Geotechnical Engineering Design Criteria

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Geotechnical Engineering Design Criteria

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General

We will be using the term foundation to describe the structural elements that connect a structure

to the ground. These elements are made of concrete, steel, wood, or perhaps other materials. We

will divide foundations into two broad categories :

1.

Shallow foundations

Shallow foundations transmit the structural loads to the near-surface soils.

2.

Deep foundations

Deep foundations transmit somes or all of the loads to deeper soils.

Classification of foundations are ilustrated in this figure belows :

Figure 3.

Types of foundation

Batter pile

A pile driven in at an angle inclined to the vertical to provide high resistance to lateral loads.

End-bearing pile

A pile whose support capacity is derived principally from the resistance of the foundation

material on whinch the pile tip rests. End-bearing piles are often used when a soft upper layer

is underlain by a dense or hard strata. If the upper soft layer should settle, the pile could be

subjected to down-drag forces, and the pile must be designed to resist these soil-induced

forces.

Friction pile

A pile whose support capacity is derived principally from the resitance of the soil friction

and/or adhesion mobilized along the side of the pile. Friction piles are often used in soft clays

where the end-bearing resistance is small because of punching shear at the pile tip.

A pile that derives its support capacity from combined end-bearing resistance developed at

the pile tip and friction and/or adhesion resistance ont pile perimeter.

Once the design loads have been defined, we need to develop foundation designs that satisfy

several performance requirements. The first category is strength requirements, which are

intended to avoid catastrophic failures. There are two types :

Geotechnical strength requirements are those that address the ability of the soil or rock to

accept the loads imparted by the foundation without failing. The strength of soil is governed

by its capacity to sustain shear stresses, so we satisfy geotechnical strength requirements by

comparing shear stresses with shear strengths and designing accordingly.

Geotechnical strength analysis are almost always performed using allowable stress design

(ASD) methods.

Structural strength requirements address the foundations structural integrity and its ability to

safely carry the applied loads.

Corrosion of Steel

Under certain conditions, steel can be the object of extensive corrosion. This can be easily

monitored when the steel is above ground, and routine maintenance, such as painting, will

usually keep corrosion under control. However, it is impossible to inspect underground steel

visually, so it is appropriate to be concerned about its potential for corrosion and long-term

integrity.

For corrosion assessment, steel foundations can be divided into two categories: those in marine

environments and those in land environments. Both are shown in Figure below :

Figure 4.

(a) Marine environments include piers, docks, drilling platforms, and other similar structures where

a portion of the foundation is exposed to open water. (b) Land environments include buildings and other

structures that are built directly on the ground and the entire foundation is buried.

Most building codes do not specify design factors of safety. Therefore, engineers must use their

own discretion and proffesional judgment when selecting F. Items to consider when selecting a

design factor of safety include the following :

Soil type

Shear stregth in clays is less reliable than that in sands, and more failures have occured in

clays than in sands. Therefore, use higher factors of safety in clays.

Projects with minimal subsurface exploration and laboratory or in-situ tests have more

uncertainty in the design soil parameters, and thus require higher factor of safety. However,

when extensive site characterization data is available, thier is less uncertainty so lower

factors of safety may be used.

Important projects, suc as hospitals, where foundation failure would be more catstrophic may

use higher factors of safety than less important projects, suc as agricultural storage buildings,

where cost of construction is more important. Likewise, permanent sturctures justify higher

factors of safety than temporary sturctures, such as construction falsework. Structures with

large height-to-width ratio, such as chimneys or towers, could experience more catastrophic

failure, and thus should be designed using higher factors of safety.

Some structures, such as grain silos, are much more likely to actually experience their design

loads, and thus might be designed using a higher factor of safety. Conversly, office buildings

are much likely to experience the design load, and might use a slightly lower factor of safety.

The true factor of safety is probably much greater than the design factor of safety, because of the

following :

The shear strength data are normally interpreted conservatively, so the design values of c

and implicitly contain another factor of safety.

The service loads are probably less than the design loads.

Settlement, not bearing capacity, often controls the final design, so the footing will likely

be larger than that required to satisty bearing capacity criteria.

Spread footings are commonly built somewhat larger than the plan dimensions.

Refers to Engineering Manual (EM 1110-2-2906) :

Table 1.

Method of Determining

Load Condition

Capacity

Theoretical of empirical

Compression

Tensile

Usual

2,0

2,0

prediction to be verified by

Unusual

1,5

1,5

Theoretical or empirical

Extreme

Usual

1,15

2,5

1,15

3,0

prediction to be verified by

Unusual

1,9

2,25

Theoretical or empirical

Extreme

Usual

1,4

3,0

1,7

3,0

Unusual

2,25

2,25

load test

Extreme

1,7

1,7

Loading conditions :

Usual. These conditions include normal operating and frequent flood conditions. Basic

allowable stresses and safety factors should be used for this type of loading condition.

Unusual. Higher allowable stresses and lower safety factors may be used for unusual

loading conditions such as maintenance, infrequent floods, barge impact, construction, or

hurricanes. For these conditions allowable stresses may be increased up to 33 percent. Lower

safety factors for pile capacity may be used, as described in Table above.

Extreme. High allowable stresses and low safety factors are used for extreme loading

conditions such as accidental or natural disasters that have a very remote probability of

occurrence and that involve emergency maintenance conditions after such disasters. For these

conditions allowable stresses may be increased up to 75 percent. Low safety factors for pile

capacity may be used as described in Table above. An iterative (nonlinear) analysis of the

pile group should be performed to determine that a state of ductile, stable equilibrium is

attainable even if individual piles will be loaded to their peak, or beyond to their residual

capacities. Special provisions (such as field instrumentation, frequent or continuous field

monitoring or performance, engineering studies and analyses, constraints on operational or

rehabilitation activities, etc.) are required to ensure that the structure will not catastrophically

fail during or after extreme loading condition.

Table below gives typical design factors of safety based on these assessments. Consider them to

be guides, not absolute dictates, so do not hesitate to modify them as necessary.

Safety Factor of Pullout Capacity

Design Factor of Safety, F

Acceptable

Probability

Good

Normal

Poor

Very Poor

of Failure

Control

Control

Control

Control

10-5

2,3

3,0

3,5

4,0

10-4

2,0

2,5

2,8

3,4

10-3

1,4

2,0

2,3

2,8

Table 2.

Classification of

Structure

Monumental

Permanent

Temporary

Safety Factor of Lateral Resistance

The definition of failure load should therefore be related to the acceptable or tolerate lateral

deformation of the structure. Where no such criteria are available, 0.25 in. (6.25 mm) is

considered as the criterion on which failure load is established. It should be realized that actual

instability at which the load could not be held when the pile head had deformed about 1 in. (25

mm). (refers to Pile Foundations In Engineering Practice, Shamsher Prakash and Hari D.

Sharma)

For lateral resistance design of pile foundation, we use some boundary :

Maximum Design for Lateral Deflection of Pile Foundation

Table 3.

Load

Maximum Lateral Defflection

Service Load without earthquake load

0,625 cm (0,25)

Service Load with earthquake load

1,25 cm (0,50)

Ultimate Load

2,50 cm (1,00)

Allowable Settlement

The amount of settlement that a foundation can tolerate is called the allowable settlement, the

magnitude of this settlement depends upon it mode.

A structure that has undergone uniform settlement is one where all points within the structure

have moved vertically the same amount (Figure a). This type of settlement does not result in

structural damage if it is constant across whole structure. However, there will be problems with

appurtenances such as with pipes, entrance-ways, etc. Another possibility is settlement that

varies linearly across the structure as shown in (Figure b). This causes the structure to tilt.

Finally, (Figure c) shows a structure with irregular settlements. This mode distorts the structure

and typically is the greatest source of problems.

Figure 5.

Modes of settlement; (a) Uniform; (b) Tilting with no distortion; (c) Distortion

Figure 6.

Table below presents typical design values for the allowable settlement, a. The design meets

total settlement requirements if the following condition is met :

a

Where :

= total settlement of foundation

a = allowable settlement

Type of Movement

Total Settlement

Tilting

Differential Movement

Table 4.

Limiting Factor

Limiting Factor

Drainage

15-30 cm (6-12 in.)

Access

30-60 cm (12-24 in.)

Probability of non-uniform settlement :

- Masonry walled structure

2,5-5 cm (1-2 in.)

- Framed structures

5-10 cm (2-4 in.)

- Smokestacks, silos, mats

8-30 cm (3-12 in.)

Stability against overturning

Depends on H and W

Tilting of smokestacks, towers

0,004L

Rolling of trucks, etc.

0,01L

Stacking of goods

0,01L

Machine operation cotton loom

0,003L

Machine operation turbogenerator

0,0002L

Crane rails

0,003L

Drainage of floors

0,01-0,02L

High continuous brick walls

0,0005-0,001L

One-story brick mill building, wall cracking

0,001-0,002L

Plaster cracking (gypsum)

0,001L

Reinforced-concrete-building frame

0,0025-0,004L

Reinforced-concrete-building curtain walls

0,003L

Steel frame, continuous

0,002L

Simple steel frame

0,005L

Note :

L = distance between adjacent columns that settle diffrent amounts

H = height of structure

W = width of structure

- Higher values are for regular settlements and more tolerant structures.

- Lower values for irregular settlement and critical structures.

Table below also presents typical design values for the allowable total settlement, a. These

values already include a factor of safety, and thus may be compared directly to the predicted

settlement.

Typical Allowable Total Settlements for Foundation Design

Typical Allowable Total Settlement, a

Type of Structure

(in)

(mm)

Office buildings

0,5-2,0 (1,0 is the most 12-50 (25 is the most

common value)

common value)

Heavy industrial buildings

1,0-3,0

25-75

Bridges

2,0

50

Table 5.

Diffrential Settlement

Engineer normally design the foundations for a structure such that all of them have the same

computed total settlement. Thus, in theory, the structure will settle uniformly. Unfortunately, the

actual performance of the foundations will usually not be exactly as predicted, with some of

them settling more than expected and other less. This discrepancy between predicted behavior

and actual behavior has many causes, including the following :

The soil profile may not be uniform across the site. This is nearly always true, no matter how

uniform it might appear to be.

The ratio between the actual load and the design load may be different for each column.

Thus, the column with the lower ratio will settle less than that with the higher ratio.

The ratio of dead load to live load may be different for each column. Settlement

computations are usually based on dead-plus-live load, and the foundations are sized

accordingly. However, in many structures much of the live load will rarely, if ever, occur, so

foundations that have a large ratio of design live load to design dead load will probably settle

less than those carrying predominantly dead loads.

The as-built foundation dimensions may differ from the plan dimensions. This will cause the

actual settlements to be correspondingly different.

The differential settlement, Da, is the difference in total settlement between two foundations or

between two points on a single foundation. Differential settlements are generally more

troublesome than total settlements because they distort the structure. This causes cracking in

walls and other members, jamming in doors and windows, poor aesthetics, and other problems.

If allowed to progress to an extreme, differential settlements could threaten the integrity of the

structure.

Therefore, we define a maximum allowable differential settlement, Da, and design the

foundation so that :

D Da

Table below presents a synthesis of these studies, expressed in terms of the allowable angular

distortion, Da. These values already include a factor safety of at least 1.5, which is why they are

called allowable. We use them to compute Da as follows :

Da a .L

Where:

Da = allowable differential settlement

a = allowable angular distortion (from table below)

L

= distance between adjacent columns that settle different amounts

Allowable Angular Distortion, a (Wahls, 1994; AASTHO, 1996; and Other Sources)

Type of Structure

a

Steel tanks

1/25

Bridges with simply-supported spans

1/125

Bridges with continous spans

1/250

Buildings that are very tolerant of differential settlements, such as

industrial buildings with corrugated steel siding and no sensitive

1/250

interior finishes

Typical commercial and residential buildings

1/500

Overhead traveling crane rails

1/500

Buildings that are especially intolerant of differential settlement, such

1/1000

as those with sensitive wall or floor finishes

Machinery

1/1500

Buildings with unreinforced masonry load-bearing walls

Length/height 3

1/2500

Length/height 5

1/1250

Table 6.

Site Investigation

The site investigation phase of the exploration program consists of planning, making test

boreholes, and collecting soil samples at desired intervals for subsequent observation and

laboratory tests. The approximate required minimum depth of the borings should be

predetermined. The depth can be changed during the drilling operation, depending on the subsoil

encountered. To determine the approximate minimum depth of boring, engineers may use the

rules established by the American Society of Civil Engineers (1972):

Determine the net increase in the effective stress, , under a foundation with depth as

shown in figure.

Determine the depth, D = D1, at which the effective stress increase is equal to 0,1q (q

= estimated net stress on the foundation).

Choose the smaller of the two depths, D1 and D2, just determined as the approximate

minimum depth of boring required, unless bedrock is encountered.

Figure 7.

If the preceding rules are used, the depths of boring for a building with a width of 30 m (100ft)

will be approximately the following, according to Sowers and Sowers (1970):

Boring depth for building

Table 7.

No. of stories

Boring depth

1

3,5 m (11 ft)

2

6 m (20 ft)

3

10 m (33 ft)

4

16 m (53 ft)

5

24 m (79 ft)

To determine the boring depth for hospitals and office buildings, Sowers and Sowers also use the

rule

Db 3.S 0,7

And

Db 6.S 0,7

Where:

Db = depth of boring, in meters

S

= number of stories

When deep excavations are anticipated, the depth of boring should be at least 1,5 times the depth

of excavation.

Sometimes, subsoil conditions require that the foundation load be transmitted to bedrock. The

minimum depth of core boring into the bedrock is about 3 m. If the bedrock is irregular or

weathered, the core borings may have to be deeper.

There are no hard-and-fast rules for borehole spacing. Table below gives some general

guidelines. Spacing can be increased or decreased, depending on the condition of the subsoil. If

various soil strata are more or less uniform and predictable, fewer boreholes are needed than in

non-homogeneous soil strata.

Approximate spacing of boreholes

Table 8.

Type of project

Spacing

Multistory building

10-30 m (30-100 ft)

One-story building

20-60 m (60-200 ft)

Highways

250-500 m (800-1600 ft)

Residential subdivision

250-500 m (800-1600 ft)

Dams and dikes

40-80 m (130-260 ft)

The engineer should also take into account the ultimate cost of the structure when making

decisions regarding the extent of field exploration. The exploration cost generally should be 0,1

0,5% of the cost of the structure. Soil borings can be made by several methods, including auger

boring, wash boring, percussion drilling, and rotary drilling.

Auger boring is the simplest method of making exploratory boreholes. There are two types of

hand auger: the posthole auger and the helical auger. Hand augers cannot be used for advancing

holes to depths exceeding 3-5 m. However, the can be used for soil exploration work on some

highways and small structures. Portable power-driven helical augers (76 mm to 305 mm in

diameter) are available for making deeper boreholes. The soil samples obtained from such

borings are highly disturbed. In some non-cohesive soils or soils having low cohesion, the walls

of the boreholes will not stand unsupported. In such circumstances, a metal pipe is used as a

casing to prevent the soil from caving in. When power is available, continuous-flight augers are

probably the most common method used for advancing a borehole. The power for drilling is

delivered by truck-or tractor-mounted drilling rigs. Boreholes up to about 60-70 m can easily be

made by this method.

Wash boring is another method of advancing boreholes. In this method, a casing about 2-3 m

long is driven into the ground. The soil inside the casing is then removed by means of a chopping

bit attached to a drilling rod. Water is forced through the drilling rod and exits at a very high

velocity through the holes at the bottom of the chopping bit. The water and the chopped soil

particles rise in the drill hole and overflow at the top of the casing through a T connection. The

washwater is collected in a container. The casing can be extended with additional pieces as the

borehole progresses; however, that is not required if the borehole will stay open and not cave in.

Wash borings are rarely used now in the United States and other developed countries.

Rotary drilling is a procedure by which rapidly rotating drilling bits attached to the bottom of

drilling rods cut and grind the soil and advance the borehole. There are several types of drilling

bit. Rotary drilling can be used in sand, clay, and rocks (unless they are badly fissured). Water of

drilling mud is forced down the drilling rods to the bits, and the return flow forces the cuttings to

the surface. Boreholes with diameters of 50-203 mm (2-8 in.) can easily be made by this

technique. The drilling mud is a slurry of water and bentonite. Generally, it is used when the soil

that is encountered is likely to cave in. When soil samples are needed, the drilling rod is raised

and the drilling bit is replaced by a sampler. With the environmental drilling applications, rotary

drilling with air is becoming more common.

Percussion drilling is an alternative method of advancing a borehole, particularly through hard

soil and rock. A heavy drilling bit is raised and lowered to chop the hard soil. The chopped soil

particles are brought up by the circulation of water. Percussion drilling may require casing.

Procedures for Sampling Soil

Two types of soil samples can be obtained during subsurface exploration: disturbed and

undisturbed. Disturbed, but respresentative, samples can generally be used for the following

types of laboratory test:

Grain-size analysis

Classification of soil

Disturbed soil samples, however, cannot be used for consolidation, hydraulic conductivity, or

shear strength tests. Undisturbed soil samples must be obtained for these types of laboratory

tests.

The degree of disturbance for a soil sample is usually expressed as:

AR %

Do2 Di2

.100

Di2

Where:

AR = area ratio (ratio of disturbed area to total area of soil)

Do = outside diameter of the sampling tube

Di = inside diameter of the sampling tube

When the area ratio is 10% or less, the sample generally is considered to be undisturbed.

Split-spoon samplers can be used in the field to obtain soil samples that are generally disturbed,

but still representative. A section of a standard split-spoon sample is shown in figure.

Figure 8.

The tool consists of a steel driving shoe, a steel tube that is split longitudinally in half, and a

coupling at the top. The coupling connects the sampler to the drill rod. The standard split tube

3

in.) and an outside diameter of 50,8 mm (2 in.);

8

1

however, samplers having inside and outside diameters up to 63,5 mm ( 2 in.) and 76,2 mm (3

2

in.), respectively, are also available. When a borehole is extended to a predetermined depth, the

drill tools are removed and the sampler is lowered to the bottom of the hole. The sampler is

driven into the soil by hammer blows to the top of the drill rod. The standard weight of the

hammer is 622,72 N (140 lb), and for each blow, the hammer drops a distance of 0,762 m (30

in.). The number of blows required for a spoon penetration of three 152,4 mm (6 in.) intervals

are recorded. The number of blows required for the last two intervals are added to give the

standard penetration number, N, at that depth. This number is generally referred to as the N value

(American Society for Testing and Materials, 2001, Designation D-1586-99). The sampler is then

withdrawn, and the shoe and coupling are removed. Finally, the soil sample recovered from the

tube is placed in a glass bottle and transported to the laboratory. This field test is called the

standard penetration test (SPT).

The boring log shows refusal and the test is halted if :

100 blows are obtained (to drive the required 300 mm).

For a standard split-spoon sampler,

AR %

34,93 2

When the area ratio is 10% or less, the sample generally is considered to be undisturbed. Hence,

these samples are highly disturbed. Split-spoon samples generally are taken at intervals of about

1,53 m (5 ft). When the material encoutered in the field is sand (particularly fine sand below the

water table), recovery of the sample by a split-spoon sampler may be difficult. In that case, a

device such as a spring core catcher may have to be placed inside the split spoon.

Figure 9.

At this juncture, it is important to point out that several factors contribute to the variation of the

standard penetration number N at a given depth for similar soil profiles. Among these factors are

the SPT hammer effeciency, borehole diameter, sampling method, and rod length factor

(Skempton, 1986; Seed et al., 1985). The two most common types of SPT hammers used in the

field are the safety hammer and donut hammer. They are commonly dropped by a rope with two

wraps around a pulley.

Figure 10.

(a) Safety hammer; (b) Donut hammer (after Seed et. Al., 1985)

Figure 11.

