You are on page 1of 17

Scotland

People come to this small northern country for many reasons, lured, perhaps, by the promise of spectacular (1) ... ?, friendly
natives, and a vibrant arts scene. Some are searching for their family (2) ... ? or others just want to get away from it all and, digging
(3) ... ? old memories from their English Lit class of gallant heroes engaging in larger-than-life struggles, their (4) ... ? wander to
faraway lands, to somehow familiar yet different destinations. Why not go to Scotland? But what kind of country are they coming to
and what should they expect once they get there? Scotland (5) ... ? of an area of 30, 418 square miles - so it's a fairly compact and
"doable" country - with a population of about five million people - not too small, not too big. It is one of three countries that form the
political (6) ... ? called Great Britain, the other two being, of course, England and Wales, which, along with their fourth partner,
Northern Ireland, becomes the United Kingdom. Scotland is bordered on three sides by water and on its fourth by England, which
has had both its advantages and disadvantages. Geographically speaking, the country can be divided into three broad areas, the
Southern Uplands, the Central Lowlands, and the Highlands. Although the rugged Highlands (7) ... ? about two-thirds of the land
area, the (8) ... ? majority of the population lives in the Central Belt between Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, and Edinburgh,
Scotland's capital.
1. A

scene

scenery

view

panorama

2. A

roots

race

basis

source

3. A

off

down

on

up

4. A

head

brains

spirits

minds

5. A

consists

includes

embraces

comprises

6. A

entirety

entitle

entry

entity

7. A

take out

take in

take up

take off

8. A

expansive

vast

expanding

spacious

The Microscope
An important invention in the development of science and medicine was the microscope. It was (1) ... ? the principle that light could
be (2) ... ? or bent, by a glass lens. It was soon discovered that tiny objects could be magnified (3) ... ? size when viewed through
a glass lens that had been ground and polished in a specific (4) ... ?. Although the principle was known to the Chinese as early as
1000 A.D, it was not until the 13th and 14th centuries in Europe (5) ... ? it was put to practical use in the form of eyeglasses. In
Europe the first microscope was invented by brothers Zacharias and Hans Janssen, two Dutch eyeglass-makers, around 1590.
They built a compound microscope, so called because of its two lenses. The most significant development and use of the
microscope during this period, however, belongs to another Dutch optician, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). Born in Delft,
Holland, he became skilled at (6) ... ? very sharp and accurate magnifying lenses. Some of his single-lens microscopes were able
to magnify up the three hundred times (7) ... ? size, and around 1660 he began serious study using these instruments. He was the
first to discover bacteria and other microscopic organisms, calling these tiny creatures animalcules. (8) ... ? to this discovery, very
small creatures such as fleas and maggots were thought to spontaneously generate from a single source, such as rotting meat in
the case of maggots.
1. A

based upon

based by

based in

based at

2. A

refracted

retracted

retorted

retraced

3. A

by

on

in

with

4. A

procedure

manner

fashion

character

5. A

when

than

then

that

6. A

granting

grinding

scraping

rubbing

7. A

present

substantial

actual

current

8. A

According

Due

Owing

Prior

Horses
Horses and donkeys were (1) ... ? comparatively late compared with other animals, probably around 4000 BC in Western Asia. By
that time, people in many parts of the world were no longer (2) ... ? on hunting and gathering their food, but had become nomadic
stockbreeders or settled farmers, raising livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats and, in the static communities, growing and
harvesting food plants.
They still hunted wild (3) ... ? , but could now do so with the (4) ... ? of domestic dogs, the close animal companions who also
helped them to protect and control their flocks and herds. Their needs for meat, milk, skins and wool were being (5) ... ? , and it
may not have been immediately obvious to them that the horse had anything more to offer than the occasional (6) ... ? of the chase
and a different type of meat. The horse did have something more to offer. It had the potential to (7) ... ? nothing less than a
revolution (8) ... ? power and transport, a dramatic development that transformed the ability of humans to wage war.
1. A

tamed

accustomed

trained

domesticated

2. A

sustained

reliant

liable

subject

3. A

game

play

sport

contest

4. A

aim

compliments

assistance

intention

5. A

met

come

undergone

faced

6. A

kick

thrill

emotion

inspiration

7. A

bring off

bring in

bring out

bring about

8. A

on

at

in

for

Piracy
Piracy was not (1) ... ? by men like Blackbeard and Black Bart Roberts. It has been around since man first took to the sea, a
maritime (2) ... ? that appeared in historical records since before the building of the Egyptian pyramids. The Mediterranean, (3) ... ?
known as the (4) ... ? of civilization, was also a pirate hot-spot, which we know because the Ancient Egyptians (5) ... ? the time to
describe the attacks and their perpetrators.
As in any period , piracy in the ancient world flourished when there was a lack of central control, and in areas beyond the (6) ... ? of
major powers such as the Egyptians, the Assyrians or the Mycenaean Greeks. The first known pirate group was the Lukkans, a
group of sea raiders based on the south-eastern coast of Asia Minor. They first appeared in the 14th century BC, when Egyptian (7)
... ? recorded that they raided Cyprus, (8) ... ? there are suggestions that their piratical activities started earlier.

