the cost of an accident
d) To determine compliance with applicable safety regulations
e) To process workers' compensation claims

7. Who should do the accident investigating?

Ideally, an investigation would be conducted by someone experienced in accident
causation, experienced in investigative techniques, fully knowledgeable of the work

processes, procedures, persons, and industrial relations environment of a particular

8. Should the immediate supervisor be on the team?
The advantage is that this person is likely to know most about the work and
persons involved and the current conditions. Furthermore, the supervisor can
usually take immediate remedial action. The counter argument is that there may be
an attempt to gloss over the supervisors shortcomings in the accident. This situation
should not arise if the accident is investigated by a team of people, and if the
worker representative(s) and the members review all accident investigation reports
9. Why look for the root cause?
An investigator who believes that accidents are caused by unsafe conditions will
likely try to uncover conditions as causes. On the other hand, one who believes they
are caused by unsafe acts will attempt to find the human errors that are causes.
Therefore, it is necessary to examine some underlying factors in a chain of events that
ends in an accident.
10. What are the steps involved in investigating an accident?

Report the accident occurrence to a designated person within the organization

Provide first aid and medical care to injured person(s) and prevent further
injuries or damage

Investigate the accident

Identify the causes

Report the findings

Develop a plan for corrective action

Implement the plan

Evaluate the effectiveness of the corrective action

Make changes for continuous improvement

11. Write a note on measuring safety performance.

Performance management is a process that links an organizations objectives, the
strategies to meet those objectives, its management systems, performance
measurement and reporting. Performancemeasurement provides the means of
determining the effectiveness of the performance management system and the
basis for making improvements that will enable objectives to be achieved.
12. What are the functions of safety organizations?

a) Monitoring implementation of all directives issued by RlyBoard & HQs in matters

pertaining to safety.
b) Ensuring super checks of functioning of operational &maintenance machinery on
the division.
c)Super check of coaching & goods trains, conduct nightinspections, joint inspections
with officers of civil, engineering, S& T, electrical& Mechanical departments.
d)Implementation of safety circular & safety drives on thedivision.
e)Co-ordination of improvement in crew & guard bookinglobbies, running rooms
forrunning staff.
f)To coordinate disaster management functions, relief, &restoration etc.
g)Assisting authorities in conducting inquires in seriousaccidents.
h)Counseling & monitoring of staff involved in maintenance

1. What is color coding? Give examples.
A color code or color code is a system for displaying information by using different
WHITE Proposed Excavation
PINK Temporary survey marking
RED Electric power lines, cables and lighting cables.
2. What is safety standards?
Safety standards are standards designed to ensure the safety of products, activities
or processes, etc. They may be advisory or compulsory and are normally laid down by
an advisory or regulatory body that may be either voluntary or statutory. China has
recently experienced trouble with some of the post listed associations.
3. Name the safety devices used in machine shop machineries.
a)Safety glasses
b) Closed toe shoes or boots
4. What are the safety considerations in material handling equipments?
When deciding what material handling equipment to use, it is important to take into
account the generalcharacteristics of the equipment types available in the market.
Then, the decision maker should determinewhich equipment matches better to the
required application.
5. Name the equipments used in material handling.

6. What are the safety considerations in pressure vessels?
When deciding what pressure vessel to use, it is important to take into account the
generalcharacteristics of the equipment types available in the market.Although
pressure vessels designed and constructed to one of therecognized design codes have
had an excellent safety record, some recent eventsindicate a basis for concern about
continuing reliability and safety, especially when coupled with the current trend of
extending service usage.

7. What is the need of safety in industries?

In industries, the term safety refers to any act of accident prevention by person
qualified in the field. It is often reactionary to adverse events, also described as
8. How to extinguish fire?
The best way to stop any full blown fire is to smother, or extinguish it in its initial
stages. It depends on what kind of fire it is, or how big and severe it is.

9. What are the common causes of fire in engineering industry?

(a) Scrap and trash
(b) Dust
(c) Flammable liquids
(d) Electrical problems
(e) Heat and ignition sources
(f) Smoking

10. What is the basis of safety programme and policy?

A health and safety policy is a written statement by an employer stating the
company's commitment for the protection of the health and safety of employees and to
the public. It is an endorsed commitment by management to its employees regarding
their health and safety.
A health and safety program contains the health and safety elements of an
organization, objectives which make it possible for the company to achieve its goal in
the protection of its workers at the workplace.
11. What are the safety considerations in welding equipments?
Some of the frequently encountered hazards as experienced by welders and other
related workersinclude mainly the electricity, radiation, heat, flames, fire, explosion,
noise, welding fumes, fuel gases, inert gases, gasmixtures solvents, etc. In order to
provide safe working conditions in a manufacturing environment, it becomes

mandatoryto take into consideration the aspects related to hazards. Risk mitigation or
risk assessment therefore needs to be carried outat various levels.