The SPT sampler in place in the boring with hammer, rope and cathead (Kovacs, et al. 1981)

Soil density or consistency description based on SPT blowcount values can be seen below (after

AASHTO, 1988) :

Soil density/consistency based on SPT blowcount values

Cohesionless Soils

Cohesive Soils

N-SPT values

N-SPT values

Relative Density

Consistency

(blows/300 mm)

(blows/300 mm)

Very soft

01

Very loose

04

Soft

24

Loose

5 10

Medium stiff

58

Medium dense

11 24

Stiff

9 15

Dense

25 50

Very stiff

16 30

Very dense

> 51

Hard

31 60

Very hard

> 61

Table 9.

The cone penetration test (CPT), originally known as the Dutch cone penetration test, is a

versatile sounding method that can be used to determine the materials in a soil profile and

estimate their engineering properties. The test is also called the static penetration test, and no

borehole is necessary to perform it. In the original version, a 60 cone with a base area of 10 cm2

was pushed into the ground at a steady rate of about 20 mm/sec, and the resistance to penetration

(called the point resistance) was measured.

The cone penetrometers in use at present measure (a) the cone resistance (qc) to penetration

developed by the cone, which is equal to the vertical force applied to the cone, divided by its

horizontally projected area; and (b) the frictional resistance (fc), which is the resistance measured

by a sleeve located above the cone with the local soil surrounding it. The frictional resistance is

equal to the vertical force applied to the sleeve, divided by its surface area actually, the sum of

friction and adhesion.

The original mechanical cone test is illustrated in Figure below with the step sequence as follows

:

The cone is advanced by pushing an inner rod to extrude the cone tip and a short length

of cone shaft. This action measures the tip resistance qc.

The outer shaft is now advanced to the cone base, and skin resistance is measured as the

force necessary to advance the shaft fc.

Now the cone and sleeve are advanced in combination to obtain position 4 and to obtain a

qtotal, which should be approximately the sum of the q c + fc just measured. The cone is now

positioned for a new position 1.

Figure 12.

Mechanical (or Dutch) cone, operations sequence, and tip resistance data

Luas selimut = 150 cm2 (ASTM D3411) atau ada juga 100 cm2

Luas piston = 10 cm2 (ASTM D3411)

Berikut adalah penelusuran perhitungan bacaan pada sondir :

1. Bacaan I = tahanan ujung (R1)

qc x Aproyeksi = R1 x Apiston (qc, R1 = kg/cm2)

qc = R1 x (Apiston / Aproyeksi)

2. Bacaan II = (tahanan ujung + tahanan selimut) (R2)

(qc x Aproyeksi) + (fs x Aselimut) = R2 x Apiston (qc, fs, R2 = kg/cm2)

fs = {( R2 x Apiston)-( qc x Aproyeksi)}/ Aselimut

fs = (R2- qc) x (Apiston or Aproyeksi / Aselimut)

dimana = (Apiston or Aproyeksi / Aselimut) faktor koreksi alat

Several correlations that are useful in estimating the properties of soils encountered during an

exploration program have been developed for the point resistance (qc) and the friction ratio (Fr)

obtained from the cone penetration tests. The friction ratio is defined as :

f

Fr c

qc

Where:

fc = frictional resistance

qc = cone resistance

Fr = friction ratio

It may also be used to give an estimate of the soil sensitivity, St with the correlation being

approximately :

St

10

Fr

Where:

St = sensitivity

Fr = friction ratio (in percent)

Clays may be classified as follows :

Shear Strength

The shear strength of a soil, defined in terms of effective stress, is

c ' '. tan( ' )

Where:

= effective normal stress on plane of shearing

c = cohesion, or apparent cohesion

= effective stress angle of friction

The equation above is referred to as the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The value of c for

sands and normally concolidated clays is equal to zero. For overconsolidated clays, c > 0.

For most day-to-day work, the shear strength parameters of a soil (i.e., c and ) are determined

by two standard laboratory tests: the direct shear test and the triaxial test.

Direct Shear Test

Dry sand can be conveniently tested by direct shear tests. The sand is placed in a shear box that

is split into two halves. First a normal load is applied to specimen. Then a shear force is applied

to the top half of the shear box to cause failure in the sand.

The normal and shear stresses at failure are:

'

N

A

and

R

A

Where:

A

= area of the failure plan in soil - that is, the cross-sectional area of shear box

R

= applied shear force

Several tests of this type can be conducted by varying the normal load. The angle of friction of

the sand can be determined by plotting a graph of against (= for dry sand), as shown in

figure below, or :

'

' tan 1

For sands, the angle of friction usually ranges from 26 to 45, increasing with the relative

density of compaction. The approximate range of the relative density of compaction and the

corresponding range of the angle of friction for various coarse-grained soils is shown in figure

below:

Figure 13.

Direct shear test in sand ; (a) schematic diagram of test equipment; (b) plot of test results to

obtain the friction angle

A thin soil sample is placed in a shear box consisting of two parallel blocks. The lower block is

fixed while the upper block is moved parallel to it in a horizontal direction. The soil fails by

shearing along a plane assumed to be horizontal.

This test is relatively easy to perform. Consolidated-drained tests can be performed on soils of

low permeability in a short period of time as compared to the triaxial test. However, the stress,

strain, and drainage conditions during shear are not as accurately understood or controlled as in

the triaxial test.

Triaxial Test

Two fundamentally different approaches to the solution of stability problems in geotechnical

engineering :

1.

The total stress approach

In the total stress approach, we allow no drainage to take place during the shear test, and we

make the assumption, admittedly a big one, that the pore water pressure and therefore the

effective stresses in the test specimen are identical to those in the field. The method of

stability analysis is called the total stress analysis, and it utilizes the total or the undrained

shear strength f, of the soil. The undrained strength can be determined by either laboratory

or field tests. If field tests such as the vane shear, Dutch cone penetrometer, or pressuremeter

test are used, then they must be conducted rapidly enough so that undrained conditions

prevail in situ.

2.

The effective stress approach

The second approach to calculate the stability of foundations, embankments, slopes, etc.,

uses the shear strength in terms of effective stresses. In this approach, we have to measure or

estimate the excess hydrostatic pressure, both in the laboratory and in the field. Then, if we

know or can estimate the initial and applied total stresses, we may calculate the effective

stresses acting in the soil. Since we believe that shear strength and stress-deformation

behavior of soils is really controlled or determined by the effective stresses, this second

approach is philisophically more satisfying. But, it does have its practical problems. For

example, estimating or measuring the pore pressures, especially in the field, is not easy to do.

The method of stability is called the effective stress analysis, and it utilizes the drained shear

strength or the shear strength in terms of effective stresses. The drained shear strength is

ordinarily only determined by laboratory tests.

Triaxial tests can be conducted on sands and clays. Essentially, the test consists of placing a soil

specimen confined by a rubber membrane into a lucite chamber and then applying an all-arround

confining pressure (3) to the specimen by means of the chamber fluid (generally, water or

glycerin). An added stress () can also be applied to the specimen in the axial direction to cause

failure ( = f at failure). Drainage from the specimen can be allowed or stopped, depending

on the condition being tested. For clays, three main types of tests can be conducted with triaxial

equipment:

1.

Figure 14.

Figure 15.

Step 1. Apply chamber pressure 3. Allow complete drainage, so that the pore water pressure

(u = u0) developed is zero.

Step 2. Apply deviator stess slowly. Allow drainage, so that the pore water pressure (u =

ud) developed through the application of is zero. At failure, = f ; the total pore water

pressure uf = u0 + ud = 0.

Figure 16.

Major principal effective stress = 3 + f = 1 = 1

Minor principal effective stress = 3 = 3

Changing 3 allows several tests of this type to be conducted on various clay specimens. The

shear strength parameters (c and ) can now be determined by plotting Mohrs circle at

failure, and drawing a common tangent to the Mohrs circles. This is the Mohr-Coulomb

failure envelope. (Note: For normally consolidated clay, c 0 ; For overconsolidated clay, c

> 0)

At failure,

'

'

2

2

Figure 17.

Consolidated-drained test

The envelope for a normally consolidated clay is shown below. Even though only one Mohr

circle (representing the stress conditions at failure) is shown, the results of three or more CD

tests on identical specimens at different consolidation pressures would ordinarily be required

to plot the complete Mohr failure envelope. If the consolidation stress range is large or the

specimens do not have exactly the same initial water content, density, and stress history, then

the three failure circles will not exactly define a straight line, and an average best-fit line by

eye is drawn. The slope of the line determines the Mohr-Coulomb strength parameter , of

course, in terms of effective stresses. When the failure envelope is extrapolated to the shear

axis, it will show a surprisingly small intercept. Thus it is usually assumed that the c

parameter for normally consolidated non-cemented clays is essentially zero for all

practical purposes.

Figure 18.

For overconsolidated clays the c parameter is greater than zero, as indicated by figures

below. The overconsolidated portion of the strength envelope (DEC) lies above the normally

consolidated envelope (ABCF). This portion (DEC) of the Mohr failure envelope is called

the preconsolidated hump. The explanation for this behavior is shown in the e versus

curve of figure below. Let us assume that we begin consolidation of a sedimentary clay at a

very high water content and high void ratio. As we continue to increase the vertical stress we

reach point A on the virgin compression curve and conduct a CD triaxial test. The strength of

the sample consolidated to point A on the virgin curve would correspond to point A on the

normally consolidated Mohr failure envelope in figure below. If we consolidate and test

another otherwise identical specimen which is loaded to point B, then we would obtain the

strength, again normally consolidated, at point B on the failure envelope in figure below. If

we repeat the process to point C (p, the preconsolidation stress), then rebound the specimen

to point D, then reload it to point E and shear, we would obtain the strength shown at point E

is greater than specimen B, even though they are tested at exactly the same effective

consolidation stresses. The reason for the greater strength of E than B is suggested by the fact

that E is at a lower water content, has a lower void ratio, and thus is denser than B, as shown

in figure below. If another specimen were loaded to C, rebounded to D, reloaded back past E

and C and on to F, it would have the strength as shown in figure at point F. Note that it is now

back on the virgin compression curve and the normally consolidated failure envelope. The

effects of the rebounding and reconsolidation have been in effect erased by the increased

loading to point F. Once the soil has been loaded well past the preconsolidation pressure p,

it no longer remembers its stress history.

Figure 19.

(a) Compression curve; (b) Mohr failure envelope (DEC) for an overconsolidated clay

In the CD test, complete consolidation of the test specimen is permitted under the confining

pressure and drainage is permitted during shear. The rate of strain is controlled to prevent the

build-up of pore pressure in the specimen. A minimum of three tests are required for c and

determination. CD tests are generally performed on well draining soils. For slow draining

soils, several weeks may be required to perform a CD test.

Typical stress-strain curves and volume change versus strain curves for a remolded or

compacted clay are shown below. Even though the two samples were tested at the same

confining pressure, the overconsolidated specimen has a greater strength than the normally

consolidated clay. Note also that it has a higher modulus and that failure [the maximum ,

which for the triaxial test is equal to (1 - 3)f] occurs at a much lower strain that for the

normally consolidated specimen. The overconsolidated clay expands during shear while the

normally consolidated clay compresses or consolidates during shear.

Figure 20.

Typical stress-strain and volume change versus strain curves for CD axial compression tests

at the same effective confining stress

Average values of for undisturbed clays range from around 20 for normally

consolidated highly plastic up to 30 or more for silty and sandy clays. The value of

for compacted clays is typically 25 or 30 and occasionally as high as 35. The value of c

for normally consolidated non-cemented clays is very small and can be neglected for

practical work. If the soil is overconsolidated, then would be less, and the c intercept

greater than for the normally consolidated part of the failure envelope. According to Ladd

(1971b), for natural overconsolidated non-cemented clays with a preconsolidation stress

of less than 500 to 1000 kPa, c will probably be less than 5 to 10 kPa at low stresses. For

compacted clays at low stresses, c will be much greater due to the prestress caused by

compaction. For stability analyses, the Mohr-Coulomb effective stress parameters and c

are determined over the range of effective normal stresses likely to be encountered in the

field.

Empirical correlations between and the plasticity index for normally consolidated clays are

shown below:

Figure 21.

consolidated undisturbed clays (after U.S. Navy, 1971, and Ladd, et al., 1977)

Where do we use the strengths determined from the CD test? As mentioned previously, the

limiting drainage conditions modeled in the triaxial test refer to real field situations. CD

conditions are the most critical for the long-term steady seepage case for embankment

dams and the long-term stability of excavations or slopes in both soft and stiff clays. The

examples of CD analysis can be seen below:

Figure 22.

2.

Step 1. Apply chamber pressure 3. Allow complete drainage, so that the pore water pressure

(u = u0) developed is zero.

Step 2. Apply a deviator stress . Do not allow drainage, so that the pore water pressure u =

ud 0. At failure, = f ; the pore water pressure uf = u0 + ud = 0 + u d(f).

Note that the excess pore water pressure u developed during shear can either be

positive (that is, increase) or negative (that is, decrease). This happens because the

sample tries to either contract or expand during shear. Remember, we are not allowing

any volume change (an undrained test) and therefore no water can flow in or out of the

specimen during shear. Because volume changes are prevanted, the tendency towards volume

change induces a pressure in the pore water. If the specimen tends to contract or consolidate

during shear, then the induced pore water pressure is positive. It wants to contract and

squeeze water out of the pores, but cannot; thus the induced pore water pressure is positive.

Positive pore pressures occur in normally consolidated clays. If the specimen tends to expand

or swell during shear, the induced pore water pressure is negative. It wants to expand and

draw water into the pores, but cannot; thus the pore water pressure decreases and may even

go negative (that is, below zero gage pressure). Negative pore pressures occur in

overconsolidated clays.

Hence, at failure,

Major principal total stress = 3 + f = 1

Minor principal total stress = 3

Major principal effective stress = (3 + f) uf = 1

Minor principal effective stress = 3 uf = 3

Figure 23.

Changing 3 permits multiple tests of this type to be conducted on several soil specimens.

The total stress Mohrs circles at failure can now be plotted, and then a common tangent can

be drawn to define the failure envelope. This total stress failure envelope is defined by the

equation

c . tan( )

Where c and are the consolidated-undrained cohesion and angle of friction, respectively

(Note: c 0 for normally consolidated clays)

Similarly, effective stress Mohrs circles at failure can be drawn to determine the effective

stress failure envelope, which satisfy the relation c ' '. tan( ' ) .

Figure 24.

Consolidated-undrained test

In the CU test, complete consolidation of the test specimen is permitted under the confining

pressure, but no drainage is permitted during shear. A minimum of three tests is required to

define strength parameters c and , through four test specimens are preferable with one

serving as a check. Specimens must as a general rule be completely saturated before

application of the deviator stress. Full saturation is achieved by back pressure. When a

back pressure is applied to a sample, the cell pressure must also be increased by an amount

equal to the back pressure so that the effective consolidation stresses will remain the same.

Since the effective stress in the specimen does not change, the strength of the specimen is not

supposed to be changed by the use of back pressure. In practice this may not be exactly true,

but the advantage of having 100% saturation for accurate measurement of induced pore water

pressures far outweighs any disadvantages if the use of back pressure.

Typical stress-strain, u, and 1/3 curves for CU tests are shown below, for both normally

and overconsolidated clays. Also shown for comparison is a stress-strain curve for an

overconsolidated clay at low effective consolidation stress. Note the peak, then the drop-off

of stress as strain increases (work-softening material). The pore pressure versus strain curves

illustrate what happens to the pore pressures during shear. The normally consolidated

specimen develops positive pore pressure. In the overconsolidated specimen, after a

slight initial increase, the pore pressure goes negative in this case, negative with

respect to the back pressure u 0. Another quantity that is useful for analyzing test results is

the principal (effective) stress ratio 1/3. Note how this ratio peaks early, just like the

stress difference curve, for the overconsolidated clay. Similar test specimens having similar

behavior on an effective stress basis will have similarly shaped 1/3 curves. They are

simply a way of normalizing the stress behavior with repect to the effective minor principal

stress during the test. Sometimes, too, the maximum of this ratio is used as a criterion of

failure. However, in this text we will continue to assume failure occurs at the maximum

principal stress difference (compressive strength).

Figure 25.

Typical -, u, and 1/3 curves for normally and overconsolidated clays in undrained

shear (CU test)

Since we can get both the total and effective stress circles at failure for a CU test when we

measure the induced pore water pressures, it is possible to define the Mohr failure envelopes

in terms of both total and effective stresses from a series of triaxial tests conducted over a

range of stresses, as illustrated in figure below for a normally consolidated clay.

Figure 26.

Mohr circles at failure and Mohr failure envelopes for total (T) and effective (E) stresses for

a normally consolidated clay

Note that the effective stress circle is displaced to the left, towards the origin, for the

normally consolidated case, because the specimens develop positive pore pressure during

shear and = - u. Note that both circles have the same diameter because of our

definition of failure at maximum (1 - 3) = (1 - 3). Once the two failure envelopes are

drawn, the Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters are readily definable in terms of both total (c,

or sometimes cT, T) and effective stresses (c, ). Again, as with the CD test, the envelope

for normally consolidated clay passes essentially through the origin, and thus for

practical purposes c can be taken to be zero, which is also true for the total stress c

parameter. Note that T is less than , and often it is about one-half of .

Things are different if the clay is overconsolidated. Since an overconsolidated specimen

tends to expand during shear, the pore water pressure decreases or even goes negative, as

shown in previous figure. Because 3f = 3f (-uf) or 1f = 1f (-uf), the effective

stresses are greater than the total stresses, and the effective stress circle at failure is shifted to

the right of the total stress circle as shown in figure below. The shift of the effective stress

circle at failure to the right sometimes means that the is less than T. Typically, the

complete Mohr failure envelopes are determined by tests on several specimens consolidated

over the working stress range of the field problem.

Figure 27.

Mohr circles at failure and Mohr failure envelopes for total (T) and effective (E) stresses for

an overconsolidated clay

Figure below shows the Mohr failure envelopes over a wide range of stresses spanning the

preconsolidation stress. Thus some of the specimens are overconsolidated and others are

normally consolidated. You should note that the break in the total stress envelope

(point z) occurs roughly about twice the p for typical clays (Hirschfeld, 1963). The two

sets of Mohr circles at failure shown in figure below correspond to the two tests for the

normally consolidated specimen and the specimen overconsolidated at low hc.

Figure 28.

Mohr failure envelopes over a range of stresses spanning the preconsolidation stress p

Note :

Pore water pressure is measured during the CU test, thus permitting determination of the

effective stress parameters c and . In the absence of pore pressure measurements CU tests

can provide only total stress values c and .

3.

Step 1. Apply chamber pressure 3. Do not allow drainage, so that the pore water pressure (u

= u0) developed through the application of 3 is not zero.

Step 2. Apply a deviator stress . Do not allow drainage (u = u d 0). At failure, = f ;

the pore water pressure uf = u0 + ud(f)

For unconsolidated-undrained triaxial tests,

Major principal total stress = 3 + f = 1

Minor principal total stress = 3

Figure 29.

test

The total stress Mohrs circle at failure can now be drawn. For saturated clays, the value of 1

- 3 = f is a constant, irrespective of the chamber confining pressure 3. The tangent to

these Mohrs circles will be a horizontal line, called the = 0 condition. The shear stress for

this condition is

cu

f

2

Figure 30.

Unconsolidated-undrained test

The pore pressure developed in the soil specimen during the unconsolidated-undrained

triaxial test is

u ua ud

The pore pressure ua is the contribution of the hydrostatic chamber pressure 3. Hence,

u a B. 3

Similarly, the pore parameter ud is the result of the added axial stress , so

u d A.

However,

1 3

u u a u d B. 3 A. 1 3

The pore water pressure parameter B in soft saturated soils is unity, so

u 3 A.( 1 3 )

The value of the pore water pressure parameter A at failure will vary with the type of soil.