1. A
2. A

disclosed
scourer

B
B

invented
scout

C
C

discovered
scouser

D
D

devised
scourge

3. A

besides

likewise

moreover

otherwise

4. A

cradle

cot

crib

hamper

5. A

passed

made

took

set

6. A

limits

reach

horizon

frontier

7. A

scribes

scripters

reporters

playwrights

8. A

or

because

although

despite

Meteors
Most of us have (1) ... ? at the sky and seen what is commonly called a falling, or shooting, star. These (2) ... ? streaks occur when
meteors, object generally (3) ... ? from the size of dust (4) ... ? to fist-size masses, enter the earths atmosphere at speeds up to 44
miles per second and ionized (or heated) to incandescence 50 to 75 miles above the earth. Few of these objects survive their
encounter (5) ... ? our atmosphere.
What we see here on earth, mostly at night, is a (6) ... ? of light that lasts about a half a second on the (7) ... ?. Generally speaking,
the larger the material that enters the earths atmosphere, the brighter the meteor. Brighter meteors will occasionally leave a smoke

trail behind in their path lasting a few seconds; trails produced by very bright meteors,(8) ... ? to as fireballs, may last minutes.
Fireballs that appear to break up or produce sound are called bolides, from the Greek word bolis meaning missile.
1. A

looked out

looked through

looked up

looked up to

2. A

monotonous

momentum

momentous

momentary

3. A

classifying

ranging

ranking

fluctuating

4. A

particles

participants

particulars

participles

5. A

to

into

with

on

6. A

slash

strip

streak

smear

7. A

average

contrary

fly

move

8. A

directed

referred

concerned

related

An Ugly Habit
Smoking is one of the most common and deadliest habits in the world. You have probably seen thousands of cigarettes smoked in
your lifetime, (1) ... perhaps not by your family. Even though fewer people smoke today than in the past, one (2) ... every four adults
still smokes, and there are parts of the world where smoking is increasing. Most people who become regular smokers started when
they were young. This is the time to get the facts straight: smoking does no one (3) ... good, and it does a great (4) ... of harm to
your health. It also often means giving up a lot later in life, such as the chance to excel in sports, extra spending money, and even
years of ones life. There is a lot of to lose. Most smokers have a hard time explaining why they started and why they continue.

They know it is harmful, and many even know someone who has died from a smoking-related illness, like lung cancer or heart
disease. But (5) ... the same time, these smokers continue lighting up when they go out for a drink, take a break from work, or hear
alarming news. Some smokers even light up when they learn about the dangers of smoking, because they become worried. (6) ...
the reason people start smoking, the habit soon loses (7) ... attraction. (8) ... from the obvious health risks, smoking is an ugly,
unpleasant habit. Most people would prefer to avoid a room that someone was filling with smelly smoke.

The Wondrous World of Coffee


A cup of coffee, like any (1) ... experience, can be enriched by selection and consciousness. "No beans about it," the best coffee
decisions (2) ... the ones most pleasant to one's own palate - the selection of one's coffee is a matter of personal preference.
Choosing coffee beans can also be a perplexing experience, (3) ... there is a huge range of coffee types and beans blends from all
around the world. The final flavour and quality involves many complex factors, beginning with the coffee seed, the beans' botanics,
a wide variety of soil and climate conditions, cultivation altitudes, and the care (4) ... in harvesting the beans. Raw green coffee
beans are then subjected (5) ... many influencing factors, including various processing, production, roasting, blending and brewing
methods. On a global note, (6) ... many species and varieties of coffee trees from different areas of the world also offer their own
distinctive flavours. There are more than forty-five coffee-exporting countries - all of (7) ... use different classification systems - that
supply the world with coffee beans, in sizes ranging over sixty known species of coffee plants. No wonder coffee can involve a
puzzling java jargon! Fortunately, the world's coffee nomenclature, from mountain to market, can be classified (8) ... simple
categories. This briefly outlines the basics of bean botanics, coffee cultivation and processing, and global classifications used by
the coffee trade and coffee-producing countries.