Following is a general range of the values of A at failure for various types of clayey soil

encountered in nature:

Values of A at failure for various types of clayey soil

Table 10.

Type of Soil

A at failure

Sandy clays

0,5 0,7

Normally consolidated clays

0,5 1,0

Overconsolidated clays

-0,5 0,0

The unconfined compression test is a special type of unconsolidated-undrained triaxial test in

which the confining pressure 3 = 0. In this test, an axial stress is applied to the specimen to

cause failure (i.e., = f). The corresponding Mohrs circle is shown in figure. Note that, for

this case,

Figure 31.

Figure 32.

Soil specimen

Minor principal total stress = 0

The axial stress at failure, f = qu, is generally referred to as the unconfined compression

strength. The shear strength of saturated clays under this condition ( = 0) is

cu

qu

2

The unconfined compression strength can be used as an indicator of the consistency of clays.

Unconfined compression tests are sometimes conducted on unsaturated soils. With the void ratio

of soil specimen remaining constant, the unconfined compression strength rapidly decreases with

the degree of saturation.

Figure 33.

Sensitivity

For many naturally deposited clay soils, the unconfined compression strength is much less when

the soils are tested after remolding without any change in the moisture content. This property of

clay soil is called sensitivity. The degree of sensitivity is the ratio of the unconfined compression

strength in an undisturbed state to that in a remolded state, or

St

q u ( undisturbed )

q u ( remolded )

The sensitivity ratio of most clays from about 1 to 8; however, highly flocculent marine clay

deposits may have sensitivity ratios ranging from about 10 to 80. Some clays turn to viscous

liquids upon remolding, and these clays are referred to as quick clays. The loss of strength of

clay soils from remolding is caused primarily by the destruction of the clay particle structure that

was developed during the original process of sedimentation.

Based on Holtz and Kovacs, 1981:

St 4

low sensitivity

4 < St 8

medium sensitivity

8 < St 16

high sensitivity

St > 16

quick sensitivity

Note: when testing a remolded soil specimen, it is important to retain the same water content of

the undisturb soil. If the soil specimen bleeds water during this process, then the sensitivity

cannot be determined for the soil.

An unsual feature of highly sensitive or quick clays is that the insitu water content is often

greater than the liquid limit (liqudity index greater than one).

Sensitive clays have unstable bonds between particles. As long as these unstable bonds are not

broken, the clay can support a heavy load. But once remolded, the bonding is destroyed and the

shear strength is substantially reduced.

The vane shear test (ASTM D-2573) may be used during the drilling operation to determine the

in situ undrained shear strength (cu) of clay soils particularly soft clays. The vane shear

apparatus consists of four blades on the end of a rod, as shown in Figure below. The height, H, of

the vane is twice the diameter, D. The vane can be either rectangular of tapered. The dimensions

of vanes used in the field are given in Table below. The vanes of the apparatus are pushed into

the soil at the bottom of a borehole without disturbing the soil appreciably. Torque is applied at

the top of the rod to rotate the vanes at a standard rate of 0,1/sec (6/min). This rotation will

induce failure in a soil of cylindrical shape surrounding the vanes. The maximum torque, T,

applied to cause failure is measured. Note that

T = f (cu, H, and D)

or

T

K

cu

Where:

T = torque (N.m)

cu = undrained shear strength (kN.m2)

K = a constant with a magnitude depending on the dimension and shape of vane

The constant

6

10

D 2 .H

.

2

. 1

3.H

Where:

D = diameter of vane (cm)

H = measured height of vane (cm)

K = a constant with a magnitude depending on the dimension and shape of vane

Figure 34.

Table 11.

Casing Size

AX

BX

Diamter, D

Height, H

Thickness of Blade

Diameter of Rod

mm (in.)

mm (in.)

mm (in.)

mm (in.)

50,8

38,1

NX

63.5

4 in (101,6 mm)b

92,1

76,2

1,6

101,6

1,6

127,0

3,2

184,1

12,7

16

12,7

2

1

12,7

3,2

16

12,7

The selection of a vane size is directly related to the consistency of the soil being tested; that is, the softer the soil,

the larger the vane diameter should be.

b

Inside diameter.

Field vane shear tests are moderately rapid and economical and are used extensively in field soilexploration programs. The test gives good results in soft and medium-stiff clays and gives

excellent results in determining the properties of sensitive clays.

Sources of significant error in the field vane shear test are poor calibration of torque

measurement and damaged vanes. Other errors may be introduced if the rate of rotation of the

vane is not properly controlled.

For actual design purposes, the undrained shear strength values obtained from field vane shear

tests [cu(VST)] are too high, and it is recommended that they be corrected according to the equation

c u ( corrected ) .c u (VST )

Where:

cu = undrained shear strength

= correction factor

Several correlations have been given previously for the correction factor ; some more are as

follows:

Bjerrum (1972):

1,7 0,54. log PI %

1,18.e 0,08. PI 0,57

7,01.e 0,08. LL 0,57

(LL in %)

c u (VST )

'0

Figure 35.

Atterberg Limits

When a clayey soil is mixed with an excessive amount of water, it may flow like a semiliquid. If

the soil is gradually dried, it will behave like a plastic, semisolid, or solid material, depending on

its moisture content. The moisture content, in percent, at which the soil changes from a liquid to

a plastic state is defined as the liquid limit (LL). Similarly, the moisture content, in percent, at

which the soil changes from a plastic to a semisolid state and from a semisolid to a solid state is

defined as the plastic limit (PL) and the shrinkage limit (SL), repectively. These limits are

referred to as Atterberg Limits:

The liquid limit of a soil is determined by Casagrandes liquid device (ASTM Test

Designation D-4318) and is defined as the moisture content at which a groove closure of 12.7

mm (1/2 in.) occurs at 25 blows.

The plastic limit is defined as the moisture content at which the soil crumbles when rolled

into a thread of 3.18 mm (1/8 in.) in diameter (ASTM Test Designation D-4318).

The shrinkage limit is defined as the moisture content at which the soil does not undergo

any further change in volume with loss of moisture (ASTM Test Designation D-4318).

The difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit of a soil is defined as the plasticity

index (PI), or :

PI LL PL

However, Atterberg limits for the different soils will vary considerably, depending on the origin

of the soil and the nature and amount of clay minerals in it.

Figure 36.

The liquid and plastic limit values, together with wN (natural water content), are useful in

predicting whether a cohesive soil mass is preconsolidated. Since an overconsolidated soil is

more dense, the void ratio is smaller than in the soil remolded for the Atterberg limit tests. If the

soil is located below the groundwater table (GWT) where it is saturated, one would

therefore expect that smaller void ratios would have less water space and the w N value

would be smaller. From this we might deduce the following:

If wN is greater than wL, soil is on verge of being a viscous liquid

Although the foregoing gives a qualitative indication of overconsolidation, other methods must

be used if a quantitative value of OCR is required.

Overconsolidation Ratio (OCR)

The degree of overconsolidation may be expressed numerically as the overconsolidation ratio

(OCR) which is defined as follows:

'

OCR c

'v

Where:

OCR = overconsolidation ratio

c

= pre-consolidation ratio

v

= vertical effective stress

The OCR of a normally consolidated soil is equal to 1; in a lightly overconsolidated soil, it is

typically between 1 and 3; a heavily overconsolidated soil may have an OCR as high as 8. Preconsolidation stress can be determined by consolidation test.

The following empirical relationship (U.S. Navy, 1982a) can be useful when estimating it or

when checking test result for reasonableness:

cu

'c

0.11 0.0037 PI

Where:

c = pre-consolidation ratio

cu

= undrained shear strength

PI = Plasticity Index

Synthesis of Field and Laboratory Data

Investigation and testing programs often generate large amounts of information that can be

difficult to sort through and synthesize. Real soil profiles are nearly always very complex, so the

borings will not correlate and the test results will often vary significantly. Therefore, we must

develop a simplified soil profile before proceeding with the analysis. In many cases, the

simplified profile is the best defined in terms of a one-dimensional function of soil type and

engineering properties vs. depth; an idealized boring log. However, when the soil profile varies

significantly across the site, one or more vertical cross-sections may be in ordered,

The development of these simplified profiles requires a great deal of engineering judgment along

with interpolation and extrapolation of the data. It is important to have a feel for the approximate

magnitude of the many uncertainties in this process and reflect them in an appropriate degree of

conservatism. This judgment comes primarily with experience combined with a through

understanding of the field and laboratory methodologies.

Organic Soil

Organic soils are usually found in low-lying areas where the water table is near or above the

ground surface. The presence of a high water table helps in the growth of aquatic plants that,

when decomposed, form organic soil. This type of soil deposit is usually encountered in coastal

areas and in glaciated regions. Organic soils show the following characteristics:

Laboratory tests have shown that, under loads, a large amount of settlement is derived

from secondary consolidation

Expansive Soil

When geotechnical engineers refer to expansive soils, we usually are thinking about clays or

sedimentary rocks derived from clays, and the volume changes that occur as a result of changes

in moisture content. Clays are fundamentally very different from gravels, sands, and silts. All of

the later consist of relatively inert bulky particles and their engineering properties depend

primarily on the size, shape, and texture of these particles. In contrast, clays are made of very

small particles that are usually plate-shaped. The engineering properties of clays are strongly

influenced by the very small size and large surface area of these particles and their inherent

electrical charges.

Several different clay minerals occur in nature, the differences being defined by their chemical

makeup and structural configuration. Three of the most common clay minerals are kaolinite,

illite, and montmorillonite (part of the smectite group). The different chemical compositions and

crystalline structures of these minerals give each a different susceptibility to swelling, as shown

in table below.

Table 12.

Sucharge Load

(lb/ft2)

(kPa)

200

9.6

400

19.1

Kaolinite

Negligible

Negligible

Illite

Montmorillonite

350

1500

150

350

Swelling occurs when water infiltrates between and within the clay particles, causing them to

separate. Kaolinite is essentially nonexpansive because of the presence of strong hydrogen bonds

that hold the individual clay particles together. Illite contains weaker potassium bonds that allow

limited expansion, and montmorillonite particles are only weakly linked. Thus, water can easily

flow into montmorillonite clays and separate the particles. Field observations have confirmed

that the greatest problems occur in soils with a high montmorillonite content.

Several other forces also act on clay particles, including the following:

Surface tension in the menisci of water contained between the particles (tends to pull the

particles together, compressing the soil).

Osmotic pressures (tend to bring water in, thus pressing the particles further apart and

expanding the soil).

London-Van Der Waals intermolecular forces (tend to compress the soil).

Expansive clays swell or shrink in response to changes in these forces. For example, consider the

effects of changes in surface tension and osmotic forces by imagining a montmorillonite clay that

is initially saturated, as shown if figure (a). If this soil dries, the remaining moisture congregates

near the particle interfaces, forming menisci, as shown in figure (b), and the resulting surface

tension forces pull the particles closer together causing soil to shrink. We could compare the soil

in this stafe to a compressed spring: both would expand if it were not for forces keeping them

compressed. The soil in figure (b) has a great affinity for water and will draw in available water

using osmosis. We would say that it has a very high soil suction at this stage. If water becomes

available, the suction will draw it into spaces between the particles and the soil will swell, as

shown in figure (c).

Internal Friction ( )

Internal friction is used to analyze the bearing capacity of a foundation on Sand layer. This chart

shows relationships between angle of friction and (N1)60.

Figure 37.

Relationship Between Angle of Friction and N-Value for Sandy Soil (K. Terzaghi)

Based on the chart above, we propose to use Dunhams (1954) equation as:

12 N1 60 15

Where:

= angle of friction ( 0)

(N1)60 = N-SPT value corrected for field procedures and overburden stress

DeMello (1971) suggested a correlation between SPT data results and the effective friction angle

of uncemented sands, , as shown in Figure below. This correlation should be used only at

depths greater than about 2 m.

Figure 38.

Empirical correlation between N60 and for uncemented sands (DeMello, 1971)

The CPT results also have been correlated with shear strength parameters, especially in sands.

Figure below presents Robertson and Campanellas 1983 correlation for uncemented, normally

consolidated quartz sands. For overconsolidated sands, subtract 1 0 to 20 from the effective

friction angle obtained from this figure.

Figure 39.

Relationship Between CPT Results, Overburden Stress and Effective Friction Angle for

Uncemented, Normally Consolidated Quartz Sand (Robertson and Campanella, 1983)

On the basis of experimental results, Robertson and Campanella (1983) suggested the variation

of for normally consolidated quartz sand. The figure above can also be expressed into a

relationship as (Kulhawy and Mayne, 1990)

q

' tan 1 0,1 0,38. log c

' 0

qc = cone resistance

0 = effective vertical stress

Cohesion (cu)

Cohesion is one of the soil properties for clay that can be used to analyze the bearing capacity of

a foundation. The chart shows the relationships between undrained cohesion and corrected NSPT value :

Figure 40.

Relationship Between Cohesion with N-Value for Cohesive Soil (K. Terzaghi)

The chart above is used to determine the undrained shear strength for cohesive soils and we

proposed to use:

c u 6,67.N 60 ( kN / m 2 )

Where:

cu

= undrained shear strength

N60 = N-SPT value corrected for field procedures

The literature contains many correlations between the standard penetration number and the

undrained shear strength of clay, cu. On the basis of results of undrained triaxial tests conducted

on insensitive clays, Stroud (1974) suggested that

c u K .N 60 ( kN / m 2 )

Where:

cu

= undrained shear strength

N60 = N-SPT value corrected for field procedures

K

= constant = 3,5 6,5

Hara et al. (1971) also suggested that

0,72

c u ( kN / m 2 ) 29.N 60

As in the case of standard penetration tests, several correlations have been developed between qc

and other soil properties. According to Mayne and Kemper (1988), in clayey soil the undrained

cohesion cu, can be correlated via the equation

cu

qc 0

NK

Where:

cu

= undrained shear strength

qc = cone resistance

0 = total vertical stress

NK = 15 for an electric cone

= 20 for a mechanical cone

Values of the undrained shear strength cu corresponding to various degrees of consistency are as

follows (Terzaghi & Peck, 1967 and ASTM D2488-90) :

centimeters by the thumb. The clay oozes out between the fingers when squeezed in the

hand.

cm by the thumb. The clay can be molded by slight finger pressure.

1 cm by the thumb with moderate effort. The clay can be molded by strong finger pressure.

Stiff: 50 kPa cu < 100 kPa. The clay can be indented about 0.5

cm by the thumb with great effort.

Very Stiff: 100 kPa cu < 200 kPa. The clay cannot be indented

by the thumb, but can be readily indented with the thumbnail.

Hard: cu 200 kPa. With great difficulity, the clay can only be

indented with the thumbnail.

Relative Density (Dr)

The following approximate relationship between CPT results and the relative density of sands

(Adapted from Kulhawy and Mayne, 1990) :

Dr

qc

. 100.kPa x100%

z'

c

Where:

qc = cone resistance

Qc = compressibility factor

= 0.91 for highly compressible sands

= 1.00 for moderately compressible sands

= 1.09 for slightly compressible sands

z = vertical effective stress

A relationship between consistency of sands and gravels and relative density is shown in Table

below.

Table 13.

Consistency of coarse-grained soils various relative densities (Lambe and Whitman, 1969)

0 15

15 - 35

35 65

65 85

85 100

Classification

Very Loose

Loose

Medium Dense

Dense

Very Dense

qc vs N-SPT Value

Since the SPT and CPT are the two most common in-situ tests, it often is useful to convert results

from one to the other. The ratio qc/N60 as a function of the mean grain size, D50, is shown in

Figure below. Note that N60 does not include an overburden correction.

Figure 41.

Correlation between qc/N60 and the mean grain size, D50 (Kulhawy and Mayne, 1990)

Be cautious about converting CPT data to equivalent N values, and then using SPT based

analysis methods. This technique compounds the uncertainties because it uses two correlations

one to convert to N, and then another to compute the desired quantity.

Correlation with Soil Classification

Because the CPT does not recover any soil samples, it is not a substitute for conventional

exploratory borings. However, it is possible to obtain an approximate soil classification using the

correlation shown in Figure below:

Figure 42.

Classification of Soil Based On CPT Test Results (Robertson and Campanella, 1983)

Early recommendations were to use the smallest N value in the boring or an average of all of the

values for the particular stratum. Current practice is to use an average N but in the zone of major

stressing. For example, for a spread footing the zone of interest is from about one-half the

footing width B above the estimated base location to a depth of about 2B below. Weighted

averaging using depth increment multiplied by N may be preferable to an ordinary arithmetic

average;

that is,

N av

N.z i

zi

and not

Ni

N av

For pile foundations there may be merit in the simple averaging of blow count N for any stratum

unless it is very thick thick being a relative term. Here it may be better to subdivide the thick

stratum into several strata and average the N count for each subdivision.

Correction for N-SPT Value

Deep tests in a uniform soil deposit will have higher N values than shallow tests in the same soil,

so the overburden correction adjusts the measure N values to what they would have been if the

vertical effective stress, v, was 100 kPa. In granular soils, the value of N is affected by the

effective overburden pressure, 0. For that reason, the value of N60 obtained from field

exploration under different effective overburden pressure should be changed to correspond to a

standard value of 0.

So that, the corrected value (Liao and Whitman, 1985), (N1)60 is:

N1 60

C N .N 60

Where:

(N1)60 = N-SPT value corrected for field procedures and overburden stress

CN

= overburden correction factor (see figure below)

0

= vertical effective stress in ton/ft2, which is based on water table during SPT testing. If

fill is paced after SPT testing, fill does not affect 0

Figure 43.

C N 9,78.

1

for ' v 25 kN / m 2

'v

CN

2

1 'v

for 'v 25 kN / m 2

9,78

'v

C N 1 1,25. log

for ' v 25 kN / m 2

9,78

20

'v

9,78

for ' 25 kN / m 2

v

C N 0,77. log

We can improve the raw SPT data by applying certain correction factors. The variations in

testing procedures may be at least partially compensated by converting the measured N to N60 as

follows (Skempton, 1986):

N 60

Em

Cb

Cs

Cr

N

N60

v

Pa

E m .C b .C s .C r .N

0,60

= hammer efficiency

= borehole diameter correction

= sampling method correction

= rod length correction

= N-SPT value from field test

= N-SPT value corrected for field procedures

= vertical effective stress at the test location

= reference stress = 100 kN/m2

Table 14.

Country

Hammer Type

Argentina

Brazil

Donut

Pin weight

Automatic

Donut

Donut

Donut

Donut

Donut

Automatic

Safety

Donut

Donut

Cathead

Hand dropped

Trip

Hand dropped

Cathead

Cathead

Tombi trigger

Cathead 2 turns + special release

Trip

2 turns on cathead

2 turns on cathead

Cathead

China

Colombia

Japan

UK

US

Venezuela

Hammer

Effeciency, Em

0.45

0.72

0.60

0.55

0.50

0.50

0.78 0.85

0.65 0.67

0.73

0.55 0.60

0.45

0.43

Figure 44.

Table 15.

Factor

Borehole diameter

factor, CB

Sampling method

factor, CS

Rod length factor,

CR

Equipment Variables

65 115 mm (2.5 4.5 in)

150 mm (6 in)

200 mm (8 in)

Standard sampler

Sampler without liner (not recommended)

3 4 m (10 13 ft)

4 6 m (13 20 ft)

6 10 m (20 30 ft)

> 10 m (> 30 ft)

Value

1.00

1.05

1.15

1.00

1.20

0.75

0.85

0.95

1.00

Although Liao and Whitman did not place any limits in this correction, it is probably best to keep

(N1)60 2.N60. This limit avoids excessively high (N1)60 values at shallow depths.

The use of correction factors is often a confusing issue. Corrections for field procedures are

always appropriate, but the overburden correction may or may not be appropriate depending on

the procedures used by those who developed the analysis method under consideration.

The N-SPT value, as well as many other test results, is only an index of soil behavior. It does not

directly measure any of the conventional engineering properties of soil and is useful only when

appropriate correlations are available. Many such correlation exist, all of which were obtained

empirically. Be especially cautious when using correlations between SPT results and engineering

properties of clays because these functions are especially crude. In general, the SPT should be

used only in sandy soils.

Adhesion Factor ( )

Recommended values of for drilled shafts in clay (After Reese and ONeill, 1986):

Adhesion Value for Drilled Shaft in Clay (After Reese and ONeill,1986)

Undrained Shear Strength (cu) ;

Location Along Drilled Shaft

Value of

1 tsf = 95,76 kPa

From Ground surface to depth

0

along drilled shaft of 5 ft

Bottom 1 diameter of the drilled

shaft or 1 stem diameter above the

0

top of the bell

All other points along the sides of

< 2 tsf

< 191,52 kPa

0,55

the drilled shaft

2 3 tsf

191,52 287,28 kPa

0,49

3 4 tsf

287,28 383,04 kPa

0,42

4 5 tsf

383,04 478,80 kPa

0,38

5 6 tsf

478,80 574,56 kPa

0,35

6 7 tsf

574,56 670,32 kPa

0,33

7 8 tsf

670,32 766,08 kPa

0,32

8 9 tsf

766,08 861,85 kPa

0,31

> 9 tsf

> 861,85 kPa

Treat as Rock

Table 16.

Adhesion factor () as function of undrained shear strength (su) for drilled shafts foundation in

clay is presented below:

Figure 45.

1,0

c 25.kPa

1,0 0,5. u

50.kPa

0,5

Figure 46.

Adhesion Factor ( ) vs Undrained Shear Strength (su) for driven pile (API)

All of the factors presented above are for insensitive clays (St < 4). In sensitive clays, full-scale

static load tests, special lab tests, or some other method of verification are appropriate (ONeill

and Reese, 1999).

ONeill and Reese (1989) also ignore the skin friction resistance in the upper 5 ft (1,5 m) of the

shaft and along the bottom one diameter of straight shaft because of interaction with the end

bearing.

According to Reese (1987), modulus subgrade reaction and soil strain can be determained from

the table below:

For Clays

Table 17.

Modulus Subgrade Reaction and Soil Strain Value for Clay (after Reese, 1987)

Consistency

cu (kPa)

k (kPa/m)

50

Soft

12 24

8140

0,02

Medium

24 48

27150

0,01

Stiff

48 96

136000

0,007

Very Stiff

96 192

271000

0,005

Hard

192 - 383

543000

0,004

For Sands

Modulus subgrade reaction (ks) kPa/m

Table 18.

Modulus Subgrade Reaction and Soil Strain Value for Clay (after Reese, 1987)

Relative Density

Loose

Medium

Dense

Submerged Sand

5430

16300

33900

Sand Above Water Table

6790

24430

61000

In general, the coefficient of subgrade reaction which is also known as the modulus of subgrade

reaction, or the subgrade modulus could be approached by using formula below :

ks

Where:

ks = coefficient of subgrade reaction (kPa/m)

q = bearing pressure (kN/m2 or kPa)

= settlement (m)

Basic Theory

Shallow Foundation

Shallow foundations transmit the applied structural loads to the near-surface soils. In the process

of doing so, they induce both compressive and shear stresses in these soils. The magnitudes of

these stresses depend largely on the bearing pressure and the size of the footing. If the bearing

pressure is large enough, or the footing is small enough, the shear stresses may exceed the shear

strength of the soil or rock, resulting in a bearing capacity failure.

Researchers have identified three types of bearing capacity failures:

It occurs in soils that are relatively incompressible and reasonably strong, in rock, and in

saturated, normally consolidated clays that are loaded rapidly enough that the undrained

condition prevails. The failure surface is well defined and failure occurs quite suddenly. A

clearly formed bulge appears on the ground surface adjacent to the foundation. Although

bulges may appear on both sides of the foundation, ultimate failure occurs on one side only,

and it is often accompanied by rotations of the foundation.

Local shear failure

Local shear failure is an intermediate case. The shear surfaces are well defied under the

foundation, and then become vague near the ground surface. A small bulge may occur, but

considerable settlement, perhaps on the order of half the foundation width, is necessary

before a clear shear surface form near ground. Even then, a sudden failure does not occur, as

happens in the general shear case. The foundation just continues to sink ever deeper into the

ground.

Punching shear failure

The opposite extreme is the punching shear failure. It occurs in very loose sands, in a thin

crust of strong soil underlain by a very weak soil, or in weak clays loaded under slow,

drained conditions. The high compressibility of such soil profiles causes large settlements

and poorly defined vertical shear surfaces. Little or no bulging occurs at the ground surface

and failure develops gradually.

Figure 47.

(a) General shear failure; (b) Local shear failure; (c) Punching shear failure (after Vesic,

1973)

Complete quantitative criteria have yet to be developed to determine which of these three modes

of failure will govern in any given circumstance, but the following guidelines are helpful:

Shallow foundations in rock and undrained clays are governed by the general shear case

Shallow foundations in dense sands are governed by the general shear case. In this

context, a dense sand is one with a relative density, Dr, greater than about 67%

Shallow foundations on loose to medium dense sands (30% < D r < 67%) are probably

governed by local shear

Shallow foundations on very loose sand (Dr < 30%) are probably governed by punching

shear.

For nearly all practical shallow foundation design problems, it is only necessary to check the

general shear case, and then conduct settlement analyses to verify that the foundation will not

settle excessively. These settlement analyses implicitly protect against local and punching shear

failures.

Bearing Capacity Analyses in Soil General Shear Case

Ultimate capacity for shallow foundation design is calculated by using the formula taken from

Terzaghi (1943):

q ult c '.N c q '.N q 0,5. '.B.N

Where:

c = effective cohesion of soil

= effective unit weight of soil

q = vertical effective overburden pressure

Nc, Nq, N = bearing capacity factors

The Terzaghi bearing capacity factors are:

Nq

a2

2. cos 2 45 '

2

a e

N c 5,7

Nc

Nq 1

tan '

for = 0

for > 0

2. N q 1. tan '

1 0,4. sin 4. '

The formula developed in Vesic (1973, 1975) is based on theoretical and experimental findings

from these and other sources and is an excellent alternative to Terzaghi. It produces more

accurate bearing values and it applies to a much broader range of loading and geometry

conditions. The primary disadvantage is its added complexity.

Vesic retained Terzaghis basic format and added the following additional factors:

sc, sq, s = shape factors

dc, dq, d = depth factors

ic, iq, i = load inclination factors

bc, bq, b = base inclination factors

gc, gb, g = ground inclination factors

He incorporated these factors into the bearing capacity formula as follows:

q ult c '.N c .s c .d c .ic .bc .g c q '.N q .s q .d q .i q .bq .g q 0,5. '.B.N .s .d .i .b .g

Terzaghis formulas consider only vertical loads acting on a footing with a horizontal base with a

level ground surface, whereas Vesic factors allow any or all of these to vary. The notation for

these factors is shown in figure below:

Figure 48.

Notation for Vesics load inclination, base inclination, and ground inclination factors. All

angles are expressed in degrees

Shape Factors

Vesic considered a broader range of footing shapes and defined them in his s factors:

B N q

.

L N c

sc 1

B

. tan

L

sq 1

B

s 1 0,4.

L

For continous footings, B/L 0, so sc, sq, and s become equal to 1. This means the s factors

may be ignored when analyzing continous footings.

Depth Factors

Unlike Terzaghi, Vesic has no limitations on the depth of the footing. The depth of footing is

considered in the following depth factors:

d c 1 0,4.k

d 1

k tan 1 D

function at D

-1

1.

The load inclination factors are for loads that do not act perpendicular to the base of the footing,

but still act through its centroid. The variable P refers to the component of the load that acts

perpendicular to the bottom of the footing, and V refers to the component that acts parallel to the

bottom.

The load inclination factors are:

ic 1

m.V

0

A.cu .N c

m

V

iq 1

A.cu

tan

V

i 1

A.c u

tan

m 1

2 B

1 B

L

L

2 L

1 L

B

B

Where:

V = applied shear load

P = applied normal load

A = base area of footing

cu = cohesion

= friction angle

B = foundation width

L = foundation length

If the load acts perpendicular to the base of the footing, the i factors equal 1 and may be

neglected. The i factors also equal 1 when = 0.

Base Inclination Factors

The vast majority of footings are built with horizontal bases. However, if the applied load is

inclined at a large angle from the vertical, it may be better to incline the base of the footing to the

same angle so the applied load acts perpendicular to the base. However, keep in mind that such

footings may be difficult to construct.

The base inclination factors are:

bc 1

147 0

. tan

bq b 1

57 0

If the base of the footing is level, which is the usual case, all of the b factors become equal to 1

and may be ignored.

Ground Inclination Factors

Footings located near the top of a slope have a lower bearing capacity than those on level

ground. Vesic ground inclination factors, presented below, account for this. However, there are

also other considerations when placing footings on or near slopes.

gc 1

147 0

g q g 1 tan

If the ground surface is level ( = 0), the g factors become equal to 1 and may be ignored.

Bearing Capacity Factors

Vesic used the following formulas for computing the bearing capacity factors Nq, Nc and N :

N q e . tan . tan 2 45

2

Nc

Nq 1

tan

N c 5,14

for > 0

for = 0

N 2. N q 1. tan

Engineers rarely need to compute the local or punching shear bearing capacities because

settlement analyses implicity protect against this type of failure. In addition, a complete bearing

capacity analysis would be more complex because of the following:

These modes of failure do not have well-defined shear surfaces, such as those shown in

figures above, and are therefore more difficult to evaluate.

The soil can no longer be considered incompressible (Ismael and Vesic, 1981).

The failure is not catastrophic, so the failure load is more difficult to define.

Terzaghi (1943) suggested a simplified way to compute the local shear bearing capacity using the

general shear formulas with appropriately reduced values of c and :

c adj 0,67.c

Vesic (1975) expanded upon this concept and developed the following adjustment formula for

sands with a relative density, Dr, less than 67%:

Where:

cadj = adjusted cohession

adj = adjusted friction angle

c

= cohession

= friction angle

Dr = relative density of sand, expressed in decimal form (0 Dr 67%)

Although the Vesic (1975) formula was confirmed with a few model footing tests, both methods

are flawed because the failure mode is not being modeled correctly. However, local or punching

shear will normally only govern the final design with shallow, narrow footings on loose sands, so

an approximate analysis is acceptable.

An important exception to this conclusion is the case of a footing supported by a thin crust of

strong soil underlain by very weak soil. This would likely be governed by punching shear and

would justify a custom analysis.

Sliding Capacity Analysis

Resistance against sliding in soils :

W PV . tan c a .Abase

Fs

1 .5

PH

W PV . tan c a .Abase Pp

Fs

2 .0

PH

Where :

Fs

= minimum factor of safety against sliding potential

W

= foundation weight including soil above footing

PV

= vertical force

PH

= horizontal force

Pp

= passive force

Abase = base area

ca

= adhesion factor

tan = friction factor between soil and base

= friction angle

tan = tan

Adhesion factor (NAVFAC DM-7.02)

Adhesion, ca

Interface Materials (Cohesion)

(kPa)

Very soft cohesive soil (0 12.5 kPa)

0 12.5

Soft cohesive soil (12.5 20 kPa)

12.5 20

Medium stiff cohesive soil (20 50 kPa)

20 37.5

Stiff cohesive soil (50 100 kPa)

37.5 47.5

Very stiff cohesive soil (100 200 kPa)

47.5 65

Table 19.

Pile Foundation

Bearing capacity calculation can be determined by using analysis of such this condition:

1.

2.

Pile-soil interaction and pile group

Figure 49.

QS

QP

Figure 50.

In general, the ultimate axial capacity of bored pile / driven pile can be obtained as the

summation of end bearing capacity plus skin friction resistance, or :

Qu Qs Q p

Where:

Qu = ultimate pile capacity

Qp = ultimate end bearing capacity

Qs = ultimate skin friction resistence

Toe-Bearing

Q p q p . Ap

Where:

Qp = ultimate end bearing capacity

qp = unit end bearing capacity

Ap = area of bored pile / driven pile cross section

The calculation of unit end bearing capacity (qp) must refer to the soil condition. Below are

several equations for its conditions:

exist in clays beneath the toe of deep foundation. Therefore, we compute qp using the

undrained shear strength, cu. For deep foundations which have ratio D/B > 3 with cu 250

kPa :

q p N c* .cu (3800kPa )

Where:

qp = unit end bearing capacity

Nc* = bearing capacity factor (ONeill and Reese, 1999)

= 6,5 at cu = 25 kPa

= 8,0 at cu = 50 kPa

= 9,0 at cu 100 kPa

cu

= undrained shear strength in the soil between the base of the shaft/pile and a distance

2Bb below the base

D

= depth to the bottom of the shaft/pile

Bb = diameter of shaft/pile base

Clays with cu > 250 kPa should be evaluated as intermediate geo-materials.

If the base diameter, Bb, is greater than 1900 mm, the value of qp could produce settlements

greater than 25 mm, which would be unacceptable for most buildings. To keep settlements

within tolerable limits, reduce the value of qp and use this value (ONeill and Reese, 1999):

q pr Fr .q p

Fr

2,5

1,0

1 .Bb 2.5 2

1 0,28 Bb 0,083 D B

b

2 0,065 cu

Where:

qpr = reduced unit toe-bearing resistance

qp = unit toe-bearing resistance

Bb = diameter at base of foundation

D = depth of embedment

cu = undrained shear strength in the soil between the base of the foundation and a depth 2Bb

below the base

Reese and ONeill (1999) recommend the following function for end bearing in

cohesionless soils which base diameter of drilled shaft is less than 1200 mm and with N60

50:

q p 57,5.N 60 ( 4300 kPa )

Where:

qp = unit end bearing capacity (kPa)

N60 = N-SPT value corrected for field procedures between toe and a depth of 2Bb below the

toe

Bb = base diameter of drilled shaft

If N60 > 50, the ground is classified as an intermediate geo-material

Shaft with base diameters larger than about 1200 mm, require about 60 mm of settlement to

develop the full toe-bearing resistance as defined by ONeill and Reese. Shaft with larger

base diameters may experience excessive settlements, especially if toe bearing represents a

large portion of the total capacity. There are two ways to deal with this problem by reducing

the unit toe-bearing resistance and perform the settlement analysis to adjust the design so the

settlement under working loads within tolerable limits.

1200

qp

Bb

q pr

Where:

qpr = reduce of unit end bearing capacity

qp = unit end bearing capacity

Bb = base diameter of drilled shaft

According to Meyerhof (1976), the unit end (point or tip) resistance qp in tons per square

feet (tsf) of driven piles in cohesionless soils can be estimated by the following relationship :

0,4.N ' avg

q p

Where:

qp

= unit end bearing capacity (tsf), this value should be multiplied by a conversion

factor of 95,8 to obtain qp in kPa

Navg = average N-SPT value corrected for field procedures and overburden test near the

pile tip

B

= base diameter of pile

Df

= depth of pile into granular stratum, which is the pile length (L) in homogeneous

cohesionless soils

Intermediate geo-material is a new term used to describe hard soils and soft rocks. ONeill and

Reese (1999) define them as cohesive or cemented materials, such as shale or mudstones, with

250 kPa < cu < 2500 kPa or non-cohesive materials, such as glacial till, with N60 > 50. These

materials can be difficult to evaluate because they have engineering properties between those of

soil and rock. For cohesive intermediate geo-material and rock we know the RQD (Rock Quality

Designation).

RQD is a measure of the integrity of rock or intermediate geo-material obtained from coring. It is

computed by summing the lengths of all pieces of the core (NX size) equal to or longer than 4 in.

(10 cm) and dividing by the total length of the core run. The RQD is multiplied by 100 and

expressed as a percentage. When calculating the RQD, only the natural fractures should be

counted and any fresh fractures due to the sampling process should be ignored. RQD

measurements can provide valuable data on the quality of the in situ rock mass, and can be used

to locate zones of extensively fractured or weathered rock. The mass rock quality can be defined

as follows:

o

RQD = 0 25%, rock quality is defined as very poor

o

RQD = 25 50%, rock quality is defined as poor

o

RQD = 50 75%, rock quality is defined as fair

o

RQD = 75 90%, rock quality is defined as good

o

RQD = 90 100%, rock quality is defined as excellent

In addition to determining the type of rock, it is often important to determine the quality of the

rock, which is related to its degree of weathering, defined as follows:

o

Fresh, no discoloration or oxidation.

o

Slightly Weathered, discoloration or oxidation is limited

to surface of, or short distance from, fractures; some feldspar crystals are dull.

o

Moderately Weathered, discoloration or oxidation extends

from fractures, usually throughout, Fe and Mg minerals are rusty and feldspar crystals are

cloudy.

o

Intensely Weathered, discoloration or oxidation

throughout; all feldspars and Fe and Mg minerals are altered to clay to some extent; or

chemical alteration produces in situ disaggregation.

o

Decomposed, discolored or oxidized throughout, but

resistant minerals such as quartz may be unaltered; all feldspars and Fe and Mg minerals are

completely altered to clay.

The unconfined compressive strength (qu) is usually measured in the laboratory on core samples

using a technique similar to that for measuring the compressive strength of concrete. This value

also is equal to twice the undrained shear strength, cu. ONeill and Reese use the RQD and the

unconfined compressive strength between the bottom of the foundation and a depth of about 2B

below the bottom to evaluate toe-bearing resistance.

Cohesive Intermediate Geo-material and Rock

If RQD = 100% and the foundation extends to a depth of at least 1,5B into the

intermediate geo-material or rock

q p 2,5.q u

Where:

qp

= unit end bearing capacity

qu

= unconfined compressive strength

If 70% < RQD < 100%, all joints are closed (i.e., not containing voids are soft infill

material) and nearly horizontal, and qu > 500 kPa

q p 4830.(q u ) 0.51

Where:

qp

= unit end bearing capacity

qu

= unconfined compressive strength

If the material is jointed, the joints have random orientation, and the condition of the

joints can be evaluated in the area or from test excavation:

Table 20.

Description of Rock and Intermediate Geo-material Types (ONeill and Reese, 1999)

Rock or Intemediate

Descreption

Geomaterial Type

A

Carbonate rocks with well-developed crystal cleavage (e. g.,

dolostone, limestone, marble)

B

Lithified argillaeous rocks (e. g., mudstone, siltstone, shale, slate)

C

Arenaceous rocks (e. g., sandstone, quartz)

D

Fine-grained igneous rocks (e. g., andesite, dolerite, diabase, rhyolite)

E

Coarse-grained igneous and metamorphic rocks (e. g., amphibole,

gabro, gneiss, granite, norite, quartz diorite)

Table 21.

Quality of

Rock or

Intermediate

Geomaterial

Excellent

m

Joint

Descreption

Very Good

Good

Fair

Poor

Very Poor

Intact

(closed)

Interlocking

Slightly

weathered

Moderately

weathered

Weathered

with gouge

Heavily

weathered

Joint

Spacing

Type

A

Type

B

Type

C

Type

D

Type

E

> 3m

10

25

17

25

1 3m

0.1

3,5

7,5

8,5

12,5

1 3m

0.04

0,7

1,5

1,7

2,5

0,1 1m

10-4

0,14

0,2

0,3

0,34

0,5

30 300mm

10-5

0,04

0,05

0,08

0,09

0,13

< 50mm

0,007

0,01

0,015

0,017

0,025

q p 0,59. ( N 1 ) 60

0,8

. ' zD

Where:

qp

= unit end bearing capacity

(N1)60 = N-SPT value corrected for field procedures and overburden stress 100

zD = vertical effective stress at base of foundation

The purpose of this section is to provide a brief introduction to rock classification. There are

three basic types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Because of their special

education and training, usually the best person to classify rock is the engineering geologist.