Solar Energy
Solar energy is derived ultimately from the sun. It can be divided (1) ... direct and indirect categories. Most energy sources on Earth
are forms of indirect solar energy, (2) ... we usually dont think of them in that way. Coal, oil and natural gas derive from ancient
biological material (3) ... took its energy from the sun millions of years ago. (4) ... the energy in wood and foodstuffs also comes
(5) ... the sun.

Movement of the wind , and the evaporation of water to form rainfall which accumulates in rivers and lakes, are also powered by
the sun. (6) ..., hydroelectric power and wind and wave power are forms of indirect solar energy. Direct solar energy is (7) ... we
usually mean when we speak of solar power (8) ... is the use of sunlight for heating or generating electricity. Solar energy
research and applications have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world as solar energy must play a much greater
role in the energy mix in upcoming years.

Taste
Taste is (1) ... simply the preserve of a tiny aristocracy, of the court culture of the European. Abbasid or Chinese past or the foodie
cutting-edge of the present. In the social history of ordinary people, calorie intake, the threat of famine and the supply of urban
centres are among the topics (2) ... have given us (3) ... idea of the fragility and difficulty of pre-industrial life. The relevance of the
history of food in its (4) ... basic sense needs (5) ... justification.
The exchange of products resulting (6) ... the discovery of the New World, the dependence of societies (7) ... one overwhelmingly
important food source, or the impact of modern warfare on civilian diet (8) ... all clearly major topics. In the mid-twentieth century
historians interest in the conditions of society, and particularly the history of ordinary people, inevitably involved questions of how
peasants or workers lived in the past; how well or ill-nourished they were; how they coped with the unpredictability of harvests, food
supply and prices.

Muscle Cars
Muscle cars were never intended to be valuable. In fact, the whole idea behind
muscle cars was to make them (1) ... and fast. Muscle cars were stripped-down
versions of the most (2) ... homely, and basic mass-produced cars to ever roll out
of Detroit. These rattle trap, bare bones, crude devices were built to conform to
a price point with little regard given to sophistication or (3) ..., and aimed squarely

EXPENSIVE
UTILITY
LONG

at the (4) ... market. And this market couldn't get enough of them. These were the
cars every red-blooded American kid wanted. The image, the speed, the lifestyle
were all highly addictive. Looking back, the muscle car years were (5) ... brief
moment in time that we will never see the likes of again. It was a perfect storm,
just what the market wanted, and was presented at the right place in the right time.
So how did these seemingly (6) ... cars, built in large numbers and owned by
kids who (7) ... tried to kill them from the first twist of the key, become so valuable?
More importantly, why did they become so valuable? Most people are astounded
when they hear the recent sales results of the most (8) ... muscle cars. We call them
two-comma cars, cars that are worth so much money that you need two commas
to separate all the zeroes in the price.

Carnivorous Plants
Most carnivorous plants stand alone in the plant world not only in their
unique
method of (1) ... nutrition, but in the extraordinary degree to which the
leaves
have become changed from our idea of a typical leaf-blade to meet this end.
Some have evolved into pitcher forms, often (2) ... of strange flowers, while
others have developed the power of movement, reminding one in their
actions
of steel traps, mouse traps, or even sea anemones. The (3) ... to bizarre
appearance of most is curious enough, but the varied and often (4) ... artful
methods employed in the (5) ... of the prey, frequently combined with added
(6) ... of technique which may be peculiar to a species, cannot fail to
fascinate.
Carnivorous plants occur both amongst the flowering plants and in the
Fungi.
While some reference will be made to the principle trap types of the latter,
they
remain a subject in themselves, and it will be the former which concerns us

SUPPLEMENT
REMINISCE

USUAL
ASTONISH
SEDUCE
REFINE

YOUNG
RELATIVE

DISPOSE
LITERAL
DESIRE

here. On these, a number of works have already been published In English,


mainly in the United States. While the (7) ... of these have been brief works
of a popular kind there have been some (8) ... exceptions. Quite apart from
the interest provided by their traps, it should be not forgotten that they are
attractive plants in themselves; some are indeed beautiful.

MAJOR
NOTE

The Cup of Humanity


Tea began as a medicine and grew into a beverage. In China, in the
eighth century, it entered the realm of poetry as one of the polite (1) ... .
The fifteenth century saw Japan ennoble it into a religion of aestheticismTeaism. Teaism is a cult founded on the (2) ... of the beautiful among the
sordid facts of everyday (3) ... .It inculcates purity and harmony, the mystery
of mutual charity, the (4) ... of the social order. It is essentially a worship of the
(5) ..., as it is a tender attempt to accomplish something possible in this
impossible thing we know as life. The Philosophy of Tea is not mere
aestheticism in the ordinary acceptance of the term, for it expresses (6) ...
with ethics and religion our whole point of view about man and nature.
It is hygiene, for it enforces (7) ... ; it is economics, for it shows comfort in
(8) ... rather than in the complex and costly; it is moral geometry, inasmuch
as it defines our sense of proportion to the universe.