Below a simplified rock classification and common rock types:

Simplified Rock Classification

Common igneous rocks

Major division

Secondary divisions

Rock types

Extrusive

Volcanic explosion debris (fragmental)

Tuff (litihified ash) and volcanic breccia

Lava flows and hot siliceous clouds

Obsidian (glass), pumice and scoria

Lava flows (fine-grained) texture

Basalt, andesite and rhyolite

Intrusive

Dark minerals dominant

Gabbro

Intemediate (25-50% dark minerals)

Diorite

Light color (quartz and feldspar)

Granite

Common sedimentary rocks

Major division

Texture (grain size) or chemical composition

Rock types

Clastic rocks*

Grain size lager than 2 mm (pebbles, gravel,

Conglomerate (rounded cobbles) or

cobbles, and boulders)

breccia (angular rock fragments)

Sand-size grains, 0.062 - 2 mm

Sandstone

Silt-sizq grains, 0.004 0.062 mm

Siltstone

Clay-size grains, less than 0.004 mm

Claystone and shale

Chemical and organic Carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite)

Limestone

rocks

Halite minerals

Rock salt

Sulfate minerals

Gypsum

Iron-rich minerals

Hematite

Siliceous minerals

Chert

Organic products

Coal

Common metamorphic rocks

Major division

Structure (foliated or massive)

Rock types

Coarse crystalline

Foliated

Gneiss

Massive

Metaquartzite

Medium crystalline

Foliated

Schist

Massive

Marble, quartzite, serpentine, soapstone

Fine to microscopic

Foliated

Phyllite, slate

Massive

Hornfels, anthracite coal

*Grain sizes correspond to the Modified Wentworth scale

Table 22.

Hardness of rock versus unconfined compressive strength (Basic Soils Engineering (Hough, 1969);

Engineering Geology Field Manual, 1987)

Hardness

qu

Rock description

Very soft

1 25 MPa

The rock can be readily indented, grooved, or gouged with fingernail, or

carved with a knife. Breaks with light manual pressure. The rock disintegrates

upon the single blow of a geologic hammer

Soft

25 50 MPa

The rock can be grooved of gouged easily by a knife or sharp pick with light

pressure. Can be scratched with a fingernail. Breaks with light to moderate

manual pressure

Hard

50 100 MPa

The rock can be scratched with a knife or sharp pick with great difficulity

(heavy pressure is needed). A heavy hammer blow is required to break the

rock

Very Hard

100 200 MPa

The rock cannot be scratched with a knife or a sharp pick. The rock can be

broken with several solid blows of a geologic hammer

Extremelly hard

>200 MPa

The rock cannot be scratched with a knife or sharp pick. The rock can only be

chipped with repeated heavy hammer blows

NOTES:

1.

Besides degree of weathering, a measure of the quality of rock is its hardness, which has been correlated

with the unconfined compressive strength of rock specimens. Because the unconfined compressive strength is

performed on small rock specimens, in most cases, it will not represent the actual condition of in situ rock. The

Table 23.

2.

reason is due to the presence of joints, fractures, fissures, and plane of weakness in the actual rock mass that

govern its engineering properties, such as deformation characteristics, shear strength and permeability. The

unconfined compressive test also does not consider other rock quality factors, such as its resistance to

weathering or behavior when submerged in water.

qu = unconfined compressive strength (MPa) of the rock.

Open-Section Foundations

Open-section foundations are deep foundations that have poorly defined foundation-soil

contacts. These include open-end steel pipe piles and steel H-piles. These poorly defined contacts

make it more difficult to compute At (toe-bearing contact areas) and As (side-friction contact

areas).

When open-end pipe piles are driven, they initially tend to cookie out into the ground, and the

toe-bearing area, At, is equal to the cross-sectional area of the steel. Soil enters the pipe interior

as the pile advances downward. At some point, the soil inside the pile becomes rigidly embedded

and begins moving downward with the pile. It has then become a soil plug, as shown in Figure

below, and the toe-bearing area then becomes the cross-sectional area of the pile and the soil

plug. In other words, the pile now behaves the same as a closed-end pipe (i.e., one that has a

circular steel plate welded to the bottom).

Many factors affect the formation of soil plugs (Paikowsky and Whitman, 1990; Miller and

Lutenegger, 1997), including the soil type, soil consistency, in-situ stresses, pile diameter, pile

penetration depth, method of installation, rate of penetration, and so forth. In open-end steel pipe

piles, the soil plug may be considered rigidly embedded when the penetration-to-diameter ratio,

D/B is greater than 10 to 20 (in clays) or 25 to 35 (in sands) (Paikowsky and Whitman, 1990).

Many piles satisfy these criteria.

Once they become plugged, open-end pipe piles have the same side-friction area, As, as closedend piles. Use only the outside of pipe piles when computing the side-friction area. Do not

include the friction between the plug and the inside of the pile.

With H-piles, soil plugging affects both toe-bearing and side-friction contact areas. The space

between the flanges of H-piles is much smaller than the space inside pipe piles, so less

penetration is required to form a soil plug. For analysis purpose, we usually can compute At and

As in H-piles based on the assumption they become fully plugged as shown in Figure below.

If open-section foundations are driven to bedrock, the relative stiffness of the steel, soil plug and

bedrock are such that the toe-bearing probably occurs primarily between the steel and the rock.

Therefore, in this case it is generally best to use At equal to the cross-sectional area of the steel,

As, and ignore any plugging in the toe-bearing computations.

Figure 51.

Side Friction

Then, the ultimate skin friction resistance (Qs) is determined as:

Qs f s . p.L

Where:

Qs = ultimate skin friction resistance

fs = unit skin friction resistance

p = perimeter of bored pile / driven pile

L = length of bored pile / driven pile

In several cases the unit skin friction resistance (fs) could be obtained by using the equations

below:

For cohesive soils, the unit skin friction (fs) is obtained based on -method

equation:

Where:

fs = unit skin friction resistance

= factor of adhesion (refers to the sub-chapter adhesion factor before)

cu = undrained shear strength

In clays, the side-friction resistance within 1,5 m (5 ft) of the ground surface should be

ignored because of clay shrinkage cause by drying, foundation movement produced by lateral

loads, pile wobble during driving, and other factors.

For cohesionless soils, the unit skin friction (fs) is obtained based on -method

(Burland, 1973):

f s . 'v 190 kPa

Where:

fs = unit skin friction resistance (kPa)

= betha factor

v = vertical effective stress at base of foundation

For drilled shaft in sand with N60 15, ONeill and Reese (1999) recommends:

1,5 0,245 z

If N60 < 15, multiply the values obtained from equation above by the ratio N60/15. And the

values should be 0,25 1,20

Then, the unit skin friction of a driven pile in cohesionless soils is given by the following

relationship (Meyerhof, 1976, 1983) :

fs

N ' avg

50

1 tsf

Where:

fs

= unit skin friction (tsf), this value should be multiplied by a conversion factor of

95,8 to obtain fs in kPa

Navg = average N-SPT value corrected for field procedures and overburden test

This function reaches its limits at depths of 1.5 m and 26 m, so layer boundaries should be

placed at these two depths. Another boundary should be placed at the ground water table.

Additional boundaries should be placed every 6 m and where the sand strata end and it

becomes necessary to begin using clay or rock analyses.

Rollins, Clayton, and Mikesell (1997) used a series of full-scale static load tests to develop a

revised version of equation derived from ONeill and Reese (1999) in gravels (>50% gravel

size):

3,4.e 0 , 085. z

For gravelly sands (25-50% gravel size):

2,0 0,15.z 0, 75

Where:

fs = unit skin friction resistance

z = depth below ground surface (m)

v = vertical effective stress

e = base of natural logarithms = 2,718

for piles in gravelly soils also should be 20 to 30 percent higher than that in sandy soils.

Reese and ONeills (1989) also ignore the skin friction resistance in the upper 5 ft (1,5 m) of the

shaft and along the bottom one diameter of straight shaft because of interaction with the end

bearing.

Analyses Based on CPT Results

Engineers also have developed analytic methods based on cone penetration test (CPT) results.

These methods are very attractive because of the similarities between the CPT and the load

transfer mechanism in deep foundations. The cone resistance, qc, is very similar to the unit toebearing resistance, qp, and the cone side friction, fsc, is very similar to the unit side-friction

resistance, fs. The CPT is essentially a miniature pile load test, and was originally developed

partially as a tool for predicting pile capacities. Although we still must use empirical correlations

to develop design values of qp and fs from CPT data, these correlations should be more precise

than those based on parameters that have more indirect relationships to deep foundations.

Eslami and Fellinius method (Eslami and Fellinius, 1997) takes advantage of the additional data

gained through the use of a piezocone (also known as CPTU test) which is a standard CPT probe

equipped with a piezometer to measure the pore water pressure near the cone tip while the test is

in progress. This pore water pressure is the sum of the hydrostatic pore water pressure (such as

could be measured using a conventional stationary piezometer) and any excess pore water

pressure induced by the advancing cone. In sandy soils, the excess pore water pressure is usually

very small, but in clays it can be large.

The Eslami and Fellinius method requires application of an additional pore water pressure

correction to the qT values as follows:

q E qT u 2

Where:

qE = effective cone resistance

qT = corrected cone resistance

u2 = pore water pressure measured behind the cone point

This correction is intended to more closely align the analysis with the effective stresses. In sands,

u2 should be approximately equal to the hydrostatic pore water pressure. Therefore, this method

could still be used in sands even if only conventional CPT data (i. e., no pore pressure data) is

available, so long as the position of the groundwater table is known and no artesian conditions

are present.

Toe Bearing

Toe bearing failures occur as a result of punching and local shear, and thus affect only the soils in

the vicinity of the toe. Therefore, the analysis considers only the qE values in the following

zones:

For piles installed through a weak soil and into a dense soil: 8B above the pile toe to 4B

below the pile toe

For piles installed through a dense soil and into a weak soil: 2B above the pile toe to 4B

below the pile toe

In both cases, B is the pile diameter. The geometric average, qEg, of the n measured qE values

within the defined depth range is then computed using:

q Eg

( q E )1 .( q E ) 2 .(q E ) 3 ...(q E ) n

n

In general, odd spikes or troughs in the qE data should be included in the computation of qEg.

However, extraordinary peaks or troughs might be smoothed over if they do not appear to be

representative of the soil profile. For example, occasional gravel in the soil can produce false

spikes.

The unit toe-bearing resistance has then been empirically correlated with qEg using the load test

results:

q p C t .q Eg

Where:

qp

= unit toe-bearing

qEg

= geometric average effective cone resistance

Ct

= toe-bearing coefficient

Eslami and Fellinius recommend using Ct = 1 for pile foundations in any soil type. In addition,

unlike some other methods, they do not place any upper limit on qp.

Side Friction

A side-friction analysis is performed for each CPT data point using the following equation:

f s C s .q E

Where:

fs

= unit side-friction

qE

= effective cone resistance

Cs

Side-Friction Coefficient, Cs (Eslami and Fellinius, 1997)

Cs

Soil Type

Range

Typical Design Value

Soft sensitive soils

0,0737 0,0864

0,08

Clay

0,0462 0,0556

0,05

Stiff clay or mixture of clay and silt

0,0206 0,0280

0,025

Mixture of silt and sand

0,0087 0,0134

0,01

Sand

0,0034 0,0060

0,004

Table 24.

The Cs value depends on the soil type, and should be selected using Table above. And the soil

classification may be determined directly from the CPT data using figure below.

Figure 52.

Because CPT data is typically provided at depth intervals of 100 to 200 mm, this procedure is too

tedious to use at every data point when performing computations by hand. Therefore, hand

computations usually divide the soil between the ground surface to the pile tip into layers

according to the CPT results, with a representative qE for each layer. For most soil profiles, five

to ten layers are sufficient.

Preboring (Engineering Manual, EM 1110-2-2906)

A pilot or prebore hole may be required to penetrate hard nonbearing strata; to maintain accurate

location and alignment when passing through materials which tend to deflect the pile; to avoid

possible damage to adjacent structures by reducing vibrations; to prevent heave of adjacent

buildings; or to remove a specified amount of soil when installing displacement-type piles,

thereby reducing foundation heave. Preboring normally takes place in cohesive soils and is

usually required when concrete piles must penetrate man-made fills and embankments

containing rock particles or other obstructions. It should be noted that on past Corps projects,

concrete piles have been successfully driven through man-made fills such as levee embankments

without preboring. Preboring through cohesionless soils is not recommended, since the prebored

hole may not stay open and could require a casing. The most widely used method of preboring is

by utilizing an auger attached to the side of the crane leads.

When preboring is permitted, the hole diameter should not be grater than two-thirds the diameter

or width of the pile and not extend more than three-fourths the length of the pile. Oversizing the

hole will result in a loss of skin friction and a reduction in the axial capacity and lateral support,

thereby necessitating reevaluation of the pile foundation. When extensive preboring is needed,

consideration should be given to using a drilled-shaft system rather than a driven-pile system.

Spudding (Engineering Manual, EM 1110-2-2906)

Spudding is similar to preboring and may be appropriate when layers or obstructions are present

near the surface that would damage the pile or present unusual driving difficulty. Spudding is

accomplished by driving a spud, such as mandrel, heavy steel pipe or H-pile section, to provide a

pilot hole. The spud is withdrawn and the pile inserted into the hole and driven to the required

depth. Problems may result if the spud is driven too deep, since extraction becomes more

difficult as penetration is increased. Spudding may sometimes entail alternately lifting a partially

driven pile a short distance and redriving it when very difficult driving is encountered (e.g. for

heavy piles). Because this procedure adversely affects the soils lateral and axial capacity, it

should be avoided for friction piles and should never be permitted without the specific

authoriztion of the design engineer.

Pullout Capacity

Pullout capacity is pile ability to hold working tensile force. If some or all of the foundation is

beneath the ground water table, substract the bouyancy force from the unsubmerged weight to

obtain Wf. The bouyancy force equals the submerged volume of the foundation multipiled by the

unit weight of water.

Formulation of uplift load capacity:

Pau 0,9W f

Rf s As

F

Where:

Pau = net allowable upward axial load

R = reduction factor

F = factor of safety

fs = unit skin friction resistance

As = skin friction contact area

Wf = pile weight

For foundation with a D/B ratio greater than 6, set the reduction factor R equal to 1. This means

that the ultimate skin friction resistance of long foundations is equal in both upward and

downward loading. However, for shorter foundations, a cone of soil may form, as shown in

Figure below, thus reducing the skin friction resistance (Kulhawy, 1991).

Pu

If D/B > 1 and > 1

Cone breakout condition adjacent to a

deep foundation loaded in uplift

(Kulhawy, 1991)

2

3

Where:

.cu / ' D

foundation

=

average factor along length of

foundation

= average undrained shear strength along

cu

length of foundation

' D = vertical effective stress at tip of foundation

Figure 53.

Pullout Reducing

Group Efficiency

The proper spacing of piles in the group is important. If they are too close (i.e., less than 2,0-2,5

diameter or 600 mm on center), there may not be enough room for errors in positioning and

alignment. Conversely, if the spacing is too wide, the pile cap will be very large and expensive.

Therefore, piles are usually spaced 2,5 to 3,0 diameters on center.

The interactions between piles in a group and the adjacent soil are very complex, and the

ultimate capacity of the group is not necessarily equal to the ultimate capacity of a single isolated

pile multiplied by the number of piles. The effect of these interactions on the axial load capacity

is called the group efficiency, which depends on several factors, including the following :

1.

The number, length, diameter, arrangement, and spacing of the piles

2.

The load transfer mode (side friction vs. end bearing)

3.

The construction procedures used to install the piles

4.

The sequence of installation of the piles

5.

The soil type

6.

The elapsed time since the piles were driven

7.

The interaction, if any, between the pile cap and the soil

8.

The direction of the applied load

Engineers compute the allowable downward load capacity of pile groups using a group

efficiency factor, , as follows :

Pag .N .Pa

Where:

Pag

= allowable downward or upward capacity of pile group

N

Pa

= allowable downward or upward capacity of a single isolated pile

1 .

(n 1).m (m 1).n

90.m.n

Where:

= group efficiency factor

m = number of rows of piles

n = number of piles per row

= tan-1 (B/s) (expressed in degrees)

B = diameter of a single pile

s = center to center spacing of piles (not the clear space between piles)

Another approach is to compare individual failure with block failure. Individual failure means

the soil between the piles remains stationary and the individual piles punch through it, whereas

block failure means the soil moves with the piles, thus failing as a large single unit. Presumably

block failure governs if the sum of the perimeters of the piles is greater than the circumference of

the pile group, and the group efficiency factor is assumed to be the ratio of these two perimeters:

2.s.(m n) 4.B

1

.m.n.B

s

a. Individual Failure

Figure 54.

b. Block Failure

Although research conducted thus far has provided many insights, the behavior of pile groups is

still somewhat mysterious, and no comprehensive method of assessing group action has yet been

developed. Therefore, we must use the available information, along with engineering judgment

and conservative design methods to develop design values of the group efficiency factor, .

Hannigan et. al. (1997) recommends the following guide-lines for pile groups:

In Sands:

So long as no pre-drilling of jetting is used, the piles are at least 3 diameters in center,

and the group is not underlain by weak soils, use = 1.

Avoid pre-drilling or jetting whenever possible, because the methods can significantly

reduce the load capacity. If these methods must be used, they should be carefully controlled.

weak deposit, then the ultimate group capacity is the smaller of either the sum of the ultimate

capacities of the individual piles, or the group capacity against block failure of an equivalent

foundation consisting of the pile group and the enclosed soil mass punching through the

underlying weak soil.

In Clays:

Use the following procedure to estimate the allowable capacity of the pile group :

o

If the undrained shear strength, su, is less than 95 kPa and the pile cap is not in

firm contact with the ground, use equation Pag .N .Pa with = 0,7 for groups with

center-to-center spacing of 3 diameters, and = 1 with center-to-center spacing of 6

diameters or more. For intermediate spacing, linearly interpolate between these two

values.

o

If the undrained shear strength, su, is greater than 95 kPa, use equation

Pag .N .Pa with = 1 regardless of whether of not the cap is on contact with the soil.

o

Compute the group capacity against block failure using the following formula :

Pag 2.D.( B g L g ).s u1 B g .L g .s u 2 .N c*

D

B

N c* 5. 1

. 1

9

5

.

B

5

.L

Where:

Pag = allowable downward load capacity

Bg = width of pile group

Lg = length of pile group

D

= depth of embedment of pile group

su1 = weighted average of undrained shear strength in clays over depth of embedment

su2 = average undrained shear strength between the bottom of the pile group and a

depth 2 Bg below the bottom

Nc* = bearing capacity factor

Use the lowest of the applicable values from steps 1 to 4.

Because of the excess pore water pressure produced by pile driving, the short-term

ultimate capacity of pile groups in saturated clay will be reduced to about 0,4 to 0,8 times the

ultimate value. However, as these excess pore water pressures dissipate, the ultimate capacity

will increase. The rate at which it rises depends primarily on the dissipation of excess pore

water pressure. Small groups will probably reach long-term within 1 to 2 months, which

may be faster than the rate of loading, whereas larger groups may require a year or more. If

the group will be subjected to the full design load before the excess pore water pressure fully

o

dissipate, then a more detailed analysis may be warranted. In some cases, it may be

appropriate to install piezometers to monitor the dissipation of excess pore water pressures.

Suggested minimum centre-to-centre pile spacing by several building codes are as follows :

Table 25.

Pile type

Friction

Point bearing

BOCA, 1993

(Sec. 1013.8)

2D or 1.75H 760 mm

2D or 1.75H 610 mm

NBC, 1976

(Sec. 912.1l)

2D or 1.75H 760 mm

2D or 1.75H 610 mm

Chicago, 1994

(Sec. 13-132-120)

2D or 2H 760 mm

Here D = pile diameter; H = diagonal of rectangular shape or HP pile. The BOCA code also

stipulates that spacing for friction piles in loose sand or loose sand-gravels shall be increased 10

percent for each interior pile to a maximum of 40 percent. Optimum spacing s seems to be on the

order of 2.5 to 3.5D or 2 to 3H for vertical loads; for groups carrying lateral and/or dynamic

loads, larger pile spacings are usually more effecient. Maximum pile spacings are not given in

building codes, but spacings as high as 8 or 10D have been used on occasion.

Settlements

The classical method is based on the assumption that settlement is a one-dimensional process in

which all of the strains are vertical. This assumption is accurate when evaluating settlement

beneath the center of wide fills, but it less accurate when applied to shallow foundations,

especially spread footings, because their loaded area is much smaller.

Therfore, Skempton and Bjerrum (1957) presented another method of computing the total

settlement of shallow foundations. This method accounts for three-dimensional effects by

dividing the settlement into two components:

1.

Distortion settlement, d (also called immediate settlement, initial settlement, or

undrained settlement), is that caused by the lateral distortion of the soil beneath the

foundation. This settlement is similar to that which occurs when a load is placed on a bowl of

Jello@, and occurs immediately after application of the load.

Figure 55.

2.

caused by the change in volume of the soil that results from changes in the effective stress.

In actual condition, pore water stress dissapate into lateral direction. Then, Skempton and

Bjerrum (1957) proposed a 3-dimensional adjusment coeficient () as a correction factor for

lateral direction.

3-D Dimentional Adjustment Coefficient ( )

Table 26.

Soil Type

Typical OCR

Very sensitive clays

1,0

NC clays and silts

1,0 1,2

OC clays and silts

1,2 5

Heavily OC clays and silt

>5

Figure 56.

1,0 1,2

0,7 1,0

0,4 0,7

0,3 0,6

factors for Skempton and Bjerrum method (Adopted from Loenards, 1976)

computed as :

e . c

Where :

= settlement

e = elastic settlement

c = consolidation settlement

= three-dimensional settlement

Induced Stresses Due To A Concentrated Load

In 1885, Boussinesq developed the mathematical relationships for determining the normal and

shear stresses at any point inside homogeneous, elastic, and isotropic mediums due to a

concentrated point load located at the surface. According to his analysis, the vertical stress

increase at point A caused by a point load of magnitude P is given by

3.P

r

2. .z . 1

z

Where:

r

x2 y 2

Figure 57.

The Boussinesq equation above can also be used to determine the vertical stress below the cinter

of a flexible circularly loaded area. Let the radius of the loaded area be B/2, and let q 0 be the

uniformly distributed load per unit area. To determine the stress increase at a point A, located at a

depth z below the center of the circular area, consider an elemental area on the circle. The load

on this elemental area may be taken to be appoint load and expressed as q 0r d dr. The stress

increase at A caused by this load can be determined as

d

3. q 0 .r .d .dr

r

2. .z . 1

z

The total increase in stress caused by the entire loaded area may be obtained by integrating the

equation above, or

3. q 0 .r .d .dr

d 02 rr 0 2

r

2. .z . 1

q 0 . 1

1

2z

Figure 58.

The integration technique of Boussinesqs equation also allows the vertical stress at any point A

below the corner of a flexible rectangular loaded area to be evaluated. To do so, consider an

elementary area dA = dx dy on the flexible loaded area. If the load per unit area is q 0, the total

load on the elemental area is

dP q 0 .dx.dy

This elemental load, dP, may be treated as a point load. The increase in vertical stress at point A

caused by dP may be evaluated by using equation stress due to a concentrated load. Note,

however, the need to substitute dP = q0 dx dy for P and x 2 + y2 for r2 in that equation. Thus, the

3.q 0 . dx.dy .z 3

2. . x 2 y 2 z 2

Figure 59.

The total stress increase caused by the entire loaded area at point A may now be obtained by

integrating the preceding equation:

L

B

y 0 x 0

3.q 0 . dx.dy .z 3

2. . x y z

2

q 0 .I

Here,

I = influence factor =

1

4

2.m.n. m 2 n 2 1 m 2 n 2 2

2.m.n. m 2 n 2 1

.

. 2

tan 1 2

2

2

2

2

2

m n m .n 1 m n 1

m n 2 1 m 2 .n 2

When m2 + n2 +1 < m2n2, the argument of tan-1 becomes negative. In that case,

I = influence factor =

Where m

And n

L

z

B

z

1 2.m.n. m 2 n 2 1 m 2 n 2 2

2.m.n. m 2 n 2 1

1

. 2

.

tan

4 m n 2 m 2 .n 2 1 m 2 n 2 1

m 2 n 2 1 m 2 .n 2

The stress increase at any point below a rectangular loaded area can also be found by using

equation above in conjuction with Figure below. To determine the stress at a depth z below point

O, divide the loaded area into four rectangles, with O the corner common to each. Then use the

equation above to calculate the increase in stress at a depth z below O caused by each rectangular

area. The total stress increase caused by the entire loaded are may now be expressed as

q 0 . I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4

Where I1, I2, I3, and I4 = the influence values of rectangles 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively

Figure 60.

In most cases, the vertical stress below the center of a rectangular area is of importance. This can

be given by the relationship

q 0 .I c

Where I c

m1

n1

2

.

m1.n1

1 m12 n12

1 m12 n12

m1

1

B

z

z

B

2

Foundations engineers often use an approximate method to determine the increase in stress with

depth caused by the construction of a foundation. The method is referred to as the 2:1 method.

According to this method, the increase in stress at depth z is

q 0 .B.L

B z . L z

Note that equation above is based on the assumption that the stress from the foundation spreads

out along lines with a vertical-to-horizontal slope of 2:1.

Figure 61.

Figure below shows the cross section of an embankment of height H. For this two deimensional

loading condition, the vertical stress increase may be expressed as

q0

.

B1 B2

B

. 1 2 1 . 2

B2

B2

Where:

q0 = .H

= unit weight of the embankment soil

H = height of the embankment

B B2

B

1 tan 1 1

tan 1 1

z

z

B

2 tan 1 1

z

(Note that 1 and 2 are in radians.)

Figure 62.

Embankment loading

The Boussinesq equations are tedious to solve by hand, so it is useful to have simple approximate

methods of computing stresses in soil for use when a quick answer is needed, or when a

computer is not available.

The following approximate formulas compute the induced vertical stress, z, beneath the center

of a shallow foundation. They produce answers that are within 5 percent of the Boussinesq

values, which is more than sufficient for virtually all practical problems.

For circular foundations (adapted from Poulos and Davis, 1974):

1, 50

z 1

B

1

2. z

. q ' vD

1, 76

z 1

B

1

2. z

. q ' vD

2 , 60

1

1

B

1

2.z

. q ' vD

2 , 60 0 ,84. B

2. z

f

1, 38 0 , 62. B

. q '

vD

Where:

z = induced vertical stress beneath the center of a foundation

B

= width or diameter of foundation

L

= length of foundation

zf

= depth from bottom of foundation to point

q

= bearing pressure

'zD = vertical effective stress at a depth D below the ground surface

Figure 63.

The elastic settlement of a shallow foundation can be estimated by using the theory elasticity.

e

q max .B

. 1 2 I3

Eu

Where:

e = elastic settlement

qmax = maximum bearing pressure stress

B

L

Eu

= width of foundation

= length of foundation

= undrained modulus elasticity of soil

= poissons ratio of the soil

Table 27.

Soil Type

Clay

Description

Soft

0,35 0,40

Medium

0,30 0,35

Stiff

0,20 0,30

Sand

1

I3 .

m1

n1

z

Loose

Medium

Dense

1 m 2 n 2 1

1

1

ln

m1 . ln

2

2

2

2

1 m1 n1 m1

1 m1 n1 1

0,15 0,25

0,25 0,30

0,30 0,35

1 m 2 n 2 m

1

1

1

= L/B

= z/B

= depth of foundation embedment

Total of elastic settlement would be the subtraction of each elastic settlement which have been

determined while foundation embedded at depth equal with z and at depth = 0 from the existing

ground level.

e

q max .B

.I1.I 2

Eu

Where:

e = elastic settlement

qmax = maximum bearing pressure stress

B

= width of foundation

I1, I2 = influence factors

Eu = undrained modulus elasticity of soil

Since then, Christian and Carrier (1978) revised the procedure and Taylor and Matyas (1983)

shed additional light on its theoretical basis. The updated influce factors (I1 and I2) are shown in

Figure below.

Figure 64.

Single Pile

Reese and ONeill (1999) developed the charts in Figures below to estimate the settlement of

drilled shafts under service loads. These charts express the settlement in terms of the ratio of the

mobilized resistance to the actual resistance. These charts provide a useful guide for estimating

short-term settlement.

Elastic settlement of deep foundation can be computed using :

P.z c

e

A.E

Where:

e = settlement due to elastic compression of foundation

P = downward load on each foundation

zc = depth to centroid of soil resistance (typically about 0,75D)

= 4700. f c' MPa for concrete

= 200.000 MPa for steel

A = cross-sectional area of the foundation

Figure 65.

Figure 66.

After trialing several settlements () for both of base settlement and shaft settlement by using the

chart above in which will provide the closest value to the working loads (also possible to do a

linear interpolation for more accurate adjusment).

Then the total settlement would be:

adj e

Where:

adj = total settlement of foundation

e

= settlement due to elastic compression of foundation

Pile Groups

The settlement of pile group is exactly equal to the displacement of the pile plus the elastic

shortening of the pile shaft between cap and point.

G adj

B

(Vesic, 1977)

D

Where:

G

= group settlement

adj

= single pile settlement

B

= width of pile group

D

= pile diameter

Primary Consolidation Settlement Classical Method

Certain conditions can produce excessive settlements for deep foundation design, so the the

engineer must be able to recognize and evaluate them. These include the following :

The foundation has a large diameter and a large portion of the allowable capacity is due

to toe bearing.

One or more highly compressible strata are present, especially if these strata are below

the toe.

The engineer must express the pile response in terms of an equivalent spring located at

the bottom of the column. This analytical model is used in some sophisticated structural

analyses.

Figure 67.

The imaginary footing method computes the settlement of a deep foundation group by replacing

it with an imaginary footing, as shown in Figure above. This method is especially useful when

the design consists of a group of deep foundations that are underlain by compressible soils such

that the compression of these soils is more significant than the settlements required to mobilize

the side friction and toe bearing.

For foundations that rely primarily on side friction, place the imaginary footing at a depth of 0,67

D (where D is the depth of embedment). For foundations that rely principally on toe bearing,

place it at the toe elevation. When both side friction and toe bearing are significant, use linear

interpolation to place the imaginary footing between these two positions.

Then use the techniques described later below to compute the settlement of the imaginary

footing, and add the elastic compression of the foundations, e, using the equation which has

been discussed before, with zc = the depth zi to the imaginary footing.

This method also consider settlements produced by causes other than the structural loads on the

piles. For example, the construction process may include lowering the ground water table, which

increases the effective stress in the soil and thus create settlement.

A one-dimensional (1-D) consolidation test is widely used to obtain the settlement and time

parameters. A 1-D test confines the soils laterally in a metal ring so that the settlement and

drainage can occur only in the vertical direction. These condition are reasonably close to what

occurs in situ for most loading cases. Actually some radial displacement and lateral drainage

probably occur but, based on experience, these appear to be small enough that a 1-D analysis

gives adequate accuracy in most cases.

These equation below are directly applicable for normally consolidated soils:

C

c

H H

1 e

0

p p

0

p

0

log

Where:

H = settlement

PI

74

Cc

= compression index

e0

H

= stratum thickness. If the stratum is very thick (say > 6 m) it should be subdevided into

several sublayers of Hi = 2 to 3 m, with each having its own e0 and Cc. Compute the

several values of Hi and then sum them to obtain the total consolidation settlement

= effective overburden pressure at midheight of H

= average increase in pressure from the foundation loads in layer H and in the same units as

for p0

p0

p

When the soil is preconsolidated they should be adjusted as follows. Taking the stress increase

as:

p = p1 + p2

Where p2 is any part of p that is along Cc zone to the right of pc, we have the total settlement

consisting of two parts, that from p0 to pc and that (if any) from more than pc. These are

computed as follows:

Figure 68.

Part 1 :

p' p

Cr.H

log 0

1 e0

p' 0

H 1

p' 0 p1 p' c

Where:

= recompression index

Cr

PI

for OC clays, based on Kulhawy and Mayne (1990)

370

Part 2 :

H 2

p ' p 2

Cc.H

log c

1 e0

p'c

p 2 p p'c 0

H p H1 H 2

p0' p

H

c Cc

log

1 e0

p0'

c Cr

p ' p

H

log 0 '

1 e0

p0

(for NC clays)

p c'

p 0' p

H

H

c Cr

log ' C c

log

1 e0

1 e 0

p0

p c'

Where:

Cc = compression index,

Cr = swelling index,

H = thickness of the clay layer,

eo = initial void ratio,

pc = preconsolidation pressure,

p = average increase of pressure on clay layer caused by foundation construction (and fill),

po = average effective pressure on clay layer before foundation construction

Table 28.

Cc

Cc = 0.046 + 0.0104 IP

Cc = 0.009 wN + 0.005 wL

Compression index, Cc

Requirements

Source

Best for IP < 50 %

Nakase et al. (1988)

All clays

Koppula (1986)

Table 29.

Cr

Cr = 0.00194 (IP 4.6)

Cr = 0.05 to 0.1 Cc

Recompression index, Cr

Requirements

Source

Best for IP < 50 %

Nakase et al. (1988)

In desperation

Leonards (1976)

We compute the consolidation settlement by dividing the soil beneath the foundation into layers,

computing the settlement of each layer, and summing. The top of first layer should be at the

bottom of the foundation, and the bottom of the last layer should be at a depth such that z <

0,10 z0. Unless the soil is exceptionally soft, the strain below this depth is negligible, and thus

may be ignored.

Table 30.

shallow foundations

Approximate Layer Thickness

Layer Number

Square Footing

Continuous Foooting

1

B/2

B

2

B

2B

3

2B

4B

Notes:

1.

Adjust the number and thickness of the layers to account for changes in soil properties. Locate each layer

entirely within one soil stratum.

2.

For rectangular footings, use layer thicknesses between those given for square and continuous footings.

3.

Use somewhat thicker layers (perhaps up to 1,5 times the thicknesses shown) if the groundwater table is

very shallow.

4.

For quick, but less precise, analyses, use a single layer with a thickness of about 3B (square footings) or

6B (continuous footing).

Similar to solutions for shallow foundations, charts have been developed for estimating the

distribution of stress beneath deep foundations. Figures below show the pressure distributions for

pile foundations for four different soil conditions.

Friction piles in CLAY

The upper left figure shows the pressure distribution for a pile group embedded in clay. The load

P that the pile cap supports is the first turned into an applied stress q by using the following

equation:

q 0

n.Qall

P

B. A

B. A

Where:

q

= 0 = vertical stress applied by the deep foundation at a depth of (2/3)L

L

= length of the piles

P

= total concentric vertical load on the pile cap. The maximum load the pile cap can support

is n times Qall

n

= number of piles that support the pile cap

Qall = allowable vertical load for each pile

B

= width of the pile group, taken to the outside edge of the group

A

= length of the pile group, taken to the outside edge of the group

In essence, the 2:1 approximation starts at a depth of (2/3)L below ground surface. In figure

below, it is assumed that there is a hard layer located below the clay. In this case, the

compression or consolidation of the clay would be calculated for the thickness of H as defined in

the upper left diagram of figure.

Friction piles in SAND underlain by CLAY

The upper right diagram in figure shows the pile group embedded in sand with two underlying

clay layers. For this situation, two conditions would have to be evaluated. The first is a bearing

capacity failure of the pile group where it punches through the sand and into the upper soft clay

layer. The second condition is the compression or consolidation of the two clay layers located

below the pile group. Similar to the case outlined above, the 2:1 approximation is used to

calculate the increase in vertical stress z due to the pile cap loading for the two clay layers.

Point bearing piles in SAND underlain by CLAY

The lower left diagram in figure shows the condition of a soft clay layer underlain by a sand

stratum. The sand stratum provides most of the vertical resistance and hence the pile group is

considered to be point bearing (also known as end bearing). For this case, the 2:1 approximation

is assumed to start at the top of the sand layer and is used to calculate the increase in vertical

stress z due to the pile cap loading for the soft clay layer.

Friction piles in CLAY with RECENT FILL

The lower right diagram in figure shows the condition of piles embedded in clay with the recent

placement of a fill layer at ground surface. In this case, the piles woll be subjected to a downdrag

load due to placement of the fill layer. The 2:1 approximation is assumed to start at a distance of

L3 below the top of the clay layer, where L3 = (2/3)L2. The value of q applied at this depth

includes two additional terms, the first is the total weight of fill t times the thickness of the fill

L1 and the second is the downdrag load converted to a stress, defined as (n AD)/(B A). If the pile

caps are spaced close together, there could be additional settlement as the pressure distribution

from one pile cap overlaps with the pressure distribution from a second nearby pile cap.

Figure 69.

At the end of primary consolidation (i.e., after the complete dissipation of excess pore water

pressure) some settlement is observed that is due to the plastic adjustment of soil fabrics. This

stage of consolidation is called secondary consolidation. A plot of deformation against the

logarithm of time during secondary consolidation is practically linear as shown in figure. From

this figure, the secondary compression index can be defined as

log t 2 log t 1

e

t

log 2

t1

Where:

C = secondary compression index

e = change of void ratio

t1, t2 = time

Figure 70.

Variation of e with log t under a given load increment, and definition of secondary compression

index

Table 31.

C

C = 0.00168 + 0.00033 IP

C = 0.0001 wN

C = 0.032 Cc

C = 0.06 to 0.07 Cc

C = 0.015 to 0.03 Cc

Requirements

Source

Nakase et al. (1988)

NAFAC DM7.1 p. 7.1-237

0.025 < C < 0.1

Mesri and Godlewski (1977)

Peats and organic soil

Mesri (1986)

Sandy clays

Mesri et al. (1990)

t

S c ( s ) C ' .H c . log 2

t1

Where:

C = C/(1+ep)

ep

= void ratio at the end of primary consolidation (see figure above)

Hc = thickness of clay layer

The general magnitudes of C as observed in various natural deposits are given in figure below.

Figure 71.

Secondary consolidation settlement is more important in the case of all organic and highly

compressible inorganic soils. In overconsolidated inorganic clays, the secondary compression

index is very small and of less practical significance.

There are several factors that might affect the magnitude of secondary consolidation, some of

which are not yet very clearly understood (Mesri, 1973). The ratio of secondary to primary

compression for a given thickness of soil layer is dependent on the ratio of the stress increment,

, to the initial overburden stress, 0. For small /0 ratios, the secondary-to-primary

compression ratio is larger.

Settlement Analyses (Schmertmanns Method) Based On In-Situ Tests

The second category of settlement analysis techniques consists of those based on in-situ tests.

Most of these analyses use results from the standard penetration test (SPT) or the cone

penetration test (CPT). However, other in-situ tests, especially the dilatometer test (DMT) and

the pressuremeter test (PMT) also may be used.

properties using the compression index, Cc, for normally consolidated soils, or the

recompression index, Cr, for overconsolidation soils. Both of these parameters are

logarithmic.