AMUSE
ADORE
EXIST
ROMANTIC
PERFECT
CONJOIN
CLEAN
SIMPLE

Visual Skills
There are several ways to find photographs for viewing. (1) ... of original prints
in museums, galleries, and similar settings allow you to see photographs in the
form of (2) ... most likely favoured by the photographer. Books and magazines
are a good source of photographs for viewing. Many monographs and (3) ... have
been printed with a quality that approaches that of display prints. Several books
that feature the images of widely (4) ... photographers are listed in the bibliography.
When examining photographs for the purpose of enhancing your seeing, try to

EXHIBIT
PRESENT
COLLECT
CLAIM

suspend critical judgment and assess your (5) ... feelings about each image.
Do you like or dislike the image? Do you think it works well for its intended purpose?
Look (6) ... at the photographs you like and try to figure out why you like them.
(7) ... look at photographs that do not appeal to you and determine why. Try to
avoid judging photographs based on how closely they follow compositional (8) ... .

INTUITION
CARE
CONVERSE
GUIDE

The Worlds of Christopher Columbus


In the world of the late twentieth century, events on one continent (1) ... influence
developments on the others, for good or for ill. In the broad expanse of (2) ...
time, however, these (3) ... connections developed quite recently, starting
in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In one sense, the process began
with Christopher Columbus's four voyages, the first (4) ... excursions to have
far-reaching and long-lasting consequences. In another sense, however,
Columbus's voyages were less a beginning than the (5) ... of a centuries-old
human process of (6) ... and migration. When Columbus was born , Europe,
Africa, and Asia were each part of the Old World of the Easter Hemisphere,
but they were also separate worlds culturally, (7) ... and politically. Columbus's
voyages shattered that (8) ... once and for all, in what is arguably the most
fateful encounter between disparate human groups that history has ever known.
1) This manual is too difficult for me.
CONCERNED
As

?, this manual is too difficult for me.

ROUTINE
HISTORY
EXTEND
ATLANTIC
CONTINUE
EXPLORE
RELIGION
ISOLATE

2) Susan couldn't get to the date because of the heavy rain.


PREVENTED
The heavy rain

? getting to the date.

3) Sally gets on well with her father-in-law.


TERMS
Sally is

? her father-in-law.

4) I didn't realise what she would suffer in the first place.


DID
Little

? would suffer in the first place.

5) The pupils are living temporarily in a hotel.


BEING
For

?, the pupils are living in a hotel.

6) It looks as if he's forgotten about the meeting again.


TO
He seems

? about the meeting again.

1) I am not responsible for the sales any longer.


UNDER
No

? my control.

2) Everybody came to the party apart from Steve.


EXCEPTION
With

? Steve, everybody came to the party.

3) It was only when I stopped the car that I realised something was wrong.
DID
Only

? I realise that something was wrong.

4) It's very kind of you to help me with the suitcase.


APPRECIATE
I really

? me with the suitcase.

5) The flight will probably be cancelled.


PROBABILITY
In

? will be cancelled.

6) She preferred to take a course in general linguistics instead of wasting her time at mathematics.
THAN
Rather

? at mathematics she preferred to take a course in general linguistics.

1) We have given the tools to all the workers.


PROVIDED
All the workers

? the tools.

2) I'm going to reveal the truth somehow or other.


ANOTHER
In

? I'm going to reveal the truth.

3) George demands that the project should be finished now.


INSISTENT
George

? the project.

4) I think a good meal would do you good.


BENEFIT
I think you would

? meal.

5) Although I like him very much, I don't want to socialize with him.
LIKE
Much

?, I don't want to socialize with him.

6) She had only just entered the house when the telephone rang.
SOONER
No

? the house than the telephone rang.

1) She had four daughters. The youngest of them was her favourite.
APPLE
She had four daughters the youngest

? her eye.

2) It was raining heavily, so I didn't go to school at all.


FOR
If it

? rain, I would have gone to school.

3) Everybody knows that the president died in a plane crash.


KNOWLEDGE
It is

? the president died in a plane crash.

4) The first pilot refused to endanger the safety of the passengers of the plane.
PUT
The first pilot refused to

? the safety of the passengers of the plane.

5) I wish I had studied more for the exam.


LIKED
I

? more for the exam.

6) She informed the police because she assumed he was guilty of rape.
ASSUMPTION
She informed the police

? he was guilty of rape.