Schmertmanns method uses the equivalent modulus of elasticity, Es, which is a linear

function and thus simplifies the computations. However, soil is not a linear material (i.e.,

stress and strain are not proportional), so the value of Es must reflect that of an equivalent

unconfined linear material such that the computed settlement will be the same as in the real

soil.

The design value of Es implicitly reflects the lateral strains in the soil. Thus, it is larger than

the modulus of elasticity, E (also known as Youngs Modulus), but smaller than the confined

modulus, M.

Table 32.

Schmertmann developed empirical correlations between Es and the cone resistance, qc, from a

cone penetration test (CPT). This method is especially useful because the CPT provides a

continuous plot of qc vs. depth, so our analysis can model Es as a function of depth. Table

below presents a range of recommended design values of Es/qc. It is usually best to treat all

soils as being young and normally consolidated unless there is compelling evidence to the

contrary. Such evidence might include:

1.

Clear indications that the soil is very old. This might be established by certain

geological evidence.

2.

Clear indications that the soil is overconsolidated. Such evidence would not be

based on consolidation tests on the sand (because of soil sampling problems), but might

be based on consolidation tests performed on samples from interbedded clay strata.

Alternatively, overconsolidation could be deduced from the origin of the soil deposit. For

example, lodgement till and compacted fill are clearly overconsolidated.

Es-values from CPT results {adapted from Schmertmann, et al. (1978), Robertson and Campanella

(1989), and other sources}

USCS

Soil Type

Group

Es/qc

Symbol

Young, normally consolidated clean silica sands (age < 100 years)

SW or SP

2,5 3,5

Aged, normally consolidated clean silica sands (age > 3000 years)

SW or SP

3,5 6,0

Overconsolidated clean silica sands

SW or SP

6,0 10,0

Normally consolidated silty or clayey sands

SM or SC

1,5

Overconsolidated silty or clayey sands

SM or SC

3

Schmertmanns method also may be used with Es values based on the standard penetration

test. However, these values are not as precise as those obtained from the cone penetration test

because:

1.

The standard penetration test is more prone to error, and is less precise measurement.

2.

The standard penetration test provides only a series of isolated data points, whereas

the cone penetration test provides a continuous plot.

Nevertheless, SPT data is adequate for many projects, especially those in which the loads are

small and the soil conditions are good.

Several direct correlations between Es and N60 have been developed, often producing widely

disparate results (Anagnostopoulos, 1990; Kulhawy and Mayne, 1990). This scatter is

probably caused in part by the lack of precision in the SPT, and in part to the influence of

other factors beside N60. Nevertheless, the following relationship should produce

approximate, if somewhat conservative, values of Es:

E s 0 . OCR 1 .N 60

Where:

Es

= equivalent modulus of elasticity

0, 1 = correlation factors from table below

OCR = overconsolidation ratio

N60

= SPT N-value corrected to field procedures

Once again, most analyses should use OCR = 1 unless there is clear evidence of

overconsolidation.

0, 1 factors

0

Soil Type

(kPa)

Clean sands (SW and SP)

5000

Silty sands and clayey sands (SM and SC)

2500

Table 33.

1

(kPa)

1200

600

Schmertmann conducted extensive research on the distribution of vertical strain, z, below

spread footings. He found the greatest strains do not occur immediately below the footing, as

one might expect, but at a depth of 0,5B to B below the bottom of the footing, where B is the

footing width. This distribution is described by the strain influence factor, Ie, which is a type

of weighting factor. The distribution of Ie with depth has been idealized as two straight lines,

as shown in figure below:

Distribution of strain influence factor with depth under square and continuous footings (Adapted

from Schmertmann 1978; used with permission of ASCE)

Figure 72.

I ep 0,5 0,1.

q ' zD

' zp

Where:

Iep = peak strain influence factor

q

= bearing pressure

zD = vertical effective stress at a depth D below the ground surface

zp = initial vertical effective stress at depth of peak strain influence factor

For square and circular foundation (L/B = 1), compute zp at a depth of {D+(B/2)}

below the ground surface.

For continuous footing (L/B 10), compute zp at a depth of (D+B) below the

ground surface.

The exact value of Ie at any given depth may be computed using the following equations:

Square and circular foundations (L/B = 1):

For zf = 0 to B/2 :

I e 0,1 z f B . 2.I ep 0,2

For zf = B/2 to 2B :

I e 0,667.I ep . 2 z f B

For zf = 0 to B :

I e 0,2 z f B . I ep 0,2

For zf = B to 4B :

I e 0,333.I ep . 4 z f B

I e I es 0,111 . I ec I es . L B 1

Where:

zf = depth from bottom of foundation to midpoint of layer

Ie = strain influence factor

Iec = Ie for a continuous foundation

Iep = peak Ie

Ies = Ie for a square foundation

Schmertmanns method also includes empirical corrections for the depth of embedment,

secondary creep in the soil, and footing shape. These are implemented through the factors C 1,

C2, and C3:

' zD

C1 1 0,5.

q ' zD

0

,1

C 2 1 0,2. log

Where:

= settlement of footing

C1 = depth factor

C2 = secondary creep factor

C3 = shape factor = 1 for square and circular foundations

q

= bearing pressure

zD = vertical effective stress at a depth D below the ground surface

Ie

= influence factor at midpoint of soil layer

H

= thickness of soil layer

Es = equivalent modulus of elasticity in soil layer

t

= time since application of load (yr) (t 0,1 yr)

B

= foundation width

L

= foundation length

These formulas may be used with any consistent set of units, except that t must be expressed

in years. If no time is given, use t = 50 yr (C2 = 1,54).

Finally, this information is combined using the following formula to compute the settlement,

:

C1 .C 2 .C 3 . q ' zD .

I e .H

Es

Analysis Procedure

The Schmertmann method uses the following procedures:

1.

Perform appropriate in-situ tests to define the subsurface conditions.

2.

Consider the soil from the base of the foundation to the depth of influence below the

base. This depth ranges from 2B for square footings or mats to 4B for continuous

footings. Divide this zone into layers and assign a representative E s value to each layer.

The required number of layers and the thickness of each layer depend on the variations in

the E vs. depth profile. Typically 5 to 10 layers are appropriate.

3.

Compute the peak strain influence factor, Iep.

4.

Compute the strain influence factor, Ie, at the midpoint of each layer.

5.

Compute the correction factors, C1, C2, and C3.

6.

Compute the settlement.

Lateral capacity analysis of bored pile is using computer program LPILE Plus 4.0 (Ensoft, 1980).

This program use load transfer method and assume that soil reaction is nonlinear under lateral

load.

When designing deep foundaions, we divide these loads into two categories: axial loads and

lateral loads. Axial loads are those that act parallel to the axis of the foundation; lateral loads are

those that act perpendicular to the axis. Thus, if the axis is vertical, the applied uplift and

downward loads from the structure induce axial loads in the foundation, whereas applied shear

and moment loads induce lateral loads. Torsional loads are rarely a concern in deep foundation

design.

The type of connection between the pile and the structure is also important because it determines

the kinds of restraint, if any, acting on the pile. Engineers usually assume that one of the

following conditions prevails:

The free-head condition, means that the top of the pile may freely move laterally

and rotate when subjected to shear and/or moment loads.

that the top of the pile may move laterally, but is not pemitted to rotate. Piles connected to a

very stiff pile cap closely approximate this condition.

The pure moment condition, occurs when there is an applied moment load, but no

applied shear load. It results in rotation of the top of the pile, but no lateral movement.

Figure 73.

Pile failure mode is determined as two part. First, failure as a short pile and second one as a long

pile. A short foundation is one does not have enough embedment to anchor the toe against

rotations, whereas a long foundation is one in which the toe is essentially fixed. Inclination point

for long pile is depend on load combinations. In general, flexible foundations, such as timber

piles, are long if D/B greater than about 20, while stiffer foundations, such as those made of steel

or concrete, typically require D/B greater than about 35. The ultimate lateral capacity of short

foundations is controlled primarily by the soil. In other words, the soil fails before the foundation

reach its flexural capacity. Conversely, the ultimate lateral capacity of long foundations is

controlled primarily by the flexural strength of the foundation because it will fail structurally

before the soil fails. And the lateral deflection is only occured at pile cap. For further information

can be seen on the illustration below:

Figure 74.

The axial tension or compression load at a depth z in a foundation subjected to axial and/or

lateral load is:

P1

Pg

n

M gx .y i

n

yi2

i 1

M gy .x i

n

xi 2

i 1

Figure 75.

Where:

P1 = axial or compression load for each pile

Pg = subjected axial load from the upper structure

n

= number of pile

Mgx = moment which occured in x-direction

Mgy = moment which occured in y-direction

y

= distance from neutral axis in y-direction

x

= distance from neutral axis in x-direction

Those formula is used to transfer the moment loads into axial loads. This calculation is required

by the LPile program to defined the internal forces such as lateral deflection, moments, and shear

force. Then, the internal force will be used to determine the reinforcement and confinement

design.

LIQUEFACTION ANALYSIS

The typical subsurface condition that is susceptible to liquefaction is a loose or very loose sand

that has been newly deposited or placed, with a groundwater table near ground surface. During

an earthquake, the ground shaking causes the loose sand to contract, resulting in an increase in

pore water pressure. Because the seismic shaking occurs so quickly, the cohesionless soil is

subjected to an undrained loading (total stress analysis). The increase in pore water pressure

causes an upward flow of water to the ground surface, where it emerges in the form of mud

spouts or sand boils. The development of high pore water pressures due to the ground shaking

(i.e., the effective stress becomes zero) and the upward flow of water may turn the sand into a

liquefied condition, a process that has been termed liquefaction. Structures on top of a loose sand

deposit that has liquefied during an earthquake will sink or fall over, and buried tanks will float

to the surface when the loose sand liquefies (Seed 1970).

Main factors that govern the liquefaction process :

1.

Earthquake intensity and duration

It is the earthquake induced shear strains and subsequent contraction of the soil particles that

lead to the development of excess pore water pressures and ultimately liquefaction. Sites

located near the epicenter of major earthquakes will be subjected to the largest intensity and

duration of ground shaking (i.e., higher number of applications of cyclic shear strain).

Besides earthquakes, other conditions can cause liquefaction, such as subsurface blasting.

2.

Groundwater table

The condition most conducive to liquefaction is a near-surface groundwater table.

Unsaturated soil located above the groundwater table will not liquefy.

3.

Soil type

The soil types susceptible to liquefaction are nonplastic (cohesionless) soils. Seed et al.

(1983) state that, on the basis of both laboratory testing and field performance, the great

majority of clayey soils will not liquefy during earthquakes. An approximate listing of

cohesionless soils from least to most resistant to liquefaction are clean sands, nonplastic silty

sands, nonplastic silt, and gravels.

4.

Soil relative density (Dr)

Cohesionless soils in a very loose relative density state are susceptible to liquefaction while

the same soil in a very dense relative density state will not liquefy. Very loose nonplastic

soils will contract during the seismic shaking, which will cause the development of excess

pore water pressures. Very dense soils will dilate during seismic shaking and are not

susceptible to liquefaction.

5.

Particle size gradation

Poorly graded nonplastic soils tend to form more unstable particle arrangements and are

more susceptible to liquefaction than well-graded soils

6.

Placement conditions

Hydraulic fills (fill placed under water) are more susceptible to liquefaction because of the

loose and segregated soil structure created by the soil particles falling through water.

7.

Drainage conditions

If the excess pore water pressure can quickly dissipate, the soil may not liquefy. Thus gravel

drains or gravel layers can reduce the liquefaction potential of adjacent soil.

8.

Confining pressures

The greater the confining pressure, the less susceptible the soil is to liquefaction. Conditions

that can create a higher confining pressure are a deeper groundwater table, soil that is located

at a deeper depth below ground surface, and a surcharge pressure applied at a ground surface.

Case studies have shown that the possible zone of liquefaction usually extends from the

ground surface to a maximum depth about 15 m. Deeper soils generally do not liquefy

because of the higher confining pressures.

9.

Aging

Newly deposited soils tend to be more susceptible to liquefaction than old deposits of soil.

Older soil deposits may already have been subjected to seismic shaking, or the soil particles

may have deformed or been compressed into more stable arrangements.

The most common type of analysis to determine the liquefaction potential is to use the standard

penetration test (SPT) or the cone penetration test (CPT) (Seed et al. 1985, Stark and Olson

1995). The analysis is based on the simplified method proposed by Seed and Idriss (1971).

The first step in the liquefaction analysis is to determine the seismic shear stress ratio (SSR). The

seismic shear stress ration (SSR) induced by the earthquake at any point in the ground is

estimated as follows (Seed and Idriss 1971):

a

SSR 0,65.rd . max

. v 0

g

' v 0

Where :

SSR = seismic shear stress ratio (dimensionless parameter)

amax = peak acceleration measured or estimated at the ground surface of the site (m/s2)

g

= acceleration of gravity (9,81 m/s2)

Ussually the engineering geologist will determine the peak acceleration at the ground

surface at the site from fault, seismicity, and attenuation studies. Typically the

engineering geologist provides a peak ground acceleration in the form of a max/g = a

constant, in which case the value of a constant (dimensionless) is substituted into the

above equation in place of amax/g.

v0 = total vertical stress at a particular depth where the liquefaction analysis is being

performed (kPa)

v0 = vertical effective stress at that same depth in the soil deposit where v0 was calculated

(kPa)

rd

= depth reduction factor, which can be estimated in the upper 10 m of soil as (Kayen et

al. 1992) rd = 1 0,012z, where z = depth in meters below the ground surface where the

liquefaction analysis is being performed (i.e., the same depth used to calculate v0 and

v0)

The second step is to determine the seismic shear stress ratio (SSR) that will cause liquefaction

of the in situ soil. A chart (from Stark and Olson 1995) will be used to determine the seismic

shear stress ratio (SSR) that will cause liquefaction of the in situ soil.

In order to use this chart, the results of the standard penetration test (SPT) must be expressed in

terms of the N-SPT value.

So that, the corrected value (Liao and Whitman, 1985), N-SPT is:

N ' C N .N 60

Where:

N = N-SPT value corrected for field procedures and overburden stress

CN = overburden correction factor

Liao and Whitmans relationship (1986):

C N 9,78.

1

for ' v 25 kN / m 2

'v

2

CN

for ' v 25 kN / m 2

'v

1

9,78

Seed et al.s relationship (1975):

'v

C N 1 1,25. log

for ' v 25 kN / m 2

9

,

78

20

'v

9,78

for ' 25 kN / m 2

v

C N 0,77. log

We can improve the raw SPT data by applying certain correction factors. The variations in

testing procedures may be at least partially compensated by converting the measured N to N60 as

follows (Skempton, 1986):

N 60

Em

Cb

Cs

Cr

N

N60

v

Pa

E m .C b .C s .C r .N

0,60

= hammer efficiency (for U.S. equipment, E m equals 0,6 for safety hammer and equals 0,45

for a doughnut hammer) Adapted from Clayton, 1990

= borehole diameter correction (Cb = 1,0 for boreholes of 65 to 115 mm diameter ; 1,05 for

150 mm diameter ; 1,15 for 200 mm diameter of hole) Adapted from Skempton, 1986

= sampling method correction (Cs = 1,00 for standard sampler ; 1,20 for sampler without

liner not recommended) Adapted from Skempton, 1986

= rod length correction (Cr = 0,75 for up to 4 m of drill rods ; 0,85 for 4 to 6 m of drill

rods ; 0,95 for 6 to 10 m of drill rods ; 1,00 for drill rods over 10 m) Adapted from

Skempton, 1986

= N-SPT value from field test

= N-SPT value corrected for field procedures

= vertical effective stress at the test location

= reference stress = 100 kN/m2

Once the corrected N-SPT has been calculated, the chart can be used to determine the seismic

shear stress ratio (SSR) that will cause liquefaction of the in situ soil. For a given N-SPT value,

soils with more fines have a higher seismic shear stress ratio (SSR) that will cause liquefaction

of the in situ soil.

As an alternative to the second step, the cone penetration test (CPT) can be used instead of the

standard penetration test (SPT). The procedure consists of multiplying the cone penetration tip

resistance qc by a correction factor Cq to account for the overburden pressure, in order to

calculate the corrected CPT tip resistance qc1, or:

q c1 C q .q c

1,8.qc

'

0,8 v 0

100

Where :

qc1 = corrected CPT tip resistance (corrected for the overburden pressure)

Cq = correction factor to account for the overburden pressure

v0 = vertical effective stress in kPa

qc = cone penetration tip resistance

Once the corrected CPT tip resistance qc1 has been calculated, the chart can be used to determine

the seismic shear stress ratio (SSR) that will cause liquefaction of the in situ soil. For a given q c1

value, soils with more fines have a higher seismic shear stress ratio (SSR) that will cause

liquefaction of the in situ soil.

The third step in the liquefaction analysis is to compare the seismic shear stress ratio (SSR)

values. If the SSR induced by the earthquake is greater than the SSR value obtained from the

chart, then liquefaction could occur during the earthquake, and vice versa.

When in fact the entire analysis is only a gross approximation, the analysis should be treated as

such and engineering experience and judgment are essential in the final determination of whether

or not a site has liquefaction potential.

BMS (Vehicle Load)

Figure 76.

The two methods of estimating ultimate capacity of piles on the basis of dynamic driving

resistance are pile-driving formulas and wave equation analysis. Pile capacities based on piledriving formulas are not always reliable. They should therefore be supported by local experience

or testing and should be used with caution. Pile capacities estimated on the basis of wave

equation analysis have more rational approach than the estimation on the basis of pile driving

formulas.

Pile hammers are the devices used to impart sufficient energy to the pile so that it penetrates the

soil. Several pile hammers are described in the following paragraph.

a.

Drop hammers

Drop hammers are still occasionally used for small, relatively inaccessible jobs. The drop

hammer consists of a metal weight fitted with a lifting hook and guides for traveling down

the leads (or guides) with reasonable freedom and alignment. The hook is connected to a

cable, which fits over a sheave block and is connected to a hoisting drum. The weight is

lifted and tripped, freely falling to a collision with the pile. The impact drives the pile into the

ground. Principal disadvantages are the slow rate of blows and length of leads required

during the early driving to obtain a sufficient height of fall to drive the pile.

b.

Single-acting hammers

Steam or air pressure is used to lift the ram to the necessary height. The ram then drops by

gravity onto the anvil, which transmits the impact energy to the capblock, then to the pile.

The hammer is characterized by a relatively slow rate of blows. The hammer length must be

such as to obtain a reasonable impact velocity (h or height of ram fall), or else the driving

energy will be small. The blow rate is considerably higher than that of the drop hammer. In

general the ratio of ram weight to pile weight including appurtenances should be on the order

of 0.5 to 1.0.

c.

Double-acting hammers

These hammers use steam both to lift the ram and to accelerate it downward. Differentialacting hammers are quite similar except that more control over the steam (or air) is exerted to

maintain an essentially constant pressure (nonexpansion) on the accelerating side of the ram

piston. This increase in pressure results in a greater energy output per blow than with the

conventional double-acting hammer. The blow rate and energy output are usually higher for

double-acting or differential hammers (at least for the same ram weight), but steam

consumption is also higher than for the single-acting hammer. The length may be a meter or

more shorter for the double-acting hammer than for the single-acting hammer with length

ranges on the order of 2 to 4.5 m. The ratio of ram weight to pile weight should be between

0.50 and 1. When compressed air instead of steam is used with single- or double-acting

hammers, there is the additional problem of the system icing up at temperatures close to

freezing.

d.

Diesel hammers

Diesel hammers consist of a cylinder or casing, ram, anvil block, and simple fuel injection

system. To start the operation, the ram is raised in the field as fuel is injected near the anvil

block, then the ram is released. As the ram falls, the air and fuel compress and become hot

because of the compression; when the ram is near the anvil, the heat is sufficient to ignite the

air-fuel mixture. The resulting explosion (1) advances the pile and (2) lifts the ram. If the pile

advance is very great as in soft soils, the ram in not lifted by the explosion sufficiently to

ignite air-fuel mixture on the next cycle, requiring that the ram be again manually lifted. It is

thus evident that the hammer works most efficiently in hard soils or where the penetration is

quite low (point-bearing piles when rock or hardpan is encountered) because maximum ram

lift will be obtained. Diesel hammers are highly mobile, have low fuel consumption (on the

order of 4 to 16 L/hr), are lighter than steam hammers, and operate efficiently in

temperatures as low as 0C. There is no need for a steam or air supply generation unit and the

resulting hoses. The diesel hammer has a length varying from about 3.5 to 8.2 m (4.5 to 6 m

average). The ratio of ram weight should be on the order of 0.25 to 1.0.

e.

f.

Jetting or preaugering

A water jet is sometimes used to assist in inserting the pile into the ground. That is, a highpressure stream of water is applied at the pile point to displace the soil. This method may be

used to loosen sand or small gravel where for some reason the pile must penetrate to a greater

depth in the material than necessary for point bearing. Care must be exercised that the jetting

does not lower the point-bearing value. Some additional driving after the jet is halted should

ensure seating the point in firm soil. Preaugering is also sometimes used where a firm upper

stratum overlies a compressible stratum, which in turn overlies firmer material into which it

is desired to seat the pile point. Preaugering will reduce the driving effort through the upper

firm material. For both jetting and preaugering, considerable engineering judgment is

required to model the dynamic pile capacity equations (and static equations) to the field

system.

Vibratory hammers

Pile driving leads, sometimes called leaders, are usually fabricated of steel and function to align

the pile head and hammer concentrically, maintain proper pile position and alignment

continuously during the driving operation, and also to provide lateral support for the pile when

required. Proper hammer alignment is extremely important to prevent eccentric loadings on the

pile. Otherwise driving energy transferred to the pile may be reduced considerably and structural

pile damage due to excessive stresses near the top of the pile may result from eccentric loading.

Typical lead systems are shown below :

Figure 77.

Figure 78.

To develop the desired load-carrying capacity, a point bearing pile must be penetrate the dense

soil layer sufficiently or have sufficient contact with a layer of rock. This requirement cannot

always be satisfied by driving a pile to a predetermined depth, because soil profiles vary. For that

reason, several equations have been developed to calculate the ultimate capacity of a pile during

driving. These dynamic equations are widely used in the field to determine whether a pile has

reached a satisfactory bearing value at the predetermined depth. One of the earliest such

equations commonly reffered to as the Engineering News (EN) Record formula is derived

from the work energy theory.

That is, Energy imparted by the hammer per blow = (pile resistance) (penetration per hammer

blow)

W R .h Qu .S

Equation above is quite inappropriate, however, because it does not include a number of practical

considerations, for example :

A widely used (and abused) formula, originally developed for end-bearing piles driven through

soft soil sediments in New Jersey, is the Engineering News Record (ENR) formula. It assumes

the losses are a constant, C, which allows for the following equation for ultimate pile capacity :

Qu

W R .h

S C

Where :

WR = weight of the ram

h

= height of fall of the ram

S

= penetration of pile per hammer blow

C

= a constant

The pile penetration, S, is usually based on the average value obtained from the last few driving

blows. In the equations original form, the following values of C were recommended :

C = 25,4 mm if S and h are in mm ; 1 in. if S and h are in inches

C = 2,54 mm if S and h are in mm ; 0,1 in. if S and h are in inches

Also, a factor of safety FS = 6 was recommended for estimating the allowable pile capacity. Note

that, for single- or double-acting hammers, the term WR h can be replaced by E HE, where E is the

efficiency of the hammer and HE is the rated energy of the hammer. Thus,

Qu

E.H E

S C

The EN formula has been revised several times over the years, and other pile-driving formulas

also have been suggested. Some of them are showed below :

Qu

2

1,25.eh .H E WR n .W p

.

or

S C

WR W p

Qu

2

1,25.W R .h WR n .W p

.

S C

WR W p

Where :

eh

= efficiency of hammer

HE = rated energy of the hammer

h

= height of fall of the ram

C

= 25,4 mm if the units of S and h are in mm or 1,0 in. if the units of S and h are in in.

(for drop hammers)

C

= 2,54 mm if the units of S and h are in mm or 0,1 in. if the units of S and h are in in.

(for steam hammers)

Wp = weight of the pile

WR = weight of the ram

S

= penetration of pile per hammer blow

n

= coefficient of restitution between the ram and the pile cap

h

= height of ram fall

Typical values of eh

Single-acting hammers

Double-acting or differential hammers

Diesel hammers

Drop hammers

0,70 0,85

0,85

0,80 0,90

0,70 0,90

Broomed wood

Wood piles (nondeteriorated end)

Compact wood cushion on steel pile

Compact wood cushion over steel pile

Steel-on-steel anvil on either steel or concrete pile

Cast-iron hammer on concrete pile without cap

0,00

0,25

0,32

0,40

0,50

0,40

W r n 2 .W p

.

s 1 . k k k W r W p

1

2

3

2

e h .W r .h

Pu

Values for k1 temporary elastic compression of pile head and cap (After Chellis, 1961)

Driving stress P/A on pile head or cap, MPa (ksi)

Pile Material

3,5 (0,5)

7,0 (1,0)

10,5 (1,5)

14,0 (2,0)

k1, mm (in.)

Steel piling or pile

Directly on head

0

0

0

0

Directly in head of timber pile

1,0 (0,05)

2,0 (0,10)

3,0 (0,15)

5,0 (0,20)

Precast concrete pile with

3,0 (0,12)

6,0 (0,25)

9,0 (0,37)

12,5 (0,50)

75-100 mm packing inside cap

Steel-covered cap containing wood

1,0 (0,04)

2,0 (0,05)

3,0 (0,12)

4,0 (0,16)

packing for steel HP or pipe piling

5-mm fiber disk between two

0,5 (0,02)

1,0 (0,04)

1,5 (0,06)

2,0 (0,08)

10-mm steel plates

Table 34.

Note :

Where P is equal with working weight of hammer (around 1,68 to 2,28 times of Ram

weight), should be provided by manufacturers.

The term k2 is computed as

Pu .L

, and one may arbitrarily take the k3 term (quake) as :

A.E

k3 = 0,0 for hard soil (rock, very dense sand, and gravels)

= 2,5 to 5 mm (0,1 to 0,2 in.)

For double-acting or differential steam hammers, Chellis (1941, 1961) suggested the following

form of the Hiley equation :

W n 2 .W p

.

s 1 . k k k W W p

1

2

3

Pu

e h .E h

weight term W and height of ram fall h as follows :

E h W .h W r W ca sin g .h

Inspection of the derivation of the Hiley equation indicates the energy loss fraction should be

modified to W as shown in Hiley equation also.

A careful inspection of the Hiley equation, together with a separation of terms, result in

Energy in = work + impact loss + cap loss + pile loss + soil loss

e h .W r .h Pu .s eh .W .h.

W p .1 n 2

W p Wr

Pu .k 1 Pu .k 2 Pu .k 3

For small wood piles on the order of 100 to 150 mm used to support small buildings on soil with

a water table at or very near the ground surface Yttrup et al. (1989) suggest using :

Pu

0,4.W .h

s

Where :

W = weight of the ram

h

= height of fall of the ram

S

= penetration of pile per hammer blow

This formula is applicable for drop hammers mounted in small conventional tractors.

Plug Weight. Open-end pipe piles always cut a soil plug. The plug usually does not fill the pipe

when observed from above since it is much compressed both from vibration and from side

friction on the interior walls. The plug weight can be estimated as :

W plug '.V pipe

Where Vpipe = internal pipe volume. This weight may be critical when the pile is nearly driven to

the required depth since it is a maximum at that time.

HP piles will also have a plug of unknown dimensions; however, it would not be a great error to

assume the plug length Lplug is one-half the embedded length of the pile (when blow counts are

taken for pile capacity of for penetration resistance). The plug weight is this case is :

W plug 0,5.L pile .bf .d . '

This equation includes the web tw and flange thickness tf in the soil volume but the plug length is

an estimate, so the computation as shown is adequate.

Use effective unit weight for the soil, as the water will have a floatation effect for both the soil

and the pile.

The pile weight should be the actual weight Wp plus plug, or

W p W p W plug

for use in any of the equations given that uses a pile weight term Wp.

The plug weight was not included in the past because few persons ever checked the derivation of

the equations to see how the pile weight term was treated. Do not include the plug weight unless

the equation you are using includes the pile weight in a term similar to the second term in the

Hiley equation.

A major problem with using statistical analyses primarily based on piles reported in technical

literature is that although on can obtain a large data base it is not of much value. The reason is

that there are not sufficient data given for the reader to make a reliable judgment of significant

parameters to consider. Where the person making the analysis uses a self-generated data base (as

in the case of Gates) results are generally more reliable.

Table 35.

Summary of safety factor range for equations used in the Michigan Pile Test Program

Upper and lower limits of SF = Pu/Pd

Formula

Range of Pu, kips

0 to 900

900 to 1800

1800 to 3100

Engineering News

1,1 2,4

0,9 - 2,1

1,2 2,7

Hiley

1,1 4,2

3,0 6,5

4,0 9,6

Pacific Coast Uniform Building Code

2,7 5,3

4,3 9,7

8,8 16,5

Redtenbacher

1,7 3,6

2,8 6,5

6,0 10,9

Eytelwein

1,0 2,4

1,0 3,8

2,2 4,1

Navy-McKay

0,8 3,0

0,2 2,5

0,2 3,0

Rankine

0,9 1,7

1,3 2,7

2,3 5,1

Canadian National Building Code

3,2 6,0

5,1 11,1

10,1 19,9

Modified Engineering News

1,7 4,4

1,6 5,2

2,7 5,3

Gates

1,8 3,0

2,5 4,6

3,8 7,3

Rabe

1,0 4,8

2,4 7,0

3,2 8,0

General Comments On Pile Driving

Alignment of piles can be difficult to get exactly correct, and often the driven piles are not

exactly located in plan. A tolerance of 50 to 100 mm is usually considered allowable. Larger

deviations may require additional substructure design to account for eccentricities, or more piles

may have to be driven. Alignment of pipe piles may be checked by lowering a light into the tube.

If the light source disappears, the alignment is not true. Pile groups should be driven from the

interior outward because the lateral displacement of soil may cause excessively hard driving and

heaving of already driven piles.

Damage to piles may be avoided or reduced by squaring the driving head with the energy source.

Appropriate pile-driving caps and/or cushions should be used. When the required driving

resistance is encountered, driving should be stopped. These driving resistances may be arbitrarily

taken as :

Table 36.

Pile Type

Blow per 25 (mm) Penetration

Timber piles

45 blows/25 mm

Concrete piles

68 blows/25 mm

Steel piles

1215 blows/25 mm

Driving stress requirement to avoid pile damage

Pile Type

Requirements

Timber piles

0,7 fu

Table 37.

Concrete piles

Steel piles

0,6 f c

0,85 fy

The ultimate load-bearing capacity of a foundation, as well as the allowable bearing capacity

based on tolerable settlement considerations, can be effectively determined from the field load

test, generally referred to as the plate load test (ASTM, 2000; Test Designation D-1194-94). The

plates that are used for tests in the field are usually made of steel and are 25 mm (1 in.) thick and

150 mm to 762 mm (6 in. to 30 in.) in diameter. Occasionally, square plates that are 305 mm x

305 mm (12 in. x 12 in.) are also used.

To conduct a plate load test, a hole is excavated with a minimum diameter of 4B (B is the

diameter of the test plate) to a depth of D f, the depth of the proposed foundation. The plate is

placed at the center of the hole, and a load that is about one-fourth to one-fifth of the estimated

ultimate load is applied to the plate in steps by means of a jack. A schematic diagram of the test

arrangement is shown in figure below. During each step of the application of the load, the

settlement of the plate is observed on dial gauges. At least one hour is allowed to elapse between

each application. The test should be conducted until failure, or at least until the plates has gone

through 25 mm (1 in.) of settlement. Figure below shows the nature of the load-settlement curve

obtained from such tests, from which the ultimate load per unit area can be determined.

Figure 79.

Figure 80.

qu F qu P

Where:

qu(F) = ultimate bearing capacity of the proposed foundation

qu(P) = ultimate bearing capacity of the test plate

From the equation above implies that the ultimate bearing capacity in clay is virtually

independent of the size of the plate. The ultimate load is defined as the point where the load

displacement becomes practically linear.

For tests in sandy soils,

qu F qu P .

BF

BP

Where:

BF = width of the foundation

BP = width of the test plate

The allowable bearing capacity of a foundation, based on settlement considerations and for a

given intensity of load, q0, is

SF SP .

and

BF

BP

2.BF

S F S P .

BF BP

The preceding relationship is based on the work of Terzaghi and Peck (1967).

DAppolonia et al. (1970) compiled several field-test results in sandy soils to establish the

applicability of equation for Sandy Soil, and these are summarized in Figure below. On the basis

of the results, it can be said that equation above is a fairly good approximation.

Figure 81.

Comparison of test results with equation for Sandy Soil (After DAppolonia et. Al., 1970)

Pile-Load Test

The most reliable method to determine the load capacity of a pile is to load-test it. This consists

in driving the pile to the design depth and applying a series of loads by some means. The usual

procedure is to drive several of the piles in a group and use two or more of adjacent piles for

reactions to apply the load. A rigid beam spans across the test pile and is securely attached to the

reaction piles. A large-capacity jack is placed between the reaction beam and the top of the test

pile to produce the test load increments. The test has been standardized as ASTM D 1143;

however, local building codes may stipulate the load increments and time sequence.

Figure 82.

Typical pile load test setup using adjacent piles in group of reaction

The ultimate pile load is commonly taken as the load where the load-settlement curve

approaches a vertical asymptote. The load-settlement curve must be drawn to a suitably large

settlement scale so that the shape (and slope) is well defined.

An alternative method of interpreting load-settlement curve is based on the concept that the load

is carried mostly by skin resistance until the shaft slip is sufficient to mobilize the limiting value.

When the limiting skin resistance is mobilized, the point load increases nearly linearly until the

ultimate point capacity is reached. At this point further applied load results in direct settlement

(load curve becomes vertical).

Figure 83.

Referring to figure 28 (Pile load test data), these statements translate as follows :

1.

From 0 to point a the capacity is based on the skin resistance plus any small point

contribution. The skin resistance capacity is the principal load-carrying mechanism in this

region. Point a usually requires some visual interpretation since there is seldom a sharp break

in the curve.

2.

From point a to b the load capacity is the sum of the limiting skin resistance (now

a constant) plus the point capacity

3.

From point b the curve becomes vertical as the ultimate point capacity is reached.

Often the vertical asymptote is anticipated (or the load to some value is adequate) and the test

terminated before a vertical curve branch is established.

This concept was introduced by Van Weele (1957) and has since been used by others [e.g.,

Brierley et al. (1979), Leonards and Lovell (1979), among others]. According to Van Weele, if

we draw the dashed line 0 to c through the origin and parallel to the point capacity region from a

to b, the load-carrying components of the pile are as shown on Fig. 28 (Pile load test data). In

this figure we have at settlement = 25 mm the load carried as follows :

Point

= 250 kN

Skin resistance = 1350 kN = 1600 250 kN

Total

= 1600 kN (shown on figure)

Piles in granular soils are often tested 24 to 48 hr after driving when load test arrangements have

been made. This time lapse is usually sufficient for excess pore pressures to dissipate; however,

Samson and Authier (1986) show that up to a 70 percent capacity gain may occur if load tests are

made two to three weeks after driving.

Piles in cohesive soils should be tested after sufficient lapse for excess pre pressures to dissipate.

This time lapse is commonly on the oreder of 30 to 90 days giving also some additional strength

gain from thixotropic effects.

In any soil sufficient time should elapse before testing to allow partial dissipation of residual

compression stresses in the lower shaft and point load from negative skin resistance on the upper

shaft caused by shaft expansion upward as the hammer energy is released. Residual stersses

and/or forces have been observed in a number of reports and summarized by Vesic (1977). It

appears that pile load testing of the load-unload-reload type is more likely to produce residual

stresses than driving.

Soil Reinforcement

The use of reinforced earth is a recent development in the design and construction of foundations

and earth-retaining structures. Reinforced earth is a construction material made from soil that has

been strengthened by tensile elements such as metal rods or strips, nonbiodegradable fabrics

(geotextiles), geogrids, and the like.

The beneficial effects of soil reinforcement derive from (a) the soils increased tensile strength

and (b) the shear resistance developed from the friction at the soil-reinforcement interfaces. Such

reinforcement is comparable to that of concrete structures. Currently, most reinforced-earth

design is done with free-draining granular soil only. Thus, the effect of pore water development

in cohesive soils, which, in turn, reduces the shear strength of the soil, is avoided.

The general design procedure of any mechanically stabilized retaining wall can be divided into

two parts:

1.

Satisfying internal stability requirements.

2.

Checking the external stability of the wall.

The internal stability checks involve determining tension and pullout resistance in the reinforcing

elements and ascertaining the integrity of facing elements. The external stability checks include

checks for overturning, sliding, and bearing capacity failure.

Retaining walls with geotextile reinforcement, the facing of the wall is formed by lapping the

sheets as shown with a lap length of l1. When construction is finished, the exposed face of the

wall must be covered; otherwise, the geotextile will deteriorate from exposure to ultraviolet light.

Bitumen emulsion or Gunite is sprayed on the wall face. A wire mesh anchored to the geotextile

facing maybe necessary to keep the coating on.

Pada saat pondasi tiang ditempatkan pada lapisan tanah yang mengalami konsolidasi maka penurunan

tanah yang terjadi disekeliling tiang tersebut akan menimbulkan gaya geser ke bawah pada tiang. Gaya ini

dikenal dengan istilah negative skin friction. Gaya ini akan menambah beban aksial yang bekerja pada

tiang pondasi.

Besarnya negative negative skin friction dapat ditentukan dengan menggunakan persamaan sebagai

berikut:

dimana,

K

0 =

Le

Prakash dan Sarma (1990) mengusulkan nilai dari ketebalan efektif lapisan tanah yang terkonsolidasi

adalah sebagai berikut:

Le=0.75Lc (1)

dimana,

Lc

Unit skin friction dari tiang yang diberi lapisan maupun yang tidak diberi lapisan anti karat dapat dilihat

pada tabel di bawah ini :

Unit Skin Friction Untuk Pondasi Tiang (Prakash & Sharma, 1990)

Table 38.

Uncoated pile:

- Soft compressible layer of silt and clay

0.15 0.30 0

- Loose sand

0.30 0.80 0

Coated pile

0.01 0.05 0

Table 39.

Loss of thickness (mm) due to corrosion for piles and sheet piles in soils, with or without

groundwater

5 years

25 years

50 years

75 years

100 years

clay, schist, )

0.00

0.30

0.60

0.90

1.20

grounds

0.15

0.75

1.50

2.25

3.00

marsh, peat, ...)

0.20

1.00

1.75

2.50

3.25

fills (clay, schist, sand, silt, )

0.18

0.70

1.20

1.70

2.20

(ashes, slag, )

0.50

2.00

3.25

4.50

5.75

Table 40.

Loss of thickness (mm) due to corrosion for piles and sheet piles in fresh water or in sea water

5 years

25 years

50 years

75 years

100 years

canal, ) in the zone of high attack

(water line)

0.15

0.55

0.90

1.15

1.40

industrial effluent, ) in the zone of

high attack (water line)

0.30

1.30

2.30

3.30

4.30

the zone of high attack (low water

and splash zones)

0.55

1.90

3.75

5.60

7.50

the zone permanent immersion of in

the intertidal zone

0.25

0.90

1.75

2.60

3.50

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